Supplement to Commerce reports

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Title:
Supplement to Commerce reports daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce
Uniform Title:
Commerce reports
Volume title page for -<1920>:
Supplements to Commerce reports : review of industrial and trade conditions in foreign countries in ... by American consular officers
Portion of title:
Daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce
Physical Description:
6 v. : ; 24-26 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce
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Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Dept. of Commerce
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
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Commerce -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Foreign economic relations -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
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federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also available in electronic format.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with issue for Jan. 8, 1915?; ceased with issue for Dec. 31, 1920?
Numbering Peculiarities:
Each issue covers an individual country and bears a number corresponding to that country. Reports from the various consular districts in a country are distiguished by the addition of a letter (66a, 66b, 66c, etc.), in the order in which they are issued.
Numbering Peculiarities:
Issue no.52f, 1919, contains misprint, November 41.
General Note:
Title from caption.
General Note:
"Annual series."

Record Information

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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 004822593
oclc - 16390134
sobekcm - AA00005307_00009
Classification:
lcc - HC1 .R1981
System ID:
AA00005307:00009

Related Items

Preceded by:
Daily consular and trade reports (Washington, D.C. : 1910)
Succeeded by:
Trade and economic review for ..

Full Text

6 /8 5/2. ./5


SUPPLEMENT TO 2 MA 955

COMMERCE REP
DAILY CONSULAR AND TRADE REPORTS
ISSUED BY THE BUREAU OF FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COMMERCE
DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE, WASHINGTON, D. C.

Annual Series No. 8c December 12, 1919

ITALY.
FLORENCE.
By Consul F. T. F. Dumont, Florence.
The use of all able-bodied men in the military forces and the em-
ployment of so many of the civil population in the manufacture of
war supplies and ammunition led to a scarcity of labor in the purely
civilian industries during 1918. These things, combined with the
requisitioning of animals and farm products of nearly all kinds and
S the establishment of maximum prices for them, together with an ex-
tremely short supply of fertilizers, made the year a most difficult one
for farmers. Under such conditions it was natural that a consider-
able quantity of foodstuffs should be concealed and that a thriving
trade in contraband should be carried on. Throughout the year,
persons with money could secure fair quantities of olive oil, meats,
rice, beans, and flour, but, in spite of this, the poorer classes were
reasonably sure of getting the quantities of the various foodstuffs
under control allotted them by the Government. Nothing except the
rationing system adopted by the Government and its rigid enforce-
ment could have saved the situation in Italy. Wine, considered by
all classes a necessity of life, was not under control, and rose to from
three to four times its pre-war price. From this and the trade in con-
traband, farmers made most of their profits. Articles for personal
wear and household use rose in value to the same extent. Local crops
of olives, wine grapes, chesnuts, and tomatoes were good.
Prosperous Year for Manufacturing and Laboring Classes.
Though the year was not a particularly satisfactory one for the
farming class, it was a most profitable one for the manufacturing
and laboring classes. In anticipation of a continuance of the war
for another year or two, the Government continued its rigid restric-
tions on imports of other than raw materials for any other than its
own account. By forbidding exports of articles used in the produc-
tion of foodstuffs and clothing, it kept the food situation in hand
and had in reserve, either in the hands of manufacturers or in its
own storehouses, great quantities of cotton and woolen cloth, leather,
and hemp. Manufacturers, themselves the victims of high-priced
labor and raw materials, foreseeing a heavy demand from the Gov-
ernment at high prices, and greedy to get from private business
houses all that the trade would stand, asked prices so exorbitant that
merchants and jobbers bought only enough to supply their trade
from day to day, and on the day that the armistice was signed, had
shelves as empty as at the beginning of 1918. The armistice caught
151190--19-80-1

1


a. ::-










2 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

them with heavy stocks on hand in the textile industries. The same
situation obtained in the leather and hide industry. All had for-
gotten that by reason of Government restrictions and the difficulties
of importation, they had had a practical monopoly of the Italian
market.
Industrial Capital Increases in 1917 and 1918.
As the war progire'ssed, the Government, in order to pay for sup-
plies bought in Italy, supplemented its bond issues by issuing great
quantities of paper money, the amount in circulation in 1918 being ap-
proximately six times as much as in 1913. This found its way into
the bank-, in the normal course of business, and deposits in 1918 were
almost double those in 1914. Italian banks pay 2 per cent on cur-
rent accounts, and employment had to be found for this money.
Much of the success of the great business bank of Italy, the Banca
Commercial, prior to the war, was due to its investments in Italian
industrial enterprises. The success of this policy and the tremendous
profits that were being made by Italian manufacturers induced the
other great banks, which were not banks of issue, to follow its ex-
ample, and there ensued in 1917 and 1918 a period of capital increases
and an organization of new enterprises such as Italy had never be-
fore known. This is well illustrated by the annexed table
(lira-= 0.193) :

Nev cuomn:lnues Old companies
orgJanied. increased.
-. __ __ Total net
investment.
bem- Capital. Num- Capital.

Lirr. Lire. Lire.
1912........................................ 241 112.- ;,700 180 189, 492, fOO 163,910,500
1913......................................... 224 121. 15,700 197 1.-7,067,900 133,576,100
1911...................................... 201 Sl4, '1',25 54 1S, 196i,00 117,134,100
1915.......................................... 15 104.6 500 98 1,714 ,U00 72,334,700
1916 ......................................... 1O8 192,1 SS. 4010 183 2-"5.6I, 400 a 4131,637,000
1917 ........................................ 301) .2,7 I10) 271 SS6, 906l, 00) 1,333,593,500
1918 ........................................ 541 S22,9.t.,200 521 2,.31l119, 100 3,035,463,900

a Thim amount ik variou-.I- estimated at from 276,000.000 to 470,000.000 lire.
It will be noted( that the amounts given in the last column of the
above table are net. During the period 1912-1918, 755 companies
with a total capital of 413,000.000 lire were liquidated, and 564 com-
panies reduced their capital stock by 510.000,000 lire.
Capital Invested in Incorporated Industrial Concerns.
A detailed tabulation of investments in incorporated concerns, by
industries, during the past two years follows:

Ininstry. 1917 1915

Lire. Lire.
Banking ..................................................................... 87,317,000 250,290,000
Insurance .................................................................. 37,900, 000 124,075,000
Mining ...................................... ................... ........ 62,897000 124512000
Metals, manufacture of..................................... ................... 116,500,000 725,550,000
Machinery, etc., min'iicture of............................................... 92,543,000 245,365,000
Chemicals. Im nufact ltre of................................................... 109,723,000 172,192,000
Electrical operation an i slpplies........................................ ... 191,070,000 358,776000
Automobiles. in-ustrv anl supplies ...................... ............ 76487,000 80,956000
Textiles, manufacture of..................................................... 33,224,000 144,760 000
Foodstuffs, manufacture of.................................................... 10,461,000 153,545,000









ITALY-FLORENCE.


Industry-Continued. 1917 1918

Lire. Lire.
Other maufactures............... .......................................... 9, 3 1,100 3., 602, 00)
Transportation ...................................................... 3 ,472000 333,133,000
Agriculture......... ...... .................................................. 19,54 I, 0 75 ST5, 0)
Land and building companies .............................................. 4',,( 73, .37,000
Constructioncomp nies................ .................................... 3,7'l7, ii 1s. 2519,000
Mineral water, sprin.,; and baths............................................. 2,231t, 0U. 7,370,000
Hotels, restaurants, and theaters .............................................. I ., 2 .5;'y, o00
Commer.ieal cJmp3nies.................................................... 4,5, 13,0 32,092,000
Otheicompanies.............. ............................................. 42, 73Y,Ouu ,3, 04,u000
a Lo<~, 280,000.
Banks Underwrite Capital Issues-Mining Industry Stimulated.
Several of the big" banks in Italy have followed the example set by
the Banca Commerciale before the war, and are said to have under-
written many of the great stock issues. It. is certain that they are
holders of considerable amounts of stock in the more substantial
corporations.
The increases in bank capital were important. Of the great com-
mercial banks, which have branches in every city and town of im-
portance in Italy and branches in many foreign countries, the Banca
Commercial increased its capital from 130,000,000 lire in 1913 to
208.000,000 lire in 1918; the Credito Italiano from 75,000.000 lire to
150,000,000; the Banca di Sconto, founded in 1915 bv uniting several
small hanks, from 75,,000000 to 180,000,000 lire. Numerous small
banks have followed this example. In this district alone, capital
for rew banks and increases of capital of existing banks amiiouinted
to nearly 7.000.000 lire in 1918. There were also increase, in capital
in fire and tran,-portation insurance. Life insurance is now con-
trolled by the Government.
The enormous prices that could le obtained for mineral ores stiml-
lated the mining ind 11utry to a marked degree, but most of the capital
invested will be unproductive when peace conditions are again ec-
tablished, and runs a great risk of being entirely lost. except the
moderate amount invested in the new minine of magnetic iron ore
recently di-covered at Cogne in Piedmont. The increases in capital
have been based on old developments and prospects. The industry
as a whole can not compete with those abroad as a source of cheap
raw materials.
Character of New Industrial Enterprises and Their Future.
Only a part of the increase in the metallurgical and machinery
industries was invested in new plant, extensions, or machinery. At
least 50 per cent of the amount so invested must now be charged off
for wear and tear and decline in prices. The large profits made by
existing industries induced many who had never owned stock in
industrial enterprises to subscribe to large increases in the capital
of old companies and to invest in proposed new ones. These indus-
tries, in the main. must depend upon foreign countries for their raw
materials and fuel.
The difficulties of obtaining supplies from abroad account for the
progress in the electrical, chemical, and foodstuffs industries. This
progress is likely to continue. The great progress made in hydroelec-
tric development during the latter years of the war was caused by
difficulties of obtaining coal from abroad. Most of the increases in









