Supplement to Commerce reports

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Title:
Supplement to Commerce reports daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce
Uniform Title:
Commerce reports
Volume title page for -<1920>:
Supplements to Commerce reports : review of industrial and trade conditions in foreign countries in ... by American consular officers
Portion of title:
Daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce
Physical Description:
6 v. : ; 24-26 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce
Publisher:
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Dept. of Commerce
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
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Subjects / Keywords:
Commerce -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Foreign economic relations -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
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federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also available in electronic format.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with issue for Jan. 8, 1915?; ceased with issue for Dec. 31, 1920?
Numbering Peculiarities:
Each issue covers an individual country and bears a number corresponding to that country. Reports from the various consular districts in a country are distiguished by the addition of a letter (66a, 66b, 66c, etc.), in the order in which they are issued.
Numbering Peculiarities:
Issue no.52f, 1919, contains misprint, November 41.
General Note:
Title from caption.
General Note:
"Annual series."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 004822593
oclc - 16390134
sobekcm - AA00005307_00010
Classification:
lcc - HC1 .R1981
System ID:
AA00005307:00010

Related Items

Preceded by:
Daily consular and trade reports (Washington, D.C. : 1910)
Succeeded by:
Trade and economic review for ..

Full Text



SUPPLEMENT TO

COMMERCE REP
DAILY CONSULAR AND TRADE REPORTS
ISSUED BY THE BUREAU OF FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COMMERCE
DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE, WASHINGTON, D. C.

Annual Series No. 9a April 24, 1918


NETHERLANDS.
.By Consul General Soren Listoe, Rotterdam. February 7.
As the war progresses commerce and industry encounter greater
difficulties. This was especially true in regard to Dutch commercial
activities during the year 1917. The manufacturing and industrial
interests of the country had to rely upon their own resources to a
a, greater extent than formerly. The building of new factories to pro-
duce manufactured articles formerly purchased from abroad con-
tinued, and the factories that. were built during" 191.5 and 1910 re-
Sport very satisfactory returns upon the capital invested. Factories
.A manufacturing leather goods, textiles, iron and steel products, and
L.: railway materials were particularly successful, as the local market
was cut off from its former sources o ti importation of
many products was entirely stopped dilt it'a -actical stand-
still when the regular shipping li s co no 1 ger rate along
the lines which they had former n a)ted. The 'l nment took
Over the practical control of the ts of grail fc petroleum,
and coal. g
Distribution regulations and i um prlm ff3"- 1 Ve enlarged:
so as to cover articles such as c tea, milk, etc -ch had not
been subject to such rigid control The in- t and estab-
lishment of the Export Centrale, lli tvernment an
almost absolute control over the chart d4 (. ion of exported
goods, is the greatest feature of the ye, f s affecting foreign
trade.
Revenues and Expenditures.
The finances of the Netherlands present a favorable picture if
judged from the viewpoint of treasury receipts. The expenditures
for war purposes have constantly increased as the war has progressed.
The total receipts of the Kingdom for 1917 were $94,4990,785, or
$14,634,946 more than those of 1916. Most of the increase in the
revenues is due to new taxes or increases in taxes formerly imposed.
The income-tax law of April 28, 1917, is responsible for $381,900
of the total increase over 1916. The new laws imposing taxes upon
sailing and registration rights, statistical dues on documents and the
transfer of estates and inheritances, and an excise tax on beer are the
means by which the Government enlarged its income by $4,554,660.
These results are favorable but naturally are the result of taxation
imposed on account of the war. War taxation or "crisis expendi-
ture," as it is officially called, is expected to decrease considerably
when peace comes, and the burdens which the Government has as-
50823"-18-9a-1






... --1. ,







SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


surned for the support of the army and for distribution purposes
will then be no longer necessary.
The following sources were responsible for the stated amounts of
the total revenues collected by the State in 1917: Income taxes,
$6,09S,901; sugar excise duty, $1,468,658; distillers' excise tax,
$763,911; slaughtering tax, $1,206,890; sailing and registration
rights, $1,643,151; and inheritance taxes, $386,820. The revenue ob-
tained from import permits was $2,225,445 less than that obtained
from the same source in 1916. The tax on war profits and the so-
called defense taxes brought in $89,028,804, of which $67,503,024 was
collected from war profits alone. All war taxes (including payments
upon the loan of 1914 and excluding the excise tax on sugar) amount
to $114,772,348. In the estimates for 1918 few new taxes or new
war expenditures were asked for; consequently, it may be concluded
that the Government does not intend to increase its expenditures, but
rather to moderate them, if possible.
Movement for Concentration in Banking.
The report of the Netherlands Bank for the business year 1916-17
comments particularly upon the continuous movement toward bank
concentration. Several of the well-established banking institutions
have increased their reserves and capital in order to enlarge their
activities. According to this report, the capital increases alone
amounted to $21,708,000. A warning is issued against too great
extension in banking activities. The bank service of the Netherlands
is very old and conservative and (an not change very quickly. All
of the larger banks are trying to correctly judge the financial ten-
dencies of the times and to guard against overspeculation.
The Rotterdamsche Bankvereenigii'gl, one of the principal finan-
cial institutions in Rotterdam, has been absorbing other banking
companies in all parts of the country during the last year or two.
The Nationale Bankvereeniging has come into being as a result, of
the concentration movement. The proposed plans cover a large
field, and considerable capital, is necessary to carry them out. The
National Bankvei'eenigirg now has branches by which credit facili-
ties are supplied in 70 cities of the Netherlands.
Metal Stocks.
Dutch gold stocks increased in 1917, just as in the preceding war
years. The gold stock of the Netherlands Bank was $280,689,506
on December 9, 1917 andon Decenber, 11 nd 3,,1 o December 30, 1916. This
increase is remarkable and well illustrates the present financial
strength of the country. The price of unrefined gold remained at
$665.31 per kilo fine. Many industries dependent upon gold were in-
convenienced because large quantities of this metal were systemati-
cally collected and hoarded in the banks. The gold holdings of the
banks are estimated to be between four and five times as much as the
amount on hand at the outbreak of the war.
The Netherlands silver market was more dependent upon the sup-
ply on hand than during the year 1916. Imports from London and
New York were almost entirely cut off on account of shipping diffi-
culties and export embargoes. The English export embargo on
gold was not put into force until the beginning of October. Fortu-
nately there was sufficient unrefined silver in circulation so that the








NETHERLANDS.


needs of the Dutch market could be covered by refining the material
on hand. The prices for unrefined silver fluctuated between $2:5.73
at the beginning of 1917 and $31.46 on September 25, which was
the highest quotation.
Notwithstanding the fact that the exportation of platinum from
Holland was forbidden on December 8, 1916, the supply on hand in
1917 was too small for the local needs. Various industries dependent
upon this product had to close their doors. The price of platinum
more than doubled during the year. The highest price was on De-
cember 6, when this metal brought $ i.>32.50 per kilo (2.2046
pounds).
New Government Loan-Foreign Money Quotations.
According to the Government. loan law of 1917, a new loan is to
be issued at 44 per cent to the amount of $201,000,000. The purpose
of this loan is to refinance the Government's 5 per cent loan of 1914.
The coupons are payable on February 1 and August 1, annually.
Subscriptions for this loan will close in February, 1918.
Since the war began the money of neutral countries has been
quoted far higher on the Dutch money market than that of the
belligerents, but in 1917 the differences were more pronounced, as i.-
evident from a survey of the following table showing foreign money
quotations in Dutch currency:

C(rreny. Par. Dec. '30 ec29, Curreny i Pa. Di o 30.I DIr. 29,
S19113. 1917. 1 916. 1Y91

