Supplement to Commerce reports

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Title:
Supplement to Commerce reports daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce
Uniform Title:
Commerce reports
Volume title page for -<1920>:
Supplements to Commerce reports : review of industrial and trade conditions in foreign countries in ... by American consular officers
Portion of title:
Daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce
Physical Description:
6 v. : ; 24-26 cm.
Language:
English
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United States -- Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce
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Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Dept. of Commerce
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
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Commerce -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Foreign economic relations -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
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federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
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Additional Physical Form:
Also available in electronic format.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with issue for Jan. 8, 1915?; ceased with issue for Dec. 31, 1920?
Numbering Peculiarities:
Each issue covers an individual country and bears a number corresponding to that country. Reports from the various consular districts in a country are distiguished by the addition of a letter (66a, 66b, 66c, etc.), in the order in which they are issued.
Numbering Peculiarities:
Issue no.52f, 1919, contains misprint, November 41.
General Note:
Title from caption.
General Note:
"Annual series."

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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 004822593
oclc - 16390134
sobekcm - AA00005307_00014
Classification:
lcc - HC1 .R1981
System ID:
AA00005307:00014

Related Items

Preceded by:
Daily consular and trade reports (Washington, D.C. : 1910)
Succeeded by:
Trade and economic review for ..

Full Text




SUPPLEMENT TO | 22 MAR

COMMERCE REP S
DAILY CONSULAR AND TRADE REPORTS
ISSUED BY THE BUREAU OF FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COMMERCE
DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE, WASHINGTON, D. C.

Annual Series No. 10b December 9, 1919


NORWAY.

STAVANGER.
By Consul Henry C. A. Damm.
Fishing and fish packing are the leading industries in Stavanger
upon which the industrial and commercial life of the t,\wn depends.
When, therefore, the year 1918 is described as a dead year" in the
fish-canning industry the entire situation here is characterized.
It means nonemployment for the fishermen and for the operatives
of the canneries and of the auxiliary industries, such as the nmanufac-
ture of cans and packing cases. Naturally, the business houses suf-
fered also, from decreased sales.
Many causes combined to make the year unusual in the history of
the fish-packing industry. In the first place there was the scarcity
of tin plate, since Norway is entirely dependent upon the import of
this article. More than ever the idea that the country should have
mills of its own is gaining favor. In June. Great Britain and Nor-
way came to an agreement according to which the former was to
purchase from the latter 250.000 cases of canned fish and deliver in
return 25,000 cases of tin plate. Olive oil was also scarce. Labor
troubles were encountered; higher wages and change in the working
hours were demanded. Fuel oil for the fishing~ vessels could not he
provided in sufficient quantitie-, so that sometimes the fishermen
could not operate for weeks consecutively. The influenza interfered
with labor, and, in fact, there were also fewer fish in the fjords.
Decreased Sardine Catch-Export of Sardines.
The fish used bv the canneries as raw material for their -ardine
packs are the brisling. or sprat, and a small herring. the former fur-
nishin, the better grades of sardines. A mixture of the two, called
landing. is also used for the cheaper grades. The table below shows
the quantities of the raw material delivered to the Stavanger can-
neries in 1918, as compared with 1917.
1917 1'.
Kinds.
Qujniiv. \Vdluc. 'tI 1( i ,ii | V luC.

Qunrt ,r..
Brisling...................---------.............. 8, i -, ..1 f. r7. '.1 r 5,2 ,7, $336i, 154
Small herring..........--.......................... 4, ,y'7 2A, ,i4 2.i7.777 S:3,0124
Blanding...............-- .......................4.... )153,u5i 27.',,_, :. 3, 7'0 22, ,20
Total............................---...... 17, 99W, 315 1,279,103 7,.:13,355. 442,298
1511900-19-10b


V-^
I'








2 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

The export of sardines was comparatively small. The largest item
was the 250,000 cases shipped to Great Britain under the agreement
mentioned above. The export to the United States was only 76,150
pounds valued at $20,463, as against 1,912,407 pounds valued at
$325, (32 in 1917. In 1914, the value of sardines shipped to the
United States and declared at this consulate was $1,367,959; in 1915,
$781,403; in 1916, $882,384.
Spring Herring Catch-Increased Shipments of Herring to United States.
Next in importance to sardine fishery is that of spring herring.
The season is from January to April and is a time of great activity.
Lack of fuel oil and material for nets was severely felt. The total
catch in 1918 was 1,251,760 maal (197,778,080 quarts) valued at
$7,048,400, as against 1,316,450 tinal (207,999,100 quarts) valued at
$7,260,222 in 1017. Four-fifths of the 1918 catch was salted, some
was canned, some kippered, and some prepared otherwise. The
Stavanger canneries packed 97,000 cases of 100 cans each.
There was a large increase in the quantities of pickled herring de-
clared for export to the United States in 1918, the total amounting
to 6,982,272 pounds valued at $198.000, as against 1,331,216 pounds
valued at $40,000 in 1917. This herring was owned by the British
Purchasing Agency which has large stocks stored in Norway, pur-
chased during the last few years in order to prevent them from go-
ing to the enemy countries.
Shipping and Shipping Losses at Stavanger and Haugesund.
Stavanger's relative position among the Norwegian shipping
centers is not in proportion with its rank as to size. Although it is
the fourth largest city (population, 45,000), it ranks only seventh
as to the number of ships registered here and eighth as to tonnage.
THaugesund, a town in this district, with a population of only 18,000,
ranks fourth among the shipping centers of Norway both in number
of ships and in tonnage. The local interest in shipping seems to be
decreasing, but there is a growing industrial development.
At the end of 191s Stivanger's registry showed 88 steamships of
55,627 gross tons. 38 motor chips of 1.883 tons. and 7 sailing vessels
of 3,867 tons; a total (if 133 ve-sels of 61.377 gross tons. Haugesund
had 104 .teainshlips of 14-0,9, 2 tons, 75 motor ve-.els of 4,434 tons, and
14 sailing vessels of 2 2,73 tons: a total of 193 vessels with a tonnage
of 156,509 gross tons. Tle total for Norway was 3.474 vessels of
1,892,287 gross tons. During the war Stavanger lost. 21 ships with
a tonnage of 25,1i00 through' sinking caused lby submarines or mines.
A number were also lost through ~ 'lle and other causes. These losses
could not be replaced. Norwegian shipyards lacked material, Great
Britain .ould 1 c.-ept only a limited number of contracts, and the
vo.-els bnildinin n the United States were taken over by the Ship-
ping Board. Of the -27 vessel thns taken over, 9 were being built
under contractss placed by IHaue-und firns, their deadweight tonnage
aggregating about 73,000 tons.
Nationality and Tonnage of Vessels-Port Statistics.
During the year 288 steamships aggregating 228,549 net tons ar-
rived at Stavanger engaged in foreign trade. Of these 114 vessels
with 103.r60 net tons were British, 73 with 30,493 tons Swedish, 23
with 13,099 tons Danish, 22 with 16,582 tons German, 3 with 395