4 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

.transportation enterprises are in connection with ocean transporta-
tion and companies operating motor buses across country; the latter
is a well-developed and paying business in Italy.
Speculation was a considerable factor in many capital increases
and in the floating of new companies. The Government finally
forbade companies with more than 20,000,000 lire of capital to make
further increases. Companies just organized, without plant and
with nothing but a printed prospectus, finding that the rush for
shares had forced them above the issue price, took advantage of the
situation to augment their capital issues by two to five times the
original.
Industrial Progress in the Florence Consular District.
Companies have been organized in Florence for the manufacture
of aeroplanes, chemical fertilizers, glassware, household utensils,
and chemicals; in Bologna for hydroelectric and traction supplies,
chemicals, accumulators, typewriters, office furniture, and fittings;
and in Parma for the manufacture of soaps and perfumes. All of
these are incorporated concerns. Dozens of small plants, not incor-
porated, have increased their capital and built additions to existing
plants. The Torrigiani Co. of Florence, engaged in the foodstuffs in-
dustry and particularly interested in tinned goods, is now operating
five plants against one before the war, and has increased its capital
from 1,000,000 to 6,000,000 lire. The only brewery in Florence, one
of the greatest in Italy, has increased its capital by 3,000,000 lire,
and one of the great milling companies by 2,000,000 lire. Of the
bigger concerns, the Magona of Florence, with works at Piombino,
has increased its capital from 4.500,000 lire to 20.000,000 lire. It is
said that the increase will be devoted to manufacturing articles of
sheet iron, household utensils, etc., of which there is a great scarcity
at present.
The Ofticine Meccaniche of Reggio-Emilia, manufacturing railway
supplies and equipment, has increased its capital from 12,000,000 lire
to 36,000,000, and proposes to extend its machine shops at Reggio
and to erect new buildings for storage and for the comfort of its
employees. This company recently purchased the projectile works
at Modena, a few miles away, and after changing them so as to be
able to manufacture railway supplies and equipment and agricul-
tural machinery, will operate them as part of the Reggio plant.
Even with this increase of capital, it is proposed to bond the Modena
plant for 8,000,000 lire to secure additional working capital. This
corporation is said to have secured a large part of the orders for
10,000 20-ton cars for coal carrying recently ordered by the Govern-
ment. Fuel Commissioner.
Combination of Hosiery Mills-Consolidation of Makers of Agricultural Ma-
chinery.
The Calzificio Reggiano is also located at Reggio-Emilia and is
engaged in the manufacture of stockings. A short time back this
company combined in a sort of cartel with a company having mills
at Niguarda and two companies in Brescia. In normal times the
Italian market can not absorb the product of all the Italian mills
and it, is proposed to form with all the other mills in Italy a sort of
trust, with the idea of preserving the home market and engaging in








ITALY-FLORENCE.


the export trade. The mills in the present cartel have a single pur-
chasing agent for raw materials and operate a jointly-owned factory
for their dyeing and finishing work. It. is proposed to devote all
mills to turning out a cheap grade of goods which will not only
satisfy the Italian trade but which will be able to compete on the
foreign market with goods from other countries. The demand in
Italy for expensive grades of stockings and socks is too small to
justify any one mill catering to it, and it is propc.ed to abandon the
Italian market in these goods to any one choosing to supply it.
Within the last two months the Ansaldo Co. has made an agree-
ment with a company in Bologna to take over its plant for making
agricultural machinery and carry on this industry on a very large
scale, thus emancipating Italy from dependence upon foreign coun-
tries. The Ansaldo is in possession of ample funds from recent
stock issues and is in position to provide its own raw and manufac-
tured materials, so that there is every chance that the project may be
successful. One of the main objects of the Ansaldo is to manufacture
small motor tractors of various kinds. It is estimated that 8,000
tractors of all kinds were purchased in 1917 and 1918, of which 6,500
were of American and 1,500 of Italian manufacture. As the Italian
Government is offering for sale (without great. success in spite of
favorable credit terms) some 600 of the tractors purchased by it, it is
difficult to believe that there is any heavy demand in this line at the
present time in Italy. The company proposes to manufacture trac-
tors for export also.
Woolen Mills a': Prato Busy--Unfavorable Situation in Tanning Industry.
With the exception of small quantities of goods turned out by
mills at Arezzo and Stia, all of the woolen goods manufactured in
this district are made at Prato, which shares with Biella, Brescia,
and Bergamo the distinction of being one of the great centers of the
woolen industry of Italy. Of the 45 mills in Prato, only 5 make
finished cloth ready to be made up into garments. The town has
been very prosperous during the war. Workers have been employed
at high wages on Government orders for blankets and cloth. These
orders were canceled when the armistice was signed and many of
the mills found it necessary to shut down, but in order to find work
for discharged soldiers, orders have been given by the Government
for over 800(,000 meters (meter=1.093 yards) of suitings.
The tanning industry flourished throughout the war. Produc-
tion was tripled, but the manufacture was chiefly of soles for heavy
army shoes. Owing to the ease with which permits to import raw
hides could be obtained, the speeding up of Italian production of
leathers by request of the Government, the high prices at which
foreign hides were purchased, the high exchange and costs of trans-
portation, and the heavy stock coming from local sources, the sud-
den cessation of hostilities hit the industry a hard blow. Tanners
can not find a market at the present time for their goods. An ef-
fort is being made to divert their activities to the production of
chrome leather suitable for shoe uppers. Shoe manufacturers will
not buy from tanners and jobbers at present (May, 1919) prices
because the general public will not buy shoes at such prices. Most
of the stock of foreign hides was bought when dollar exchange
was very high, and even the rise of the dollar to 7.40 lire ($1.43,








6 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

normal exchange) gave no relief. The Government's stock of hides
on February 1, 1919, was estimated at 18,000 tons. A "consorzio"
is spoken of to enable tanners to pool their stock and to facilitate
the selling of it. Were the restrictions upon imports of foreign
leathers and shoes removed, heavy imports would take place, forcing
Italian-held leathers down to a normal price.
Dairy-Products Industries Adversely Affected by Rise of Milk Prices.
The extensive condensed-milk, cheese, and butter industries were
carried on under great difficulties throughout the war. Parma,
Piacenza, and Reggio-Emilia are the centers of these industries in
this district, their output of cheese being one-third that of all
Italy. These industries were in an extremely prosperous condition
at the outbreak of the war, at which time the Government deemed
it advisable to prohibit exportation. Prices fell so rapidly that this
prohibition was removed in the spring of 1915. However, during
that year signs of a decreasing supply of milk appeared and ex-
ports were again prohibited. During that year the Government
undertook the experiment of issuing cheese as part of the rations
of the army, beginning with 300 tons a month. This issue soon grew
to over 5,000 tons a month as the scarcity of food supplies de-
veloped. In 1916 the price of dairy products had risen 50 per cent
over the prices obtaining in 1914, and "calmiere" prices were intro-
duced in an effort to check the rise. With few offers to sell at these
prices, the Government began requisitioning stocks of cheese. It is
estimated that the milk supply, commercial and alimentary, had by
that time decreased 20 per cent. In 1917 the decrease was estimated
at 35 per cent. In 1918, as a consequence of the constant requisi-
tioning of cattle and forage for army use, the scarcity of concen-
trated foods, the use of so many milch cows in field labor, the short-
age of labor, and the prohibition of the killing of calves, the falling
off was estimated at 50 per cent. By this time milk had risen 200
per cent in price above that of 1914, and it was more profitable to
sell it than to preserve it by condensing or to use it in cheese making.
The situation can be best judged from the fact that over 27,000
tons of so-called hard cheeses, including over 11,000 tons of Par-
mesan, Reggiano, and Lodigiano, were exported per year before
the. war, as well as about 12,000 tons of soft cheeses, such as Gor-
gonzola, etc., while the stocks of cheese on hand at the beginning of
the war were estimated at 80,000 tons. About 3,000 tons each
of butter and condensed milk per year were also exported. At the
present time, most of the cheese and condensed milk obtainable by
the public comes from foreign countries, while butter sells at over
$1 a pound and is scarce at that price.
Meats Scarce and High in Price-Florence Little Benefited by War.
Closely allied with these industries was that of hog raising, the
animals being fed on milk residues. Food for them being almost
unobtainable, breeding fell off greatly. The shipment of hogs from
one Province to another was prohibited until April, 1919, so that
hog-killing centers, such as Bologna and Modena, could not obtain
animals for killing and packing. Hog meats, particularly bacon and
ham, rose to unheard-of prices, the latter selling as high as $2 per
pound. In the early part of 1919 the Government, which had always




.... .....








