Supplement to Commerce reports

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Title:
Supplement to Commerce reports daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce
Uniform Title:
Commerce reports
Volume title page for -<1920>:
Supplements to Commerce reports : review of industrial and trade conditions in foreign countries in ... by American consular officers
Portion of title:
Daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce
Physical Description:
6 v. : ; 24-26 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce
Publisher:
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Dept. of Commerce
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Commerce -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Foreign economic relations -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also available in electronic format.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with issue for Jan. 8, 1915?; ceased with issue for Dec. 31, 1920?
Numbering Peculiarities:
Each issue covers an individual country and bears a number corresponding to that country. Reports from the various consular districts in a country are distiguished by the addition of a letter (66a, 66b, 66c, etc.), in the order in which they are issued.
Numbering Peculiarities:
Issue no.52f, 1919, contains misprint, November 41.
General Note:
Title from caption.
General Note:
"Annual series."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 004822593
oclc - 16390134
sobekcm - AA00005307_00011
Classification:
lcc - HC1 .R1981
System ID:
AA00005307:00011

Related Items

Preceded by:
Daily consular and trade reports (Washington, D.C. : 1910)
Succeeded by:
Trade and economic review for ..

Full Text




SUPPLEMENT TO 22 A

COMMERCE REPO S
DAILY CONSULAR AND TRADE REPORTS
ISSUED BY THE 'UREMU OF FOREIGN AND DD.M!F.'TIC COMMERCE
DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE, WASHINGTON, D. C. T

Annual Series ITo. 9a July 12, 1919

NETHERLANDS.
AMSTERDAM.
By Consul Frank IV. Mahin, May 0, 1919.
The year 1918, until in the autumn it. became apparent that the
end of the war was near, was a period of general d.pre--io ,n ill bu-i-
ess, industrial, and social circles in the Amsterdam district. i uliness
failures were increasing, exorl.itant profits made po--ible by the war
had ceased, stocks of goods were running low, fiuod and fuel were
scarcer than ever before, prices were high beyond all remembered
precedent, and the future was regarded with fear ,b all clas-es of
people. The signing of the armistice dispelled the p.loom in a large
degree, but the uncertainty caused by the ldiordtln in lu-;iSia and
Germany, which threatened to extend into HollaInd, continued to
some extent the general depression and the foreboding for the future.
Altogether, 1918 was a very difficult year. Imports and, exports
were so small as to be negligible in compari-on with preceding years.
manufacturing in the majority of cases was suspended for lack of
raw materials and of fuel, and all commercial busine-~s declined in
volume and usually in profits also
New Industries Established.
However, in spite of the adverse and discouraging conditions, some
new industrial enterprises were begun in this district. The mo.-,t
important was the rolling-mill project, for which large tracts of land
have been purchased in the innmediate vicinity of Ymuitlen, at the
entrance of the North Sea Canal, 16 miles from Amsterdam, where
the works will be erected without unnecessary delay.
Boring for salt was begun in the Province of Overvy.,,el. This
enterpri-e became a necessity on account of the scarcity of salt caused
by the war.
Most numerous, however, along the line of new industries, were
the additions to established indus-tries, such as chemicals, food prod-
ucts, metals, and clothing. These were all direct result; of tihe
scarcity caused by the war; but though the cause was of a temporary
nature the additions, particularly in the chemical industry, are ex-
pected to be permanent. Probably clothing w ill ie the sanm. Very
little ready-made clothing was made in Holland befo-re the war, biut
necessity had built up an industry therein bIv the end of 19l18 which
is very likely to continue after normal conditions are restored.
Gold Reserve of Bank of Netherlands.
Intheearlv yearsof the war, gold flowed in a great stream into the
Bank of the Netherlands, in Amsterdam, chiefly from Germany and
124112--19-9a-1







SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


Austria. The gold reserve in the bank's vaults, in dollar equivalents
was $65.124-.000 when the war began. At the end of 1915, 1916, and
1917 it. was $172,0i00,i000, $-203.000,000, and $-280,00:),000, respectively.
But the infow v.eesed in 191S, the supplies being exhausted, and the
gold reserve in the-- Netherlands Bank at the end of the year was
$276,0(00, 0U0, slightly less than at the end of 1917. However, it
should be noted that at one time in 1918 the reserve reached the
unprecedented amount of $285,300,000. Exportation of gold was
prohiliited, excepting shipments to some neutral countries as pay-
ment, for purchase's allowed by the Dutch Government. This ac-
counted for the fluctuation in the reserve. The circulation of paper
money amounted to 1,109,000,000 florins ($445.818,000), and 60 per
cent thereof wua. covered by gold, though the law required only 20
per cent.
Altogether, the year 1918 showed even more than former years the
stress that commercial and economic restrictions put on Dutch trade.
Amsterdam, being a center of colonial and transoceanic commerce,
suffered severely in consequence. One can say that, generally speak.
ing, all trades were at a standstill; and if no financial difficulties
arose froitm this situation, it is accounted for by the very strong
financial position of Holland throLugh, th!' .c.n-ervative ways of its
traders.
Trade Affects Quotations on Industrial Shares.
Finance in general and exchange especially follow trade in its ups
and downs, so that the quotations on Dutch industrial shares are
very good indications of the trend of public opinion. Pursuing this
idea, one can not thaut quotationsi' of colonial produce (such as sugar,
tobacco, riilieo r, and tea) profited alternatively by two tendericies-
one part of the public Ieilngi convinced that higher prices would be
attained after peace through Europe's dearth of such articles, and
the other party predicting a i:breakdcton of mo-.t prices, through gov-
ernmental intervention and otherwise. It is difficult. of course, to
decide which is the right point of view. .An exception should be
m:ide of sugar. In the middle of 191S serious complications arose,
and there waN; little .hl'rt of a panic in s5!'ar circles; but later on
conditions in the trade not only improved l ibt showed a promising
future, and in consequence prices of stock were booing.
Shipping- experienced heavy fluctuations in 1918 through political
and economic mreas-ures, an1d nmot of the fleet was rented to the Allies.
The companies' profit, canl therefore not be compared to those of
former year;., ut one may confidently expect satisfactory dividends,
and prices of stock consequently remain quite high.
Government Loans-Foreign Exchange.
The Dutch Government again appealed to the market for money,
offering to the public a 41A per cent loan of 500,000,000 florins
($201,000,000) at par, in tlie same way as in former years; that is to
say, everyone was supposed to subscribe a. certain percentage of his
asets. The loan was successful. The prices of the stock afterwards
went down very much; so much, indeed, that at the end of the year
the Government applied for 350,000,000 florins ($140,700,000), 5 per
cent, at .0, which lon-lii'as to I.e offered'to the public i'i the begin-
ning of 1919. Dealings in Amerienai shares and bonds were'of little


2 ,







NETHERLANDS-AMSTERDAM.


