Supplement to Commerce reports

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Title:
Supplement to Commerce reports daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce
Uniform Title:
Commerce reports
Volume title page for -<1920>:
Supplements to Commerce reports : review of industrial and trade conditions in foreign countries in ... by American consular officers
Portion of title:
Daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce
Physical Description:
6 v. : ; 24-26 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce
Publisher:
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Dept. of Commerce
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

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Subjects / Keywords:
Commerce -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Foreign economic relations -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also available in electronic format.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with issue for Jan. 8, 1915?; ceased with issue for Dec. 31, 1920?
Numbering Peculiarities:
Each issue covers an individual country and bears a number corresponding to that country. Reports from the various consular districts in a country are distiguished by the addition of a letter (66a, 66b, 66c, etc.), in the order in which they are issued.
Numbering Peculiarities:
Issue no.52f, 1919, contains misprint, November 41.
General Note:
Title from caption.
General Note:
"Annual series."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 004822593
oclc - 16390134
sobekcm - AA00005307_00012
Classification:
lcc - HC1 .R1981
System ID:
AA00005307:00012

Related Items

Preceded by:
Daily consular and trade reports (Washington, D.C. : 1910)
Succeeded by:
Trade and economic review for ..

Full Text



LFIL
22 MARl 1955 "
SUPPLEMENT TO


COMMERCE RE
y DAILY CONSULAR AND TRADE REPORTS
IISSUED BY THE BUREAU OF FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COMMERCE
DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE, WASHINGTON, D. C.

Annual Series No. 9b September 30, 1919

NETHERLANDS.
By Consul General Soren Listoe, Rotterdam, July 16, 1919.
As in io.st other countries, the issues of new capital in the Nether-
lands reached record figures during the war. From a total of 193,-
893,666 florins ($77,945,254) in 1913 they fell to 128,539,162 florins
($51,672,743) in 1914, only a few capital applications having been
made during the last five months of the year, owing to the outbreak
of the war. Confidence, however, gradually returned, and 1915
showed a record of 529.685,850 florins ($212,933,712), of which 147,-
517.850 florins ($59,302,176) was accounted for by new capital issues
of limited companies, while 382.168,000 florins ($153,631,536) was
absorbed by State, provincial, and municipal loans. The latter cate-
gory showed a total of only 260,332,724 florins ($104,653,755) in
1916, but the former further increased to 195,109,95. florins ($78,-
434,202). Yet the grand total, amounting to 455,442,679 florins
($183,087,957). did not reach the record figures of 1915. These were,
however, exceeded in 1918, when a total of 654,016,069 florins ($262,-
914.460) was attained, as compared with 463.768,61S florins ($186,-
434,984) in 1917.
Capital Issues in Recent Years.
The exact development is illustrated by the following figures,
which, like all other figures given under this subject, represent the
actual proceeds of the issues and not merely the nominal amount, of
the debentures and shares:
Provincial Privae Provincial vate
Years. State loans. a capital Years. State loans. nici l capital
"icpl Issueisipal su
loans, issues. loans. Isues.

1913......... ............. 17,336,331 $60,408,923 1916....... $S2,249,200 $22.401,5.5 $7,,43l,2n2
1914 .................. .. 10,196,946 41,475,797 1917......... 6 792.251] 16,534,S77 101,107,837
1915........' $136.464,930 17.166,600 59,302,17.5 1918......... 111,033.76 27, 128,-26 '124,731,847

The Government thus raised a net total of 991.443,200 florins
($398,560,166) by loans, and the Provinces and municipalities a
total of 276,040,151 florins ($110,968,141) during the past six years.
The issues of exchequer bonds and treasury bills have not been in-
cluded, as they are as a rule redeemed within a year. Furthermore,
the bond issues of smaller municipalities were not taken into account,
as they are always placed in such a private way that they are liable
to escape attention. Only such loans, therefore, are included in these
statistics as subscriptions were invited for in advertisements in the
leading newspapers. A similar attitude was adopted with regard to
the capital issues of limited companies.
134707"-10--9b




ci









SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


The monetary requirements of the Dutch municipalities have been
very great, the distribution of food at a low cast and various other
activities due to the crisis having absorbed large sums. They are,
in fact, still continually increasing, so that the figures for 1919 will
greatly exceed the total of 1918; for the first five months a total of
more than 50,W100,000 florins ($20,100,000) has already been issued.
Large Sums Invested in Banking Shares.
The private capital issues have been on the increase throughout
the war, and the total for 1918 was twice that for 1913. Large sums
were invested in shares (and a small amount in debenture bonds)
of banks and similar institutions. In 1913 these investments nomi-
nally amounted to 24,713,000 florins ($9,934,026), in 1914 to 18,262,500
florins ($7,341,525), and in 1915 to 16,377,500 florins ($6,583,755).
But in the latter year banking business had developed so largely
that the actual value of the shares and bonds issued was as high as
75,590,875 florins ($30.387,531), and 1917 and 1918 show totals of
52,888,30(s florins ($21,261,096) and 62,615,350 florins ($25,171,370),
respectively. Consequently, the issue of banking shares and bonds
absorbed more than 225,000.000 florins ($90,450,000) during 1914-
1918, which gives some indication of the enormous development of
these institutions.
Large sums have also been absorbed by industrial concerns. About
12 years ago it was difficult to induce the Dutch capitalist to invest
money in home industries. The flourishing state of various enter-
prises and the good educational work of some issuing houses has.
. however, gradually aroused his interest, and in 1913 a total sum of
26,638,525 florins ($10,708.687) was invested in this class of paper;
in 1914, 16,689,500 florins ($6,709,179) ; and in 1915.31,756,500 florins
($12,768,113). The following year the total increased to 53,397,205
florins ($21,465,676), and in 1917 to 70,736,850 florins ($28,436,213),
whereas 1918 shows a total of 59,396,100 florins ($23,877,232). A
grand total of 231.976,155 florins ($93,254,413) has therefore been
taken up during the past five years. Numerous concerns have been
enabled by the \ar. which entirely or almost entirely stopped foreign
competition, to strengthen their financial position so considerably
that they will probably be able to withstand competition now that
normal conditions are ira diimllv returning and will continue to
produce a sa.iti-factory yield on the capital invested in them. Large
sums have anlo been absorbed by actual war concerns.
Financial Position of Shipping Companies-Sugar-Plantation Shares.
During 1917 and 1.91)s lare amounts of capital were also invested
in shipping companies, amounting to 43,925,50) florins ($17,658,051)
and 41,7'.2,S50 florins ($16.764,545), respectively, against 3,456,500
florins ($1,.39.513) in 1916, 12,105,000 florins ($4,866.210) in 1915,
4,353,500 florins ($1.750,107) in 1914, and 7,127,700 florins ($2,865,-
335) in 1913. Probably no branch of industry is in such a strong
financial position as the large Dutch shipping companies, and freight
must. drop to extremely low levels to make the payment of satis-
factory dividends impossible.
Large sums have been invested in Dutch East Indian sugar-planta-
tion companies and trading companies. The investments in the
former have been very profitable to the capitalists, as the quotations
of sugar-plantation shares have reached record levels, owing to the













NETHERLANDS.


splendid prices paid for this commodity. In 1918 business looked
very bad for a short time, as sugar was being sold at a very low price
and quotations on the stock exchange dropped to very low levels.
The amounts invested in the various kinds of companies in re-
cent years are shown below. The high totals shown for oil concerns
were due to new capital issues by the Royal Dutch and affiliated conm-
panies.