ITALY-FLORENCE.


construed its regulations governing the importation of pork products
in such a way as to practically debar the American product, permit-
ted American bacon and ham to be imported and sold to the general
public, with the result that prices fell rapidly. It. is likely that the
epidemic of epizootic among the cattle had much to do with this.
A considerable amount of horse flesh, obtained from the slaughter of
discarded British Army horses and mules, was put upon the market-
and there was a large and increasing demand for it.
Probably one of the cities least benefited by the war was Florence,
whose people are mostly engaged in the manufh< ture and sale of
luxuries. Shops selling or exporting Florentine goods have done
little business for four years. This, with the loss of the tourist trade
and the departure of so many of its foreign residents for their own
countries, affected the city greatly. IMost of its great, hotels have
either been closed or used for hospitals for wounded soldiers. Its
men, displaced from other occupations, found work in munition fac-
tories or in shops engaged in making war supplies of other kinds.
Women of the better class took up embroidery work, which found
quick sale and could be shipped by parcel post without the many
delays experienced with ordinary freight. shipments. Due to this,
and to the fact that many Americans who have come to Florence to
go into the business, exports of embroideries have greatly increased
in quantity and value during the war.
Straw Goods-Large Stocks of Braids Cause Curtailment of Production.
The main business of Florence, the manufacture and export of
straw goods, has fallen off considerably in quantities manufactured
as well as in exports. There might have been a flourishing business
done in the early part of 1918, but high wages tempted many of the
best plaiters into other lines of industry and the workers who re-
mained allowed their work to deteriorate from the quality of normal
times. During the first six months of 1918, when the dollar brought
8 to 9 lire, there was a considerable demand for goods from the
United States, attended with much excitement in the trade. When
the purchasijig value of foreign money fell, due to the regulation of
exchange by agreement among the Allies, the demand fell off and
trade dwindled to small figures.
In unbleached straw braids, the demand was mostly for 5 and 7
end Milans, which make a beautiful soft hat, much lighter than the
Chinese article. In ordinary times, the manufacture of these braids
is carried on without much regard to the demands, the unsold balance
being carried in stock. This year, manufacturers refused to continue
stocking, as they had a lot of expensive goods on hand which, on
account of the s-arcity of straw, they hoped to sell without loss.
The refusal to continue stocking goods almost stopped the production
of these braids. A few fancy braids were shipped, but the Japanese
market offered these goods at a cheaper rate. In May, 1919, the prices
demanded had almost stopped trade with the United States. The
trade in bleached braids was entirely in 5 and 7-end Milans. Chem-
icals for bleaching could be obtained only from Switzerland, but
shipments were delayed by the difficulty experienced in obtaining
import. permits from the Italian Government. The bleaching done
was much inferior to that of 1915, and the price fourfold.










SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


The unblocked hats shipped were principally leghorns and pla-
teaux, such as can be made only in Tuscany, and for which the de-
inand depends entirely upon the dictates of fashion. Many of
them were fancy hats made of brilliant Japanese straws. Only the
lack of goods prevented a much larger trade. One line was in such
request that its selling price in Florence doubled in 45 days. The
trade in blocked hats fell off because of the greater cost of packing
and shipping these goods, as compared with the unblocked. The
shortage of railway cars for the general trade was also a governing
factor.
By May, 1919, stocks of straw goods had become exhausted, and
wages had risen from 60 to 100 per cent, depending upon the branch
of industry.
Declared Exports to the United States.
The principal articles and their values (figured at 1 lira=$0.193)
declared at this consulate for shipment to the United States in 1917
and 1918 were as follows:

Article. 1917 1918 Article. 1917 1918

Alabah.tr ..................... $40,306 513,472 Paper:
Antlquitits .................... 1,0 82,125 847,104 Cigarette................ 14,627 2,322
Books, printed................ 11,780 8.377 Printing.................. 7,063 ........
Broni- s ..... ......... ... 4,365 8,660 Porcelains. modern............ 2,253 .........
Buttous, vegetable............... 2,519 ......... Silverwareand jewelry......... 2,144 485
Clover v.ed.................. 41,957 66,017 Straw:
Embroideries................. 194,578 563,667 Miscellaneous manufac-
Furniture...................... 36,661 13,546 tures of................. 6,250 868
Hemp: Braids:
Raw...................... 1,203,475 1,175,237 Not bleached.......... 638,287 671,702
Braids.................... 2,849 482 Bleached............. 482,429 368,060
Plattaux ................. 28,739 10,963 Hats:
Housm, holdeffects.............. 1,886 905 Not blocked........... 494,081 698,912
I.eaLhcr. manufarturesof ....... 3,269 270 Blocked............... 215,359 45,705
Leave's, dried, ornamental...... 29,595 17.314 Terra cotta................... 9,080 2,565
Majolica......... ............. 23,348 6,893 Vegetables, preserved ......... 15,114 .........
Marblrs. worked............... 54,58 13,532 Wine still..................... 106,757 92,899
Medicinal preparations............ 11,382 5,931 All other articles............... 88,807 106,317
Olive- oil....................... 9 .........
Paint ings, modern............. 2,453 12, 454 Total.................... 858, 131 4,754,659

There were no returned American goods. The only export to the
Philippines in 1918 was cigarette paper valued at $6,473, as com-
pared with $42.335 in 1917. There were no exports to Porto Rico
or Hawaii. Included among "all other articles" in the above table
were glassware to the value of $35,000, mostly of Venetian manufac-
ture; brierwood for pipe making, $24,000; and gloves, $11,500.

LEGHORN.
By Consul William J. Grace.
Leg-horn is the port for the greater part of Tuscany and a consid-
eralble portion of northern and central Italy. Hence, the imports
and exports at this port represent not only the foreign trade of the
Leghorn consular district, but also that of the above-mentioned ter-
ritorvy.
Thle three years reviewed in this report, namely 1916, 1917, and
1918. were abnornial in many respects. The imports at this port
were brought in chiefly to furnish the Italian Government with food
suppllie. and materials with which to prosecute the war. The exports
were restricted by governmental prohibitions in order to safeguard












ITALY-LEGHORN.


the necessary foodstuffs for the people, and were also limited lb the
purchases and requisitions of the Government to meet the needs of
its army. Hence, the list of imports and exports and the quantities
thereof set forth in the following table are not a fair index of the
volume o'f trade nor of the course thereof in normal times.

Imports and Exports at Leghorn.

The following table of the Leghorn imports and exports does not
include the trade with the Italian colonies, which although passing
through this port is really domestic commerce:


Articles.


I I I ~ II I -L


IM PORTS.

Aluminum, and
products of.......
Agricultural imple-
ments..........
Acids:
Stearic .......
O leic...........
Tannic, impure.
Beeswax ..........
Benzine ...........
Benzol ............
Barium sulphate...
Brick, fire..........
Barley ...........
Bran...............
Coffee.............
Cacao.............
Calcium carbide....
Cement...........
Coal..............
Corn:
White.........
Yellow ........
Meal, yellow...
Citron in brine.....
Cott-n, raw........
Cotton goods.......
Copper:
Crude, and
scrap.........
Bars .........
Sheet.........
Sulphate.......
Tubes..........
Earths, coloring:
Umber.......
Other.........
Electric dynamos..
Earthenware and
porcelain ........
Fish:
Dried..........
Herring........
In brine........
Flour:
Wheat.........
Rye..........
Barley and
oats, mixed..
Files...............
Freight cars........
Glucose............
Glycerin..........
Glass, manufac-
tures of.........
Greases and fats....
Hides (raw), dried,
not salted........
Iron:
Pig............
Rough, manu-
factured.....
Railway rails..
Crossties .......


Quintals.
431

320

111
1,971
4,985
90
168,534

31,978

1,938
13, 199
2,116
34
178
8,681,340

54,705
5,1.55
315
7,102
31,123
1,444

156,185
91

6,119
196

5,810
103
1,038
9

16,312
8,255
14,482

92,853

9
108
..........ii
116

102
6,462

71,685

123,388

4,386
37,991
18,224


Quintals.

38

51
1,595
22

188,758

6,388
128,272

9,380
290

4, 066, 997


630,290
4,853
72,898
453


47,353
675
1,276



2,906
2
985



8,896
2,928
10,537

13,744

17
19
40,843
12

41
5,191
13,560

83,648

19,988


Quintals.



4
201


482,949
2,316
112
7,606
531,098

12,659
53

3, 928,416

10,010
473,242
73,320
5,289
13,202
297

30,084

7, 163



103
6
14

12,973
2,414
I1,637

1,077,285
19,160

11,163
11

375


13
5,202

28,483

14,719

6,314

..........(


IMPORTS-C:ntd.