importance in 1918. One of the principal reasons was that arlbitrage
was impossible.
Money was plentiful; the igihest rate was 6 per cent and the
lowest 2t per cent. Quotations of foreign money still showed great
differences from normal times. Dollars, ranged from 1.891 to 2.41;
pounds from 9.02' to 11.37; francs from 33.30 to 44.20. As to the
exchange on the central countries, it again gave rise to great specula-
tions. Marks ranged between 26.10 and 47.55 and crowns from 14.30
to 32.65.
One of the interesting featurres of 1918 was the trading in foreign
bank notes, mostly by Poles aind Galicians residing in Holland. It is
believed that large amounts were dealtf in. Usually the price. ranked
higher than that of check or cable payment, for the same money. For
instance. dollar notes reachlld about 3 florins (par 2.48S) and ster-
ling bank notes alout 16.50 (par 12.10|). In the last months of the
year, however, there was less activity in this special sort of trade.
Financial issues in 1918 were less important in general than in
1917. Only about 50,0010,000 florins ($20,100,000) worth was floated
by private companies, mostly shipping, in order to strengthen the
companies' position and to be able to compete with foreign enter-
prises.
Shipping at the Principal Ports.
The year 1918 marked the nadir of .-]iipping at Amsterdam as
regards arrivals and departures of vessels. The arrivals numbered
375 and the departures were essentially the same. Conditions in the
year 1917 were practically unprecedented, but the arrivals were then
758, twice those of 1018. Previous arrivals numbered 1,622 in 1916,
1,820 in 1915, 2,403 in 1914, and 2,472 in 1913, a normal year.
The low figure in 1918 was due to the intensified German subma-
rine warfare, export and import re-,tritions, the diversion of Dutch
shipping to the trade between San Francisco and the Dutch East
Indies, and the requisition of Dutch ships.by the Allies. A very
serious obstruction to shipping operations was the order issued by
Germany in the spring of 1918 that no safe conduct would be given
to a ship sailing from Holland to America unless a ship left America
for Holland at the same time. This not only delayed ships but also
prevented departures, with the result that the shipping trade was at
almost a complete standstill from May till Novemlber between
Amsterdam and the Western Hemnisphere, and even with Scandina-
vian ports.
Harlingen, the port opposite tihe entrance of the Ziidler Zee to the
North Sea, stiffered such complete, stagnation in 1918 that the harbor
filled with sand. In normal times frequent, dredging gives the
harbor a sufficient depth of water, but last year the lack of shipping
destroyed tlhe inducement for dredging, and consequently the harbor
was imnpassable by the end of the year. However, it will not be al-
lowed to remain in that condition, as the trade with England, which
is HIarlingen's principal business, will soon be resunmeid.
Delfzijl, in the northeastern part of the country, was the only
Dutch port that enjoyed normal prosperity in 1918. This was dmue
to the (German steamers wlhic:h, as usual, 1broug t many cargoes of
wood from Sweden and transpurted from Dclfzijl many cargoes of.








SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


German coal and coke brought. down the Rhine and through con-
necting canals to tlis port. .
Dutch shipping did a good business in the Far East, and thus the
earnings in 1918 justified the payment of dividends larger, alto-
gether, than those of peace times, though below those of 1915 and
1910, which were years of unprecedented profits.
Steamship Tonnage of Amsterdam Companies.
The principal steamship companies having regular lines of ships
between Ani-terdnam and other ports operated, lost., and added ships
as follows in 101S:
.VXl .fldn/, to Dutch East Indies.-Total number of ships Decem-
ber 31, 1111 3lS, with a gross tonnage of 251,622. Two new freight
steamers were built, having together a gross tonnage of 13,083. No
loss in 191S.
Ro.yal l.,t,/ Il W'rst India Mail Service.-Total number of ships
December 31, 191s, 8, with a gross tonnage of 22,846. One new pas-
senger steamer was built, having a gross tonnage of 4,285. No loss in
191 8.
No,'il/, Pa'r,.I t ,St(rinship Co., the Indian. Arch ipelago.-Total. num-
lbr of ships DeceLmIber 31, 1918, 02, with a gross tonnage of. 161,464.
No -lhips were built or lot in 1018.
Liii, Holla/nd Llo/yd, to South American ports.-Total number
(if ships DI)ex'ieier 31, 101S, 12, with a gross tonnage of 70,150. No
steamers were built in 191S. One steamer with a gross tonnage of
1i,117 struck k a Iine and was lot.
lf.lY, ./ Ithirla nd.1s Stcams.hip Co., to MJdli',.iner,, an and other
pr/'!.s.-Total number of ship- December 31, 1918, 54, with a gross
tonnage of 100.S19. Five new freight steamers were built, having
together a oi1-s tonnage of 14,5-17. Four steamers, with a gross ton-
n (ic of (,33s, were lost in 191S.
I(e ,lanI St7_am.rsh;i, Co(. to Brjitish ports.-Total number of ships
Deceme-i r :'31,, 191S, 12, \with a total gros tonnage of 13,972. Four
stemi-meir were ad-ded during the year 191.q. No loss.
Tramp Steamers-Requisition of Dutch Vessels by Allies.
Si-veral lines operate from Amsterdam to Scandinavian and other
near-by p a)rt, and several between any ports where business is ob-
tainalble, on the tram p s -telm. Altogether, more than 200 steamers,
agiieg'; ting over (100W,0(I gross tons, a're operated by Amsterdam com-

Traffic on the Merweile C'anal, connecting Amsterdam with the
RIliine, was less in 101S than in 191T, and much less than in normal
time,. The decline was due to the practical cessation of trade with
Germ Iany.
The most notable event in Amsterdam shipping circles in 1918
was the requisition of Dutch steamers by the Allies. Although the
Popular and prevalent sentiment was indignation, the shipping com-
panies took a philosophical and business-like view of the transaction
a;nd in general were .ati.lied with the resulting arrangements.
The facilities for loading, discharging, bunkering, and docking
-hips in the Amster dam harbor have been much improved and in-
creased during the past several cars, some improvements being made
in 1918. There is ample wareliou.e accommodation, and all the docks










NETHERPLANDS-A MSTERDA ~ r.


and quavs are directly connected with the railway sy-,t by branch
tracks. There is a special tindber dock with an area of 1-20 a' 'es and
a special petroleum-lship lib:sin with n n area of 230 acres. There ar.-
four floating dry-decl:s witll a lifting capa-ity .,of 3,000, 4,000, 7,000,
and 16,500 tons, respectively.

Shipbuilding Activities Limited.
So far as contracts were conlerlned, the shipyards of this locality
were ex,.cedingly lpro-peroiis in 11.18, but the gir;t difi'iilties and
obstacles encountered made the year unprofitable in otlir re.-pects.
Materials were very s-narce and lexpen-ive; and the condition, im-
posed by Gernany, from wllich oi- ]n;ma-terials had to be obtained
and which iinSisted1 upon certain relations toward the Allied and
other countries, were so onerous as to be fairly prlohibitive of busi-
ness transactions.
The 17 shipy)ards of tltis di-trict. were mostly engaged on repair
work, thou igh several completed or bestan work upon new vessels.
Two steamers with a gro.-m, tonnage of 1,150 each were built at the
shipyard of Ver.-.chure & ('o.. Anlsterdanm. One stealmer with a
gross tonnage of 4.258. was built at the NXeerlandsche Schlep-l.0ouw
Maatschlippy, Ainter'lam. Tii v company is building a new pu-en-
ger steamer for the Stoom, art AItatscliappy "Ncedetrlalnd, Amster-
dam, with a gro-s tonnage of 1:3,300.

Foreign Trade of the Netherlands.
Official statistics of iImIport- and exports at the port of Am n-tr.ai1n
for 1918 are not available. However, the following stal;ititi s for the
whole country show in a grene al way the relative foreign trade of
this district during the past three years in ri-spe.t, to in,'rease and
decrease. It .s-hould be noted tliat these statti-tcs include only the
most important articles. Quantities are given in nmtric tons (-,2')04
pounds.) Values in nmost cases began to be published in 1917, but
for purposes of (onimprislon weights are better, as values have been
constantly changing.


IrP
Articles.
1916 1


Agricultural and othi-r ma- .M(arku inn- ,f /
chinler ............... .. .. 7 r
Ashes ... .......... .... 31,7Vi .. .
Bark ................ ......... 3, ii '
Beer andi mall e t .nts.......... 1,736
BreadstuiffT
W he .. .............. ......... ,31 .,31
R e ............ ...... 20, 017
B arl r .................... 1. 9,.i12
M aN e...................... 6.. 1, 12'
O at5 ....... ............... 7.1, 3r0
Buckwh at....... ........ I 715
Rirc... .......... 137,219
Othilr peeled anrd 1.rokeu
gr in. .. ................ 1, Fl n
Wheat lour .............. 3'), .25
R fV our ................. 8,
Butter ....................... 992
Cheerse........................ ........
Coal......................... 8,413,016 ',
Cocoa
Brans .......... ........ 21, 3)
Shell; and other wa ..... 2 ....
Burter....................
Powder, tuisweete'iIc..... 1


1 01 ts.


- I


42. 17

371
269
3In, 2,9

45,1.115
i', ?:17
2.',313
I'., 1.161

47
2,,2.'2
12
24
;iu, 390
7,; s3


Metric tons.
31,349
............"
1,365
209
45,225
4
2,950
5,705
8
............
7,888

1
11,529
11, 130
19
1,259,144
2,385


........ ... .......3
6 3 49
33


Exp [or [3.