Companies. 1913 1914 191.3 1916 1917 19,


Banking and credit institu-
tions....................... 9,934.626
Mortgage banks............... 3.4 R, S79
Industrial concerns........... 10, 70R, 6h7
Dutch East Indian sugar-
plantatin and trading
companies ................. 2,697.922
Mining companies ............ 1, .,' ,')
Oil companies............... 10,207, 2f2
Rubber companies ........... 9i ,32n
Shipping eompan:es.............. 2,'..1 13
Toha c o-plantaticn com-
pan es.... ........ ..... 141,129
Tea-plantation cnmpanies.... 17., -75
Railway companies.......... .I 104l,6i l
Tramway companies. 2, 60, 2,7
All other compranies.......... 22.2-'Q,3.1

Total ................. '. ` 40 ,.'l9


$7.311,.525
3,202, 734
6,709,179

5, 4 4,.13 ;
251,251i
276.375
1,750,107

120(. .110
II, 2r.6,050i
3,3.1,417)
1,',51,971


86.5.3,7355
1, .74. 140
12,7t.6, 11.3

990,327
5,915.430

4., 66,210
5.i2,7.30

23,41 ,510
1,770,810
1,0W3.43'J


k30.3.17,531
4, 634, 979
21,4tf5, 67

., 292. .93
1,72h.6600
7,59u, 44,3
522, 600
1,3.-9,,513
462.3.1',
:),.347

1. 1l11.32 4
3, 7.',9. 13


$21 .2'61. 1196
2,,.' 1. 471
21. 13r', 213

12. 1111,14 J

2, 0Wik, 9710
17, 6,. 051
2,31 7,.130

5, 6'2.. Oi110
b,960i,171


Sy',. 171,17)
1,(47. 517


17, 70', liP)
,1. 411N)
17, 1'40, 72ti
77"'. .'ol
16,7 4,313
Nl, 764, ')1.5


1.3, v'9, 7,1

5, 422, 3t7


41.475. ,.47 .9,312,175 7s,4.141,19 I lll, 1 J7,.s: 124,7.31,' 3


The amounts in\venteu il in riiil\v v compiiniet s ili'r pri ttically ein-
tirely represented I y i-siies of dlieiture-.' by Dutch ;il I)DutchI Ea.t
Indian concerns,.

Treasury Receipts.
Government receipts during 1918 amounted to $100.1.'-1.241. com-
pared with $94,499!,78 during 1917. The following table gives in
detail the amiounts collected:


Items.

Direct taxes:
Real estate..........
Domestic............
Income..............
Capital..............
Excises:
Sugar................
Wine...............
Spirits...............
Salt ..................
Beer ...............
Slaughtering.........
Indirect taxes:
Revenue dues........
Registration dues.....
Mortgage dues........


1917


$6,602,319
5,6.57, 65
19,547,746
1, 405, 808

12.60t,341
65S, 743
11,910,117
997,599
927,201
5,021,456
5.38,' 910
7,397,971
264,223


191
---

$6,63$,.503
5,500,1 164
22, 7.,039
1,297,33s .
1.3,719,380
643, 968
7,597,927
1, 141,0-15
411.929
4, 346,S76 .
35, 15,S17
12,431,662


Items.

Indirect taxes--:ont.
Inheritance lax.......
Import dutie.s..........
Tax on legal document..
Charges on gold and silver
articles:
Taxes ................
siay charges.........
Statisticaldues .......
Dues on mines.............
Dom inions...............
State lo rery.............
Huntingand ishinhg......
Pilot dues ................


1917


3S, 9.34, .3,9
-4.47. 922
5j51

271,23"'
g96, 875
6"', uS3
1,172, 599
2;3,372
1S', 1.A7
113, 576


191l


$10.4s>., 19
3,4.453, 7U2


.3101. I 0
.3,31)
421. 7'93
I ,2-I,5i
214.793
I 111,. 6
113. 21


Total .............. 14. 1 9', 6l I 100, 191,241


Additional taxes for the loan fund of 1914 were:

Items. 191 1918 Itms. I 17 119"

Direct taxes: Indirect taxes:
Real slate ............. $1, 26,0.10 SI',330, 15i Revrenue dues on rorcien
Dom estic .............. J I, 199 975;,3.; stock .................. .3 1.."94 2.11, tifl
Income.................. 7.1171. 123 9,07.C ,2.i Registralion duc,.... .2 1.
Capital ................. .5ll 237 4IS '4 I M mortgage due ... ....... I ........
Excises:
Sugar ................... 2,.52l,01is J,14., s76 Total .................. '1 ,7J,.t,1 I1, 1;S 4J21
W ine.................... i.1,749 121',794
Spirit. (inland and for-
eign ............... 1,191,012 7j9,792

The war-profits tax for 191S amounted to $66,045,306 and the taxes
for defense to $21,641,211, making a total of $87,6S6,517.