Iron and steel:
Scrap..........
Bars and
sheets, man-
ufactured ....
Tubes.........
Cast or forged..
Plates.........
Rope..........
Manufactures,
miscl lane-
ou ..........
Incandescent
lamps and bulbs.
Jute, raw..........
Kaolin.............
Lime, chloride of...
Lead, scrap, with
antimony........
Locmotives, ex-
clurivo of tenders.
Lumber, ordinary..
Magnesia, calcined
or caustic, im-
pure .............
Medicinal roots and
herbs...........
Machinery:
General.......
Boilers........
Woodworking..
Hydrhulie....
Agricultural....
Cotton spin-
ung .........
M alt..............
Meat, salt.........
Nickel............
Naphthalene.......
Oil:
Olive..........
Linseed ........
Cottonseed.....
Cocoa ........
Palm ..........
Castor .........
Petroleum.....
Turpentine....
Resinr-us-
Heavy .....
Other......
Inclassified....
Oxide of iron.......
Oats ......... .....
Potassium chlorate
and perchlorate..
Potassium and sod-
ium chromate and
bichromate......
Potassium and sod-
ium bicarbonate..
Potassium and sod-
ium silicate:
Liquid.........
Solid..........


Quintals.
43,796

75, 228
2,3S3
9f.6
13,474
938

11,529

2,636
80,900
16,0113
961

15,6415

1,267
161,804

4

380

3,214
3.38
1,0.30
1,723
320

1,079
9,413
8,224
5,966
790

7,996
688
156
1,2t9
1,750
21
147,188
146

13,273
148
15,107
823
1,724,980

6,873

567

3,296

2,671
760


Quintals.
19, .177

87,235
GS2
61



57,719

2,183
40,000
792


6, 197
20,714

1,507

293

2,419

521
1,323
39

454
370
II
515

381
771
60
2,465

207,903
74

9,029
2,958
865
73
367,704

10, F83



1,206


Quintals.
942

25,526
612
1,047
30,937
1,135

649

32
..........


11,041

1, 19
2,252



15

1,559
286
218
21

278
200

1,262
410

14
9
10
2,10
5,330
25
138,053
463

547
747
19
51,260
535,002
7,750



393


2,818 1,509
777 ..........


151190'- 19-8c-2


Articles.















SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE 'REPORTS.


Articles. 1916 1917 1918 Articles. 1916 1917 1918


IMPORTS--c-ntd.

Paraffin......
Paint materilki,
uncla: sifle I ......
Phosphate, mineral
Rye................
Rope, hemp........
Ric-e...............
Soda:
Caustic, unre-
fined.........
Carbonarte o[...
Bicarbon .e of.
Nitrate oi .....
Sulphate of....
Soap, not perfumed.
Sugar ............
Starch............
Tobacco..........
Varn h.............
Whe.at:
Hard..........
Soft .......... .
Waqle, linen and
hemp............
Wool:
Ri ...........
W\\'a-ed ........
Comled ........
Woulen coodsl......
Zini.:
Scrap........
Sheet..........
ESFbRTs.

Acids:
Bur:c ic--
Crule ......
nHei ned...'.
Alab.jter, ro' ;l...
.Beprre :. ........
Bari m sulphate...
Cemrn nt ...........
Citron in brine....
Cheese............
Cotton coiis.......
Eartls, colorin'a:
(fr i.er.... .....
Other..........


Q;tiinfl./.
39,4813
267
9J9, 11) S

1, 436


11,463
19,2%4
3,296
30,090
81,642
3, IS
45, 175
111
416, 163
1,296

263,459
I, .76,768


Quintals.
25,789
151
I,0 .5,351
44,600
134


6,114
9,279
1,266

26,015
4,S54
200
512
92,553
767

1,390,509
1, 1B3,726


Quintals.
5,808
30
907, 004
199,972
199
747,072

1,715
7,157
392
.........
2.3,218
1,841
3
251
39,388
271

634,964
990,776


2,923 .......... ..........


12, 19
1,912
i, t27
239'

50,994
21




2,366
11, 502
2,9"-0
626
667



.33jt

3,131
17, lt07


11,198


.....3,210
3,210


1,092
9,765
1, 05

476
160
17, s12
',7,39
35

3,370
11,091


8,5 13
463

62

3,083


1,249
9,174
1,917
10
55
160
50
9,475
527

2,611
3,50.)


EXPORTS--O td.
Earthenware and
porcelain........
Fruit, dried.........
Glass:
Sheet..........
Manufactured..
Hemp:
Raw.............
Combed ........
Juniper berries.....
Lumber, cabinet...
Medicinal roots and
berries..........
Marble:
Rough.........
Slabs. less lhan
16 centimet-
ers in thick-
ness.........
Cubes and
sq uare.......
Marble and alabas-
ter:
Slabs, over 16
centimeters
in thickness..
Statuary.......
WVurL, miscel-
laneous.......
Mineral waters.....
Oil:
Olive...........
Olive (sulphur)
Caslor..........
Paint materials, un-
classified.........
Quicksilver........
Pine kernels........
Rope, hemp........
Rice...............
Soap, not perfumed.
Stone, rough con-
struction.........
Tartar.............
Talc.............
VWaste, linen an]
hem p.........
Wine, in casks and
bottles b ........
Wood for brushes..


u G all.in. b Exclusive of high-grade and sparkling wines.

Three Years' Trade with United States, England, and France.

The chief imports from the United States during this period were
benzine, coal, corn, cotton, copper, flour, iron and steel in all forms,
lead, lumber, oats, petroleum, paraffin, tobacco, wheat, and zinc.
Nearly all the foregoing products were monopolies of the Italian
Government.
The principal exports to the United States during the same period
were acids, alabaster and products thereof, coloring earths, hemp,
juniper berries, cabinet woods, medicinal herbs, marble and its prod-
ucts, olive oil (1916), sulphur olive oil, paint materials, soap, con-
struction stone, and tartar. The United States was the best customer
for mineral waters in 1916 and 1917. In 1918 there were no exports
of mineral waters to the United States, France, and England. In
1916 the exports of olive oil were limited, and finally prohibited.
Likewise, the exportation of all foodstuffs was forbidden during the
greater part of the period from 1916 to 1918.


Quintals.
6,417
473

7,340
5, 641

182,813
23,843
6,677
14,607

8,727
101,478


89,964

1,961



322
3,402

59,728
o75,691

21,0S0
2,178
643

19, 4291
1,140
3,666
447
1,359

84,650
9, 52
4.7

13,602
a6u3, 195
4,319


Quinials.
3,544
544

1,129
699

210,015
15,548
5,360
6,953

7,497
64,197


57,070

3,578



631
999

24,236
G43,926


13,704
..........
2,636
83
..........
4,499
68,088
8,932
258

25,299
a424,617
1,688


Quitaels.
977
265

128

209,000
13,530
2,086
9,614

7,663

44,742


24,120

7,317



1,307
1,564
9,200
a10, 892


7,897
2,244
1,979
29


10,015
6,930
250

40,0386

43,970,348
1,393


"" 251 ..........
251.........




.-.-- ._... ..






ITALY-LEGHORN. 11

The following table shows the imports from and the exports to
the United States, England, and France at the port of Leghorn dur-
ing the years 1916, 1917, and 1918:

A 1916 1917 1918
Country.
Imports. Exports. Imports. Exports. Import,. Exports.

3T tric sctlric 3ftric r, Irn M. trc Ji lrc
tons. 10ns. Ions. lon.. r, n... tong.
United States........................... 494.586 32,872 193.345 20.43, 2:2 197 9, .y5
Enland ................................. 739,3.59 30,466 395, 431 29, 0'4 31',,'3 272"25
Frane.................................... 9,962 725 9.119 736 941..:, 1.544
Othercountries ........................ 3110, s4 15,9S9 417,5,S 8,451 47y,,44 5.446
Total ............................... 1.544,711 80,052 1.015.482 5S.719 1,115,352 43,'14

The percentage of the imports from and exports to each of the
above countries, during this period, is shown in the following table:

1916 1917 1918 Aver'e rlr
year pe l w, 1.
Country.
Imports. Exports. Imports. Exports. Import;. Exports. Imports. Exp,,rts.

Pr rr t. i Prer t. Pr rnt Prrn. Percr 't i Per in. Pn. trr c P rcr a
United Stales........ 32 0 41.1 19 0 34. 20 i 21.9 'i3 9) .2.6
En.land ............. 47 3'. 1 3 1I 49 6 27 7 62 2 3- 2 4-9 9
Fran -e............... 6 .9 1 2 S 3 5 3. .1 1.
Othercountrie-.... 19.. 1. .9 41 0 14.4 43 0 12.4 34.5 15.