Metric tons.
21.924
7,399
479
21,316
885,884
324
4. 14
"2, 231

113,009
......i i .-"

8, 214'
22
36,432
2, 2' 7, 67,
S 1,011
S 21
3.1177
j, 177


1917 1918

Metric tons. 3Mr, Irn- tIr.
7,909 1 110
............ .....
10,748 885

20,015 7
9 3
500 2
a315 ............
I 6
a202 ..........
8 1


2
21. 592
;.' 080
5.., 037
7
939
2, 2'.2


409
2,456
11,920
113,757


268
430


a Pounds.












SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


Imports.


Artirles.


Cocoa-Continued.
Leaves or blocks, unsweet-
ened..................--
Chocolate in powder or
tablets, sweetened.......
Coffee...........-....-....---
Cof r. .........................
( : ru' n, r r a......... ...........
DrIlg, LrDJ' i ; u1t...............
I'Lri? re"1i r....................
I rug i. pat. ... ........

F i r, .. o 1 ... ......... ........
F airt_, n ..',a, ar,, i e l' n....


F la and hemp...............
F ru it: .........................
Glass and glassware...........
Groundnuts..................
Li111 r, skins, and leather......
Lard.......................
Live stock:
Steers, oxen, cows, lnd
heifers.................
Calves....................
1, ., .....................
anure ......................
Manure......................
Margarine:
Edible (iii,'ludina other
butter If t ltilti- ......
Raw......................
Metals:
Raw.....................
I-;. t I .d+ i ....... .......
Meat. ... ...................
Meat.-t .kn .---..............-
Molasses.....................
Oils:
C' i I li.It 1 ...................
P I. tlor.. I i. n ..... ............
Other.....................
Palm-nut kernels -.............
Paper.........................
F. t.. .....................--..
Potato flour..................
R -1. .........................
S.r t. li...r 1-I i lin ............


S i t . . . .r
; .: i .. ............... ....
S..... . . .

.1 '. .! ...................

l r t,,lt......................
R ; I '-i ir .....................
O ;.ll : .' .S I . .



T l 7. '... i .n 1 1 . .
T rr..ns* Ihn 1................
l I ...........................
,.., tw iv cir ............

\ H III ir. .....................
i\ .; ................. .

in litkS ..................
In 1 I i t ; ................
W.... I.....................

.-';ih Il ,' lttI, r. "l t :.,rp t [ -
_I, .. .... ............ ...
h.1 .... .................
W u ..........................
Y -1 u .........................


1916



Metric tons.
------------

203
.O.794
Sr.. 715

34. 1I50
1i..5, 411
1::5, 16
366, 685

-1, 7t i
4, '':
'.:i, fh9)
91,152
16,884
7,485
69,721


............
..... .....
a 2

47;2,, 66


53
19,984

610,046
261, 24
211,:79
41,:i79
2,75.1

22,636
13, 1M9

31. 079
-10, 1253
............
6,046

S" 176
1 1. 11

1. 1492
13,-lil
5.1 ., 'y*N.'

2.21
2-2, 71s

1, 'i 13
1II 7T:~2.
14.939
1 r,'47
1 16, 41 1




-11,11
3, 391

5 7'1'2



7,it
3'.1, .l,


1917 191S



M eirlt'i t .i .' Fic luns.
. ... .... .. .......... .

1.. ...... ... ...
15,.2 .9 3,617
33, 076 11'7
9, :,% '. I
43, 2i40 28,.337
6, i'5 9596
23,391 10, 219
......... ........... "
0 19,920b
:.3,35 21
7,692
26,004 13, 700
9, 772 79
2, 427 29W0
1,447 11


a2
al
a6

5L, 94S


357
2, 11

155,881

4
18&

9,531

7.' _<14
17,911
25,923
19


a04
a19

S............



47


13 ,4!8
27,2386
7

............


3i. 9235

172
21'


......... .1


111,1i ) 132,210

'..1 5
241,2,0 1 ", 0ilV

I'l ............
2 -2 4

l 1,125s
9,2 j ,1.,
21 2 3M1l


2 ,lil2 2, 4'. 3
... ........ .......... ..







4iy, 774 619, 6l?
23








'. 444 12H'
17, .50ti 349


o NunLt.irr.


Exports.


Mtlrc tons.
389

4,833

. .. .. ..-
344
124, 43S
48, '64
4, 261

923,, 55
lt:, 00S
102,
102, 620
106, 110
115
13, 7.3.
59,516


03.3, '22
u764






7711






4-i;



165, 703




lit7, r1.3
17_.72'
4.437
::. 2, '.
I.,

37.',,4
21 I
32..1l

4,3'.2
.2.32 1
36. :'3'

144, 9.3




2, .",'


1,7'."
12, 3'95
120, 401
1
I,11l95


1917 1918



Mrlrii tois. Metric iona.
10 ...........

1,275 91
1,237 .. ........
............ ............
............. ......... .& .
8,1 S8 1,512
6,' 64 581
4,16 '3,156
22,3 J'3 1,204
44,411 5,723
11,528 2,439
6"?,0I3 1,784
11,199 5,095

156, 5
1,56 5


ol, 6i0
3o
U1


a2,450
a2
a2


4 I............


11'5, S10


4,511
6, J7.3
20,650
4

............ .

2,779

73,267,


61, -,.
.. .. .... )
1.,
6. i7.
19, ,',




............
32

16.2"1

11,442
b 1. LWi
6
2,446j
.34, 1l; 3
106
liO
11,1
416

255
1,51Q6

139I

263


17,508


310
1,010
2S2
58

.......... .
10
94

61. 150
12,896
13
46
............
1
4,532
5

160

13,018

lu,127
3
3
5,810
............
6,762
88
22
4

1,
133


1......
219


.......... ..... .......
49


b Pound.s.


Decline in Both Import and Export Trade.

In bt,th exports and import, the foregoing figures show a great.
dlecrea-e, on the whole, in 1918 as compared with 1917 and 1916, In


I -










INETHERLAN DS-AMSTERDAM.


total quantities, the impor-- inl 1917 were 5,01R.-75 and the exports
738,535 metric tons; in 191S, imports 2,579,196 and exp,)rts ';s,:',:;
metric tons. The total value of the imports in 1917 was 7!1';,10,000
florins ($320,197,J't0), and in 191S, 458,111,000 florins (.184,160,-
622). The total value of Il exports in 1917 was 512,061,000 florins
($205,848,522), an:d in 191S, 156,3,1,000 florins ($r,S_45,062). The
decrease of value and quantity in 1918 was in about the same propor-
tion as regards imports, but the deerea.-e of value was in a greater
ratio than that of quantityy a- regards exports. Apparently, there-
fore, goods of less market value were exported in 1918 than in 1917.
Prices on all kinds of merchandise were higher in 1918 than in 1917.
Therefore, if tile sale classes of goods had been exported in the
same relative quantities in 191.q as in 1917, the decrease in total vallu
would have been music less than it wav.
The imports from Goermnny andi Austria-THiunmary decreased in
weight bt increased in value in 1918 as compared with 1917. This
was due to the importation of similar articles (principally iron and
coal from Germany) during Ibotlh years, with the paynu'nt, of much
higher prices in 1918 than in 1917. Exports to Germany and Aus-
tria decrea-aed about four-fifths in both weight and value in 1918
as compared with 1917.
Imports from France, Great Britain, and the United States com-
bined were in 191.J aloilt ,ne-,ixthl the weight and value of those in
1917, indicating that prices were much the same in both years or
that relatively cheaper qlialities were imported in 1918. The exports
to those three countrie- alto declined in weight and value.in about
the same proportions, both being in 1918 about one-third less than in
1917.
Trade with the United States.
The following table gives the declared value of the exports from
the Amsterdam consular district to the United States during the past
four years:


Artirl les.