4 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

Foreign Trade of the Netherlands.
As the method of keeping the customs statistics of the Netherlands
underwent. a radical change on January 1, 1917, it has been very dif-
ficult to draw any reliable comparisons between the foreign trade
for 1917 and 191S and that of previous years. It has also been im-
possible to obtain official statisticss of the total foreign trade.
The war naturally greatly reduced the volume of the Dutch trade,
as the greater part of it was transit trade, based principally on the
Gernan hinterland (the industrial districts of Rhineland and West-
phalia), and trade in colonial products. In 1918 the blockade meas-
ures against the Netherlands cut off all traffic with the Dutch colonies,
and the iImpIrts of commodities urgently needed by the country,
such as wheat, barley, and vegetable and animal oils and fats, were
made only with the greatest difficulty.
In normal timeni Holland exports large quanttites of dairy produce,
vegetables, meat. and eggs. However, as the war caused a great
shortage of cattle food in tlhe country itself, large quantities having
been exported in 1:91, 191(6, and 1917, the live stock was insufficiently
fed, and the production of butter, cheese, meat, and eggs decreased to
such a degree that the people suffered considerably, particularly the
poorer classes.
Total Imports and Exports.
The conmmodities imported in 1917 amounted to approximately
5,048,275 tons but in 1918 dropped to 2,579,196 tons; the exports in
1917 amounted to 73 ,535 tons and in 191S to only 298,536 tons. The
value of the imports in 1917, which had greatly diminished as com-
pared with former years, amounted to 795,5U0,000 florins ($319,-
791,000) and in 1918 dropped to 158.100,000 florins ($184,156,000) ;
whereas the value of the exports in 1917 amounted to 512,000,000
florins ($'205,821,000) and in 1918 to 156,300,000 florins ($62,832.600).
Imports from England in 1917 amounted to 156,175,312 florins
($;6,782,475), but in 1918 they decreased to 35,192,262 florins ($14,-
147,28!) ; exports to England in 1917 amounted to 162,383,543 florins
($65,278,184) and in 1918 to only 41,482,593 florins ($17,SS2,002).
Trade with Germany, it seem-, was better maintained in 1918. In
1917 the exports to that country amounted to 205,211,512 florins
*($82,435,02) and in 1918 to 102,983,309 florins ($41.390,290). The
imports from Germany in 1917 amounted to 174.030.452 florins
($69,960,241) and in 1918 to 234.790,124 florins ($9+,38,,042). It
is contended that these higher figurce.- are not. due to larger quantities
imported, but to the p-xce.-ive prices paid for the goods.
The principal commodities imported into the Netherlands in 1918
were 1,2:;9,144 tons of coal, valued at 75,487,322 florins ($30.,345.903),
of which 69.I5.l140 florins ($27,7l1,372) worth was from (ierniany;
iron, steel, and hardware, 88.20(i,~ 00 florins (p$35,456.! 0i)0), of which
69,600,000 florins ($'27,79,200)) worth was fronim Germany and
15,100,000 florins ($I;,070,20'0) from Sweden: machines, agricultural
implement.,, and steamll engine-., 47.573,203 florins ($1'0.124,427), of
which 27,484.744 florins ($11,048,867) worth was from Germany,
11,460,333 florins ($4,607,055) from Sweden, 3.820,82S florins ($1,-
535,973) from Switzerland, 2,0-56.011 florins ($826,516) from Den-
mark, and 1,570,316 florins ($631,267) from Great Britain; trass and
cement, 13,470,545 florins ($5,415,159), of which 13,265,088 florins









SNETHERLANDS. 5

($5,332,565) was from Germany; lumber, 74,891,492 florins ($30,-
106,379), of which 54,957,490 florins ($22,092,911) was credited to
Sweden and 12,634,433 florins ($5,079,042) to Germany; paper, 14,-
905,651 florins ($5,992,071), of which 6,857.902 florins ($2,756,912)
worth was from Germany, 4,369,819 florins ($1,750,067) from Nor-
way, and 2,185,607 florins ($878.014) from Sweden: crude salt, 8,065,-
705 florins ($3,242,413), of which 8.064,205 florins ($3,241,810) worth
was from Germany; groundnut oil, 784,212 florins ($315.253), of
which 783,372 florins ($314,015) worth was from England; sesame
oil, 4,055,225 florins ($1,630,200). entirely from (ireat Britain; rape-
seed oil, 3,323,483 florins ($1,336.040), of which 3.318,108 florins
($1,333,879) worth was from Great Britain: coconut oil, 1,084,4953
florins ($435,967), of which 807,289 florins ($324.530) worth was
from Great Britain; soya-bean oil, 2.13.9.152 florins ($s85,537), en-
tirely from Great Britain; and other vegetable oils, 5,225,.978 florins
($2,100,843), of which 5,221,309 fiorins, ($2,099,000) was from Great
Britain.
Leading Exports.
In 1918 the Netherlands exported margarine to the valme of 14,-
246,731 florin. ($5,727.185), of which 14,217,470 forin'- ($5.715,426)
worth went to Great Britain; and butter to the value of 7.241,231
florins ($2,010,976). of which 4,832,085 florins ($1.042.497) worth
went, to Germany and 1,700,034 Hforins (,$709.04,1 to (Great Britain.
Exports of cheese were valued at 19,940.245 florins ( 5, 372,512 florins ($3,70;7,750) \worthl being tnke I) by (ermany and
6.953,327 florins ($2,705.237 ) worth by Great Britain. The export
of eggs was 2,017,733 florins ($811,128) lin-eed, 4.604.972 florins
($1,869.288), of which 3.210,750 florinu, ($1,20!0.721 ) worth went to
England; potatoes, 1,753.417 lorins ($704.,73) ; flax, 4.894,326 florins
($1,967,519), of which 2,,171,04! florins ($872.761) worth went to
Great Britain and Ireland: chlici al products., 2.52.778 florins ($1,-
066,416); earthenware and porcelain, 1,462.250 florins ($87,824);
window glass, 1,734,457 florin, ($697,251); paper. 13.753.S84 florins
($5.529.061), of which 7,490.234 florins ($3,011.074 1 worth went to
Great Britain; sugar, 4,826,520 florins ($1,040,26l1), of which 3.,4'0.-
680 florins ($1,367,877) worth went to (Great Britain: Dutch East
Indian tobacco, 14,000,212 florins ($5,028,085): American tobacco,
5,905,199 florins ($2.373.890) : and cigars. 24,44,000 florins
($9,866,688).
The above figures have been compiled from the monthly statistics
of the principal articles of conimmece, which. however. do not men-
tion several important c mniodities. 'Coimplete stati-tics have not,
been published since 1915.
Declared Exports to United States.
The value of the de.'l-ired export, to tlie Inited States from tlie
variouIs com.:inlar di-tricts of tie Netherland-. for 1'1ls andl the three
preceding ye:~rs is given iin the following table:
D is ri ts I! 12: I'.'l. i 1 17 191,
Rotterdam .................... ... ................. 9. -.5, .. 0 '10 SI I ,:-1,n.'.i. l,:391,281
Am ster.im ........... .... ....... ............ 10, 47.,9 5 37,07..,< 2.,..;, ,12i r ,6 l9,6
The Hague ......................................... 2,45,421 2 2,63r.. 14r, 914,943 92,324
Flus ing ................................................. 58, ,21 2, 373 3,500 .... ..
Total............................................... 27,896,100 47,163,960 24,870,592 S, 165,224


".


*i -






7~1


6 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


The exports from the Netherlands to the Philippine Islands
amounted to $75,658 in 1917 and to $26,428 in 1918; to Hawaii,
$9,727 in 1917 and nothing in 1918; and to Porto Rico, $5,620 in 1917
and nothing in 1918. There were no exports from Luxemburg to
the TUnited States or its possessions in 1917 and 1918.
The following table shows the value of the principal articles in-
voiced for shipment to the United States from all consulates during
the past. two years:


Article I


Ant iquit is. ..............
Art, works of...............
B3alanr c ..... .. ...
Bead trimming ............
B iscuits a nt .r r .........
B ooks ......... ..........
B uttons......... ... ......
Chenmiral!, drlr-r, j.nn' 'Iyc ..
Coc'oa ainl cr.c( iu lrhi'li r ..... .
Con fi-I i :'n r ,. .........
('at t ..,La good rl ,ll, l I..: .......
Co oln go rL i.( c an r I 1. ri.i. .
Decoloriz in j carln .........
Diamonds, ploh.hcd .........
Ilia ndsr, roui.h ............
Earthen ani china ware ......
Electric elamin and uppliie...
Fcrtili er r ...... ... ...... .
Fiber_ a ni textit l ra r cs.....
Furs annd fur skini.. .......
Glass andl gla.sw'are .........
Glue and' glue siz ..........
Gold and silver ware........
Herring, pickled ..........
Hides and s.kins.............