Wine Exports to United States, England, and France.
The export of wines to the United States in 1917 and 1918 dle-
creased as against those of 191(6; and, due to the prohibition of im-
ports of alcoholic beverages, the export of wines to this country
practically ceased in the latter part of 191S. Exports of wines to
England increased materially in 1918 as against 191(., although ex-
ports of this article in 1917 -howed a considerable decrease from
those of 1916.
One of the most remarkable features of the exports of wine from
Leghorn, is the export of 3.687,149 gallons to France in 1918 as
against 1,34 gallons in 1916 and 36,275 in 1917. This wine was
shipped to France either to make up the shortage caused there by the
devastation of the vineyards in the invaded districts or to supply the
Italian troops at the front in France. Both these causes probably
contributed to this extraordinary increase.
Chianti wine is really one of the necessaries, of life in Tuscany.
The milk is so poor that this wine is given even to young babies.
Its alcoholic content is small. When exported to the United States
the percentage of alcohol is increased to pre erve it. Throughout
this consular district and in all Tuscany there was much dissatis-
faction over the great increase in the price of wine during 1918.
One of the chief causes was the large exportation thereof, as shown in
the foregoing tables.
Shipping and Merchandise Movement.
During 1916 a total of 1,459 steamships arrived at this port, and
1,471 departed. These steamships discharged 1,602,506 tons of


i








SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


merchandise and loaded 169,957 tons. During the same year 1,387
sailing vessels entered and 1,395 cleared. These vessels unloaded
184,075 tons of merchandise and loaded 61,752 tons. Included in
the foregoing were six American steamships that entered and cleared
from this port. These six vessels discharged 14.883 tons of cargo
and loaded 2,450 tons. No American sailing vessel entered the port
during this year.
In 1917, 813 steamships entered and discharged 1,072,794 tons
of cargo; 812 loaded 95,434 tons and cleared. Among these were 13
American steamships that discharged 46,607 tons and loaded 6,300
tons. During 1917, 1,149 sailing vessels entered and discharged
89,571 tons of cargo; while 1,149 loaded 31,049 tons and cleared.
Among these sailing vessels was one American that unloaded 1,118
tons of lumber. This American sailing vessel was afterwards sold
at this port to French interests.
In 1918, 651 steamships entered and unloaded 1,172,549 tons of
cargo; and 650 loaded 93,050 tons and cleared. Among these were
16 American steamships that unloaded 59,266 tons and cleared with
2,560 tons. In the same year, 1,267 sailing vessels with 96,941 tons
entered and 1,280 with 43,030 tons departed. No American sailing
vessel entered this port during this year.
The United States ships carried 3 per cent of the imports into
Leghorn and carried away 2.3 per cent of the exports, although the
United States supplied 23.9 per cent of the imports and took 32.6
per cent of the exports during the said period. The only regular
line of steamers between Leghorn and the United States is the
British Anchor Line.
Banks and Banking-Chambers of Commerce and Their Functions.
The period 1916-1918 was a most prosperous one for the banks of
Leghorn. Branches of the Banca di Roma and of the Banca di
Sconto were established here. Quotations on the stocks of these
banks were materially higher than in 1915. At present the follow-
ing banks are established at Leghorn: Banca Commerciale Italiana,
Banca di Nalpoli, Banca d'Italia, Banca di Roma, Banca di Sconto,
and Monte dei Paschi di Siena. There is no American bank at Leg-
horn. However, the National City Bank of New York at Genoa,
through it corre.-Zondents at Leghorn, offers facilities for American
banking transactions. There is no general clearing house at Leg-
horn. Each bank does its own clearing. Money during this period
was easy, and there was -always plenty for legitimate business en-
terprises.
In the Leghorn consular district there are chambers of commerce
at Leghorn. Pisa, Lucca, Carrara, Siena, and Grosetto. The cham-
ber of conunerce is an important factor in the commercial life of
Italy. It has many semigovernmental powers. It is an entity cre-
ated by law. To the Government the chambers of commerce repre-
sent. the commercial and industrial interests of the Provinces. They
investigate, either on their own motion or at the request of the Gov-
ernnient, agricultural, industrial, and commercial conditions; they
collect and furnish commercial and industrial statistics; they compile
and revise the business customs of the district, and issue certificates
as to them; they receive and register the names of firms and corpora-
tions and modifications thereof (this registration is imposed by law








-A
ITALY-LEGHORN. 13

on firms and corporations); they furnish curators in bankruptcy,
commercial and industrial experts and appraisers, mediators, ex-
change agents, etc.; they designate, at the request of the parties, ar-
bitrators among merchants or manufacturers and also between these
and their employees; they have under their charge the commercial
exchanges; and they certify to the signatures of the merchants reg-
istered with them, and issue certificates in relation thereto. They
also have many other powers. For instance, the Leghorn Chamber
of Commerce controls the hoists and elevators of the port of Leghorn.
American merchants desirous of extending their foreign trade
should send catalogues, printed in Italian, to these chambers of com-
merce and also to the banks mentioned above. Exhibits of American
products can be arranged for at these chambers.
Laboring Classes Prosperous and Contented.
During this period there was a great scarcity of labor on the farms
and in the factories. Wages were gradually increased in all branches
of industry, and there were few strikes. All classes suffered from
the shortage of food, and all necessaries were rationed. However,
there was no bolshevim in this consular district, nor in all of Tus-
cany. In the cities the laboring classes earned good wages, and in
the country the peasants saved and set aside more money than ever
before. Where previously there were few savings, the peasant has
to-day several thousand lire put away or in the banks. Moreover,
the peasant's condition on the farm has materially improved.
On account of the extraordinarily high cost of living, not only did
the laborer, the farm hand, and the mechanic receive higher remu-
neration, but increases were granted to teachers, clerks, and other em-
ployees. Many increases were made by virtue of governmental
decrees.
Despite the increased cost of labor and raw material, this period
has been a prosperous one for merchants. Few goods were in the
market and merchants were able to obtain whatever prices they asked.
Few manufactured articles are exported from this district.
Declared Exports to the United States and Possessions.
The following table shows the exports to the United States and
possessions, originating in the Leghorn consular district, which in-
cludes all Tuscany, except the Provinces of Florence and Arezzo:

1917 191S
Articles.
Quan- Value. "Qn- value.
tity. tity'.

Acids:
Boracic........................................ pounds.. 205,555 914, 3, 1 2.54,449 $1S,435
Tartaric.......................................... .. 1,'4,409 171,715 13,000 140. S24
Alabaster .................................................. ..... .... 12,311 ......... 1,004
Althea root.............. .........................pounds.. 2n, 237 5, 13. 7, 352 4,385
Beeswax........................ ............ ............. do.... 24,3S0 4,360 ........ ........
Belladonna leaves................. .................... do.... 2,232 3, 5 ... .........
Brierwood............ ......................... .. .......... 138, 65.......... 278, 800
Camomile fowers.................................. pounds.. 27 41,472 ,416 7, 160
Corn silk .............. ............................do.... .......... ..... 0,560 6,598
Citron:
Candied.................................... .........do.... 4C0, 572 106, 423 438, 154 122,862
In brine .............................................do.... 415,476 33,538 1,2 10,188 96,231
Fish, anchovies......................................... do.... 48,850 13,429 .......... ..........
Fruits, dried and prepared..............................do.... 107,915 22,505 52,588 12, 02
Garlic............................................... do.... .......... 187 22,242 3,031











SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


19

Arlicles.
Quatn-
lily.

Glue .................................................. pounds.. 158,013
Glue srock............................................... do.... 292,062
Iron and steel ................................................. ..........
Juniper berries ........................................pounds.. 499,897
Mushrooms, dry......................................... do.... 11,465
Marble:
Cubes ...................................................... ..........
M anufactured.............................................. ..........
Slatuary................................................... ..........
G ranitos ................................................... ..........
Tiles ........... .. ...... ............................ ..........
S labs ...................................................... ..........
M arbleo n lloc ks and stone..................................... ..........
Medicinal herbs......................................pounds.. 339,411
M mineral waters ..........................................pints.. 75,240
Nuts:
Almonds, un.ihelled...............................pounds.. 220
Fillerls-
Unshelled ...................................... do.... 77,160
Shelled.........................................do .... 220,460
Pine kernels. .........................................do.... 291,240
Orris root......................... .. ........... ......... do.... 595,855
O live oil.............................................. gallons.. 2, .39
Oil of juniper berries.....................................do.... 138
Paint mnatenals:
Oche r earth .......................................pounds.. 4R, 921
"lenna earth....................................... do .... 1,993,152
U m berearth ......... .................................. 1,033,2431
Purnic stone ............................................tons.. 2,757
Seedb:
Clover............................................ pounds ...........
Mi ,c llneous ...................................... do.... 35,280
Soup... .... ........................................ do.... 84.5,7 )6
StramonJum leaves......................................do.... 47,S87
Su:o p stock.............................................. do.... 1,478, 970
Wine:
In barrels ........................................ gallons.. S29
In 1'otthli .......................................... quarts.. 200,375
A ll other articles ............................................... ..........
Total.................................................... ..........


117 1918


Value. QM- Value.


26,590
12,495
19,627
36,233
10,049
5,700
118,345
66,426
6,818
19,425
472,481
79,261
14,563
165
15,127
43.146
'.1,330
103,736
704,344
9,264
1, 845
73, '.04
41,617
145,794

8,629"
13-', S.1
11,104
189,024
00
82,174
7,341


36,069

196,033
4,227






474,'315

11,1233
386,527
152,839
258,515
52

1,484,557
428,571
2S5
44,092
27,366
5,634
..........


3, 119,073 ..........