-"*--. -


NORWAY-STAVANGER. 8

tons Dutch. The remainder were Norwegian. No American merchant
ships were in this port during the year. Arrivals in the coast-
wise trade aggregated 1,610 steamships of 534.973 net ton:.
Statistics covering the quantities, kinds, and values of merchandise
imported into this district in 1918 are not yet available. The cus-
tomhouse receipts in duties paid amounted to $426,120, as against
$643,200 in 1917, $600,320 in 1916, $596,9:12 in 1915, and $541,360 in
1914. The decrease illustrates the general status of ,lbusines, dur-
ing the year.
Agriculture Changing-Increased Arable Area.
The farmers in this section of Norway confine themselves almost
entirely to dairying, because the expen-.e and labor of clearing the
land of stones and preparing it for the plow is very great. How-
ever, every effort is being made to increase the acreage of tillable land,
for the restrictions of imports of grain brought the country face to
face with a most serious condition. It is hoped that with increased
area in tillage the country can be made less dependent upon food
from abroad. Every former who owned land which could be cleared
has been required to clear a certain percentage of his uncleared acre-
age annually. As a result the area of arable land suitable for the
production of grain and other planted crops in this country is now
176,292 imal (about 44,073 acres), while in 1910 there were 114,550
maal (28,637 acres) under cultivation. Besides, 124,418 maal (about
31,104 acres) are in meadows.
Production of Various Crops-Dairying.
Hay is the principal crop; it was below normal in 1918 because of a
very dry spring. Potatoes and turnips yielded well. Oats were
planted on a larger scale than ever before and did well.
Although in normal times the district exports large quantities of
daily products, for the last few years feedstuffs could not be im-
ported in sufficiently large quantities and the production of milk was
far below the needs of domestic consumption. Butter and cheese
practically disappeared from the market. Margarine made from
whale fat instead of vegetable oils had to be used. Eggs were very
scarce and dear.
Manufacturing Projects-Molybdenum Mining.
Except as auxiliary to the canning industry, manufacturing is not
of great importance in this district. A plant for the production of
quality steel is still in the stages of development, although its product
is already on the market; but it will require slome years to complete
the execution of the plans. A shipyard is in the course of con-trie-
tion which, when completed, will rank with the Lirgc.t in Norway.
A carbide production plant, financed by American capital, is being
built some distance from town where enough water power can be
developed for the generation of electric current. All activities have
been greatly hampered by the war, which made it difficult to obtain
material and caused scarcity and high prices of fuel. In addition to
this almost constant labor disputes were encountered.
Considerable deposits of molybdenum are found in this district,
and several mining companies are operating. The market for the
product is not very active. The American-Norwegian agreementt pre-
vented supplying Germany with the concentrate, and the British Gov-








SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


ernment withdrew its offer to purchase the whole output at a good
price. The mines were in consequence not prospering in 1918. When
once the mineral comes into more general use the mining and reduc-
tion will become an important industry here.
Banking and Finance.
The continued rise of stocks, especially ship shares, in 1917 caused
an epidemic in stock speculations which lasted through the earlier
part of 1918. Later in the year stocks ceased to rise, and came down
to ; level more in keeping with actual values and conditions. Stocks
were iconwiderably lower at the end of the year than they had been at
the beginning, and a number of the speculators who had not unloaded
in time lost heavily.
Banks did a good business, partly due to the activities in stock
transactions during the first part of the year, and then later to the
heavy purchases of merchandise in America, which required the estab-
lishment. of credits and transfer of funds. One of the leading banks
earned a dividend of 12 per cent.
The savings banks in the district, 38 in number, began the year
with deposits aggregating $35,26i8,800, while 15 years ago the aggre-
gate was $5,869,200. There were 117,206 separate accounts; the
population of the district is 141,000.
Construction Work-Real Estate Transfers-Taxes.
The cowt of building had by the end of 1917 increased by about
125 per cent over the cost in 1916, both labor and material being
responsible. Building in 1918 was limiited to the absolutely essential,"
beca ue this increased cost had been further augmented by about 25
per cent as compared with the 1917 figures. The great scarcity of
living quarters and business premi-es continued, with resulting high
rents; 107 dwelling houses were. erected, against 123 in 1917; 118
were enlarged or remodeled, as against 116 in 1917. The munici-
pality built a number of two, three, and four apartment barracks
to acco nnmodate smeel of the families of limited means who could
noi find quarters elsewhere.
Roal estate to the value of $3.070.0;40 changedd hands, as against
.,.5 _'.".. in the lpreviouls year.
TIhc tx:ible wealth of the city of Stavanger for the fiscal year
1i1s-1I \a culcnlated to be $1;1.37-2,0(0, ai- against $53,600,000 for
the previov,, year. Ten years ago it was $S,.376.000. The taxable
inc,'1nw w;a, cn'lulate.ld to be A$23,584.000, as against $15,430,800 in
l17-1s, a;nd $ :;' 000 ten years ago. rThe r:'le of taxation for 1918-19
w\\:- fixtd at 1:; 1per cent on i(ncim- ;.iii al1 2.1 per cent on wealth. The
Budget called f.,i an expenditure ol .-,400.0()0. of which $536,000
wa;,- cl)vered by receipts and tle I.:hance by taxes.
Cost of Living, Wages. and Unemployment.
(GoTvvernment ta; ti-tices estimate that since 1914 the cost of living
lia., ri-en by 14-0 to 145. per cent in Norwivy. From a schedule of
weekly w v. es published by tle -tatistical bureau of tlie city of
St:iviger it appears that the percentage of increase in wages since
191-4 is :labut equal to the rise in the cost. of living. For instance,
cam peters' wages have gone up 171 per cent, paper-hangers' wages
191.; per cent, shoemakers' .392 per cent. Other trades show somewhat
smaller increases. Clerks in stores and offices are not quite so favor-









NOR WAY-TRONDHJEM.


ably situated, since their increase does not amount to more than 100
per cent. Increases in seamen's pay have been as follows: Mates,
267 to 300 per cent; able seamen, 282 per cent; stewards, 400 per
cent; engineers, 2S8 to 338 per cent; and stokers, 260 per cent.
On the other hand there was much unemployment during the
year 1918, the record being the wor-t in this respect in the 17 years
that. the municipality has maintained an employment bureau. So,
while wages were higher, the total earnings of labor for the entire
year were adversely affected. According to the figures published by
the employment bureau there were 7,63S male applicant for posi-
tions, and 3.396 vacancies were reported, of which 3,044 were filled;
3.195 female applicants sought places, 3,876 positions were vacant,
and 2,311 were filled. Most of the male applicants were unskilled
workmen, cannery operatives, men'al workers, seamen, members of
the various building trades, and machinists. The farms offered more
positions than there were applicants for such work, and twice as
many positions in domestic service were offered as there were appli-
cants. In Norway, as elsewhere, the tendency is away from the
farms and from domestic service into factories and business.
In order to alleviate distress caused by unemployment the muni-
cipality undertook considerable emergency work, such as grading
streets, which in part accounts for the heavy expenditures making
necessary the raisin_ of extraordinary sums through taxation.
Declared Exports to United States.
The principal items declared at this consulate for export to the
United States during the years 1917 and 1918 are given in the fol-
lowing table, by quantities and values:

1917 1918
Articles.
Quantity. Value. Q u iit-,. Value.

P ciurln d. Pounds.
Calfikins.................................................. 311,949 $196,358 ............ ..........
Fish:
In oil, etc., sardine ................................... 1,912,407 325,632 7,. 13) $20,463
In tin oa(kages-
Anrhovie ......................................... 17, 42 2,075 ......................
Appptitild ........................................ .51, 927 8,402 ..................
Herring ........................................... 303,091 31,429 ......................
Pickled herring........................................ 1.?31,21, 40,000 6,982,272 198,000
Allother .............. ................................. 1,303 810 661 633
Total.................................... ............. ............. 604,70 ............ 219,096

TRONDHJEM.
By Consul Milo A. Jewett.
The district now covered by the America:n cmonulate at TrIndlhjem,
Norway, embraces the northern half of Norway, inclih!liriQ the Amts,
or Counties. of Romnsdal, South Trondhljem, North Trondhjem,
Nordland, Tromso, and Finmarken. It lies north of latitude 630 N.
in about the same latitudes as the northern half of Alaska, but the
climate is considerably milder than in Alaska because of the warm
ocean currents. It is a rugged stretch of -eacoast. country, indented
with numerous fjords and fringed with almo -t innumerable islands.
It has an area of about 50,000 square miles and a population of