'0 UNITED ST'iES.
A n tiquities............................................
Pa lan ces.......... ....................................
B aaskets...................................... .. ..
Bead r ri m inm ......................................
Birds ................. ...............................
B isruits and s'ng r v.alers ................................
B oo i:. .. ................. .............. ...................
B ot le caps ..............................................
B u lhb s ........... ........................................
B uttons.................................................
Cheese ................... ................... ...........
Chocol-,te .................................. ...........
Cigar bowes. .. ........... ....................
Cinchona bark .........................................
Cocoa ........................................
Cocoa bI:utter ........ ........... ..................
C o :fee ........................................... .......
Con'ensliil milk ............ ....... ...................
Copal cindm................. ............... .....
CotImn roods ......................................
C ot I on 11, li t . . . . . .
Decol'l.riz .ng c rbo n.....................................
Dia m-nds.
P oli'hed ... .. ......... .............................
Ro'u'ih ....................... .............
Druis and r hemicals ....................................
Eart'en ware ........ .... .............................
Ebony............. .............................
ggs ........................ ............ .. .. ..........


1915




............
............
25,855
21,391
30, 979
97,125
6,741
28,653
27,449
2,974
637,900
546,911
724
1., i.-."



...........
9 2,1271
2 '', 1 H)
312,319
4,137
............


1916 1917 1918


S72,596
16,953
8,218
44,891
29,923
12,859
46,655
134,995
45,243
8,991
4,233
962,941
744,860
294,441
5,749

81,614
33,393

I............
4n ', nl
2.1"*l


$85,931
5,293
825
49,5,S3
8,317
3,175
24,078
74,607
11,764
203
1,017
214,190,
189,635



144,820
43,938

16,262,540
8,398
5,705
2,704


2063 ..............I......


----------
il,620
..........



980
66,444
3,337
..........

1,75.5




8, 386
23,678
6,157.15.7
1 5 1''i
515













SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


Ar, r. ].:;. 1915


TO UNITED STATES--coninued.


Featbler .......................... ..---. ----- -. -
Films .-.l.m..- ----- ---...
F ly c.it- hI .- -.----. .
is mi nr ies..... ------ -
Films. ...................................................
Fly t. I........ .............. ....................


Hair c'.om s .....................-.............
H sand.,'..........................................
Hair comb.....................---------------------------
Hams and 1, Ic-............ .............. .. ...........
Hardware .............................................
IHides and skinr ................ ........ .............
Hops....... ............ ......................
IHou sehold ci.' i............. .. .... .. ............
Ivpor ........ ............. ............................
inpo ... ... ......... ............... ..............


Liquors and g.. .....................................
Licuer...................................................
Liquors a..nd g............................................
Leather --------------- ------------------- --------


M3ill,: P.-' .I................................. ...........
n rl v r......................................
Ml .thr-. r-,- 'ir- l shells...................................
1 11-


......-......
S6i, 765

I 4; 7 0 "
............"
5,7369
1,449l
12,012
1 M.0, 601
1,113,940
40,"01
3, Q5
1,3. 0

I, 0
31, 762
37, i.3I)
12 1. 2
3 1, 039
5,612

3, 634


1916



52, A04
lh, &s5
,57


12,171
............
..---......-.


14. ..... .......
IS, I M ..... .

2,426 432"

15" ,7 "1 3 ,79 2
2,057,500 G63,352

13,151 1,274


23, 31 ............
5,GPw ...........
102,11.32 62,901


............ ... .........
4,13 ............

............ .... ........


1 s; rI .............................. ... ............ 1 '6i, S77 129, f1 5 69,00, 4,094
Haarlem ........................................... :;7,3"8 40, 41I 37,361 15,091
Paint.............. ............................ .120,,.'"7 17 ', '*2 40,413 3.,941
T':iint in': .............................................. 121,.30 112. 23 27,793 23,097
Paper........................................... ... 01,'2 61,27 2;,.016 .........
Peat moss and dust ..................................... 3,125 r, '27 .........
Plants............................... ................ 90, 34. 122.'.) 42,140 42,713
Potash.......................................................... 1023,2,' ....................
Potato flour................................ ............. 3 314 i.7
Quinine....................... ................ .. 21.5,vi1 i.,, .; 7), 351 4,297
Rags.................................................... 1 62 31, -' 102, .........
Rattans............................................... ........... 2, .... ..........
Reeds......... ....................................... .. 7, 7 ...... .. ................ .....
R ubber...... .............................. ......... ... f 1 .......... ...... ....
Sardelles..............................1............... 13 .................
S ......................................... ...............' I.......
Sea m oss............................................... 1.. 1 2,.'';i .........
Seeds........................................................ ...". 31. 9.3, 2 l91
ice . .......... ............ ............. ........ ', b4i6 17T 1 37, O 2,917
. rr .. .. l ..................... ..................... ...... ....... ... 2, c .....
Straw pulp............................ ............. 11.0'0 5,:.9 2, 01 .........
Tapioca flour............................................. ..,.', ................. ..........
Tea...................................................... 4. 17 .... ... ..
Teak flitches .......................................... ..,7"; I, 11 ..................
Tiles....... ........................................... ......... n .........

Umbrellas .................. ............................. ,' l ..........
v 1i ........ ... .... ........... ...................... .... .. .... .

Wood.................. ................... .......... ... ,, .. ... .... ..
W ooden shoes........................................ ... 1, ........... ......
Allother articles ........................................ i 1., 5.1i ''C' 461

T .:................................................ 1. 17;5, '.7 37,l70,.30 i 2'', 3,113 ,.7li,619

TO PORTO RICO. i
Cheese................... ...................... 20,033 2,.49 .............
Cocoa ....................................... ...... ........... ............ ,292 1....... --
('Ci i-1,0.0ind mji nire....................................... 13,410 ............ ......... .........
fi, ',ol ri in' 1irion...................... .. ............ ............ ....... I, 3 ..........
Clhee,. nri.i................................ .......... ... .... .. ............ 5 ..........

Total..................................... .... 33, 41.3 2, 5' 5, 62 I..........


TO PHILIPPINE ISLANDS.

Bi. icits jn,] .i uc r wafers..............................
Coir-' ................. ....... ......... .. ..........
Cocoa ... ..................................
Cotton goods............................................
Gas mantles ..............................................
Li.l ,-' r: n'l ... ;n.............................................
M r .r i .... ............................................
I il-, n t1.1 .. .... .. ..... .... .. ... .. .... ..... .. .. ..
Paint.. ......................... .......................
T ub] <*" .I............... ....................... _
All other articles ....................................

Totil ..............................................


. . .


211, t(,.
.. .' I

17.97 .
4, J71i


,i, 750)

It, 7,20.5


1, 'j"5
5 .' ('1

34.11



4. 2'i.

42,117
.70


............ ..........

7,512 517

127 .........
11.319 ..........
11.3.36 9,572
10,-.97 3,955
1,177 ..........
.... ...... .. ..... .....


..........
.... .....,
. .........
..... .....
..........
..........
. ..... ....
..........
.... ......

12,215

.... ..... .
. .. .......
.. ........
... .... ...
I .


S5,170 42,92 14,044







NETH ERLAN I JS--AMSTERDA"rf.