10,698
20,062
12,129
4,236
4,613
122,248
4 8,136
3,458
1,222
33,172
310,919
129,380

7,510
68,284
71,380
61,140
2,474

..........
79,976
18,069
18,833
14,243
16,891
1,734
..........


181,333" 83,781
.......... 31,459


1,868,279


It will be noted that there was a large decrease in the declared
exports durin'i 1917 and 1918, as compared with 1916. During 1917
the declared exports were $1,920,476 less than in 1916; in 1918 they
were $1,250,794 less than in 1917 and $3,177,270 less than in 1916.
These decreases are due principally to the prohibitions of the Italian
Government on the exports of olive oil, cheese, soap, etc.
The chief decreases in the 1918 declared exports, as compared with
those of 1917, are shown by the following comparisons of values:
Olive oil, nothing in 191. as against $704,344 in 1917; pumice stone,
$18,833 as against $145,794 in 1917; soap stock, nothing as against
$189,024 in 1917; orris root, $61,140 as against, $103,736 in 1917; and
mineral water, nothing as against $14,563 in 1917.
Opportunities for Trade.
Throughout this consular district the stores are (October, 1919)
virtually bare of stocks. In every field there is a demand for mer-
chandise, whether it be machinery, dry goods, foodstuffs, or raw ma-
terials. However, the high ocean freight rates and the unfavorable
exchange militate against large purchases. The merchant delays pur-
chasing until conditions become more favorable, and runs his busi-
ness with as low a stock of imported goods as possible.
There is plenty of money in the country with which to make pur-
chases, but there are governmental restrictions upon purchases and


j









ITALY-PALERMO. 15

payments abroad. Licenses for most purchases are necessary, and
it is difficult to secure permission for the purchase of large drafts in
payment of merchandise bought abroad. These restrictions were
S necessary to protect exchange.
American merchants and manufacturers who wish to do business
in Italy ought to have their catalogues and advertising material
printed in Italian. Salesmen representing American manufacturers
ought to be able to speak Italian well. It was in this way that the
nation that held the greater part of the trade of Italy before the war
secured it. Unless this trade is to drift away from the United States,
we must meet the Italians half way by using their language. Italians
like Americans and prefer to do business with them.

PALERMO.
By Consul Samuel H. Shank.
The course of trade in the Palermo consular district was varied
During the year 1918. The influences operating at different times
were so different that there was a general instability during the whole
year. The military reverses at the end of 1917 threw the whole
country into confusion, and the enforced evacuation of a large part
of Italy compelled the rest of the country to extend hospitality to
thousands of refugees. The Province of Palermo alone cared for
over 6,000 of these. The economic burden thus suddenly thrown on
This district made the situation critical for a time, but the people
Responded nobly and in a few months matters began to adjust them-
selves. There had been a scarcity of labor in Sicily, buIt as a small
proportion of the refugees were willing to work the labur shortage
was somewhat relieved.
The excessively high exchange instead of being a detriment was
rather an advantage, as many of the people here are exporters and
the exchange was favorable to them. The high rate continued until
the most of the fruit was sold; this brought a degree of profit to the
exporters not formerly realized. The reduction in exchange later in
the year was not detrimental to many, as there was little exportation.
This being an agricultural district, the imports are few. The largest
part of them in 1918 were made for account of the Government, so
that the reduction in the rate of exchange resulted in little benefit to
the people generally.
The sudden termination of the war with the Italian victory raised
the spirits of the people, but at the same time it made all business
uncertain and purchases were made from day to day only. The ex-
pected reduction in the cost of living was not realized.
Labor Conditions Satisfactory-Industries Well Occupied.
The scarcity of labor increased during the year, with a consequent
rise in wages. All crops were reduced as a result of the lack of labor,
and many small industries such as shoemaking also suffered. In con-
sequence of the material advance in wages, the laboring classes suf-
fered less from the high cost of living than did many of those in
better situations. As an example, the longshoremen who had received
5 lire (lire=$0.193, normal exchange) a day before the war and
whose daily wages had been increased to 7 lire during 1917, received
an increase during 1918 to 15 lire for eight hours work. There was





!



16 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

little labor trouble during the year and few strikes; those which oc-
curred were soon settled, usually in favor of the strikers. The wages
of omnibus drivers and conductors, who had previously received
from 2.50 to 3.50 lire per day, were increased to 6.50 lire, and the
Government made them an allowance of 60 lire a month on account
of the high cost of living.
There are few industries here of importance, but. most of those
were well occupied. There were three munition factories in opera-
tion and all running full time until the armistice was signed. Also,
the furniture factories had been converted largely into factories for
hydroplanes, and these were constantly busy.
The shipyard, which has been in operation for some years, was
working day and night, and two new shipbuilding plants of small
size were started. One foundry, which was working for the Navy,
was likewise fully occupied. Many small industries such as tomato-
canning, olive-oil, and macaroni factories had to reduce their output
for lack of material and labor.
Exports and Imports.
The exports listed at the port of Palermo during 1918 were 75,280
tons of various merchandise as compared with 116,995 tons the year
previous. There was exported also 4,299,159 liters (liter=1.05
quarts) of wine as against 437,465 liters in 1917.
The only articles showing a material increase besides wine were
oranges, almonds, filberts, and ground sumac. Those showing a de-
crease were empty barrels, lemons, and sulphur. The whole decrease
in exportations was accounted for by lemons, which showed a falling
off of 51,694 tons.
Imports showed an increase; being 238,751 tons against 181,330 tons
in 1917. The principal articles which increased were: Coal, 53,240
tons; corn, 6,022 tons; wheat flour, 8,823 tons; rice, 18,227 tons; and
rye, 1,132 tons. There were also imported 26,807 liters of alcohol in
1918 against none in 1917. Decreases are to be noted in residues of
mineral oil, mineral phosphate, and wheat.
The following table shows the exports from and imports into the
port of Palermo during the years 1917 and 1918:

Articles. 1917 1918 Articles. 1917 1918

EXPORTS. EXPORTS-continued.
Tons. Tons.
Acid, citric ................... 806 649 Essences--Contmued. Tons. Tons.
Barrels....................... a5,438 .......... Mandarin ................. ...........1
Baskets ....................... 4 3 Oranre ................... 3 .5
Books........................ 4 .......... Fish:
Bread and biscuits............ .......... 45 Fre-sh..................... 3 3
Bricks........................ .......... 5 Preserved............... 52 6
Cables, wire.................. .......... 4 Fleshines...................... 3 .........
Cement....................... 41 21 Flour, wheat.................. ......... 6
Charcoal...................... .......... 2 Furniture .................... 12 5
Cheese........................ .......... 5 Fruit'
China, decorated.............. .......... .5 Citrous................... 94 ........
Coal .......................... .......... 4,881 Fies, dried..... ......... .......... 125
Cork.......................... 201 268 Fresh.................... 9 3
Cotton goods ................. 19 3 Lemons .................. S, 415 33,721
Cotton wast e ........................... 4 Lemon juice.............. 57 79
Earth, mineral an-d rock...... 6,035 8,051 Lemon peel.............. 560 104
Egg s.......................... .......... 2 Oranges.. ................ 3,714 4,684
Electrical apparatus .......... .......... 2 Fruit and vegetables, pre-
Essences: served...................... 312 31
Bergamot ................. 1 3 Glass, window................. 26 ........
Lemon................... 49 47 Gloves leather, miscellaneous. b33,240 28
a Capacity in bectoliters (hectoliter=26.4 gallons. b Number.




j






























.
' ,
'I


EXPORTS-continued.

Glue........................
Hair:
Human..................
Vegetable................
Hardware....................
Hay ............. ........
.Hemp and jute products......
Hides, green.................
Ico............................
Ink............................
Lard .......................
Licornce juice, raw..........
Licorice root.................
Lumber.....................
Macaroni....................
Machine parts...............
Manna......................
Meat, fresh.................
uts:
Almonds-
Unshelled...........
Shelled ..............
English walnnuts.........
Filberts.................
Pistachio .................
Oil:
Fish....................
Kerosene................
Linseed. ...............
Mineral, heavy..........
Olive-
Edible...............
Soap stock.........
Oxide of lead ................
Paints...........................
Paper, all kinds..............
Paraffin, solid ................
Rice.........................
Roots:
For brushes .............
Medicinal................
Rope and twine..............
Rubler, manufactured.......
Salt, marine................
Seeds:
Mustard.................
Sesame.................
O her kinds..............
Skins, goat and sheep.........
Soda, caustic................
Soap...................... .....
Spices.......................
Starch, rice ......... ......
Sugar........................
Sulphur.....................
Sumac:
Unground................
Ground...............
Tartar:
Crude, and wine lees......
Cream of .................
Tobacco, manufactured .......
Tomato sauce................
Varnish ......................
Vegetables:
Potat oes .................
Garlic and onions .........
Other....................
Vermuth....................
Wine:
Common...............
M arsala....................
Wool, v.'ahed ...............
Zinc, manmuactured..........

IMPORTS.


Tons.
8

29


25
I
7
..........


49
30
30


105


491
876

1,167
16


233
743


3
..........
..........


40
16



69
10
2
S
...........