1917



32, 456
293
4 ty 5. 3
... /17

1.5,766
11, 764
7.6. 111
1 i). 63W5

1S'l.010

16,304,. 145
V',30S
56, 250
10, i6
60.990
103, 011
5, 41J
30, 126
197, 2.1
2..5 2
1.7, 119
1.31S, b01


191S Articles.


....- Household efeets .............
$2a S 67 Ma chir h .............. .........
1, ;'V2i al. tin p anJ ri ats...........
.... .. M rt man nr 'a ?tu s .........
....... Mil; ant d air' prodiucts.....
27,719 Moss, .ern anl peat............
3,1 i ( l i .. .. ............. ...
39, 4 (90 Painit anl I elilort ............
.. .. aper an. pirinte'J matter.. .
..... rr .l elr : and' ra .i.s.......
x,. 2 Plant-. an I lulbi ...........
23, 6b7 S i e Is, sugar-beect, etc......
4, 1.37. 157 Spice i .... ................
4, 16t Spt'ri ........................
7,790 Sir:i'w cnver .................
-1 70 Toi..c'o .....................
\...t i rI'. .... ... ... ... .
....... Wood an rattan manufac-
7', 477 ture ..... ..... ....... .
1. 06; Yarn, Turki;h re.l..........
4'., 293 All ti ner articles .............
2.211

... .. I


59,200
5,2
35, b57
72,977
C.,97.1
22, s06
117.3S4
53, 7.'5
15.q, 755
1,975,593
152, 4J2
59, 1M66
130, 382
22,132
2,051,6397
8.984

19 682
I q, 6S2
3.. 965
93.4137


1918


32,215


3,217


19,785
38,911
120

1,230,295
427,508
2,917




4,686

16,371


Shipments to United States from Rotterdam District.

The following table gives the quantity and value of the principal
articles declared at the consulate general at Rotterdam for the
United States in 1917 and 191.S:


Article .


A\r tF, work c-,' ..... .. ............ ..... ........
Ch' em icalc, dricn -iin l 'lye ....................... ....
M ilk, condil ns d ... ....... .................. .p und .
E irthen j.nu ehin a....i' .... .
Electric l-im l,,, i : n idi'-' lnt iirnlutine t.ultl. ..nlim i r .
rt iliz r.... .. .. .. ... ............... .ton,
F It)(er adnd t t, I I I? 'r..-1. ......................... pO uid-.

I ll a1n id -i w r '.r ................. .................... .
;old ind silvt r .A ire.......................................
HIle. :

I i.. .................................. pound ..
S t It ... ............................... .. ...
r'jtlc. .ll ri.. ........ ..................... d: ..
]ron, m chinn i v-, ere r .... .................. .... ........
M watch s.. ... .............................. .. c.; .
M .it ine arl d in II: t ... ................ ...... l.ll.jin .lrj
M o',- l pI niu i ... ................................ .. .
M o.-, pe. .Ir in ..
-Paints .ndi coldr' .............................. .oundi .
Piper 3nld print l l u tlr......................... do..
Pa p( r 'took .Ian l ir ..... .................... ..... .. do....
Plant- iad u ni l.Ils
Bullb ain- low\?r roots..................... thousands .
N urser;,' -tlck .........................................
Seeds, siugar- eet, etc ............................ pounds..
prices .......................... ..... ...... .... ..... do....
Spirit ............................................gallons..


1917 1918


Quantity. Value. Quantity. Vae. alue.

2.6.12 ..3,7 0
........... 3,770
. .. ...... 112. 148 ........... 3.439
35. S5s3 72.774 ..................
.. 1.195 ........... 7,275
79. P.1 1 3, 24. 620 8,470
3 1 1 ,0 ) ........... ...........
4.. 242 10 .01 1 .. ......... ....
....... ... ., 4l0O 310,000 75,977
..... .. 30, 2 0 ..... .. 4,006
........2,5 2 ........... ...........


.-3,, 5 ,
1. 271... 7b
72-',0.4
20, 000
.34
302"
1, 122,205
1i1 ;i.n)
*11 1.11-3

18s, 00r

1, 124, 70
66, S65
60, 7S7


37. 303
.151.S37
19 1,27
4.2' 16
9.200
S52
3, .lt
3.308
72.4h17
21. 62
1., 647

1, 69., 166
1S,3 50

12,476
S, 007


. .........
. .. ......









81,063
. .. ......
. .........





....O...O..
. .. .. ... .
. .. .. ... .





81,063
...........
...........
...........
...........


...........

2,000

2,237


3,756


1,072,680
48,458
138,617
...........
...........


24, 870, 592 S. lf5. 224


__




-I-


NETHERLANDS. 7

1917 1918.
Articles.
Quantity. Value. Quantity. Value

Straw covers ................ ...... .... ...... .. ........ 2.132 ... ...........
Tobacco leaf .................................. pounds.. 79,926 'i 03 .I...... ..I ...........
Vegetables ......................... .... 0 j ......
W ood and rattan manufactures ............................ ........... 12. 61'3 i ..........I. 6s-1
Yarn, Turkish red ............... ............ pounds.. 46206 35.3 ........ ......
All other articles ........................ ......................... 3,6 ..... ..
T otal...................... ........................ .. .. ........ 64.036 .. ... ...... 1,391.2 l