There value of the diamonds exported to the Unitlte States in 1918
was nine-tenlth~ of tle total valiu of shipments, wlherv;:; in nolrmnal:
times it is about one-half the total. The sin.Ill total trade in 1918
was cdue primarily to lack of -ippinz facilities; but this ifft'vied
diamonds very little, as they could be s..'nt by mail. The only iflt'I;i
Showing an increase in 1918 as c c111'pa red with 1917 v,,'re decolorizing
carbon, drugs and chemicals, hIu-ehold effect-, plants, and -cedIs;
and these were all much below preceding year-: in value, except de-
colorizing carbon, of which there were no shiipmn.nts pireviom, to 1918.
The only imports of importance from the United States in 1918
were wheat, corn, wheat flour, rye flour, machine oil, copper, and
timber. Rice, coal, tin, silverware, earthenware, and mirror gl.i.s, of
which tlh-re were no imports in 1917, were purchased in 1918, but in
comparatively small quantities.
The prospects for imports from the United States are excellent,
particularly for wearing apparel of all sorts, grain, leather, stock
feed, machinery, iron and steel, and virtually all raw materials.
There i: a -lhoirtaga-e of practically every kind of inu.rcha: ni.-: and
raw mnateri,1i, andl Holland is looking more than ever to the United
States for supplies to fill its needs.
The Diamond Industry.
Although the export of diamonds to the United States, always the
principal market, was relatively small in 1918, busilne- was really
good for tlle Amsterdam sellers, as England. France, Sweden, Nor-
way, l)emuairk, and other countries bought unusual quantities. It is
reported that. Germany also bought heavily.
Prices advanced steadily during 1918 and. reached heights never
conceived of before. Demand had something to do with this ad-
vance, but the most important fact',r was the reduction in output of
the Souh African diamond mines. During the war the output, de-
creased 40 per cent, and the mortality from the Spanish influenza
caused another reduction of 10 per cent, so only one-half as many
diamonds have b:.en mined recently as before the war.
The following report on the Anisterlda diamond industry in 1918
was furnished by Mr. Henri Polak, the president of the Netherlands
Union of Diamond Wo1kers:
The diamond-cutting iirldusttry of Amsterdam undilrw.-nt many climna c during
the year 191S, changes that followed clcs1ly the march of events of the great
war and its termination. During the first two months of the year the export
to the United States, though not by any means conilil. alilI to that of the
corresipo.ling iperiiids of the two pretceilini years, was satisfactory, as was the
case with that to FIiance and Great Britain. Thi German offensive movement
was, of course, highly detrimental to lrilid> with these countries in tnilroial, and
particularly to tih.t in diamonds. The tide turned when the armies of the
Allies ciiuniterevl nud entered upon the series of victories that led to the down-
fall of the central powers-that is, as far as Europe is cei,'tr'rn.'l, for the trade
with tlie United States continued to .sl;ac:,mn. It is not known here whether
this continiual falling; off was wholly or partly due to a decrease in the demand
for dianmonrls in tlhe IUnrited St;mles. In trade circles here it was attril'uted
partly to the difficulties arising out of the fluctuations in the rates of exchange,
and partly to the system of imporl't licenses imposed by tih- United States
authorities. The export to France, England, Spain, Scandinavia, South
America, and Asia became more and more satisfactory, even so that during
the suiiimer and fall fairly large iquaitiihs of rose dinomanils, which had been
unsalable during the entire war period, were disposed of at good prices.
12-1112"-19-a-- 2








10 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

Signing of Armistice Affects Conditions.
The tide turned again when tihe armistice put an end to the hostilities. A
period of uncertainty ensued, nothwithstauding the fact that the rates of ex-
change on England iand the United States had become such that they no longer
hampered trade. The general attitude was one o.f waiting for the development
of affairs. An important factor wNas the question of the competition the dia-
mond indu-try ,ot Antwier, would offer. The influence of this attitude was
reflected in tili fact that the number of unemployed workmen, which stood at
about 1,8o0) in the first days of November, rapidly rose to more than 4,000.
A chhnuge for the better set in toward tile end of the year and continued
during the first weeks of 1919. Orders from the United States came pouring
in. Licenses seemed to be more freely granted on the other side. Rates of
exchange ri(.ainied satlifaotory. The operations of the Antwerp Industry re-
mained insigniticannt. and it appeared more and more that the Belgian work-
men, who hltl taken refuge in England and in Holland and who enjoyed fair
and even hi-,gh wAagres there, would not lie willing to accept lower rates of pay
in their own country, and certainly not lwhre the cost of living in that country
had risen so much that tie old wiu-ge- would not enable them to exist. Dealers
in France ind Elnland, who had also awaited the course of events in Antwerp,
saw this, too, and reopened their activities. The commencement of 1919 there-
fore saw a lecidtdi iillpriveiient, which prom ises to conltinule.
Th' supply of rough dli iiu-mdl during 101S was on the whole sufficient.
The Import Committee was dissolved early in January, 1919, after the Diamond
Export Committee in London had ctn--;.il to exist, and consignments of rough
diamonds were sent to purchasers direi.-t.
The lowest number of liuiin'hpl.'yeu in the year 118 wlS 1.810, and the
lighli-t 4,112; the nfinires for 1917 % ere 2.512 and 5,372, respectively.
Prices of rough ldialuunls were raised by the Londonl Syndicate during the
year, iii:il;iiI them no less than 25 per cent higher tlan a year before. Wages
rose about 20 per cent during 11.5q. while the general cost of production was
considerably augsnicI ted byi the highly increased prices of coal. electric cur-
rent, shellac, solder, i'jIi ver, and otlihr n1.;iterilils. Greut difficulties were
created by the lack of phiisplflr-bronze and of iliciuin-bronze wire, the export
of which had been prolihiir.d1 l by thie iiited States.
Textile Industry-Manufacture of Airplanes.
All the 14 cotton-spininning factories in this district were idle in
1918 for want. of raw material. Only some waste spinning mills
could operate, there being waste for them to work on, and they did a
good business. The weaving mills also had to cease work in 1918
for want of yarn.
In both the spinning and weaving industries. however, the finan-
cial reTults- were satis'fact-ry, as the stocks of yarn and cloth on
hand were sold at high prices in thee beginning of the year.
During 1918 the ilmnuifacture of automiolies, which was attaining
importance in this district before the war began, was at a practical
standstill for lack of the necessary materials. However, the prin-
cipal automobile factory in this section occupied itself profitably in
making airplanes, of which it completed several hundred.
The Labor Situation.
More or less depre.-ion and unemployment prevailed in every in-
dustry during 1918. The prime cause was the almost complete stop-
page of inmlport and exports which caused scarcity of fuel and raw
materials and i ability to export such articles as were produced in
excess of home needs. 1fany factories closed, and practically none of
the others could work full time.
Even the fisheries suffered from substantially the same causes as the
land industries. The submarine menace had a deterrent effect, and
the steam trawlers could not operate, as a rule, for lack of fuel.







NETHERLANDS-AMSTERDAM.


No complete statistics of unemployment for 1918 are available; but
the fact. that in Amsterdam the number of about 10,000 uinenmployed
at any given time during the war rose to more than .20,000 by the end
of 1918 indicates that the unemployed in the whole country may have
doubled in number during the year. As the population of Amster-
dam (645,000) is about one-tenth the total population of Holland, the
number of unemployed in the whole country at the end of 1918 would
be more than 200,000 if the ratio to the population wa-n the sam ,e every-
where.
The number of strikes in 1918 was 303 in the whole country, static -
ties for this district alone being unavailable; in 1917 the nlllumber was
324; and the average per annum from 1911 to 1915 was 276. The
number of strikers was 34,774 in 1918 and 25.879 in 1917. Thre were.
1S lockouts in 1918, 20 in 1917, and an annual average of 18 froml 1911
to 1915.
Government Control of Tobacco.
The most important. warehousing article of Dutch commerce is to-
bacco, Amsterdam being recognized as the. worlds priniip:ll nar;.et
for the staple. The amounts annually realized in pre-w ar timen from
the leading grades of tobacco imported chiefly from the Dutch islands
of Java and Sumatra and from British Borneo. and minor quantities.
from Brazil, ('Cuba, and Santo Domingo, varied u-ually between
$40,000.000 and $;.0,000,000. Transactions since 1913 i have fallen far
behind that. sum, and 191S was the most unsatisfactory year of alL
The total arrivals from the Dutch East Indies and British Vtorneo in
1917 amounted to about 179,000 bales (the bale: averaging 171
pounds). whereas during 1918 only one. shipment arrived, c(ni-isting
of 1,994f Sumatra and 1,557 bale, of Java tohacco..
In order to supervise all tobacco sales anld deliveries and to reg.u-
late prices. the Ryk-sbureau voor Tabak (Goveoinmeint Tobaco Bui-
reau) was established. February 11, 1918, at The Hague. This bureau
also took more than 4,100 bales of Sumnatra and Java tolba.-o of the
1911 crop, which was bought, in 1917 by American buyers in Aimser-
dam, awaiting shipment to the United States on the steamers Maas-
dyk ,and Pocldyk. These steamers, however, were. detained at the
Rotterdam port for many months, and the owners of the shipment
finally decided to resell the tobacco to the Dutch brokers. The price
of $3.42 per half kilo (1.1 pounds) was agreed upon, which netted
them an exceptionally good profit.
Prices Obtained at TobaSoC Sales.
All this tobacco, including some of the stock left over from the
previous year, was offered at the usual sales, known in Amsterdam
as inscriptions, of which seven in all were held during the year. At
the first and second d .ales. held by the importeirn Felbr'iarv 22 and July
10, 1918, 19,980 bales of Java, 2,726 hales of Sumatra. and 3,000 bales
of Domingo tobacco were disposed of. The lowe.,t and highest prices
per half kilo obtained for these three grades at the frst-. inscription
were $0.70, $0.81, and $1.10, and $2.34, $1.91, and $1.27, respectively,
and at the second inscription (Java and Sumatra tobacco only),$1.10
and $1.42, and $3.24 and $2.81, respectively. At the other sales, held
by the General Tobacco Syndicate of Amsterdam on March 26, April
5, and April 19 and 20, 1918, respectively, 24,218 bales of Sumatra,







SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


Java, and other kinds includingg 12,000 bales of Domingo tobacco)
were offered. The syndicate sold this tobacco, which constituted the
rest of about 70,0U kilos purchased by it in 1917, to the manu-
facturers and dealers at cost price plus usual expenses. The price
per half kilo for tillers was fixed at. 72 Dutch cents ($0.29) and for
binders at. 102 Dutch cents ($0.41). The la:.t two sales were con-
ducted by the Ryksbureau voor Tabak on June 27 and September 10,
1918, at which 3,427 bales of the 4.100 bales rebought from the
American owners were offered. The average price received was $4.52
per half kilo.
On February 1 14, 1918, the Dutch Government placed an embargo
on the export of tobacco. Local brokers state that the 1917 Sumatra
crop, as far as quality is concerned, was far behind that of the two
preceding years. The crop suffered heavily from unfavorable cli-
matic conditions, which affected the growth and aklo the thickness of
the leaf. The Java crop was considered from fair to middling.
Rubber Trade Unsatisfactory.
The year 1918 brought no change in the regulations governing the
imports and exports of rubber. The stock of rubber on hand in Hol-
land at the end of 1915, together with a few small shipments per-
mitted to come in from the Dutch East Indies (the steamers having
left prior to the date of the import prohibition), was sufficient to
supply the domestic demand during 1918.
The AdviCory Committee of the Netherlands Oversea Trust for
the Distribution of Raw Rubber and the Amsterdam Societv for the
Rubber Trade (which supervise and control the sale and distribution
of all rubber to the domestic trade) held two public sales, on March
1 and September 1, 191, respectively, at which 464 tons of rubber
were disposed of, as compared with 4l0 tons sold at the two sales in
the previo(l.us year. The fixed price at both sales was 6.50 florins per
kilo ($1.19 per pound) for Hevea Standard Crepe, best quality,
while the price in 1917 during the first sale (covering the period
March 1 to September 1, 1917) was 5.10 florins per kilo ($0.93 per
)pound) and during the second sale (covering the period September 1;
1917, to March 1, 1918) 6 florins per kilo ($1.10 per pound).
Well-known brokers in Amsterdam estimate the world's production
and consumption of raw rubber during 1918 at 260,000 tons 'and
225,000 tons, respectively. .,: '
Cocoa and Cocoa Products.
Dutch co(oa and cocoa products are exported to practically all
parts of the world. The raw materials, however, are nearly all im-
ported, chiefly from Lisbon, Havre, and Liverpool, but large quan-
tities are imported direct from Venezuela, Brazil, Ecuador, St.
Thomas, the Gold Coast. Trinidad, and the Dutch colonies....
The 1918 imports of cocoa beans into the Netherlands were the
smallest on record, namely, 2,340 tons from South America. In 1917
the inplor ts were 9,800 tons; in 1916, 21,030 tons; in 1915, 41,483 tons;
and in 1914, 49,.590 tons. Exportation of cocoa and cocoa products
was pro'ibiited during 1918 and in 1917 was permitted only by special
license. The mecoa exports during 1917 from the Amsterdam con-
sIl;r (di trict to the United States amounted to $189,635, as compared
with $744,80 in 1916. There were no shipments of cocoa butter to








NETHERLANDS-A MSTERDA M.


that country during 1917 and 1918; in 1916 exp,:,rts amounted to
$294,441.
The direct, imports of cocoa beans into the United States from'l
the countries of production during 1917 and 1918 are rep.-rt'ed to have
been the largest, in inny years. Statistics for 1918 are not yet avail-
able. During 1017 nearly 2,500,000 bales arrival at the port of New
York, chiefly from Africa (including the island of St. Thmlin:),
Brazil, Ecuador, and Venezuela. The prices for the various sorts
ranged between $0.11 and $0.15 per half kilo (1.1 pounds).
As a result of the unusually small quantity of co' '-Ia beans re-
ceived in H-olland during 1918, owing to the nonarrival of ste;inier.,
many cocoa and chocolate factories were obliged to shut down, and
the bUkelage and colmmlfsion llliine'., flourishing in normal years,
was entirely at a standstill.
Prices in Holland fluetiated collniderably, varying for St. Thlm;as
and Bahia, cocoa from $0.14 to $0.16 per half kilo f. o. b. Lisbon,
in the beginning of the year; later in the year the price advanced
to $0.1S aind at the close of 1918 to $0.24.
Transactions in cocna butter were equally salll and unimportant,
attributable to the nonarrival of the raw materials. In order to over-
coIme heavy speculation, the Dutch Government, on April 7, 1918, took
over not only all cocoa butter in the open arkiet, Iut also the stock
put up in warellouses. Sale, and delivery to the manufacturer'. could
take place only when accompanied by a Government consent. The
average prices for the well-known Van Houten cocoa butter varied
from 0.46 per half kilo at the beginning of 1918 to $0.85 in Oc-
tober, and when the shipment of cocoa beans of the steamier Kenne-
mcrbnl was released in November, prices dropped down to $0.70.
Ordinarily very little cocoa butter is used in Holland; practically
all is exported.
Condition of the Sugar Industry.
According to reliable stati:ti,', the world's prodictiin of beet
sugar decreased from 8. S,00000 tons of 2,200 pounds during the crop
year 1913-14 to 5,300 ,000 tons during 1917-18, while the production
of cane sugar increased froin 9,800,000 tons of 2,235 pounds to
12,500.(i00 ions during the :same period. This difference in produc-
tion is attributed partly to change in climatic conditions in the vari-
ous countries, and partly to the war.
The 1917-18 Java sugar crop amounted to 29,000,000 piculs (1
picul = 1 pounds), or 2- per cent less than the 1916-17 crop. Ow-
ing to existing conditions, especially the inability to ship. prices
fluctuated considerably. In the first p;trt of the year the Superior
grade sold for 5.50 florins ($2.21), and No. 16 for 4.50 florins ($1.81)
per 100 kils (220 poundss. The Dutch East Indinn Government
finally decided, in July, 1918, to fix minimum prices for Superior at
7.25 florins ($2.91) and for No. 16 at 0.25 florins ($2.51), with the con-
dition that no export license would le granted for sugar sold below
these figures. Tovward the end of the year prices advanced to 13.50
florins ($5.43) for Superior and 12.25 florins ($4.92) for No. 16 per
100 kilos. This rise was due largely to changed war conditions.
The production of beet iug~tr in the Nethelrlands during the year
1917-18 amounted to 200,000 metric tons, or (0,000 tons less tlhain dur-
ing the previous year. The crop of the season 1918-19 is expected to








SUPPLEMENT TO COMMlERCE REPORTS.