1,075

4, 192
8,131

269
4,06
14
956


a 415,215
a 22,20


Acid,olec..........................
Alcohol....................... ..........
Basket ..... ............... ..........
Belting.... ...........................


Tons.
8

45
1
5

3
10
118
.5


79
31
41
12
55
40


1,430
731
4
2,934
20

1
10
15




3
16

2
2

3
23
30







13
2
7





2
1
2
2
I1
631

4,171
10,953

270
277
15
278
2

46
6
37
S2,54.)

n3,411,215
a 50,4 14,
17
1


965
a 26, 507
2
2


IMPORTS-conrtiLnuld.

Benzene ....................
Brick.........................
Cacao ...... ...............
Calcium chloride ............
Cane and wicker ..............
Castings, metal..............
Cement....................
Charcoal.....................
Chemical- ..................
Chrome of calcium............
Cinnamon....................
Coal...........................
Colfee .......................
ColorLug extracts ............
Colors.......................
Corn........................
Corn mal ....................
Cotlon ......................
Dates........................
Earthb:
For paints.............
Mi neral..............
Eggs ........................
Fiber:
Crude..................
Ve'etable..............
Fish:
Salted...................
Smoked ................
Flour:
Barley..................
Wheat..................
Other...................
Fruit in oil..................
Furniture....................
Glass........................
Graphite....................
Greases......................
Herbs.......................
Hides........................
Ink..........................
Iron:
Manufactures of ..........
Pipe.....................
Plates....................
Scrap....................
Jute sacks..................
Lampblack...................
Lard ........................
Leather.....................
Lumber:
Board s..............
S ed...................
Machine parts................
Machinery:
SpinninE.................
Sreim..................
Wooldworking............
Milk. condensed ..............
Mercury......................
Needles and pins.............
Oil:
Fish.....................
Lineed ...............
Mineral and resinous.....
Mincrai, residues of dis-
tillation ...............
Palm....................
Paper:
Blotting ..................
\W all....................
Paints and colors ............
P.raiti ......................
Pencils......................
Pens, metal.................
Pepper ......................
Petroleum ..... .............
Phosphate, mineral...........
Porcelain, white..............
Potash, caustic...............I
Pot alum, silicate of .........


Tons.

149
11


9
106
(91



S 4,t.15
636
4
I


I


Tens.
412
59
6
52
2

.........

3

3
137,554
424
2
3
6,Ir22
232
5
4


5
5 ..........
2 .........1
..... ....I


3





52
1 .
2
407
62
......... .

12
12.
5
10)
56

I;
44

16

156
47


;6 .
S .
47

1 .


31
161

1,648
55

1
1
6
590

.3
39
""93
1,031
1,
44


........ .
9

227
408

123
8, 23
13
1

.........

217
3
186

1
It

4
258
26
2
20
21
18

32
250
51

.........
4
34

2.5

4
1
119

635
24



6
I

3,
116
SS7
1
9


a Liters.


ITALY-PALERMO.


Articles. 1917 1918 Articles. 1917 1919













SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


Articles.


IMPORTS -continIued


Tons
Rice ......... ............. .........
Roots for dyeing:
Unground ................ 369
Ground .................. 378
Rope.......................... 27
R osins ....................... ..........
Rye...................................
Sal ammoniac.............. ..........
Seed:
For oil................... 23
Other.................... 10
Sewing machines........... 16
Shoes ......... ............... 2
Soda:
Bicarbonate of............ 55
Carbonate of.............. 337
Caustic................... 63
So p ......................... ..........
Sturc ..................... .... ......
S t _a r c .. ... .................. ... .......
Tanning materials............ ..........
Tar........................... ..........


Articles.


-~II I 1' ~


Tons.
18,227


31
7
1,132
5


133

3
444
88
14
16
3
120
171


IMPORTS-continued.
Tartar, crude................
Textiles...................
Tin..........................
Tobacco, leaf ................
Tools........................
Twine........................
Typewriters..................
Varnish.....................
Vegetable products..........
Wheat.......................
Wine.......................
Wine lees....................
Wood:
Fire.....................
Tanning and dyeing ......
W ire.......................
Wooden utensils.............
W ool ........................
Woolen goods.... ..........
Zinc:
Plates....................
Manufactures o ..........


Declared Exports to the United States.

The exports to the United States, as declared at this consulate,
showed a slight increase over those of the previous year. Articles
showing increases were citric acid, cork, essences, lemons, and human
hair. The following showed decreases: Almonds, filberts, pistachio
nuts, laces, licorice, manna, soap stock, caponata, and wine.
The increase in lemons was due to the higher prices paid, as there
was but a slight increase in the quantity. The other increases were
due to increased demand in America. The decrease in nuts was
called by the high prices obtaining here, as compared with those in
Spain. The other decreasess were on account of the prohibition of
exportation.
The following table shows the exports from this consular district
as declared at the consulate (there were no goods invoiced to any of
the possessions of the United States, nor were there any returned
Americann goods):

1917 1918
A rt l l. Is.
Quantity. Value. Quantity. Value.


Acid, citric.................................. pounds..
Antiquities.................................... nses..
Cork........................................ pounds..
Essences:
Bergamot .................................. do....
Lemon...................................... do....
Orange............ ...... ....................do....
Fish, salted and preserved.....................do....
Fleshings............. ..........................do...
Fruits and nuts:
Lemons................................packages.
Olive ................................pound..
Peel-
Lemon..................................do....
Orange................................do....
Almonds................................... do....
Filherts .................................... do....
PiIstahio...................................do....
Gloves........................................dozen..
Hair, human................................pound;..
Laces and linen...............................cases..
Licorice..................................... pounds..
Manna and mannite........... ....................do....


249,700
40
4.0,000
3,971
(0,122
1,31.,5
232, 122
622, 206

853,126
39,900
26, 1;86
28,979-
1,092,230
1,986,750
14,025
2,151
42,131
100
64,340
134,554


$230, t,3
12,020

10, 1S2
69,.11
3,392
3, 7350

1,0 0,176,
2,136

3,396
2, 36
333,092
307,007
9,564
1P,071
182, 142
35,517
17,159
104,207


321,550
277,362
8,607
95,772



856,987

4,408
17,639
825,820
775,414
5,577
1,877
50,727
145
2,125
38,476


$293,192
22,967

30,177
85,507
............
-::------Y

2,634,100

303
2,510
210,281
102,337
4,516
14, 900
268,319
14,406
8,262
38,947


1917


1918


Tons.
15
11
23
1,033
..........
..........
..........
..........
2
57,037
c 1,457
2,001

5
..........
31
180
6


Ton v
16
22
3
1,120
2
52
2
6
4
86,819
116

21
48
21


6
3


P I ....: ... .... .... ..





1917 1918
Articles.
Quantity. Value. Quantity. Value.

Oil:
Olive, edible .............................. gallons.. 500 .59 ............ ............
Sulphur, soap stock.......................pounds.. 1,900,387 177, 95 ....... ............
Seeds:
Mustard.................................... do.... 22,016 3,397 ............ ............
Sesame..............................do.... 22,222 1,t10 ............ ............
Skins, goat .................................... do .... 40 410 ............ ............
Snuff........................................... do.... 28, 747 17,783 2q,0f0 $17,917
Squills......................................... do.... 55,096 7,l12 39, t'3 5,0538
Sumac:
Ground.................................... do.... 8, 13, 352 331,309 7,5:0,"0 401,557
Leaf...................................... do.... 6,306,766 220,780 3,549,170 1S3,7, 8
Tartar, crude.................................. do.... 1,428,446 349,766 &Ml, 57 3t., 438
Vegetables:
Preserved artichokes........................cases.. 431,431 2,215 ............ ............
Caponata (salad).......................... do.... S,134 59, 162 ............ ..........
Capers ..................................... do.... 26,597 2,076 ..2,47S 3,089
TomatosauuLe...............................do.... 858 11,418 ....... .... .........
Wine:
Common.................................. gallons.. 91,050 76,531 49.118 42,924
Marsala......................................do ... 86,352 96,S92 .53,119 64, 177
All other articles............................. pounds.............. 1,2'0 13,265 923
Total.............. ........................ ........... 4,37 2 ... ...... 4,15,772

Crops-Reduced Yield-Trade Prospects.
The most important crops are those of lemons, oranges, and man-
darins. There are no exact statistics for these or other crops, but it
is estimated that the total Lroduction of lemons in 101S was 3.8 ,q.5.)0
tons as compared to 4t8,0d8 tons in the year before. Previously,
the exportation of lemons amollnted to more than half of the pro-
duction, but during ihe war this was reduced, and the amount u.:ed
for derivatives and hoiie consumption was probably double that of
the exportation.
The yield of oranges is e-timated at 265.000 tons, of which 120,000
tons were exported. The mandarin crop amounted to :3;.000 tons.
There was a general reduction in the other crops due to the scarcity
of labor, high rate of wages, and cost of materials.
The market outlook for American prodllcts is good. During the
war no articles of luxury were allowed to be imported, and the
term "luxury was so elastic as to include automobiles and ink-
stands. The restrictions were applied only to foreign goods which
had to be shipped by boat, and therefore France. England, and
Switzerland profited by this advantage over the United States.
Lack of Direct Shipping-Articles in Demand.
Until the lack of direct. steamers to this port is remedied, American
trade with this district will be under a handicap. One ship a month
direct to Palermo would be of great assistance in extending business
here with the United States. The exchange situation may also be
a. deterrent to trade extension, but this is no especial disadvantage to
the American exported, as all countries are affected alike.
There is a great lack of most articles, and when trade is freed from
restrictions it. should be easy for Americans to secure a larger share
than in the past. There is a great scarcity of lumber of all kinds,
and there is urgent demand for shooks for lemon boxes and pitch
pine for construction purposes.
Grain and coal are always in demand, and these will probably find
a growing market. Machinery of various kinds will be needed, es-