Dutch Shipbuilding Industry.
In the seventeenth century the Netherlands and England were tile
leading shipbuilding nations of the world. England has retained
her supremacy to the present day, but the Netherlands ha;s gradually
dropped into a mu:h less prominent position. A change for tle
better was, however, noticed toward the end of the nineteenth century.
The growth of the Dutch mercantile marine and the desire of the
Dutch shipowners to support home industry caused a revival of the
shipbuilding industry in the Netherlands. The conditions were not
unfavorable for such a revival. The many and excellent waterways
offered convenient sites for shipyards and slips. and the low prices of
iron and steel then prevailing encouraged profitable exploitation.
The greatest development, however, has taken place within the last
decade, the production of the Dutch shipbuilding yarls amounting
to 99,000 registered tons in 1912, 104,3(10 in 1913. lls.120 in 1914.
113,000 in 1915, 180.200 in 1910, 148.800 in 1917. and 74,000 in 191S.
If the supply of shipbuilding materials could have continued, the
advance since 1915 would have been still greater. But from 1911)
Germany, Holland's principal supplier of shipbuilding steel, began
to diminish its exports to such extent that in 1917 the imports into
Holland did not exceed l20 per cent of the normal figures.
While the number of ships being built abroad for Dutch owners
has gradually decreased, the number of ships ordered in Holland for
foreign owners has greatly increased-from 5,400 gross registered
tons in 1913 to 18,000 in 1914, 49,360 in 1915, S4,525 in 1910, 63.750
in 1917, and 62,630 in 1918.
Extension and Improvement of Yards.
The enormous increase of shipbuilding in the Netherlands during
1915 has not, as might be expected, been made lposible by the estab-
lishment of new yards, but has been due chiefly to the extension and
improvement of existing yards. The only new yard established
during the war is that of the New Waterway Shipbuilding Co., at
Schiedam, which is controlled by British capital.
The largest steamer built in the Netherlands was a vessel of 11,80u
gross regiLter tons, built in the yards of the Netherlands Shipbuild-
ing Co., at Amsterdam. This company i- one of tIhose which have
considerably increased their capacity during the past few years. It
has laid down a new yard on one side of the River Y, at Amsterdam,
with sufficient space for-seven large slips (accommodating ships of
870 feet in length), enabling ships of tihe size of the .lqutania to be
laid down. When this yard is fully completed the company will
possess a total of 12 slips.









SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


The Rotterdam Dry Dock Co., at Rotterdam, has until recently
occupied the second place among the Dutch shipbuilders. This com-
pany builds principally cargo steamers of a standard type. It also
man factures marine engines.
The New Waterway Shipbuilding Co., at Schiedam, although still
a very young concern, at the present time occupies the second place,
owing largely to the British capital invested therein.
Wilton's Engineering and Shipbuilding Co., at Rotterdam, has
joined initere-ts with the Holland-America Line and will soon es-
tablish an entirely new yard on a site between Schiedam and Vlaar-
dinignen. The cilompany'vs plan is not to make ordinary slips, but to
have graving dock-, which can be entered by means of gates. The
first dock will serve to build ships up to ('.50 feet in length, and the
second to build ships up to 980 feet. A dry dock capable of lifting
ships of 40.(.000 tons is also planned.
Of the remaiinng yards the Royal Shipbuilding( Co. De Schelde,"
at Flushing; tlhe Feyenoord Yards, at Rotterdam, the Dordrecht
Shipyatrds. at Dordrecht: anil Bturgerhout's Engineering & Ship-
building Co., and Van der Kuy & Van Ree's Engineering Co., both
at Rotterdam, have increased their capacity considerably.
Manufacture of Marine Engines-Future of Industry.
With the exception of the Netherlands Shipbuilding Co.. which
orders its engines allnust exclusively from the Werkspoor, at Am-
sterdam, all the companies make their own marine engines.
The immediate future of the Dutch shipbuilding industry is
bright, provided the question of raw materials is satisfactorily
solved. There is no lack of orders; in fact, a number of Dutch
orders have been placed in England, the Dutch yards being fully
engaged for some time to come. This industry is accordingly look-
ing forward with great impatience to the establishment of the
Netherlands Blast Furnace and Iron and Steel Works, for which
a capital of 25.000,00)0 forins ($10,050,000) has already been sub-
scribed. Pending the establishment of the works, this company has
interested itself to the extent of :3,000.00( florin4 ($1.200,000) in the
Netherlands Steel Foundry at Zuilen, near Utrecht, in order to en-
able the latter ti erect mills capable of making certain profiles- which
are in great deimalnd in Holland.
Shipping at Rotterdam.
Rotterdam and Allsterdam are the leading seaports of the Nether-
lands and the only ones in tli country where ocean-going vessels
are regularly entered and cleared. Although Amsterdam is the
capital and largest city, Rotterdam is the largest seaport and the
center of all Dutrh shipping. It is, in fact, the leading seaport on
the Continent at tle present time. [See Supplement No. 9a to Co3x-
MEnCE REPORTS for July 12. 1919.]
The traffic in the harbors of Rotterdam, which already in 1917
had decreased to one-tenth of its (dimension in 1913, further decreased
from 1,630 vessels, with a tonnage of 1,3S4,980 net, in 1917, to 1,341
vessels, with a tonnage of 1,315,492 net, in 1918. The inland ship-
ping also continued its downward tendency, dropping from 143,923
vessels, with 20,473,270 tons, in 1917 to only 123,593 vessels, with
15,283,471 tons, in 1918; the decrease is even larger when compared









NETHERLANDS.


with the figures for 1913, when 164,943 inland vessels, measuring
30,486,307 tons, came to Rotterdam.
The nationality and the tonnage of the seagoing vessels entered at
Rotterdam in 1918 a-e shown below:

Natirin lity. Number. Tills. Nalicinality. N uril r Tonrs

Belgian ...................... .'7 342.' .i i N ii egi n.................. 2111.,511
B razilian ..................... 6i .i .. ,l Po i ..- : ................ I ; '27-
British ....................... 241 I4 ~.T 'l Swt-tri ..................... 211. 'll.
Danish ....................... I a 21 i Unil'tel S'j te.......... .... i1
D ul ch ........................ 103 I' I .
French ....................... 1 T otal .................... Il
Germ an ...................... 9 12 ,..t.

General Review of the Port of Rotterdam.
As a result of the inactivity (if slhilsping in the port of Rot rdl:in,
the finances of tlie city decreased con-iderally. The hlail.ar dues
of sen and inland vet-el., which anlliited to nliore than .$1,1.,,s0.u
in 1913, decreased to $2-sl,400 in 191,S, notwith-tandling a cn1-idler-
able increase in e he tariff, anl other rec-eipts derived from harl or
traffic and hllipping decrea-cd proportionally. In addition t t this,
the municipality experienced miitre than ever the iunfavoirable in-
fluence of the Iighi prices of cial and otiherl necessities, ,f the ex-
penses caused by the distribution law, of .salary increases and war
bonuses, of the demands made by the poorl-huses and hospital., etc.,
in consequence whereof the expenses of the city were consliderably
larger than ever before.
It. is quite natural that the standstill of traffic and the shortage of
coal and raw materials caused a largee increase in unemployment.
The number of unemployed who were registered with thlt (Teneral
Commission for Relief, the City College of Overseers of the Pour,
and the Insurance the In ce frthe Unemployed amounted to 10,1iO0. A
large numiler of employers, however, kept their laborers. ena.gae.l on
more or less unnece-saryl work. in order to keep them froill inreasing
the number of unemployed. Tlie demobilized soldiers who are not
able to find work are receiving g assistance from tlie Governilent.
The municipality is furnishings considerable construction work to
men who might otherwise he unemployed. This work, which in-
cludes thie erection of buildings with money advanced ,v the GIov-
ernment, has become of fmuTchi importance. O(f 1.t' buIildiii*s c)m-
pleted in I i8S, 1.56(; were built from public mean.-, a;:nl of til 1,'2S83
buildings in the course of construction at tlie edl of tlie vea'i, no le's
than 1,143 also belonged in this class. The Ibuilin iranle is accord-
ingly for the most part dependent upon munici ipal Ia 'r.
Dock Laborers Strike-Population.
On July 19 the Dock Lalorer' Uni on at rIotterdmiin priclnaimed
a strike, not for an increase in wages, Iut fur an, increase in the
amounts paid to registered dock labor.l-ers withol(t employment.
These men, 6.500 in number, were being paid weekly on the per-
centage of their wages when working, by a combination of ship-
owners, together with the Royal National Relief (oinmnission. The
result was that the relief was stopped immediately. This strike se-
riously affected the Commission for Relief in Belgium, which was
obliged to direct its vessels to Amsterdam or Flushing to be dis-









SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


charged. On August 14, however, the commission engaged the serv-
ices of interned Belgian soldiers to discharge the vessels in port, with
the result that on August 17 the laborers resolved to commence work
again. On September 2 the Shipping Federation established an-
other relief fund for "2.000 men, including 600 men of the Holland-
America Line and Rotterdam Lloyd.
The shortage of work in the past year has had a great influence on
the movement of the population. In every month of the year, with the
exception of March. the total number of departures surpassed that of
arrivals. The population decreased by a total of 2,397 inhabitants, of
which 162 are noted for the Hook of Holland. Although this loss
was covered by the increase of births, the difference was far more
unfavorablle than heretofore, amounting to 3,475 in 1018, against
7,)'S in 1917. The total number of births was 11,156, or 22.35 per
1,000, against 24.40 per 1.000 in 1917. 29.36 in 1914, and 34.90 in
1904, showing a very large decrease. On the other hand, the mor-
tality was very highly, especially in the last five months of the year,
as a result of the Spanish influenza, the deaths numbering 7,681,
again-t 5,720 in .1917, or 15.30 per 1,000, against 11.55 in 1917. In
Noveilber and December the deaths even surpassed the births, and,
as a result thereof, the population decreased by 683, while the in-
creasing emig-ration cau.ied another decrease of 985. On January 1,
1910, the total population of the municipality, including the Hook
of Holland, amounted to 501,29!. against 500,223 on January 1, 1918,
showing an increase of only 1 ,n(. The )population of the Hook
of Holland decreased in 1918 by 109.
Favorable Geographical Position of Rotterdam.
If the opportunities for development of a trading port or center
depend upon its geographical position the port of Rotterdam is
privileged above all other ports on the Continent of Europe. Its
connection with the hinterland by means of the Rhine, by far the
largest. river of western Europe, and its access to the sea have so
far met all requirements. The various harbors are continually being
dredged and improved, and large works are continually in the course
of contruction.
The outlet to the sea, the New Waterway, is a wide and open river
which can be entered at any time by vessels of great draft. The
least depth at low tide at the Hook of Holland is 30 feet 8 inches in
the navigable water of 400 feet width. Between the Hook and Rot-
terdam the least depth at the shallowest place is 27 feet S inches, and,
if care is taken in passing this place at.high tide, a vessel drawing
31 feet 4 inches may readily reach the docks of Rotterdam. In 1913,
25 steamers drawing 30 feet and more steamed up the New Water-
way. The difference between high and low tide in the New Water-
way is only 4 feet 8 inches. Plans for the future are to increase the
depth to such an extent as to enable vessels of a maximum draft
of 40 feet 8 inches to enter at Iigh tide, a depth which is now aimed
at for the improvement of a few of the largest ports and their en-
trances. Comparatively large steamers can navigate the river to the
German hinterland free of all obstacles, there being no locks and
the bridges being high. As to cheapness of transportation by water
to the hinterland, it is expected that Rotterdam will retain a great









NETHERLANDS.


advantage as compared with other ports, if the freedom of shipping
on the Rhine is maintained.
Plans for Establishment of Cotton Exchange.
Although the textile indus-try is rather an important one in the
Netherlands, the Dutch spinInelr covere-d their requireniments before
the war principally in Brem en and to a more limited extent, in
Liverpool. However. the spinners in Holland and cl-\.ehre 1bicalme
rather dissatisfied with the practices of the Bremen merchants, and
in the course of tle \ear 1015 the different. chl:tinJr,,r of c,',,nnctrce
in the Dutch lspinning district (Enisclhede, Hengelo, Olden/zaal, Al-
mielo, and Borne) applied to the Rotterdla n Chalbiler of Conmlelce
suggesting that the nece,-ary -teps be taken to found a cotton ex-
change at Rotterdalm, to be opened after the war.
The matter was taken into careful consideration. In the first
place, the support of -spinners in Holland as well as abroad lt.ad to be
secured, but owing to the irregularities experienced through Bremenl.
they looked favorably upon such an exrhainge, the lmlore so as tlhe
shipping from Rotterdam upon its good waterways would guarantee
much cheaper freight rates on the Rivers Rhine and Meiie to Bel-
giulm, the west and '-outh of Germany, Alsace, Switzerland, and even
to Austria and Italy, than those by rail from Brevien. Rotterdam
also owns several regular direct steamnship lines to Denmark, Nor-
way, Sweden, and Russia, and to the Baltic ports of Germany, so
that for these countries as well it may favorably compete with
Bremen. Moreover, the leading Rotterdanm steamship companies in-
tend to start direct lines from GCalveston and New Orleans to Rot-
terdam at rates not above those quoted to Bremen.
Rotterdam Firms Favor Cotton-Exchange Scheme.
Under these circumstances the plan to establish a cotton exchange
at Rotterdam was favorably received by the leading Rotterdam mer-
chants and bankers, and several important firms decided to take up
this new line of business, securing the assistance of thoroughly ex-
perience(l cotton men. The large dock companies agreed to support
the scheme by taking the initiative for the construction of a Llarge.
cotton warehouse, in order to assu.-re a good and at the same time
economical handling of this comi nodity.
Realizing the importance of the support which had already been
given, the president of the Rotterdam C]ha.mber of Coniniiere in-
vited all parties interested to a me etin.<', at which the Roit.rldaml
Cotton Association was eItabllil-hed by excliisi\vely Dutch merchants
Sand spinners. At this meeting a garant.y fund was pledged, in
order to be able to meet the heavy expense-, of the '.x!:. ange during
the first years of its operation, as, of cour,-e, the revenues \wohl not
be sufficient to overr all the expen-es.
The Rotterldamr rules have recently ,been establi-lsh on the Ialisi of
Washington and Liverpool standard., but on the whole these rules
correspond with those of the Bremnen Exiian ge, in considerat, ion of
the fact that. buyers on the Continent, as well as shippers in the
United States, are fully accustomed to them.
Large Warehouses for Storage of Cotton.
Large warehouses for the storage of cotton have been built on the
River Mleuse, where the Holland-America Line intends to discharge








SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


the cargoes of cotton entering the port of Rotterdam. Barges draw-
ing 20 feet of water can enter the harbor along which the warehouses
are built. The quay alongside has a length of 927 feet, and the whole
surface of the plant covers 47.267 square feet. The warehouses are
built of solid concrete and steel throughout, with a length of 460
feet and a depth of 143 feet. comprising five compartments divided
by fireproof walls, with all openings protected by rolling steel doors.
They have a total capacity of 32,500 bales of cotton of normal size.
Every part, even the cotton sampling room on top of the building,
is protected by a system of automatic sprinklers, and hydrants are
placed at. regular intervals. The supply of water is guaranteed by
the electric pumps, a water tower and water tank on the wharf, and
the city mains in front of the building.
Each compartment forms one large room 40 feet high, 26 feet of
the height being planned for piling up the bales, while the space of
14 feet overhead gives room for an intricate system of hanging rails
and switches, along which the bales may be moved by automatic
electric trucks at rate of 200 feet per minute. This system has been
adopted after careful examination of many devices.
The whole plan, the transportation method as well as the cars, is
adapted to the special requirements of the cotton corporation and
adds to a quick dispatch and a cutting down of expenses to the
lowest point.
The cotton warrants, representing 50 bales, issued according to
the rules of the association, are accepted by the Dutch bankers and
will certainly be regarded as first-class securities for banking pur-
poses.
The Hide Market-Tanning Materials.
The year 1918 was very unfavorable for the hide and leather trade.
There were no imports of Java hides. Lots contracted for in 1917
could not be shipped, while the small stock on hand was so high
priced that very little business resulted. There were 10,000 hides,
principally Cape and Sudan, imported from London in January,
191.. At first they attracted considerable attention and good busi-
ness was done, especially in the dry ones. However, as soon as the
implorters raised the prices, most purchasers retired from the market.
About 10,000 salted Saladero Union Rosario" ox hides were im-
ported in July. These were of prime quality. but the prices were
too high to make business possible. Owing to the prohibition
of slaughtering and meat distribution, the stock of inland hides
gradually decreased, and lively business was done at increasing
prices. Only very small quantities were purchased for home use
during the last months of the year. As a result of the embargo
placed on hides, the exporters sustained considerable losses on their
stock of salted calfskins.
There was a large shortage of tanning extracts in the Netherlands
in 191S. The imports were restricted to about 230 tons of Hungarian
" Fichten," '250 tons of Maletto, and 70 tons of chrome salts, which
quanttities, as well as new oak bark, were distributed by the Govern-
ment. The formerly neglected Muskegon hemlock wood extract, of
which there were some lots on hand, found ready purchasers and
was soon sold out at rapidly increasing prices. Many tanneries








NETHERLANDS.


were obliged to close for lack of materials, as they depend entirely
upon imports from overseas.
Trade in Rubber and Tin.
There were no exports or imports of rubber in 1918, and only a
very small quantity of the stock on hand was officially delivered to
the manufacturers. Little business was done between the Dutch
East Indies and the United States during the first half of 1918; when
at last business picked up and prices incre-efd, the politi;il dis-
turbances in Europe and certain import restriction-, in the United
States brought a sudden end to the trade. Very little business was
done in Holland itself, it being restricted to the Dutch Eait Indies
and the United State-.
The distribution of crude rubber by the Netherlands Overseas
Trust to manufacturers was effected for two period.-, naie.ly, from
March to August, 1918, and from September, 1918, to February, 1919.
The base price for both periods was fixed at 6.50 florins per kilo
($1.18 per pound) for prime hevea, plus interest and warelhol-se
charges from March 1, 1918. A cheaper base price could be fixed
for the poorer qualities only after considerable lengthy negotiations.
The total quantity of rubber distributed amounted to 460 tons. No
more could be used by the manufacturers, owing to the lack of cer-
tain necessary ingredients. At present there is enough rubber on
hand to last about six months, with a very restricted production of
the factories.
There are no definite figures of the world's production and con-
sumption available for 1918, but the estimates are 260,000 and 225,000
tons, respectively.
Owing perhaps chiefly to the difficulties which have originated as
a result of the war, the market for Dutch East Indian tin, Banka and
Billion, has been transferred from Holland to the United States,
sales being made directly through Dutch representatives. The Rot-
terdam firms have accordingly suspended their regular monthly re-
ports on thi-, market.
Government Control of Flour-Edible Fats and Oils.
As in 1917. all purchas-es of flour for Dutch consumption was in
the lands of the Government in 1918. As the amount of flour pro-
duced in the country is imo-t insignificant and the amount distributed
by the Government was very limited, rye, barley, and potato flour
were u.led in making br:eaid, which. ,by the way, was of very poor
quality. Tle laily ration of bread was very small, amounting to
only 200 gr'anl- p-r peron. In November, however, owing to t1h
growing dia;-;tis.faction of the people, it was increased to 310 2ranms;
this was male possible by England sending some cargoes of wheat.
The trade in edible fats and oils in the local markets has been
practically at a standstill, the only transaction which .m1lil1 be re-
corded bein, the purchase of 500 tierces of South Amejn ien beef.jus
for the Dutch Army. A few raw material arrived from England in
the first months of the year, but with the under-tanding' tl at the same
should be sent back as margarine. It is reported, however, that the
embargo on margarine prevented this action. The Dutch Govern-
ment felt obliged to take this -tep on account of the small imports
and the decreasing inland production of fats. As a matter of fact,








SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


the Government commandeered the whole inland production of fat,
seed, and oil, as well as all raw materials necessary for the manu-
facture of margarine. During the war several factories for the
beating of seeds and for the refining and hardening of oils have been
established in Holland. There were 19,300 tons of refined oil and
180 tons of premier-jus imported in 1918, while approximately 12,000
tons of margarine were exported to England.