British pound sterling.... 12.1 ) II. 1i .S 11. 0) Swedish crown........... ill.7 71. Si 77.5)
French franc............. 4.00 42.10 40. 75 Danish crown............ 66.67 i7.0) 72.75
German mark........... 59.26 41.20 45.30 Norwegian crown........ l...7 (a' 7.1..5,
Austrian crown.......... 50.41 25.70 27.32' Swiss fran ............... 4.0 4.57i 52.
Russian ruble............ .28 (a) .35 Spani;h peseta........... 4.i 57.0
United States dollar...... 2.483 2.444 2.31
a No quotas ion available.
Activities on the Stock Exchange.
The year 1917 began with many irregularities as regardsl stock
quotations, as at that time brokers thought that the peace prospects
were good. At the end of the year the views in regard to peace were
quite pessimistic. The closing quotations of shipping, tobacco, and
rubber stocks improved slightly when the steamer New Al nterdant
cane safely into port and a resmniption of shipping to America and
the colonies seemed probable. Shipping stocks were high through-
out the year because, in spite of the difficulties of most companies,
large profits were made. The belief that the large profits made by
shipping companies were the result of liigh rates led to a demand
for closer Government control. Various industrial securities made
a favorable showing in their annual reports, and therefore their
stocks advanced in spite of the prospect of greater difficulties in
obtaining raw material. The market for national bonds and securi-
ties remained firm throughout the year. The stocks of industries
dependent upon trade with Scandinavia generally increased, this
trade being very profitable. Industrials dlelendent upon internal
conditions in Russia and Mexico were quoted far lower as a result
of the disturbed situations existing in these countries.







. -.-








4 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

The following table shows the closing prices of various Dutch
shipping companies on December 29, 1916 and 1917:

Company. 1910 1917 Company. 1916 1917

Hollind-Amei ica Line ................ 40. 437 Royal Holland Lloyd................ 180 198
Holland Gi'ulf ......................... 190 325 Shipping Union..................... 170 263
Holland Stegmbhoar................... l 253 Nievelt Goudriaan................... 9071 1,340
Java-China-Jarjan Line................. 155 .h Rotterdam Lloyd................. ...... 265
Royal Netherlinds Steamboat........ 217 277 Baltic.............................. 29 445

Restricted Railway Service.
Limitations in the railway service were introduced at various times
during 1917, owing to the shortage of coal. The coal difficulties were
not na nifest until the latter part. of 1916. The passenger service was
first restricted on November 27, 1916. A few months later, on Jan-
iary 8, 1917, a new tariff schedule was instituted by which the dis-
tance covered by passenger trains was greatly restricted. In October
it was stated that. the distance covered by all passenger trains daily
on the two great railway systems of the Netherlands, which include
pr actic ally all railway mileage in the country, wa., about 24,233 miiles,
as compared with 55,:302 miles in July, 1914. The speed of passenger
trains was also reduced by regulations. When the war began the
train service was reduced Imnre than it is at present, but then this
condition lasted only a few weeks; the present situation i, likely to
last until the end of the war or until more c1 anl is available. Both
passenger and freight. rate:. have been raised -everal tilmni-, u.in g
1917.
Difficulties of Shipbuilding Industry.
Shipbuilding would have flouri-hed if a continuous.uIlpply of raw
materials could have been assured. A .-ufirient supply of lilor
existed in all the shipbuilding yards and repair -hops. Iron and -t"el
were withheld from all sources. Supplies co('ul,1 be obiai.ned onlyV
under conditions which were almost. impossible to comply with.
Domestic and neutral orders can not be filled according to contract
because of the lack of material. The high price for seagoing ves-els
has caused the Dutch yards to construct over-sea carriers in place of
*Iredgers, tugs, and canal boats. To meet the new demands, niany
yards have extended their works. At Krimpen, near Rotterdam, a.
new yard has been built to construct ferroconcrete vessels. The speed
at which orders for merchant vessels had to be filled was so great
that. few changes or development in the type of these vessels could be
madle. Fewer motor ships were launched than formerly, on account
of the lack of fuel for this type of vessel. Bunker coal could be ob-
tained, but only in limited quantities.
Additions to the Merchant Fleet.
The figures show that the Dutch fleet, was not increased by many
large ships in 1917. Placing 3,500 tons as a minimum, only 11 ves-
sels were turned out, with a total tonnage of 57,154. All of these
ships have been launched, but some have not yet been completed. The
other tonnage built consists of schooners, barges, and other small
craft. Twenty-five motor schooners were produced, with a total ton-
nage of 7,899, thus making the average schooner about 316 tons. The







NETHERLANDS.


total number of new cargo steamers built is 72, having a total meas-
urement of 102,099 tons, or an average of 1.418 tons. It must be
understood that ships of more than 2,000 ton,-, 23 in number, have
been included, thus making the average tonnage of the remaining
49 cargo ships about 879.
Of all the ships built, 13, measuring 1S,803 ton-,, were built for
Norway; 2, measuring 3,217 tons, for Denmark; and 2 ships, of 5,017
tons, for Sweden. After subtracting the number built for foreign
order, there remain only 55 ships, with a tonnage of 7I.,,III, that
were built for Dutch account.
Ships Under Construction.
The figures for the ships under construction show that few large
ships are being built for Dutch account. The large ships in the
course of construction include the steam.ships' Prinis M.l aurf. (4,300
tons), Prhi. WVillern III (4,100 tons), and Pr,'ns Willem II (4,000
tons). Two steamers, the Djambi (7,010 tons) and the Tosari (7,000
tons), are being built for the Royal West Indian Mail. The steam-
ship Palin bang (7,000 tons) is being built for the Rotterdam Lloyd,
and the Johan de Wit (9,700 tons) is in the course of inn-t ruction for
the theNhterland Co. The latter company also has ca rgo boats amount-
ing to 6,550.'' tons under construction. An order has been placed by
the Java-China-Japan Line for a large steamer, which has not yet
been begun. Besides the ships already mentioned, 12 schooners- (4,208
tons), 2 motor boats (4,000 tons each, for Norwegian order), and 108
cargo steamer- of various sizes, with a total tonnage of 170,715, are
in the course of construction. Many of the sIiips ordered are to be
sent abroad. Norway has ordered iS sliips. nmea-uiring 32,470 tons;
Denmark 1, measuring 1,017 tons; and Sweden 2, with an aggregate
tonnage of 1,467. After subtracting the i-hips ordered for foreign
account, there remain 87 ships, measuring 135.758 tons, under con-
struction for Dutch order.
Survey of Dutch Shipping.
Several shipping strikes took place in 1917, as machinists and
seamen were unwilling to go out at this dangerous time without
sufficient compensation. These difficulties were quickly settled. The
shipping improvement law went into effect and did much to better
conditions. The shipping from Holland to India and Southl America
was almost stopped. A number of shipping companies opened a
service to the Dutch Indies via the United States. Twenty-nine
steamships, with a total of 76,814 gros- registered tons, were lost
by torpedo or mines. One steam er of 2,786 tons was lost without
leaving a trace. Three steamers, measuring 14,380 tons, were requisi-
tioned by the British Government. The total loss was 94,000 gross
registered tons. Besides cargo steamers, five motor schooners, meas-
uring 5,500 gross registered ton., were sunk by Germany. Also
23 small sailing ships and 49 fi-iing boats were lost from various
causes.
Prosperous Year for Shipping Companies.
The financial balances of the old and well-eitablished companies
were very favorable in 1917. Many companies have increased their
reserves. Prices paid for new steamers were ununiilly high. At