6 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

415,000 people, nearly all Norwegians or Lapps. Fishing, shipping,
and farming are the chief occupations; a little mining is also done.
General Survey of Year 1918.
Looking back on the year 1918 as represented in the commercial
and industrial activities of this consular district one perceives a
strange mixture of good and evil, with the. bad side often most ap-
parent and the good side surely present but frequently obscured.
The year 1916 was regarded as one of great prosperity, when many
fortunes were won in this country. Business and industrial activity
continued quite brisk until nearly the end of 1917; then the tide
appeared to turn, and in many lines of industry there was a serious
and rapid decline, continuing to the end of 1918. Stocks of goods
ran very low and raw materials became about exhausted, and, as a
consequence, commerce and industry were forced to retrench more
and more. There was almost complete suspension of all building
operations and new enterprises that required new plants were ar-
rested or postponed.
Adverse Features Affecting Industry and Livelihood.
The money market became more and more stringent. and there was
little inclination to purchase anything unnecessary either at home or
abroad. People became cautious and postponed buying until times
and conditions should be more settled and prices should come down
to a more reasonable level. The Government fixed rents at so low a
rate, it was claimed, that there was no inducement, to build houses
and rent them, although there was great need of them.
For export industries the hindrances were so numerous and serious
that over-sea shipments were practically stopped and, as a result,
export goods, such as herring, fish oil, lumber, and mineral ores, ac-
cumulated and deteriorated in local depots, and charges for storage
and interest piled up.
The food and clothing situation grew worse and worse until nearly
the end of the year. Sickness, especially influenza., was very pre-
valent and the death rate rose considerably. Money seemed to
be steadily losing its purchasing power. iandl the wa., earners and
salaried workers found it hard to subsist. Hours of labor were
shortened in a few instances and sonie wages were advanced; but
workmen generally complained that these increases were not in
proportion to the cost of living. while It the same time industry
claimed that the cost of labor wais becoming higher than the indus-
tries coulll stand.
Factors Indicative of Prosperity.
That was the dark side of the picture. But there was a brighter
side. The rural inhabitants, who form five-sixths of the total popula-
tion of this district., were never more prosperous, unless it was in
1917. The crops were good and sold at the highest prices ever known
in this country. The fishermen made a good catch and sold it at
two or three times the pre-wnr price. The canning factories used
all sorts of substitutes and inferior materials and sold their products
at very high prices. Margarine factories turned out a product con-
taining as high as SO per cent of the much-despised whale oil and
sold it at the price of gilt-edge dairy butter. The lean meat of








NORWAY-THONDHJEM.


half-starved cows brought prices better than those formerly asked for
the best quality beef. People who had houses and lands to sell
gained from 100 to 500 per cent. Merchants turned jobbers and
made unprecedented profits on small sales effected at small expense.
The market prices of -oime Norwegian stocks and bonds fluctuated
a great deal during the year, but the average price of all principal
stocks was 15 or 20 per cent higher in December, 1918, than in Janu-
ary, 1918. Many Norwegian ships had been lost, but the bottoms
still afloat were in great demand and their earnings replaced to a
large extent the profits formerly derived from the sunken fleet.
Ship shares rose in market value more than 25 per cent during the
year.
In spite of shortage of raw material practically all industries con-
tinued operations, made some profits, and paid dividends as usual.
The war period was a fairly good one for the mining industries
of northern Norway, especially for the copper mines; and their
prosperity was greater in 1918 than in any war year previous to 1917.
The shoe factories all ran at full force and sold their products at very
high prices. The value of the wood and lumber cut in the State
forests in 1918, amounting to $1,125,000, was greater than in most
previous years.
High Living Costs, Increased Savings Deposits.
The cost of living in Norway was higher than in any other country
outside of the war zones. It reached its climax in August, 1918.
With increased want and sickness among the poor came increased
State aid and charities. The city operated public kitchens, which
were run at a loss. fed the school children, sold fuel at less than cost,
and devoted greater expenditures to the care of the sick and the
indigent. Sanatoria for the tubercular in Norway increased during
the war from 47 to 76.
The people learned habits of economy and saving. Although some
cried hard times, business stagnation, and financial ruin, the majority
made and accumulated money. The savings banks had more deposi-
tors and larger deposits at the end of 1918 than ever before. The
total credit balances of depositors in the eight banks of all sorts in
Trondhjem on December 31, 1917, amounted to $19,349,000, and at
the end of 1918 they stood at about $55,000,000-an increase of 160
per cent. in one year-or more than $1,000 for every man, woman,
and child in the city.
Arrival of American Supplies Revives Fisheries and Commerce.
The Norwegian-American agreement, by which the United States
contracted to sell Norway, for its own uIse, foodstuffs and essential
materials up to the limit of its pre-war requirement%, was one of the
most important factors in the industrial and economic life of the
country in 1918. The entrance of the United States into the war,
with the cessation of exports and the tightening of the blockade
against the central countries of Europe, had placed Norwegian in-
dustries and food supply in a very serious situation. The winter of
1917-18 was a gloomy period in this part of the country, where so
much depends upon the fisheries and the industries connected with
them. But with the signing of the agreement in April, 1918, a better
and more hopeful situation was created. Very soon foodstuffs, cer-








SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


tain raw materials, petroleum, and some twine and nets for the fish-
ermen began to arrive and the fisheries opened again. The supply
of petroleum was too small. because it was based on the pre-war con-
sumnption, whereas the number of motor fishing vessels had increased
considerably since 1913: but the Goverrunent cut down the allowance
for lighting and heating and gave as much as possible to the fisher-
men. Fertilizeil and agricultural implements were also imported
and the farming situation improved.
Barter in the Fishing Trade-Cooperative Buying.
The revival of fishing gave a new impetus t6 commerce and trade.
The trade relations in this part of Norway are somewhat peculiar.
The importers of Trondhjem and one or two other cities sell to the
country retailers, usually on three months' credit. The retailers, es-
pecially along the coast, sell to the fishermen and boatsmen, much of
the trade being really a form of barter, the fish being taken in ex-
change for fishing tackle, food, and other necessities of life and re-
sold to the larger dealers and fish exporters. To a smaller extent. a
similar exchange of commodities goes on between the retailer and
the farmer. The country dealers are reported to be in a strong posi-
tion, and so long as they are there is little danger of any serious
financial crisis in this part of the country.
There is a growing tendency in this district to cooperative pur-
chasing. which was stimulated by the system organized by the Gov-
ernment in 1918, when nearly everything was rationed both to com-
munities and to individuals.
Cessation of Pomor Trade with Russians.
Another form of commerce in this district, known as the Pomor"
trade, is somewhat unique. It is carried on in the extreme northern
parts of the country, in the Arctic Sea section. Hundreds of small
sailing vessels come from northern Russia to the coa4t of Norway
loaded with wood, tar, pitch, hemp. and skins. which they sell and ex-
change. From the fishermen they get fish, salt it down in their boats,
and then pro.-eed to Archangel and other White Sea ports. where the
fish is .sold. The Russian, purchased, al-o,. in Norway some shipping
tackle a:ld provisions. The deals were made on a ruible basis. War
condition.- iilald this commerce practically impn-sible in 1918, when
it almost wholly ceased.
Fisheries Revolutionized by Motor Vessels.
In 191.. out of a total population of 2,500,000 persons. Norway
ha;d .S,29s persons resigterel as fishermen, and 58,711 of them be-
rlonged to tlis district. In Inter years, especially during the last
decade, an interesting evolution has been in progres- in tile fishing
industry of this district, largely due to American petroleum. For-
imerly fishing was carried on by means of nlimerous small sailing ves-
sels and rowboats, and was largely restricted to the Norwegian coast
and to fair weather. A considerable percentage of those engaged in
tlhe industry were fishermen in winter and farmers most of the time
in summer. With the introduction of the petroleum motor vessels
the boats become larger, the range of operations more extended and
continuous, and a more well-defined division of labor has been taldng
place. The fisherman-farmer is becoming either a regular fisherman
or a farmer. From 190S to 1915 the number of motor fishing ves-