be still smaller (estimated at about 16).000 tons), as, in response to
the reque-t of the Governt1ment to the farmers to use their soil more
for the growing of vegetables and other agricultural products, the
area planted to sugar sheets was reduced by about 20 per cent; that is,
froml, 4(-;,:3 lictaeis (11. 5,20 acres) to 37,08i hectares (91,595 acres).
The crop also suffered from heavy rainfalls during the summer
lionlths.
Principal Refineries-Sugar Supplies Rationed.
'The two ')most i important refineries of the Dutch sugar industry are
loncted in tlh city of Amsterdam, employing in ordinary times from
1,0<1.1 to 1.21'0 Vwolrkien. The principal product of these refineries,
which exci'Ieeds in almounlt the combined output of the other nine in the
collluntry, consists of loaf, lump, crystallized, and moist sugars. The
Governmllent took charge of the sugar trade in 1918, as during the
previous- yar, and, as an additional preeautiona'ry measure against
n shoi t' igte, rationed the supplies, allowing 1 kilo (2.2 pounds) per
month to e;nch person. The maximum n wholesale price was 51.50
florins per 100 kilo. ($9.41 per 100 pounds) ; on October 8, 1918, the
(Governient advanced the price to 54.25 florins (.$9.1 per 100
1poundls.), the fai-iiers demandinlig more money for the beets.
i[1Ma~lfacturers usilng sugar r as raw material for their products had
to pay an additional excise tax of 15.florins per 101) kilos ($2.74 per
10.1 poundss. Tlhi, new regulation did not apply to manufacturers of
jam, who were advanced only 11 florins ($2 per 100 pounds). This
difference was meant for the benefit of the poorer population, who
could not afford to pay prevailing high prices for fats, etc. The
exci-e tix collected by the Dutch Government on sugar during 1917
was 7,"509.s59 11orins ($15,078,:93) and during 1918, 46,664,120
florins ($1 s,758.9.7 ).
Steady Decline in Tea Trade.
The total sliliipments of ten from the island of Java average about
1(i),nIii,nO1 ) pounds a year, tlie bulk going to the Amsterdam and
London markets. Since the war, however, the arrivals at this port
have steatdlyi declined. There were no imports in 1917, and in 1918
the only arrival wa.s '9,Ss chests of tea, via London, released from
the stoeamier Lumibokl which was requisitioned by the Allied Gov-
1ernmeints.
One public a:cition was held in Amsterdam, on January 25, 1918, at
whliclh (.s0Oh chvests of Java and 24 chests of Suimatra tea (stock which
arrived in Novemnler, 1916, and was held over) were offered at the
:vleriae lpice of 97 Dutch cents ($0.39) per half kilo (1.1 pounds),
the us1al .e1 llinir mneaure. The Distribution Committee fixed the
retail price at 1.40 florins ($0.56) per half kilo. The Ryksbureau
voor Thee en Kofie permitted the sale of tea by the retailers from
January 1 to Febru ary 1 and from July 1 to September 15, 1918; at
all other times tea was not available. In June, 191S, the rest of the
tea not sold at the first auction was disposed of at an increase of 5
Dutch cents ($0.02) per half kilo. The shipment of 9.SSS chests of
tea received in 1918 was to be placed on the market in January, 1919.
Imports of Coffee.
Large quantities of coffee are annually imported into the Nether-
lands from South and Central America, the Dutch colonies, and
Africa and disposed of at public auctions held periodically in








NETHERLA N DS-A MSTERDAM.


Amvsterdanm and Rotterdam. Since the wna, liwever, impli- h-.;ve
steadily declined, and those of 1'018 were so small that noi I ta--a;' in--
took place on tihe local market. The dcrlieo in Il.-, 191 a;lld 19l17
imports was (due to existing import restriction-,. und dlhlring lt('
greater part of 191, there were no shipping opportunitih--.
The following table gives the quantity of coffee in liiirted. fromI
the various sources of supply during the years 191' to !9ls:
Co luitry. 1'.I1 lll i| l i.,'

E30 ]i'a']:. B,',i, L;,q' .
Brazil............... .... ........ ................... 2 0 t- -I t., 2 ) 1 .'j,j21
Java and Su tarr a .......................... ... .... ...... .. ('. .,2 I .*-.5, *.'. .i. l l i,:
Central America, Africa, and W est Indies .................... 7'1,7; 1 451l,J i.'i1 'C.,.'..
Total ........................................................ 3, 4 .'.S,,j7u 1. .273.. l ;-, 7 .-6 21i.

The stock of all coffee remaining in first and second hands De-
cember :31, 1917, and Decemlber 31, 118S, was-_ 15(;,171 and 3i1,4;'7 bags,
respectively. These stocks, as well as the new arrival were talkn
over by the Rykskantoor voor Thee en Kotie. A number of IDutcl
vessels bound for Holland and carrying no le,, thani 14,l;1 I,',:i2'7 of
coffee were reqiisitioned by the Allied governmentss in Miar'c, 1111..
A special Dutch commission, formed to protect the inter t.s of tie
owners of the cargo, ,succeeded in getting' 4'2,1.0.0 Il gs relea.t.-d and
shipped to -Holland. There were no cotfee exports dccrin,: lIis. TIhe
Distribution Bureau for Tea and Coffee, emiabliished Augluslt :30, 1917,
which fixes maxiin.mumi prices for importer,. 1Ihkers, wholesalers, and
retailers, raised the retail selling price fro in .I0.1 s per half kilo in
1917 to $0.50 in 19118.
The 1918 Brazil coffee crop suffered severely from heavy fr(osts.
The damage done and tlie consequelnt decline of the cropl, as well as
the'unexpectedly large orders, placed by thle Brazilian and Fren -h
Governments, brought about a steady lrie in prices:. Some of the
Amsterdam owners of Brazil cottee re-old their contracts with a sib-
stantial profit. The Java and Sulcatra 1l.l co'tee crops were fair,
but prices remained far below tlie average, owing to tlIc difficulties
of shipping and of placing the product on the market.
Transactions in Cinchona Bark Small.
Large quantities of cincliona bark, an important product of the
island of Java, inre shipped to le Net theland.s in normal times.
During war years, however, imports have been declining steadily.
In 1917 the imports were 21,126 package.,, and during 1918 there
were. no arrivals at all.
The cinchona tree in Java is cultivated largely Iby private planters,
although a number of small plantations are o owned and cultivated by
the Dutch Government. Of the 24,120 packages, or colli, above re-
ferred to, 20,440 came from private p1laiontiatioll a1d :3, 1s8 from Gov-
ernment plantations.
The product is sold at auction sales held periodically at Amster-
dam. There were 10 sales in 19'17 and only '2 in 1918. at which the
major part of the stock on hand was disposed of. The total sales
amounted to 34,902 kilos (7Ti;,.45 pounds) of hark, containing 1,300
kilos (2,879 pounds) of'sulphate of quinine, as compared with 5,821,-
250 kilos (12,833,527 pounds) of bark, containing 355,671 kilos (784,-
119 pounds) of sulphate of quinine, in 1917. The average selling








SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


price remained the same as during the past three or four years,
namely, $0.46 per half kilo per unit.
Cinchona bark exports from Amsterdam to the United States
amounted to $1,75'5 in 111.S, again-t F214,190 in 1917 and $962,941 in
1916. Large qllantities were shipped from Java direct to the United
States, England, and France during 1918, which explains the de-
crease in tlhe export. from Holland to those countries.
The Hide and Leather Trade.
The year lil.'s was an off year for tile importers and exporters of
hides a>s well as for thi general trade. In normal times hides are
import:,il into the Netherland.s chiefly from tie Dutch East Indies
and Soutli America, and exports are largely to Germany, the United
States, ianl France. The total imports in 1916 amounted to 340,000
pieces, in 1.17 to 70.01S piece>, and in 1918 to 20,000 ipJeces. Lack of
slilppinrg opportunitiess explains the small imports during the past
ye:l 1'r.
Of tile 1917 imports, 31,l1 I hides were from the Dutch East
Indies' and 3.5,,3 from South America. The 1918 imports consisted
of South American hides. There was a brisk demand for these skins,
chiefly dry -alted, which were of first-class quality, until iimprorters
suddenly raised t]he price to $0.64 per half kilo (1.1 pounds), when all
sales practically stopped. Prior to June, 1917, tlhe average price
varied from $0."2 to $0.30 per half kilo, when the Government fixed
innaxiimi u prices at $0.18 in order to provide leather to the trade at.
ilOle re0sona ble rates.
There were no imports of Dutch East Indian hides during 1918,
and only abl, ot 1,1i10) Padang1 hides, stock left over from the previous
year. con-i-ting chiefly of heavy-weight skins (about 6C kilos or 14
!pounds) wle on the market; as the price demanded was $0.84 per
half kilo, entirely out of proportion to the fixed maximum price" for
leather, hardly any sales took place. In the second half of 1918
Am isterlalni importers offered Java hides f. o. Ib. Java at fair prices,
but tran;lnu:tions were limited, on account of the necessity of obtain-
ing import consents, tle doubtful shipping opportunities, and the
chian,,ealdle freight and insurance rates. However, the large orders
placed by the American (Tovernment and the signing of the armistice
caused a considerable advance in Java prices; for instance, buffalo
hides, which were offered in September for $32.1G per picul (136
po lunds), com11manded, $43.21.
At the beginning of t le year there was only a limited demand for
dol-me-tic hidess, which had to be sold far below the maximum price.
Tlie lalrkl-t improved .omnewihat when the meat distribution and sub-
seluent G;overInmient rorderl limiting the slaughter of all cattle went
into effect. T'le llupply naturally decreased, tlie maximum price was
raised, and d uring1L the last few months of the year the trade in skins
was rather good, leaving bulit a -mall stock on hand.
There were no exports of hides in 191S to the United States from
tie Amlnterdanm con.-ulalr district; in 1917 they amounted to $638,382.
Petroleum and Other Oils-Raw Wool.
Thie Netherlandt olbtains thle greater portion of its supply of petro-
leum11 from the United States, Iournania, and Russia. The 1918 im-
ports were the smallest on record; only 398 barrels, averaging 330
pounds each, were received at the port of Amsterdam, all from the







NETH ER LANDIS-AMSTER DA M.