6 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

the beginning of 1917 $160.80 was paid per ton (carrying capacity)
for a new cargo steamer of from 1,000 to 5,000 tons. The last trans-
actions of the year were for about $301.50 per ton. The fact that
fewer ships will be completed next year has tended to enhance the
financial condition of the well-established companies. The posses-
sion of ships, both now and after the war, is a very important factor.
According to statistical data compiled by the Rotterdam Chanmber
of Commerce, shipping in Dutch ports in 1917 declined more than
50 per cent, as compared with 1916. The shipping of Amsterdam is
stated to be on a level lower than it was 40 years ago (1877). The
port traffic of Rotterdam was about one-tenth of what it was in 1913.
The number of Rhine vessels arriving in Rotterdam in 1917 totaled
1,240, with a measurement of 866,236 cubic meters, as against 1,018
ships, measuring 719,313 cubic meters, in 1916. The shipping of the
port of Amsterdam decreased to 719,786 gross registered tons (1,942,-
201 tons in 1916), and that of Rotterdam to 1,310.225 net registered
tons (3,191,830 tons in 1916). The receipts for port privileges show
great, decreases. The proceeds of the port of Rotterdam are stated
to be $146,033 in 1917, as compared with 928,057 in 1913.
Foreign Trade of the Netherlands.
Dutch foreign trade statistics for 1917 have not yet. been pub-
lished, but the general trend of trade can be judged from the official
figures publlished in October, covering the first six mnontlhs of 1917.
The amounts of nearly every article imported were less than those
of the corre-ponding period in 1916. The imnlport, of grcin, iron and
steel, hides, coal, and manufactured go(,ds all show slih-tantilil de-
creases. Trade with over-sea countries, with the exception of S(andi-
navia, was only a small part of that il.s'dly recorded. Dutch export
trade with Germany wa-. fairly good. particu-iairly in agricultural
products, such as butter, cheese, eggs, and vceitabhes. Exports of
potato flour and meat to Germany continued in :ccordance with
agricultural agreements until it became evident tt l nt lain could not
be obtained from America without a chn5ilme of system. It is not
known how much the agricultural export sy-term changed during the
last six months of 1917. The export of agrill'turil products to Ger-
many is closely connected with the coal question. No great change
in exports will occur until the coal agreement entered into during
the latter part of 1917 and expiring in March., 1918, is amended or
renewed. The lack of adequate communication with the Dutch East
Indies, which was evident throughout the year. had a deterring
effect on the foreign trade.
Declared Exports to the United States.
The value of the declared exports to the United States from the
various consular districts in the Netherland! s for 1917 and the three
preceding years is given in the following table:
Ditrict 1911 1915 1916 1917

Rotterdam................................. $1O.. 15,i593 5,90.3140 "7,428,111 S3,564,036
Amsterdam .................................... 241.,M4, 322 19,475,915 37, 070, 530 20,383, 113
Schvew ingie ................... ................ 1,94, .96 2,4S, 42- 2,636,646 919,943
Flubin ........... .... .................... 8,759 58,G21 2S 373 3,500
Total.................................. 37, 53,070 7,896,100 47,163,960 24,870, 592










NETHERLANDS.


Below is given the value of the principal articles invoiced for the
United States at all consulates for the past two years:

Articles. 1916 1917 Articles. 1916 1917

Antiquities .............. ";, 9s 611 i ide, an-1 kini i ......... 3,73., li :51,31 ,,01I
Art, worls of............. 1i1,72) 32, 4sr6 Ink and in:i ponv,,r .... .,19 .. ........
Balann e.; ................. 1, 1 3 5, 2'.3 eat her. ................. 2,791 ............
Bead trimmings........... 41, S1 19, 53 Matrhei ................. 44,302 U,2 u
Beeswax................... 43,085 ............ Mat ing and mats ........ 11,453 882
Birds, canary ............. 15,838 ........... Melal m.anlactures...... 110,935 35,857
Biscuits and wafers....... 29,923 8,317 il: an.u daii I rodacts.. 318,013 72,977
Books.................... 41,982 15,766 Mineral water............. ., 662 ..........
Buttons.................. 45,243 11,764 Mo,;, ~(-.i and peat .......; 41.1,714 6,974
Chentii-als.drugs.anddye; 2,567,910 7..., ll Oiof iall kinds.......... 232,305 22,806
Coroa and cocoa butter... 1,039.301 1. ,t 6.i I'aint3 and color ......... 6?s,9T4 117,384
Coffee .................... .,74') ............ Paper and pr in ted mat itr r. 75, i0 53,878
Confe-tionery............ 23, 51 9,514 Parler tork and rags..... 4.09,06i5 158,755
Cotton goods anti laces .... 1 ;,6).341 I'9, 1) Farafin .................. 3..,r 5 ............
Diamonds, polished ...... 21, 1l, 761 16,514,43 Plant, and lulb. ......... .2, Sl, 172 1,975,593
Diamonds, rough........ IS), -4 S,i39 Rubber, india, cruid ..... Ii, 1.9 ............
Eartheu and china ware.. 1%,i.i 56,23' Seeds, itgar beet, etc..... 46, .:6J 182,432
Electric lamps and sup- SI ices.................... 1'.3, 11 50,166
pliet ................. 344. 27 10, .I Spiiritl ..................3. 1, 210 130,382
FertiLid ers ................ 74, 2I1 1 i Iil St arin, ril h ............ 11, 7 2 ... .. ....
Fit ers and textilegrasses. 23,631 13.,0ll Straw cov.rs.............. 3i,040 22,132
iiLrous fajIri- .. .......... ... Tob:a -o.................. 8,6 ', 1 2,U. 1,:97
1 ilm s......... ..... ..... 1 6 5 ............. I \ ge able; ............... 4., .35 .,
Furs and Ifr skins........ 194, 'y7 5. 111 \V\'ood and ratij n manu-
Class and glassware ...... 2r,,2114 30, 412 factor ................ 121,93.- 18,682
.lo'e ................... 1,15 .. ...... Yarn, Turkil-.i cd ........ 1-.1,29 35,965
Glue and glue size........ 221,3I ]"7, 2 1 > All other arlicle:..... .... 1i2,5> 93,437
Gold and sil'-er ware..... 13,36 2,5,2 -
Herring, picklll.d......... 1,639,214 1,7,449 Totil. ............ 17, 10,960 24,870,592

Exports from the Netherlands to the Philippines amounted to
$135.3-2 in 1916 and $75,65S in 1917; to Hawaii, $13,883 in 1916 and
$9,727 in 1917; and to Porto Rico, $4,551 in 1916 and $5,620 in 1917.
There was a notable decrease in Dutch goods sent to the United
States in all important lines in 1917, compared with the amounts
exported in 1916. The greatest decreases were in chemicals, drugs,
dyes, cocoa, polished diamond-, electrical goods, pickled herring,
hides, leather, paints, paper stock, spirits, plants and bulbs, and
tobacco. The increases were comparatively small and of no great
consequence. Exports of the following articles slightly increased:
Cotton goods and laces, earthen and china ware, and fibers and textile
grasses.
Shipments to United States from Rotterdam.
The following table gives the quantity and value of the principal
articles declared at the consulate general at Rotterdam for shipment
to the United States in 1916 and 1917:

1916 1917
Articles.
Quan nity. Value. Quantity. Value.

Art, works of.........r... ................... ........... .... ... .. $20,73 ............ )2,62
Beeswax............................... .. 110,933 43,085 ..........pounds.. 110.........
Birds, canary ...................................... ..... ... .. 15, S3 .......... .... ...
Chemicals. drugs, and dyes...................pounds.. 1.2.7,153 44,76 ............ 11294
Dairy products:
Cheese................................... do.... 264.457 72.396 ........... ........
Milk, condensed .............................d .... 3, 15, 41S 233,-52 6.351,.5; 722,774
Earthen and china ware..................... ...... ............. 15,209 ............ 51,491
Electric lamps, incandescent, including bulbs, I
number........................................... 2,050,.897 320,4-I 79,461 10,356
Fertilizers.................................... tons..n 954 71,211 331 60,990
Fibers and textile grasses....................pounds.. S3,583 23,63 43,242 103,011
Fibrous fabrics ......................square yards.. 111,618 16,323 ....................


4 .: '..-t..:..** ..


-Am* *









SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


Articles.