THE HAGUE.
By Vice Consul A. C. Nelson, May 7, 1319.
The year 1918 was not a prosperous one for the fishing industry
of the Netherlands. Owing to the shortage of fishing materials,
only a small fleet was able to carry on trawl fishing, and the few
vessels which endeavored' to do any long-line fishing in the free
area stipulated by the Allies and the Germans suffered heavy losses.
There were 7 vessels lost on account of mine explosions, 10 de-
stroyed by German submarines, and 34 reported as missing, making
a total of 166 fishing vessels lost in the years 1914 to 1918. Of this
number 15 were lost through stranding, collision, and rough weather,
and 41 were destroyed by (erman Qsubmlarines. The Dutch fishing
fleet, which numbered about 1,0000 seagoing vessels, steam trawlers,
steam drifters, and sailing drifters in 1915, has in consequence been
reduced to 850.
The result of the trawl fishing in which only the sailing vessels,
otherwise used for drift-net fishing, took part was not remunerative,
chiefly because the Government requisitioned all the small fish caught
and paid an extremely low price for them. It is true that a high
price was obtained for the larger fish, but this did not balance the
loss on the bulk of the catch. However, the drift-net owners kept
on with this sort of fishing, because they considered trawling a source
of producing daring and efficient fishing crews and because they
desired to give the crews a chance to supply their families with the
necessaries of life during the winter.
Drift-Net Fishing.
Drift-net fishing was carried on by a few vessels from the first part
of June to September, but with very poor results. Only one or two
vessels returned with a good haul of herring, and most of them came
back to port with heavy loss of gear; one drifter was destroyed by a
German submarine on being found fishing in the prohibited area off
the Norwegian coast.
Some vessels were made ready in the early part of October for
drift-net fishing in the free area up to 7 miles off the Dutch coast,
but as it was found to be a very risky venture most of the sailing
drifters continued trawling. As soon as the armistice was signed,
however, a great number of vessels, nearly all sailing craft belonging
to Scheveningen, Katwijk, and Ymuiden, with the exception of one
or two from Vlaardingen, were converted from trawlers into drift-
net. vessels, the change, which in normal times takes from two to three
weeks, being accoimplisled in three or four days.
The weather was very favorable for fishing all through the month
of November, and the result was excellent. Fourteen motor boats









NETHERLANDS-THE HAGUE.


and steam drifters landed 6,153 sea-packed barrels of herring (17
sea-packed barrels are equivalent to 14 export-packed barrels) and
234 sailing vessels landed 106,522 sea-packed barrels, making a total
of 112,675 sea-packed barrels for 1918, against 1,279 for 1917, 74i;,)75
for 1916, and 660,120 for 1915.
Shipment of Fish Prohibited-Prices.
Owing to export to Germany, shipment to Norway and Sweden
was prohibited by the Dutch Governmnent. All exportation of fiih,
fresh, smoked, and cured, with the exception of salmon, has been
prohibited since Feb:ruary, 191S. 1
Prices were not so high as could have been expected; however, the
Dutch population, being in need of nourishing articles such as fat
and meat, willingly paid 6 cent, each for herring, and much of the
catch was sold, either cured or smoked. Prices for gutted herring
were from $22 to $26) a barrel. For ungltted herring, bought for
smoking, $24 to $2S a barrel was l)aid.
Since the Allies have allowed exportation to the occupied parts
of Germany, and Belgium is open for importation, prices have risen
somewhat; this, however, benefited those who bought the bulk of the
catch from the owners. These profits will not be considerable,
though, as the Dutch Government has stipulated that 10 per cent
of the stock on hand on January 1, 1919, must be held at the dispo!:ll
of the Dutch popIulation.
The loss of nets has been very heavy for the small fleet of 248 ves-
sels taking part in the herring fisheries.
Few Vessels Built-High Prices Paid for Supplies.
The fleet of herring drifters from the different. ports of HollaT:d
numbered in May of last year 739 vessels, consequently only one-third
of the vessels were employed in fishing during 1918, the remainder
being laid up in the harbors.
Very few new vessels were built during theyear onaccount of the
high price a,-ked by the (ermans for all materials. The price paid
for salt to the Germans in 1914, before England had declared Lis-
bon, Setubal. and Mediterranean salt as contraband, was 12 florins
($1.0s) a ton, whereas Germany in 191S charged 106 florins ($12.60)
a ton. Having lost money by the trawling, the Dutch owners were
forced to start the drift-net fishing as soon as they saw a po,-,ibility
of doing so, in order to make good their losses, and they crose-
quently had to pay the exorbitant price.-, askedl by tile icG(erml:!ns for
the salt.
Prices paid for other material procured from Gerlmany were as
follows: Canvas (cotton duck). $2 a yard; drift nets (11; fathoms
long by 8 fathomn-, deep), from $44 to $52, compared with $10 '.o $12
before the war; cotton yarn. $4 a kilo (2.2 pounds), against a pre-
war price of $0.72: manila twine, from $1.70 to $2.10 a kilo, .';:iuist
$0.29; wire rope, $1.40 a meter (39.37 inches), against. $0.12; :;nd
barrels, $2 apiece, against $0.S0.
As nearly all the steam trawlers and steam drifters were lying
idle on account of the shortage of coal, no report on this sort of fish-
ing can be rendered.
The prospects for the Dutch fishing industry in 1919 are anything
but promising. The bulk of the fleet is not yet making any prep-




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
liil l 111111 H uH11111111 ll 1111IrrlrI Ji1
3 1262 08485 2002

16 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

aration to leave harbor, while in pre-war ties at this period'of .iilm :
year the whole fleet. was out. '
Shipbuilding Industry Prospers.
Shipbuilding is one of the few Dutch industries which has been,
in spite of everything, in a flourishing condition during the war.
The following figures taken from Het Nederlandsche Zeewesen. ..
give the number of gross registered tons ordered or upon the stocks :g'
in Dutch or foreign shipyards for account of Dutch citizens, on De- '.
ceniber 31, 1918:

In In foreign In In foreign
Yers. Hollnd. yr- ears. Holland. r

1911........................... 128,400 127,000 191.......................... 406,045 85,700
1912 .......................... 13,050 155,100 1916... ...................... 442,111 74,100
11.3........................... 172,000 113,600 1917........... ........... 429,560 853,00
1011........................... 15,170 74,500 1918................... .. 477, 50 ...........

In the above figures are included only sea-going ships; war and
river vessels are not included. With the exception of 1917, which
shows s a lower figure than the preceding year, a considerable and
constant increase in the production of the Dutch shipyards is
noticeable.
The warships built during the war included 4 torpedo boats. 1
depot ship, 0.) submarines, 3 cruisers, 1 surveying vessel, and 3 steami
tug-. The Dutch engine works have furnished nearly all the iua-
cliinery for these new ships.
On December 31. 1901, Holland had only 33,700 registered tons
upon the stocks or ordered, whereas the tonnage for December 31,
1'18, as stated above, had increased to 447,850. This indicates that
in the intervening period the capacity of Dutch shipyards has be-
comlle about fifteen times greater. Holland is consequently in an ex-
(ellent position to take its part in the reconstruction of the commer-
cial fleet of the world.
Declared Exports to the United States.
The (uantity and value of the principal articles declared at the
American (consulate at The Hague for shipment to the United States
during 117 and 191s are given in the following table:

1917 1918 7
Articles.
Quantity. Value. Quantity. Value.
Bo k ....... ... ........ ................. .............. ....... ... 12,591 .......... $24,083
Gilu .. ................. ............................pounds.. 856,512 197,251 1.34,47.S 45.293
Ox. lic acid ................... ........................do.... 476,873 217,578 49,377 19,735
W ,rihrs ichem ical ................. ...... .... .. ... ............. .. .... ..... .. .... 2,214
A lliot 'er art icls ......" ...................... .. ..... 49,107 ...................
S. .. ......... .................... .......... 922,527 .......... 92,325

1 ....-- !----
! t" I^


WASHINGTON : GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1919