United States. In 1917 the imports amounted to 113,0:r1 barel-, of
which all but 13 barrels was from the Unitedl Stat~-; in 1916 iimnports
were 413,000 liarrels, and in 1915, 491,000 hfrrcl:. Before the war
imports amounted to nearly 1,000,000 1narrel- annually. T!;e. price, as
fixed by the Government, was $31.84 per barrel, 'conmip;ald with $32.72
per barrel during the latter part of 1917.
In addition to petroleum, there ere received at. the port of
Amsterdam from the United States 1,941 barrels- of gas oil, as com-
pared with 3.,464 barrels duringg 1917. The imports of luiilriating
oil were 340 barrel,., against 346 in 1917.
The Amnterdam wool market, which was establi2-hd on a small
scale in 1911. was practically at a ,-tandstill during tli' past ye,:r.
Imports from England, the chief country of supply, and from South
America were ilmpo-sille, wing to shipping and export ro-trictions.
During the lii st half of the year the local indu-thry was i-pplied with
whatever small q(uantitiecs of wool there were 'tsw,1l in the country
for foreign necount, and also with artificial wool and offals. Prii.e-
paid for wool were as high as $6.03 and even t'.s4 per kilo (2.2
pounds). During the second half of the year most of the mills in
Holland were closed.
Trade in Copra and Kapok.
Copra, thli dried kernel of the coconut, is a product of the i.la.nd
of Java, and more than ") 00000 tons are imported into this market
each year in normal times. During the war all copra shipments had
to be consigned to the Netherlands Oversea Trust, which refi icd
them to the Bfureatu vor don Coprnha nnel, established in Amsterdam
in 1115), whilc controls all sales and deliveries.
Only\ one i4stamer car carrying copr'a arrived in the Netlerlands dur-
ing 19;1. the Lo,,l.o/,-, brigling 400 tons of smoke-dried and 400 toni-
of sun-dried copra. Aside from this -himent,' which had been con-
tracted for 1by tlhe importers lan sold to the trade in 1917, there were
no other transactions in copra during the year uindlr. review. In
1917 thu tot-al imports aImounted to 2.,,141 tons, which were sold at
an average price of $2.9-2 per 100 kilos (220 pounds) for -iiilo e-dri,-d
and 29:3.5"- ftor sun-dried copra.
Kalpok, all incre-asingly important article of Dutch commerce, is a
sort of cotton so short and tine that it can not 1,li .--pun and is used
chiefly in the manufacture of mattresses and also for filling life belts.
Whereas in l:,re-war times, the anniial imports into A! nsteordam \wvre
between S0,010) and 1010,ol0<( bales, only 613 bales arrived during 1918,
being but a very .,mall portion of the many orders placed the year
before.
Fishing Industry Improves-Agriculture.
The total catch of the tisherics which market at Ymuiden, at tlie
entrance of the North Sea Canal, was valued at 13,763,678 florins
($5,532,999) in 1917 and 1s,497,0,19! florins ($7.4:.,,S;4) in 1918, an
increase of 1.733,421 florins (.l.09r2,s80). Thie (uiantity of the catch
probably did not incr'eane, as prices were higher in 1918 than in 1917.
The total value of the -catch of all the Dutch sea fisheries- was
31,692,542 forins ($12,740.4012). This \wa nearly twice the value of
the catch in 1917, but only half that of the 'antch in 1916 and 1915.
The yield of the coast, fihlerie.swas also haiger in value in 1918 than
in 1917, although somewhat less in quantity.








18 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

Crops in general were fairly normal as to quality in 1918. The
area sown to grain was slightly larger in 1918 than in 1917, but con-
siderably smaller than in pre viou years. The area given to vegeta-
bles in 1918> was somewhat more than in preceding years and that
to clover and hay omewllat le-s. The sugar-beet area was much re-
duced in 91:) .' coml)pared with previous years-20 per cent less than
in 1li17 andl about 4() per cent ]e..,s than in 1911 and 1915. This reduc-
tfion wa.s by, (overnlln11t order, to increase the cultivation of other
rpI; cUde10d 11101e more ineec'SSry during the war. The result is that
ii,.tq'ad jl f a large surplus to export, the home production of beet
siti'ri is al pie,-lt scar'ely sitlic"ient for the home demand. Prices
fn all l:Ir mi pri ducts were lugh and generally profitable to the
producer's.
The City of Amsterdam.
The pq;opulation of Am.sterdam at the end of 1918 was 6-4,072, a
gain of :,7; duringI the year. This is the -smalllest increase of
Aminst'VIrda's popul)lation for many years. In 1917 the increa-e was
1-,~il2. amnd the previous annual avrae was ae e ws bout 7,000. The re-
duced iniWta-e in 1901 may bie attributed to two causes. Tle death
rate pi'r 1,101 in 11..'1 was i5..t ., and the birth rate 21.l2, whereas the
re-l'pcti e rates in 1917 were 12.40 and 22.19. The materially in-
creli-Aed dath rate was due to tlie Spanis-h influenza. Tlie second
c.n ie of the s all inclrea:se in popul nation was tle lack of dwelling
places for newo ners. There was practically no building of resi-
dIrnc'e. in Amsterdam during l!18. on account of excessively high
prices anid a lack of mraterials. Virtually the only recourse of new-
coters w\ho wanted a house 'as to blluy one, "which ejected the exist-
ilfl oc,(Clmpant and in almost cases compelled him to remove from
A lt e aiii fl.
Among tlie projects formed or discussed in 191S were the construc-
tion of .several blocks of workmen's dwellings to relieve the existing
s. -icity, andi tle erection of a new city hall, the building now used
lifting entirti iely inadlequa ie. The erection of a new palace for the
r1y'l1 family an1 tile return of tile present lplacee to tlie city has been
diiu--dl but witlhoutt definite result. This palace was formerly the
city hall blit was taken a i a palace by Louis Bonaparte when he
Ibeca:;hie Kini of IHolland and has since been retained for that pur-
lpo) iHaror improvements and enlargements were also considered
in 191' I, t conl litions were too difiicult to allow any definite action.
Tlhe S-liour law was established toward tlie end of 1918, as far as
was practicable, in thle various municipal establishments, and salaries
were0, advan, edi in many cases. One result was to increase prices of
public utility services. For example, street car fares were advanced
ii) per cent, anl ano their advance is to occur which will bring the
increased: to 10 p1er cent. It is possible that this augmented fare
ati,.';dl a decline in the number of street car passengers in 1918, when
it was 1 -.1J,1:1' I, against 12!,20-1,0016 in 1917.
Thi' ,-ost of living was excessively high in 1918. being 50 to 75 per
cent higher than inl 1917, according, to different e-timates.
At tihe principal itvels in Amsterdam, the total number of guests
in 191s \was 10. ,,1(, of whom only 1-27 were-Americans. The total
1l]numbetr in 19i17 was SS,00(6, of whom 197 were Amiericans.
WAS HINGTON GOYLRNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1919






































































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'aI




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

I3 1262 08485 1855II iiiIiiJii
3 1262 08485 1855