Furs ian ftir skis ........................... number..
Glass and glassware .......................square feet..
Glue and glue sie ................ ...........pounds..
(;old and silver ware.................................
Hides:
Calf-
Dry................................pounds..
Salted ............................. d....
Cattle ............... .......................do....
Ink arnd ink powder...................................
lion, in:.hinery, etc..................................
Matehc ..........................................eross..
Matting and mats.....................square yards..
Metal manufactures ...................................
Moss, peat .................................... tons..
Paints and colors........................... pounds..
Paper and printed mat tor........................ do....
]'Paper stock and rags...........................do....
Paratlin........................................do....
Plants and bulbs:
Bulb,s and oower roots ............... .......mille..
Nursery stock .....................................
S.cclharin.................................. pounds..
Seeds, sugar beet, etc.......................... do....
Ss......................................... .....do....
iirll-............................................gallons..
It ra,.- covers..........................................
Tobacco leaf................................. pounds..
Ve-etables.........................................
Woi'u and rattan manufactures.......................
Yarn, Turkish red...........................pounds..
All other articles..................................
Total............................................


1916 1917

Quantity. Value. Quantity. Value.

579,641 $194,976 .......... $5,400
25,600 26,214 ........... 30,200
804,199 208,300 ......................
............ 13,236 ............ 2,582

176,955 107,962 45,595 37,305
2,765,Q10 786, 5S 1,271,578 451,837
3,933,777 865,765 672,084 191,277
............ 75, 1 9 ............ ............
............ 3,191 ............ 4,296
95,000 44,302 20,000 9,200
23,757 11.453 534 882
............ 1 79 ............ 3,691
1,965 19,063 302 3,308
4,708, 135 439,644 1,122,205 72,467
47,264 14,4,3 111,200 24,862
3,364,240 13i,K.7 911,083 45,647
12S, 798 30., 095 ......................
29S,434 1, 73, 551 186,008 1,690,466
............ 893,554 ............ 168,380
1,331 8. 42 .......................
357,372 72,,69 1,124,750 89,096
32,554 4,700 66,865 12,476
314,601 170,670 60,7S7 58,007
............ 33,0-0 ............ 22,132
23,757 24, 09 79,926 86,039
............ 26, 1 ............ 8,039
........... 46. 5 6 ............ 12,615
66,539 45,029 46,206 35,965
............ 035,90 ............ 83,65S
............ 7, 42S,11 ........... 3,564,036


There were no exports invoiced at the consulate general at Rotter-
dam for Porto Rico in 1917. In 1916 the value of the exports
amounted to only $2,002. Shipments to the Philippine Islands in
1917 were valued at $32,730, as compared with $12,044 in 1916.
Exports to Hawaii in 1917 amounted to $6,787, as against $13,053
in 1916.
Declared exports from the American consular agency at Flushing
to the United States in 1917 amounted to $3,500, as compared with
$28,2373 in 1916. This notable decrease was largely due to the sus-
pension of shipping conmunuication between Flushing and Great
Britain. The value of exports invoiced at The Hague for ship-
ment to the United States during 1917 was $922,526, as compared
with $2,037,475 in 1916. The greatest decreases in The Hague re-
turns were in chemicals and pickled herring. The most notable in-
crease was in polished diamonds, the export of which increased in
value to $241,805 in 1917, as compared with $S5,710 in 1916. No
declared export statistics have been received from the consular agent
at Luxemburg, because of the lack of communication due to the war.
The Hide and Leather Trade.
Many new influences were noticeable in the hide and leather trade
in 1917. Business was greatly restricted because of decreased im-
ports, shipping difficulties, and enormous freights. On account of
the high prices prevailing during the first part of 1917 the Dutch
Government put new distributive measures for the leather trade into
force on April 1. The orders issued by the Government covered
the following among other subjects: Maximum prices for Dutch








NETITERLANDS.


hides, control of the prices for repair leather, and the requisition
of tanning materials. As a result of these regulations the whole
leather trade was greatly disturbed. The price changes that were
introduced were remarkable. For instance, domestic hides that
were selling at from $0.26 to $0.27 per 2.2046 pounds were forced
down to $0.18. Shipments from abroad were quite unsatisfactory
during the i;it half year, and during the second half year no im-
ports from abroad --ere marketed. Many of the few shipments
which came on the market d;'ring the opening months of the year
were goods which had been held up for m.-nths by regulations of the
Netherlands Overseas Trust.
Great numbers of domestic hides were placed upon the ,~iri'ket as
a result of the November slaughtering. Poor tanning materials were
used, so that these hides could not be sold at the maximum prices.
Java hides brought good prices, but the trade in these was limited
to a few orders that had been held up from 1916. The fluctuation in
the price of South American hides was not Targe. The trade in
tanning extracts was good, but all sales were dependent upon condi-
tions imposed by the Netherlands Overseas Trust and the Govern-
ment distribution agencies. New maximum prices for leather of all
kinds were officially announced on December 8. On December 14
new distribution regulations were published, covering the trade in
oak bark for tanning. According to statistics gathered by a large
wholesale dealer more than $3,000,000 worth of hides, leather, and
tanningr materials are held in the United States for Dutch account.
Dealers claim that. these consignments were paid for a year or two
ago. Due to the lack of imports from abroad Dutch hides are more
appreciated than formerly. The local tanneries of light sole leather,
upper leather, and harness leather have been enlarged.
Trade in Tanning Materials.
American tanning extracts and leather-dyeing materials are well
and favorably known in the Netherlands. At the beginning of the
war this trade was largely augmented because goods could not be
obtained from other sources and the American qualities were excel-
lent. Recently, owing to the war, shipments have stopped, and the
trade has come to a standstill. From the standpoint of future trade
relations, it is unfortunate that regular shipments could not have
continued in 1917. Dutch tanneries were forced to close their doors
for several months because of the insufficient supply of tanning ex-
tracts. Finally, Swedish and Austrian goods had to be accepted at
exceedingly high prices in order to satisfy the demands of the Dutch
Army and to produce enough leather for repair purposes. The com-
petition in this branch will be keen after the war, and the connec-
tions established now will have the advantage.
Official Agencies Distribute Leather.
Since Holland produces only one-third of its needs in upper
leather, and as other sources of supply were cut off in 1917, prices
became abnormal, and the Government was obliged to establish offi-
cial agencies and institute new regulations. Exceedingly high prices
were also asked for local products. Consequently, at the initiative of
the Minister for Agriculture, Industry, and Trade, the Ryks Dis-
50823l-1S--9a-2







SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


tribute voor Huiden en Leder (Government Distribution Agency
for Hides and Leather) was established to control the whole leather
industry. The so-called Leder Vereeniging (Leather Association)
was a subsidiary organization, which had to do only with the distribu-
tion of sole leather. In 1917 an agreement was reached between the
IRyks Distriblitic voor Huiden en Leder and the tanners. by which
the. latter were obliged to give up their goods at the low prices fixed
by the Governlment. These regulations were established so suddenly
that many difficulties occurred in the trade during the first few weeks.
After lhe leather distrlbntion regulations of September, 1917, 400
metric tons of le:tfhrc' were given out to small dealers. In the begin-
ning --a5 pounds of leather were defined as a wholesale purchase, and
Tih profits thereon were limited to 5 per cent. Under the same regu-
lation 550 pounds were defined as retail trade, and profits were limited
to 10 per cent. Naturally, many wholesalers became retailers for the
time being, in order to make the larger profit. The Government
quickly corrected the mistake, changing the 551-pound limit to 220
pounds. The latter amount. was so small that it would not pay any
wholesaler to change the nature of his business for the profit in-
volved. An effort, was also made by the Government to regulate the
manufacture and sale of shoes. This question was not entirely settled
at the close of 1917, but it is hoped that a decision will be reached in
the first part of 1918.
Besides the official agencies above mentioned, the Central Asso-
ciation of Hide and Leather Exchanges was established at Rotter-
dam on October 16, 1917, in order to alleviate conditions in the leather
trade. Much is expected from this organization in assisting the in-
dustry. The Central Association begins operation on January 1,
1918. The purpose of the organization is to protect the interests of
the leather trade, to determine and regulate market conditions, and
to formulate arbitration stipulations. The royal approval for this
association was obtained in the early autumn of 1917.
The Rotterdam Tobacco Market.
Few tobacco shipments reached the Rotterdam market during
1917, because of transportation difficulties. This condition caused
an accumulation of stocks in the Dutch East. Indies. Good prices
were obtained at Rotterdam by those fortunate enough to have large
stocks on hand. During the last year or two expert knowledge of
the tobacco trade has been largely replaced by speculation. Of the
1916 Java crop, representing about 600,000 packs, scarcely one-third
has been received in Holland. About one-half of the Sumatra crop,
estimated at 237,000 packs in 1916, is expected to arrive on the Dutch
market. Imports from all other sources have practically come to a
standstill. The foreign trade in tobacco from Holland to other
European countries is much less than before the war. In 1917 Aus-
tria bought only small quantities in Holland. Swedish buyers bought
several fine lots of Sumatra. Business with Switzerland was very
limited. Since the British have been supplying themselves from
other sources, only a few buyers appeared on the Dutch market.
German buyers bought only about 40 per cent of the quantity that
they purchased in normal years. About 20,000 packs of Sumatra
and a few thousand packs of Java tobacco were shipped to America
during 1917. Besides the amount above mentioned, American buy-