NORWAY-TRONDHJEM.


sels in Norway increased from 1,636 to 8,346, while in the same period
the number of sailing vessels engaged in Norwegian fisheries dimin-
ished from 3,861 to 1,228. This change in methods will probably
result in fewer but more efficient fishermen, and in larger and better
equipped farms.
Statistics of Norwegian Fisheries Output.
It is difficult to obtain separate statistics of the fish caught in any
one district in Norway, because the vessels from different districts
operate in the same waters and the catch is delivered, distribute(l, and
transferred in various districts according to circumstances and local
demands. A general view of the results of the most important
fisheries in the whole country for the years 1916, 1917, and 1918 is
shown in the following table:
Fish and fish pro lucts. 1916 1917 191S

Large herrn ........................................ gallons.. 25,342,139 2 731,7 90 16, 79S, 76
Fat herrin................ ........................... do.... 7, 63,620 9,03 ,67 17,532,02
Cod ...... .. .......... ........................... nllm ber.. 5 1, 400, tlI 27 i, ui Of 24,l Iin1, 000
Cod-liver oil, melicinal...........................g... allows. ............ uI, "ni .5) 77I)
Cod roe ................................................ o.... 1,640, 450 75',3, ;.i1 412, 129
Mackerel.......................................... number.. 11,330,500 0,97y ,6t'U 1.5, 75 0

The lack of petroleum, lines, and nets was very seriously felt by
the fishermen of this district in 1918, although conditions improved
somewhat in the latter half of the year. The petroleum shortage
affected the cod fisheries most seriously. The Norwegian Govern-
ment subsidized tle industry to the extent of $134,000.
Fortunately for the fiihernlen, fairly high prices were maintained
throughout the year, although there was only a limited market, for
the fish. The value of the total Norwegian catch for 1918 is esti-
mated at $70,000,000, as compared with $32,0(00000 in 1917. In these
estimates are included the value of the products of the whale fish-
eries.
No Norwegians took part in the North Sea fishing in 1918. It
was too much obstructed byv the marine mines. From Iceland waters
two loads of herring. amounting to 1,373 barrels, were Ibrollght to
Aalesund. The ma ckerel catch was large and the prices high, the
estimated total value heing $1,400,000. Most of the mackerel was
eaten fresh, only 300.000 pieces being salted or canned. The deep-
sea fisheries are estimated to have given a total catch of all sorts
valued at about $1,300,000.
Arctic Fisheries of Various Ports.
About 60 steam vessels and 12 motor boats from Aalecund were
engaged in the seal (phocacean) fiwheries during the yenr. They
caught 8,467 seals from which they obtained 2:3,4.95 barrels of blubber
valued at $1,020,000, and the skins were estimated to be worth
$314,000.
Tromso had many vessels engaged in the Arctic -eal and other
Arctic fisheries, the value of whose catch for 1918 was estimated at
$1,200,000. Hammerfest had 24 boats in the Arctic fisheries and
caught 16,067 seal, 31 bears, and 122 walrus, valued at $214,000.
From Vardo 8 boats engaged in the Arctic fisheries captured 6,600
seal valued at $73,000.









10 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

Norway's Whale Fisheries.
Owing to the scarcity of fats the Norwegian Government in 1917
took Iup the whale fisheries which had been abandoned in these waters
for many years. Seven whaling stations were established on the
coast, five of which were in this consular district. During the year
1918, 765 whales were captured, which yielded 1.270,240 gallons of
oil. A con,.iderable portion of the oil was refined and used in mak-
ing margarine, which sometimes contained as high as SO per cent of
whale fat. The fre-h~ meat was sold in the market as a substitute
for beef. The total value of the catch for 1918 was estimated at

Receipts of Fish and Fish Products at Trondhjem.
The following table shows the quantities of the principal va-
rieties of fizs and fish products received at Trodhjem during the
years 1916, 1917, and 1918:

De:(ription. 1916 1917 191S D scription. 1916 1917 1918

rm Aic Irk Metric Meric Mre *ltric Metric Metric
S" ti." tons. on. Flon PROD S. tons. tons.
Cinv -I .............. ..... 153 211 40 C ike ..................... 635 13 16
Dri.dJ, !: o' ed. or uired: \nnure.................. 596 294 477
I)Dri.1, chiefly cod .... 636 233 577 Oil:
Klip................. i7 15 1,152 Medicinal, cod liver.. 29 20 .......
Sjllted-- W ha'e ................ 170 15 7
1!erring.......... 20,650 2,2,305 34,5S1 Other sorts........... 553 15. 150
Otl;c.r............ S,:,06 1, 3 ........ Roe...................... 2M5 1,700 647
Silmjun i moked).... 3 5 .......
Fr-lh:
llerri .............. ,7 2 2.714 2,S26
S.lmou .............. 524 373 270
Oilh.r ................ 16,254 6,959 10,00
I.i .... ................. 55 46 42

The total quantity of fish and fish )products suitable for human
food received at Trondhjem in 191 was 52.6154 metric tons, as com-
pared with 37,273 metric tons in 1917 and 51,980 metric tons in 1916.
Of tile total fiLheries products of 55,860 metric tons re eived in 1918,
about 0,36,50 metric tons tame from the Counties of North and
Sou th Trondhjem. Finmarken, Tromso, and Nordland supplied
13,370 metri tons, and 6,240 metric tons came from other parts of
Norway.
Fish Exports From Trondhjem-Scarcity of Tin Affects Canneries.
During the year there was exported by sea from Trondhjem 20,895
metri,' tons of herring and. 2.736 metric tons of other varieties of fish
and fish pirdu, ts. By rail from Trondhjem 10,324 metric tons of
fi-h were -hipped to Sweden. 72 tons to Dennmark, and 2,000 tons to
Finland. In addition, fish from other towns of Norway were ex-
ported through Trondlljem by rail, comprising 3,945 metric tons to
Sweden and 1,110 metric tons to Finland.
The canning industries of this district, as well as of other parts of
Norway, are chiefly onI earned with putting up various sorts of fish
and fi-h products: sardines, sildd," herring kippers, fish roe, and fish
balls are the chief sorts. In the years 1915 and 1916 the Norwegian
caInneries flourished by reason of a good supply, excellent demand,
high prices, and plenty of tin plate. In 1917 the stock of tin plate
ran low and in 1918 the canning industry suffered very considerably,
as practically all importation of tin plate ceases. Two of the large









NORWAY-TRONDHJEM. 11

canneries at Trondhjem stopped entirely and the others continued
work at a very diminished rate. Old tin cans were bought up and
worked over and some fish was put up in temporary paper containers.
Agriculture Fostered by Government.
Complete official statistics of the agricultural situation in 1917 and
1918 are not yet available. In 1918 the Norwegian Government ap-
propriated $6,968,000 for agriculture and stimulated and aided the
farm work in many ways. The acreage cultivated was larger than
in any previous year, and in general the crops were fair to good.
The Norwegian Government bought the cereal and potato crops and
rationed them out.
Since 1870 the conditions of farming in Norway have, undergone
a gradual change. Up to that time the country was agriculturally
quite independent. But then the Norwegians began gradually to buy
cheap wheat and corn from America and rye and barley from Ger-
many and Russia. They devoted their attention more to hay and to
raising cattle, horses, and sheep. Milk products bennme a more im-
portant lucrative part of farming. Norway became an exporter of
butter, cheese, and condensed milk and imported a large part of its
foodstuffs. When the war came on and supplies of foreign flour and
grain were cut off, the country found itself in a very bad situation.
Agricultural Production in Trondhjem District.
Of the crop of 1918 in this district, up to February 1, 1919, the
State had purchased 183,000 bushels of barley, 300,000 bushels of
oats, 3,000 bushels of wheat, and 7,200 bushels of rye, making a total
of 493.200 bushels of cereals; at that time there was said to be still
about 300,000 bushels of cereals available for purchase. In 1917 the
total cereal crop delivered to the State amounted to 330.000 bushels.
It is evident that the cereal crops in this district are not important.
The farms are small and produce little grain for the market.
Decreased Shipping Activities-Arrivals at Trondhjem.
Shipping at the port of Trondhjem in 1918 was less than in former
years, as was to be expected on account of the limited over-sea com-
merce and the complete cessation of the important transit. traffic of
goods passing over the Swedish railways between the port of Trondh-
jem and the Baltic Sea distri'-ts of Finland and Russia.
The following table shows the number and tonnage of all vessels
arriving at the port. of Trondhjem during the years 1917 and 1918:

1917 !914
Kind of vessel.
Number. Tonn.:c, Nmb.:r. Tonnage,
I ret. ,Iet.

Coasting Dassencer steamships ............................ 72 377, 713 3.2,482
Freight steamers .............. ........................ F27 3.!.4',0 42.3 233,239
Sailinp ships............................................ 11 2.9 9 41 1,336
Local service vessels plying within the fjord ................ 2. 6 21 21' .37 2,219 232,089
Small sail boats ............... .................. ........ 2, 1;2 no, .S 2,4'91 71,494
Total. ........................................... 5,7S P'92, 2 5,9 50 S90, 640

No private pleasure yachts or tourist steamers visited the land
of the midnight sun in either 1917 or 1918.