10







NETHER LANDS.


ers subwriled to 9,000 .acks of the old crop during the opening
monthly of 1917. During the yeair everything reasonablly possible
was done to supply the Dutch trade. Due to the limited supply on
hand, rises in prices were inevitable. The high prices and the lack of
supplies from other sources caused the local cigarette industry to
flourish. A bill to place a 10 per cent excise tax on the retail tobacco
Irade was favorably considered.
Decreased Foreign Trade in Plants and Bulbs.
Bulb producers were impeded in making foreign sales in 1917,
as England, Germany, and Austlria closed their frontier.- to the entry
of bulbs and transportation connections with Russia and the United
States were most uncertain. The Scandinavian countries bought
only under the condition that enough coal should be provided by
the exporter to keep the bulbs warm in transit. This condition was
very difficult to meet on account of the great lack of fuel in Holland.
As a whole, the business of the year was not poor, considering the
markets that were open. The export trade to Scandinavia continued,
but Germany and Austria, after long negotiations, could be induced
to admit., only a small proportion of the bulbs purchased in normal
times. Shipments to the United States were still possible, but the
total amount exported was far below that of normal times. The
culture of hyacinths did not pay for the costs incurred. At the end
of the shipping season large amounts of bulbs of all kinds remained,
which could not be shipped. The increased' cost of manure and
fertilizers, as well as raw inaterial,, was not recompens)ed by a pro-
portional advance in prices. The Government discouraged bulb
production by favoring the use of the lowlands for the production of
grain and food products. The acreage planted to bulbs in 1917 was
less than formerly. The Dutch Government began to regulate the
exportation of bulbs in September, and permits had to be obtained
for all exports. At one time since the war began, bulbs were uedl
for fodder for cattle and other abnormal purposes. Cooperative
drying houses were established in 1917, so that producers could renp
the profit of their labor-.
Decreased Stocks of Tin.
Rotterdam tin merchants state that the market remained closed
during 1917. Banka tin, which had been imported by the Nether-
lands Trading Society, was sold only for home consumption. The
remainder of the Banka production was sold in Batavia, Java.
The Billiton Co. sold most of its tin in Batavia and Singapore.
The supply of Banka spot in Holland on December 31, 1917, amounted
to 14,040 slabs, and deliveries during 1917 totaled 27,023 slabs. The
unsold stock of Banka in the hands of the Netherlands Trading
Society at the end of the year was stated to be 21,093 slabs or 703
tons. No export statistics on tin have been published by the Govern-
ment. Several Rotterdam firms have decided to suspend their
monthly tin reports, on account of the absence of data and the local
character of the trade.
Proposed Steel Industry.
During 1917 the erection of blast. furnaces and steel works in the
Netherlands was seriously considered. A bill was introduced before
the States General, provid1in!E that the Governmient should sub-






SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS. '


scribe part of the capital to form a joint-stock company for this
purpose. It was proposed that the State participate in the company
to the amount of $3,015,000. The demand for Government support
w ba based on the ground of general interest and the future possibili-
ties of such an industry. The products of this company would be
particularly valuable in the shipbuilding and kindred industries. It
was generally admitted that all or part of the necessary raw mate-
rials could be obtained in Holland.
If a steel plant is erected, it will probably be built at one of the
large shipping centers near the coast, where iron and steel are
necessary for shipbuilding, bridge building, boiler construction, and
naval purposes. Certainly cheap internal transportation by water
exists, and at present there is no doubt about the demand for iron
and steel in the Netherlands. If enough ore can not be produced
locally, then certain amounts can be imported, just as has been done
in the Westphalian industry. Ores have been shipped to Germany
through Holland for many years. Coal, as well as iron ore, is avail-
able in the Limburg mines. The amount to be produced has been
placed at about 150,000 tons, of which from 100,000 to 120,000 tons
would be used for shipbuilding. A part of the production would
be turned to raw iron. Plans for the erection of branches and by-
works have also been drawn up. The new company would be entirely
Dutch in character and have a capital stock of $9,849,000. The con-
sensus of opinion seems to favor deferring the building of the works
until normal times ensue. The building of steel works is only one
of the plans developed recently, having as their object the strength-
ening of the industrial position of the Dutch nation.
Market for Lard, Oils, and Fats-Increase in Prices.
The year 1917 was very unsatisfactory for Rotterdam dealers in
oils and fats. The participation of America in the war caused fur-
ther restriction of trade in these lines. In January. 1917. a few
cargoes arrived from over-sea countries, but later the market was
forced to rely upon England and local production for raw materials.
Shipments came from England only in exchange for margarine. The
terms of American offers varied at different times during 1917; at
first these offers were c. i. f. Rotterdam, but later offers fixed a
maximum freight, base and excluded war risk. Finally, all offers
ceased, and previous contracts were canceled. The price of animal
fats in America was so high that Dutch margarine manufacturers
found it profitable to establish branch factories in the United States.
At the beginning of 1917 extra oleo was bought at $51.46 per 100
kilos (220 pounds), exclusive of war risk. Subsequently, purchasers
paid $06-.32, and at the close of the year American quotations for
oleo ran up to $76.3S. Neutral lard was sold at $47.03 c. i. f. Rotter-
dam during January, 1917, but later the price -oared to $57.89. At
the close of the year even higher prices were obtained for this
product, corresponding to those paid for oleo. South American beef
premier jus was the only article that changed hands frequently at
comparatively low prices. At the beginning of 1917. first quality
jus was quoted at $11.41, but then ro.e to $5.2.66. and later brought
$54.27. Prices of local jus stocks were as high as $55.07. American
cotton oil was bought in large quantities in January (1917) at $15.50
per 100 pounds c. i. f. Rotterdam, or from $13 to $13.75 f. o. b. New








NETHERLANDS.


York. Most of the orders placed at the beginning of 1917 have not
reached Rotterdam up to now. The following table shows the
amounts of animal fats and vegetable oils that arrived and were
consumed in the Netherlands in 1916 and 1917:

Articles. 1916 1917

Arrived: Tons. Tons.
Animal fats.......................... ............ ................. 50,617 9,668
V-'tbler bits :I nd oils (..'lu'i n i ec.I oil)................................ 4 4 488 71,117
Seeds, unut, tc........ ............ ....... ................................. 209,448 **, 112
conullmcd :
Fresh butter.. ........................ ............... .................... 29,100 30,000
Marcarine ............................................................... 31,100 32,000
Edible fats.................................................................. 17,500 21,250

Conditions in Margarine Trade.
The demand for margarine, which has always been large in the
Netherlands, increased during 1917. When butter became more ex-
pensive, during the latter part of the year, householders nsl-Ted to
cover their needs in margarine. The Government recognized the diffi-
culty that margarine manufacturers were having to obtain raw ma-
terials and decided to organize the distribution of fats and to art as
a buyer for raw products. A few purchases of South Americ';ln beef
jus were made, but to date none have been received. If fresh sup-
plies of fats are not received, margarine manufacturers can not c'in-
tinue their former rate of production, and even the domestic supplyy
of margarine will be threatened. In 1917, 1,760,000 hundredweilght
of margarine were exported to England, as compared with 2,751,000
hundredweight in 1916. Several important Dutch manufacturers
have begun to produce margarine in England as a result of shiplingl
difficultie-. Efforts along the same line are being made in the United
States, where factories are in the course of construction.
Market for American Machine Tools.
There was practically no trade in American machine tool: in 1917,
as the goods that were ordered and paid for did not reach Rotterldalm.
In former years American tools have been the best on the market.
The trade prospered until America entered the war, when all regular
supplies were cut off. The amount of goods shipped to Holland was
not large as compared with the total American production, but the
discontinuance of shipments affects the future prospects of Amerian
manufactures in Holland. Many Swiss and Scandinavian manu-
facturers are now operating in Holland. Germany is also sending
considerable amounts of tools in order to make a bid for the future
trade.
American Petroleum and Lubricating Oils-Naval Stores.
Private firms have had little to do with the petroleum trade
recently; the Government has had entire charge of the distribution,
and free trade is no longer possible. The maximum petroleum price
fixed by the Government is $0.71 per gallon. In several places
petroleum was sold at $0.40 per gallon, as a result of special arrange-
ments made by the city, town, or community. Many complaints arose
concerning the distribution methods, and efforts were made by the
petroleum commission to introduce more regularity. The supply of
petroleum on hand on January 1, 1918. was very small, amounting






SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


to about 75,000 barrels. In normal times thi. amount is not enough
to last for one month, but with the regulations that have been insti-
tuted, it will last much longer.
At the close of 1917 there was a dearth of lubricating oils in the
Netherlands, small supplies having been received from America and
England during the year. Conditions are such that no further ship-
ments are expected from these sources. Negotiations are now penl-
ing for the importation of petroleum and lubricating oils from
Austria.
Dutch imports of turpentine and.rosin came to a standstill he-
cause of shipping difficulties and the restrictions on exportation in-
augurated by several producing, countries. Prices in Holland in-
creased enormously. At the beginning of the year the rosin market
opened at $9.85 per 110 pounds, but prices increased to $40.20. A
few turpentine shipments were received during January and Feb-
ruary, but these were bought, at various prices ranging from $16.08
to $;0.15 per 110 pounds. The Government fixed the maximum
price on turpentine in December, 1917, at. $1.21 per 2.2 pounds. Only
new imports are needed to revive the trade in turpentine, rosin, and
indigo. The following table shows the status of the Rotterdam trade
in turpentine in 1917, as compared with 1916 and 1915:
Items. 1915 1916 1917

Barrdl. Barrdl. Burrls.
Supply on January 1............................................... 293 3, 464 S94
Imports............................................................ 14,19.3 10,045 4,020
:eliveries.......................................................... 11,022 12,635 4, 939
Supply on December 31 ............ ................................... 3,461 991 75

Other Imports Affected by War.
There were no imports of rum and arrack, as the importation of
these articles was prohibited. A lively trade developed in the goods
on hand.
Several consignments of dried fruit were purchased in the United
States in 1917 but failed in shipment and are warehoused in New
York for the buyer's account. The dried fruit sold in Holland was
composed of parcels received before the Netherlands Overseas Trust
restrictive, measures went into force. On January 1, 1918, the sup-
plies of foreign dried fruit were practically exhausted. The market
,an be regained when shipping space is again obtainable.
Since, no shipments of American plumbing fixtures arrived on the
market, German manufacturers have made sales where they never
found a market before. A few importers of American plumbing
supplies have been loyal enough to their former connections not to
handle the German sllbstitutes, and these firms should be treated
with consideration when the war is over.
All purchases of flour for Dutch account in 1917 were in the hands
of tlhe Government. Only two tenders of American flour were held
during the year, at each of which about 100,000 sacks were bought.
It was not. possible to hold other tenders on account of conditions
after the entry of the United States into the war.
Efforts to Protect the Grain Supply.
The Dutch Minister of Agriculture, Industry, and Commerce 1pub-
lished a -tatement in January, 1918, which contained the following







NETHERLANDS.


faces relative to the grain supply at the close of 1917: The stocks on
hand on January 1, 1918, were 77,889 tons (metric) of wheat, 14,7.5
tons of flour, and 4,000 tons of maize, making a total of 96,613 tons
of foreign breadlstuffs. Of the home crops only wheat and rye are
suitable for making bread. Figuring on the basis of the quantity
produced in 1916, the domestic wheat crop would amount to 70,000
tons and the rye crop to 120,000 tons, but 10 per cent of these
amounts must be reserved for seed or can not be collected for other
reasons. On January 1, 1918, the Government had distributed 2?3,500
tons of wheat and 80,000 tons of rye of the home crop; thus 46,500
tons of wheat and 40,000 tons of rye remained to be distributed. At
the close of the year Holland had a total supply of 183,143 ton., in-
cluding foreign breadstuffs. At the present ration, 50,000 tons are
required for three bread cards, covering a period of 33 days. The
stock on hand is therefore sufficient to last until March 1, 1918, if
only the grain on hand is used. If the grain that is expected to
arrive is included in this estimate, there is enough to last until the
latter part of April.
On January 1, 1918, 30,000 tons of potato flour were available for
distribution.1 If this amount is added to the brenadtuffs on hand, the
supply is sufficient to la-t until the middle of May. The brend ra-
tion must be reduced if foreign shipments do not arrive before the
next crop. Premiums have been offered for the planting of potatoes
in 1918.
Fodder Shortage.
Ba rley and oats are chiefly used for fodder, but partly for articles
of human consumption. The quantities on hand at the close of 1917
include. 3,720 tons of foreign barley and 4,759 tons of foreign oats.
The home crops yielded 40,000 tons of barley and 212,000 tons of
oats. Ten per cent of the latter amounts must be reserved for -eed,
and 2;20,000 tons have been reserved to the farmers for fodder. A
part, of the remainder will go to the army, and the amounts left over
will be distributed for the preparation of oatmeal, prepared barley,
aind yeast. The prepared barley and yeast factories require 50,000
tons of barley per annum. The oatmeal factories use 15,000 tons of
oats. Furthermore, yeast and honey-cake factories need 30,000 tons
of rye, and 15,000 tons of the same product must be reserved for the
feeding of draft horses. The above statistics explain why there was
no fodder available recently for young cattle, pigs, and farm horses.
The poultry rations were also very small. The stocks of linseed cake
and artificial fodder cake are sufficient, so that, with care, they will
last until the meadow season arrives. For various purposes 12.000
tons of cake must be distributed monthly. On January 1, 1918, 36,-
444 tons of American fodder cake and 15,000 tons of other kinds were
on hand. Oilseeds collected by the Government will admit of the
manufacture of S,000 tons of cake, thus bringing the total amount of
cake available up to 60,000 tons.
Dairy Produce, Meats, and Fats.
Enough butter and cheese were on hand or could be produced at
the close of the year, so that there was no anxiety on this score. The
supply of these products is said to be so adequate that considerable
quantities can be exported in exchange for raw materials. The veg-







SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


etable crop in 1917 was very satisfactory, and the prospects are favor--
able for another good crop in 1918. The pork supply is quite inade-
quiate. A temporary lief in this line was brought about by forbid-
ding the use of p6irk in the manufacture of sausage. An extensive
cattle -allaghler was authorized in the fall of 1917. The lack of fod-
der and the diminishing cattle stocks have caused high prices for
meat and cattle. The egg production has been unsatisfactory for
several months, and the prospects are that it will not improve,
because of ilnsufficient, chicken feed. Large amounts of poultry were
killed during the last few months of 1917. In regard to fats and
similar raw materials, little anxiety need be felt for the home market,
but foreign exports of margarine and other products may suffer.
Urgent Need of Fertilizers.
In nearly all parts of the Netherlands the soil shows the urgent
need of fertilizers. The war has necessitated that the land be used
for the amrne purpo'e.- for several years, and not enough foreign fer-
tilizers could be imported to prevent a deterioration of the soil. The
Government made an appeal to agriculturalists, urging them to plow
up meadow lands. This appeal met a ready response, but the action
calimeoo late. On account. of the condition of the land and the man-
ner in which it has been utilized, it is not thought that sufficient
bread grain can be produced next year. The arable land, or the land
under cultivation, has increased in 1917, but the yield has not in-
creased proportionally. All authorities agree that the production of
foodstuffs will fall off in the future, on account of the exhaustion of
the soil. The potato crop in 1918 will be particularly effected. The
efforts to import phosphate from America were unsuccessful, on ac-
count of the shipping situation. Regardless of the effect on the soil,
the grain that is most needed must be planted, and agriculturalists
will try to repair the damage to the soil whenl the war is over.
Distribution Difficulties and Costs.
Distribution has been divided into three parts, namely, that neces-
sary for foodstuffs, fuel, and cleaning materials. The Government has
encountered difficulties because of the fact that the money appro-
priated for distribution purposes was voted for one purpose only,
while the greatest need was in another direction. The Minister of
Agriculture illustrates this situation by showing how beef could not
be distributed, since it was not specifically mentioned in the applropria-
tion bill. It is not the Government's intention now to distribute beef,
but to supply standard sausage which is a combination of pork and
beef.
Another subject of discussion is how far the principle of distribu-
tion -lhould be carried. Some authorities state that. foodstuffs should
be distributed only to the very poor, others to the middle class, and
still others claim that distribution should be made to the entire popu-
lation. The Minister of Agriculture favors the latter view but is
endeavoring to reduce costs to the minimum. The plan of raising
the price of fuel (that is, excess fuel above the quota) above the cost
price has had to be t;ihandoned.
The total amount of money necessary for the distribution of food
is estimated at $ii.I;40.S00. Nine-tenths of the distribution costs will
be borne by the State. Provisionally only half of the amount needed








NETHERLANDS.


was asked for. Besides the amount mentioned above, $7, -';.100 \\;i-
requested for the apportioning of fuel and $2,43:,100 for the par-
ticipation of the State in the Central Compensation Bureau. Ac-
cording to the present. arrangement, the latter amount is later to In-
returned to the State. The provisional balance of the State Central
Administration Bureau shows distribution expenditures in 1917 to
the amount of $38,465,616. The amount of $3,117,000 must be added
to the amount mentioned above for the distribution of natural rod-
ucts, thus bringing the total amount expended up to $41,.S82,616.
Sugar Industry Under Government Control.
Considerable anxiety was felt in the opening months of 1917 as to
the manner in which the sugar industry was being miiiiag'ed by till
private firms concerned. Finally the Government, was obliged to
intervene in controlling the amount exported and in fixing mIai-
mum prices for domestic sales. The amount exported in 1916 was
so large that a scarcity existed during the last month, before the 1917
sugar harvest was available. The Government decided to control
the production of sugar by establishing a Sugar Society (Suiker-
vereeniging), which was to fix all prices for consumption and to
regulate the quantity to be exported. The extra prices levied on
sugar for exportation were. to go to the profit of the Government,
and to offset these high prices the sugar for consumption was kept
at a relatively low figure. For example, white granulated sugar for
consumption was fixed at $20.70 per 220 pounds, while sugar for
industrial purposes was sold at $26.73. These prices include the
sugar excise tax. Sugar refiners receive $7.24 per 220 pounds for
raw sugar and $9.25 for white sugar, plus $4.02, which is the bounty
levied by the Government. Private business in sugar is largely re-
stricted for the time being. The total sugar production of the
Netherlands from the 1917 harvest will amount, to about 200,000 ton.:,
which is about equal to the last French crop. Although the Dutch
crop was not quite up to expectations, the supply was better con-
trolled, so that the market is better supplied than in 1916. The sup-
ply of sugar on hand in the Netherlands, according to private sta-
tistics, was 106,848 tons on December 1, 1917, as compa red with
77.184 tons in 1916 and 86,800 tons in 1915.
Control of the Milk Supply.
A reduction of tlhe milk supply was nece.-..ary during 1917, par-
ticularly in the most populous districts; however, the Government
considers that the supply is sufficient to cover the normal needs of
the population. On October 15, 1917, new milk regulations went into
effect. The maximum price for producers was fixed at $0.058 per
liter in the first milk zone and $0.056 per liter in the second zone.
The maximum price for consumers was $0.06 per liter, or $0.012 more
than under the former regulations. Maximum prices were also fixed
for pasteurized, sterilized, and condensed milk. In several localities,
particularly in the larger cities, there was a scarcity of milk. The
Government is endeavoring to correct this injustice and admits that
the amount delivered per person in some places was too small. The
slaughter of milk cattle during the second half of 1917 was detri-
mental to the milk supply, and many authorities think that, if the
same practice continues, less milk will be available than at present.






SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


The Fishing Industry,
In 1917 the same general tendencies in herring fishing were notice-
able as in 1916. The exports decreased, and fewer ships put to sea.
The fishing districts were greatly restricted as a result of the ruthless
sulminarine warfare introduced on February 1. The fishers were in-
convenienced by both groups of belligerents. The English-Dutch
herring cofitract of 1916 was not. renewed when the season began.
Germany wanted a higher percentage of the catch than it received in
1916. England would not consider a proposition which gave greater
privileges to Germany. Therefore an agreement, could not be
reached defining the fishing district. As the war progresses, greater
difficulties in satisfying the various fishing interests when new con-
tracts are to be made are foreseen.
On October 1, 1917, the herring fishing business was practically at
a standstill. In September only a small number of ships put to sea,
several from Vlaardingen, one or two from Scheveningen, and a few
from Maassluis and Katwyk. The danger to ships and crews was
the deterring factor. The Government may be induced to institute
measures to encourage sailing, in view of the increasing cost of food
supplies. The losses incurred by the fisher.- in ships, supplies, etc.,
were so large in 1916 that a part of the profits had to go to replenish
lost material. No improvement was evident in this regard in 1917;
if anything, the condition was slightly worse. The reserves of the
fishers are diminishing, and small amounts are available to cover
future losses. The coming of peace is the only thing that can bring
continued prosperity to the herring fishers.
Most Dutch salmon is sold on the Rotterdam market. This in-
dustry was more satisfactory in 1917 than in 1916. The prices at
the fish market were higher than formerly, owing to the general
increase in the cost of living. The total number of salmon caught
in 1917 was 18,666, as compared with 16,491 in 1916. April was the
best month for winter salmon, and July was the best for the summer
variety. As a whole, salmon fishing has diminished in Holland dur-
ing the last decade or two. There were years, 30 or 40 years ago,
when the catch was four times as large as it was in 1917.

THE HAGUE.
By Vice Consul A. C. Nelson, March 1.
Owing to restrictions the fishing industry of the Netherlands was
seriously interfered with during 1917. The catch was largely
bought by the Government in advance in order to provide the poor
people with food, the fish being bought at a fixed price by the Gov-
ernment and sold to the poor at ordinary pre-war prices. This plan
has caused the Government an expenditure of $4.000,000. A com-
paratively small quantity of the catch is supposed to have been
exported to Germany.
Of the 800 drift-net vessels, more than 200 were employed in
trawl fishing. About 20 vessels faced the dangers of drift-net fishing
for herring, but 6 of them were destroyed and the rest lost the
greater part of their drift nets. The total catch of herring during
the year 1917 (from February to December) amounted to 1,279
barrels by 24 vessels, against 766,975 barrels by 850 vessels in 1916,







NETHERLANDS--THE HAGIUE.