12 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

Nationality of Vessels-Customs Collections, etc.
In 1918, 272 steamships engaged in foreign commerce arrived at
Trondlhjem (including the harbors of Hommelvik. Tamshavn, and
Buvik). These were of the following nationalities: British. 115; Nor-
wegian, 50; Swedish. 34; German, 45; Danish, 19; Dutch, 8; Ice-
JIndic. 1.
Thel ciistonic. duties collected by the Trondhijem customhouse in
1!91 totaled only $726,924, whereas in 1917 they amounted to $1,-
31;:.7(07. and in 1916 to $1.321,667.
The wharf and lighthouse dues in 1918 amounted to $33.101 and
in 1917 they were $44.837. The tonnage dues were $1,636 in 1918 and
$2.28.'7 in 1917.
Activities and Earnings of Ship Companies.
iThe two important ocean steamship companies of Trondhjem,
the Nordenfjeldske and the Selnerske, had a very successful and
profitable year in 1918. In spite of the fact that many conditions
arising out of the war made it difficult and sometimes impossible
to maintain the regular lines of service, the boats were fairly well
employedd throughout the year and at rates that were very profitable.
The Nordenfjeldske company leased 4 vessels to the Norwegian
Government for food transport. In the combined passenger and
freight coasting service 8 vessels were employed, 5 of which were
under Government contract. Five vessels plied in the Norwegian-
South American trade and some were used in bringing coal from
England. At the close of the year the company owned 23 steam-
shlips. although 3 new vessels that were contracted for and should
have been finished were not completed. It was expected that 5 new
NvsSels would be completed and delivered during 1919.
The war cost this company 11 vessels, with a total tonnage of
16,700 tons dead-weight. Five of the ships were torpedoed and 18
m11en of the crews were lost. The gross profits for 1918 amounted to
$7,209.146, and the shareholders received a dividend of 50 per cent
on the par value of the shares, or 5,000,000 crowns ($1,340,000) on
the 10.000,000 crowns share capital.
The Selmerske company increased its capital in 1918 from $844,200
to, $l1.,.(1000. The net profits for the year amounted to $884,400,
of \ich $,90,940 was distributed to the shareholders.
Copper Mines Prosper-Iron Mines Compelled to Close.
'opper production in Norway amounts to about 3,000 tons in
,ordinary years half of which is produced at Sulitjelma and the
re-.t about equally from the mines at Roros, Birtavarre, and Chris-
tian-and. In 191S about 600 tons of copper was produced in the
Nirsk.i Extraction Works at Fredrikstad. Notwithstanding this
hitter addition to the ordinary production the total output for the
year; amounted to only about 2.200 tons. Copper has been selling
in thle United States cheaper than it can be produced in this country.
(Owing. however, to the fact that the importation of copper was
almill-t wholly stopped in 1918, the Norwegian output commanded
a higl price, andl on the whole the copper mines enjoyed a year of
unusual pro-perity.
The iron mines of Norway are chiefly in the extreme northern part
of the country, in the Sudvaranger district. Owing to the fact that








NORWAY-TRONDHJEM. 13

there is no coal in this country the ore is concentrated and ex-
ported for smelting in other countries, chiefly England. In normal
times the Sudvaranger mines employ about 1,500 men. and the
annual production of ore is about 400,000 tons. Because of the im-
possibility of getting tonnage at any suitable rate for ore ship-
ments, although the company had large contracts for freight made
in 1914, transport of ore was largely stopped during the last three
years of the war and the ore accumulated at the mines. The works
were gradually shut down, and at the close of 191S only about 500
men were employed. The reopening of these nines is expected as
soon as tonnage can again be obtained at suitable rates.
Exports of Forest Products.
The exportation of timber from Trondhjeim in 191s amounted to
58,844 cubic meters, and to 71,515 cubic meters in 1917-abnuiit 7 per
cent of the total exports of lumber from Norway in these two years.
The wood is exported largely as mining props and logs. Before the
war there was a considerable exportation of wood pulp from Norway
and a little pull) and wrapping paper from this district. But the
war, the paper shortage, and high prices stopped all that; paper be-
came locally scarce and, like everything else, very costly. To print
a small daily newspaper in Trondhjem in 1914 cost. for paper
$188,000; for ink, $13,000; for wages and salaries, $200,000. In 1918
the paper cost $483,000, the ink $80,000, and the salaries and wages
$353,700.
Banking and Finance-Few Bankruptcies-War Profits Taxes.
The savings-bank business usually gives a very good picture of the
economic situation of a district; and this is perhaps especially true
here, when we take the figures of the small country savings banks
that represent the economic situation of the rural communities, which
form the large majority of the total population of the district. Dur-
ing the five years of the war the savings-bank deposits have steadily
and rapidly increased. Reports from 23 small country institutions
in the Counties of North and South Trondhjern show that on De-
cember 31, 1914, these banks had total deposits amounting" to $5,-
055,279, while on December 31, 191, deposits aggregated $.!553,15' -
an increase of very nearly 100 per cent..
Duringc the year 191S there were 71 new stock companies registered
at Trondhjem, with a total capital of $3,72-2,f995. In 1917. sl new
stock companies were registered here with a total capital of $s.S79,-
721. It will be observed that the capital represented by the new
companiess in 1917 was nearly two and one-half tinims the ;iitioint of
capital represented by the new companies formed in 1918. Nearly
three-fourths of the total capital of the 71 new .stock companies
formed in 1918 was represented by three new private banking con-
cerns. Many of the new stock companies formed in this cilillntry in
recent years are not new enterprises, but simply constitute a change
from private partnership to a privately-owneld stoo'k o',mpiany-a
form which appears to have some advantages in regar,1 to t axation
and liabilities.
The capital stock of 36 companies in Trondhjem during" I11 S was
increased by $8,352,442. These increases occurred in '2 banks. 6 ship
companies, 6 iron and machinery companies, 2 coal companies, and 1
electrochemical factory.