660,120 barrels by 707 vessels in 1915, and 5160,-_1 bunrols by ;i5
vessels in 1914.
The declared export of fish to the United States during the year
1917 was as follows: Pickled herring, 2,759,o0,3 pounds, valued at
$187,449; smoked herring. 14,740 pounds, valued at $708; and pickled
sardels 2,435 pounds, valued at $1.292. The total value was $1S9.449,
as against $1,694,004 in 1916.
Government Controls Supply of Breadstuffs.
A bill is now before the Dutch House of Representatives, by which
the Government asks for a sum of $!9,000,000 to provide food for
the people at reasonable prices during the year 1918. The purpose
of this bill, as proposed by the Minister of Agriculture, Industry,
and Commerce, is to fix a maximum price on all necessities and to
cover from the budget the eventual loss of the dealers in these com-
modlities.
The distribution of bread is regulated by cards for each individual,
containing coupons for 5.94 pounds of bread to last 11 days. Two
-orts of Iread are di-triliuted. "Bruinbrood" (brown bread) con-
sists in the main of wheat ground with the bran and mixed with
flour made from rye, corn, harley, or potatoes. "Wittebrood" (white
bread) consists of real wheat flour and a mixture as stated above
for the brown bread. It is not permitted to use milk in either sort.
The maximum price for brown bread is 4 cents and for white bread
6 cents a pound.
Naturally, the Goverinment has control of all supplies of grain,
and it is calculated that the quantity on hand will last until May.
As to the crop of 1918, all possible precautions are taken, such as
increasing the planted area of grain and prohibiting the use of grain
for cattle fodder and brewing.
Maximum Prices of Beef-Other Meats and Fish.
Me;it is not placed under distribution, but since February 20 a
maximum price has been fixed for beef. The following mnaximuii
prices are those now ruling for beef per kilo (bones not included) :
Tenderloini $1..0; round steak, $1.12; salted, $0.52; roasts, $1.04;
liver, $0Y.0: kidneys, $0.20; tongue, $0.80; and soup bones, $0.04.
Veal and mutton are not under distribution, nor are any maximum
prices- fixed for these sorts of meat. Hollanders do not as a rule like
mut!tonll and for that reason large, quantities are at hand. Holland
is a great sheep-raising country, on account of the demand for wool
here and for mutton in England. Young mutton sold here last sum-
mer for 30 cents a pound for the best sort and as low as 17 cents for
the inferior sorts. The price now is 28 cents. Veal is selling for from
50 to 70 cents for meat without bones and fronim 20 to 25 cents for
meat with bones.
The farmers have during the last year abandoned the raising of
hogs to a very great extent, on account of the lack of feedstuffs, con-
sequently pork is very scarce and hardly to be found in the butcher
shops any more. The Government buys all the hogs available and
apportions them among the different municipalities; these divide
their allowance among the dealers, and these again among their cus-
tomers. Prices for pork range at present from 20 to 28 cents a
pound.







SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


Experiments have recently been made to produce a standard
sausage, which will soon be in the market. It consists of pork and
beef (mainly of the latter) and will be sold at a very low price.
Salt-water fish is very scarce and expensive, but fresh-water fish
is plentiful and reasonably priced. The Government has preserved
a large amount of pickled herring, which is being sold at 2- cents
each.
Distribution of Other Food Supplies.
Since last fall the maximum price for butter has been $1.40 per
kilo (2.2 pounds). Butter is as yet not under distribution, but the
dealers are instructed not to sell more than the usual quantities to
their customers.
Milk has recently been placed under distribution. Only one-
fourth of a liter is now allowed each person a day. Exceptions
have been made to this rule in regard to babies and sick persons.
Margarine is produced in considerable quantities in Holland.' Sev-
eral of the factories are furnishing England with their products and
are getting sufficient raw material. The maximum price is 20 cents
a pound. Margarine is not as yet placed under distribution.
Fresh eggs are now sold for from 5 to 6 cents each, according to
size; preserved eggs sell for 4 cents each. These are maximum prices
fixed from time to time according to the supply in the country.
Once a week a person can buy a certain quantity of peas, beans,
edible fats, soap, etc., at reasonable prices by presenting coupons
issued from time to time. IMaximum prices per kilo (2.2 pounds) for
some of these articles are as follows: Peas, $0.09; beans; $0.11; edible
fats, $1.14; and lard, $0.32. Sugar is not under distribution, but is
controlled by a maximum price of $0.225 per kilo (2.2 pounds). The
amount of potatoes allowed each person per week has been fixed at
3.5 kilos. The maximum price is $0.03 per kilo. Vegetables are not
under distribution and are sold at comparatively low prices.
Each person over 16 years of age is entitled to one-fifth of a pound
of coffee a week by presenting the coupon issued. The maximum
price is $0.60 a pound.
Emergency Kitchens Supply Xeals at Nominal Cost.
Emergency kitchens were not known in Holland before the war,
but are now established in all the larger cities for the purpose of sup-
plying the poor, as well as persons and families of small means, with
one warm and wholesome meal a day at a nominal price. Here in
The Hague are three such kitchens, which are well patronized and
have accomplished a great, amount of good. One was established by
the municipal government and is mainly intended for the use of the
really poor of the city. It is therefore centrally located and furnishes
to all callers one meal daily for the price of 4 cents. Being a chari-
table institution, the food delivered is wholesome and plentiful in spite
of the low price. As an illustration, the menu for one week follows:
Monday-Oatmeal, milk. butter, and sugar: Tuesday-Potatoes, car-
rots, onions, and beef; Wednesd;ay--Potatoes, red cabbage, and beef;
Thursday-Pea soup with pork; Friday-Potatoes, sour kraut, and
edible fats; Saturday-Potatoes, beets, and edible fats. No meals are
served on Sundays.









:NETHERLANDS-THE HAGUE. 21

Another kitchen was established by "The Dutch Society of House-
wives," and is intended for the use of small salaried per.on.-. Din-
ners in this establishment are served in the restaurant, for 12 cents,
and for 10 cents if sent for. The dinners here consist of meat (or
soup), vegetables, and potatoes.
The third kitchen was also started by private initiative and is pat-
ronized by the better salaried per-ons, such as teacher-, clers, officers
of the army, etc., who here get a good -'lquare meal for 30 cent-. In
all three kitchens the applicants must orller their dinners in the fore-
noon of the day they wish to eat.
Increased House Rent-Shipments to United States.
Owing to the large influx of Belgians in the beginning of the war,
the present continual arrival; of English and German prisoners of
war, and the comparatively few new buildings erected drinig the last
years, the house rent in the larger Dutch cities, especially in The
Hague, has been increasing continuously. The Governmjint. has done
its be.t by erecting temporary building- and barracks, but -till nianiy
of the well-to-do foreign officers and soldiers are .seeking houses and
rooms, and on'-eqlleietly the rent is keeping its upward course, espe-
cially for furnished houses and room -. The hotels here and in
SclhevrcningIe are naturally clro-ded and doing a lucrative business.
BTlow is ,;il ii the value of the principal arti'-.l-:, declared at The
H;Iagl con-,lille for -hip i'nt to the United State~s during the past
twovars:


Ri 4 I ro l
B, .... -. . . ., .. i1 ',, ,
. . ,

Sn f .. i r . .
l ni l lll ij t . 1 -" T1.l.l l -1 *N ."
S art n I' I .. ............... ..... ....... 7 'I
i .. .... ............. ........... .
; ; il I l. : i,.ll 1.;%7 . . 22 i'1
iilll..... .......... ......i.. ..>. .... 2;
Glue................... 16,078 I 1
Pi klJ. ................. 1,689,244 187,449
Smoked ............................ 708


A. I I ." .

I>: l.l-,i, ul.J ii....., .. ..........

.i Ii l ...'.i .................
.' .11 [ I ll ............... ..
'. m I.'l .... ................
r u ,, oil ...................
nr 1 II, '. el ............
" II .I... ..................
Templates .................
Vegetables, preserved.......
Allother articles...........
Total................


,.',2 2,,;i.l
1 1 J l..'.i :
I'. 112, 1
i I'I) 2J. 1
...... ..... ....1
2,67,4J 91 52
............ X67
205 1,440
15,876 945
372,458 .........
2, 637,475 922, 526


WASHINCTON : GOVERl:NMENT PRBISTING OFFICE: 1918




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