I



14 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

It. speaks well for Norwegian business concerns that in Trondhjem
there were only 0 bankruptcies in 1918, the same number as in 1917.
In 1916 there were only 4.
The war-profits tax list for the city of Trondhjem for the fis-aL
year 1917-18 embraces 208 names, and amounts to $1,938,997. The
same tax for the year 1916-17 yielded $2,123,539, as compared with
$670,000 for 1915-16.
Progress and Improvements at Christiansund.
Christiansiind, a rather important fishing and shipping town and
the second largest city in this district (population, 17,000), has had a
prosperous business development during the war. It illustrates in
a small way the economic progress of this country during "hard
times." The assessed valuation of property in Christiansund dur-
ing the last three fiscal years was reported as follows: 1916-17,
$9~.45,000; 1917-18, $13,130,000; 1918-19, $18.717,000. The taxable
income for the same years was $2,511,000, $4,410,700, and $5,582,900,
respectively. The city budget grew from $283,500 in 1916-17 to
$510,600 in 1917-18, and $781,200 in 1918-19.
In 1913-1917 new wharves were built at a cost of about $268,000
and new school buildings were erected costing $380,000. Electrical
works are building which will cost about $160,000 and will supply a
minimum of 1,500 electric horsepower.
The chief business of Christiansund is in the export of cod fish,
herrings, and other products of the fisheries and the sale of ship's
stores, machinery, and tackle.
Declared Exports to the United States.
Exports from the district of Trondhjem to the United States prac-
tically ceased in 1918. The exportation of all foodstuffs from Nor-
way was prohibited, with the exception of a few strictly controlled
Government sales of fish. Imports to the United States were also
restricted by the American Government and shipping facilities were
seriously lacking. The following table gives the quantities and
values of the articles exported to the United States in 1917 and 1918
as shown by the consular invoices:

1917 1918
Articles.
Quantity. Value. Quantity. Value.

Birch hark.................................nlndP ............. .......... 5,120 $219
Filh:
Ilerrnln and ajrdine ............................tins.. 67,4C0 $10,931 ......................
Sr. ... ............. ............ ....... ..............o....0
Fur i, iindr".-ed:
Fo ...........................................pieces.. I,0 11,962 5 134
Polar lt.ir.................. ............. pounds.. 2Q2 13.3 ....................
Iil,, rld Ii r ............... ...................... allnns.. 21,3' 0 .9,210 ......................
l.i j:, l,i an i d "nat .................. ..... .... pioui id;.. 160, .97 131,403 ......................
Slhl Ip .r-,Ti ll r I tehcl)............................... I. .... 5,400 1,00 ............ ..........
S .pll r t, d illkd.i: ....... ...... .... ... ............. ... allons.. 6,274 11, 6 ............ .......
W\\V-" pulp, cheinucal, unbleaIlhed ......... ....pounds.. 6,944,000 273,202 ......................
Tor1................ ................................ ... 503,127 ............0 --- 3j3

Imports from the United States.
Tle available statistics of direct imports to this district from the
United State- during 1918 do not include considerable quantities of
foodstulff, petroleum and other articles that were delivered to the
















r


Norwegian Government or to certain Norwegian purchasing asso-
ciations and distributed throughout the country. Thle following
table gives the values as at the time and place of exportation of the
goods directly imported into this district in 1918, according to
shipper's export declarations:


Arnktle.


A pples..................................
Asbestos boards.......................
Automobiles and trucks................
Chemicals..............................
Cocoa beans...........................
Coffee.................... ..............
Electrical supplies .....................
Flour and meal ........................
Fruits, dried and canned...............
Hardware.............................
Grain...................................
Iron and stel ...........................
Machines and implement ...............
Mi'clllaneous ............... .......


Values.

53,800
2,500
7,1O40
2, 825
201X
5, 000
It,10, 5410
1,049, 17
21,4.s7
7, 73T9
IA, 22'j
192, '4ti.)
55, 49
6,4:"


0ili andl iubrirants...................
r'aint ..................................
Rooting pj p r ...........................
Rope and twine ......................
Silver-platcd w ar- ................... .
iudna .ah ......................... .......
Spica. ................................
Strup and mola'ts.......................
Tea.....................................
Textiles................ ...... .........
Wine s...............................
Total ...........................


Many articles of American manufacture which do not appear in
the foregoing table are found in this market. The office -ulpplies,
such as cash regist .s, typewriters, and adding machine.-i :are almost
exclusively Amerian. Agricultural machines, tools, I marhline tools,
and hardware are largely of American make. Haberdashery, toilet
and laundry soap, and a few pharmaceutical preparations are coming
now from Aneri(ca. About half of the. automobiles and motor cycles
are from the United States. The imports of shoes, tobacco. and
smokers' articles also come from America to a considerable extent.
The foreign trade of this district is not large, but it is coin.-idlered to
be good, reliable trade and there is a very cordial feeling toward
American products. There seems to Ie an impression along, somel
persons in this country, however, that the United States, Iunller the
influence and nece-sities (f war conditions and in the effort to calptutre
the trade which Germany formerly had in cheap wa-.lrs ll this
market, will ~~ind out export gon ds." that is, good intended only
for export and not lup to the high -t:tndhird formerly a--nci.ited with
Amierican vaaniift eture-.. It woultld hrd:ly seem politic fir American
manufitn '1t'Irs to lowr t heir standard f exc Cllenr in I 111 'rl to '.:p-
ture a imnlrket which thrlv c-old probhalily not ho,,l lon11 if the goods
did not stand tlie test of tliie, reliability, and efficiency.


















WASHINGTON: GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1919


I
J S


S
i"










"a..
;;ai
i:,i.i
;ik:
i ': :"::...


NORWAY-TRONDHJEM.


Values.


5132,553
2,130
55,385
9,179
827
12,717
I., 2S5
121, 400
13,316
15, 4115
1,031
1,735, 17




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
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3 1262 08485 2010