ITALY-PALERMO. 19









SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


specially agricultural implements. There is a demand for tools and
hardware of all kinds. Tin for canning uses will find a ready sale.
Shoes and leather are very high and scarce.
If the above obstacles should be removed the outlook for a large
business would be bright.
TURIN.
Vice Consul Dana C. Sycks.
The consular district of Turin comprises the Department of Pied-
' nont, which is composed of the Provinces of Alessandria, Cuneo,
Novara, and Turin. It is situated in the northwestern corner of
Italy, and includes within its borders the southern, eastern, and
northern slopes of the highest Swiss, French, and Maritime Alps,
and the great Piedmontese plain. It has an area of 11,332 square
miles, and a population of 3,590,400. The district contains 21 sub-
districts, 198 judiciary districts, 1,489 municipalities, and 4 Pro-
vinces-Turin, Alessandria, Cuneo, and Novara. Piedmont, with
the neighboring Department of Lombardy, is the most important in-
dustrial center of Italy. The principal distributing center is the
city of Turin, the third city of Italy, with a population of 520,000
and situated 842 feet above the sea. Piedmont is a district with but
very little wind, owing to the fact that it is surrounded on three
sides by high mountain ranges. The average rainfall of 30 inches
and a minimum of rainy days make it a very pleasant district to
live in. In winter the average temperature is about. 290 F., and in
summer 74.
Health and Vital Statistics.
In Piedmont there is an annual average birth rate of 21.6 per
thousand inhabitants, while the death rate averages 17.6 per thousand.
The marriages celebrated are approximately 3.97 per thousand. In
normal times the annual emigration was 762 per 100.000 inhabitants,
of which 113 were bound for countries beyond the seas, and 649 for
European countries. During 1918, for every 100,000 inhabitants
there were the following cases of sickness reported: Measles, 5,840;
scarlet fever, 1.384; smallpox, 33; abdominal typhus, 2,915; diph-
theria, 851; puerperal fever, 77; malaria, 100; pellagra, 3. Also,
239 bites from animals infected with hydrophobia were recorded dur-
ing the year. For every 100,000 inhabitants, the deaths from tuber-
culosis were as follows:
Age Males Females. Age. Males. Females.
Per I00,(00 Per 100,000 Per 100,000. Per 100,000.
Less than 1 vear ........ 5.6 2n to 39 years.............. 23.2 26.1
I to 4 years. .............. 2.9 2.6 40 to .9 years.............. 17.2 12
6 to 9 vears................ 1.7 2.5 60 to 79 years.............. 9.2 6.2
10 to 19 years.............. 6.2 12.9 50 to 90 years.............. 3.5 5
Deaths from other tubercular diseases including tubercular menin-
gitis, mesenteric tabes, scrofula, synovia, arthritis, tuberculosis of
the various bones and organs were as follows:
Age. Males. Females. Age. Males. Females.
Per 100,000. Per 100 000. Per 100,000. Per 100,000,
LeFs than 1 year.......... 15.5 13.7 20 to39 years.............. 2.1 2.2
to 4 years ................ 8.3 7.2 40 to 59 years............. 1.8 1.6
Sto 9 years................ 4.1 4.2 60 to 79 years.............. 2.1 2.0
10 to 19 years and over... 2.4 3.0 80 years and over......... 0.7 1.9


Si..;


20










ITALY-TURITN.


Vaccination against smallpox reached the annual
88.1 per cent for children and 11.4 per cent for adults,
eral average of 85.5 per cent effective results proven.


average of
with a gen-


Veterinary Statistics-Education.
The following table shows the statistics for 1918 in regard to
animal diseases:
Sheep
Diseases. Cattle. and Horses. Swine. Total.
Goats.

Carbuncular haematosis: Number. "Kunmber. Number. tunrhrr. ,v mber.
Reported exposed to disease..................... 1,785 7, 3.S 46 .......... 9,219
Reported sick but found well................... 539 5,223 6 .......... 5,763
Cured ............................................. .........................
D ied ............................................ 1,215 1,239 40 .......... 2,494
Symptomatic carbuncles-
Reported exposed to disease ..................... 691 1 9 .......... 701
Reported sick but found well...................... 352 .............................. 352
Cured ........................................... 2 .......... 2 .......... 4
Died ............................................ 312 1 7 .......... 320
Aphtha epizootic:r ([not-and-mouth disease:
Reported exposed to disease ..................... 267,900 6,009 29 1,4 9 275,427
Reported sick but fuund well................... 24,657 1,279 6 16 25,953
Cured......................................... 246,445 4,666 4 1,377 252,492
Died ............................................ 17,222 152 .162 17,566
Glauders:
Reported exposed to disease....................................... 479 .......... 479
Reported sick but found well....................... .... .......... 225 ......... 225
Cured ............................................................. ......... .................
Died .............................................................. 308 ............. 30
Mange:
Reported exposed to disease ............................... 18,737 1,292 8 20,037
Reported sick but found well ............................. 2, 03 7 .......... 2,090
Cured................................ ...... ...... 20,428 1,198 7 21,633
Died......................................... ........... 397 3 1 401
Infectious disease of hogs:
Reported expocrd to disease............................. .......... ......... 13,577 13,577
Reported sick but found well.................... ........ ......... .......... 2,316 2,316
Cured ......................................... ........... .......... .......... 3,777 3,777
Died.............................................. ... ... ................. 8, 573 S,573
Infectious diseases of sheep and goats:
Reported exposed to disease ............................... 7,691 .......... .......... 7,G9
Reported sick but found well............................. 17 .............. .. 17
Cured ................................................... 7,634 .................... 7,634
D ied........................................ ........... .. .......... I ......... 13

During the year 838 cases of hydrophobia were recorded, with 669
deaths.
In Piedmont the schools and universities are among the best in
Europe, the most noted being the Royal University, the Polytechnic
School, the Royal Medical University, the Commercial College, and
the Italian School of W ar for Officers. The total number of public
schools for boys is 3,182; for girls, 3.019; and for both boys and girls,
10,493, or a total of 16,694. These schools are divided among 1,489
municipalities in the Provinces of Alessandria, Cuneo, Novara, and
Turin, and through these municipalities they received an annual al-
lowance from the Italian Government of $1,913,460. The number of
pupils is 396,587. Of the 1,4S9 municipalities, 858 had, in 1918, 1,106
kindergartens in which 94,786 children under 6 years of age were
taught.

Output of Crops.
In the district of Piedmont, with an area of 11,332 square miles,
6,338,560 acres of land were employed as follows in 1918: 2,263,010
acres in grain; 2,378,240 acres in hay; 174,080 acres in fruit trees;
1,523,200 acres in forests and in chestnut trees which yielded more


Lit"









22 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

than 3,666,667 bushels of chestnuts.' The principal crops in 1917
and 1918 were:

Crops. i917 1918 Crops. 1917 1918

Beans ........... bushels.. 656,334 782,000 Mulberry leaves.... tons... 157,000 176,000
Beets, siuar......... tons.. 9,130 26,070 Potatoes........bushels.. 6,530,834 6,279,480
Chestnuts........ bushels.. 4,440,300 3,666,667 Rice..............do.... 6,626,888 5,1 3333
Corn................do.... 11,239,642 9,428,571 Wheat..............do.... 11,055,873 13,968,254
Hay................tons.. 3,216,730 3,410,000 Wine.............gallons.. 177,364,051 163,785,690
Hemp...............do.... 2,450 2,200

Mineral Production-Tobacco Consumption.
In 1918 prospecting for and exploitation of new mines in Piedmont
were more active than for several years previous, owing to the enor-
Imous demand for raw materials in Italy for munitions of war. In
the Province of Cuneo there were 74 mines producing lead, zinc, and
copper; in the Province of Novara, 37 mines producing gold, lead.
zinc, and iron; and in the Province of Turin, 694 mines which pro-
duced iron pyrites, anthracite coal, lignite, lead, zinc, and gold. The
total production of the Piedmont mines in 1917 and 1918 was as
follows:

Products. 1917 101 S Products. 1917 1918

Tonns. Tons. Trons. Tnns.
Anthrilcitpcoal................ 4,200 730 Iron......................... 43,500 50,000
Copper............... ....... 4.0 ,00 I e .......................... 550 851
Godll ........................... a3,-,n 1 l (jon Limie ........................ 4,100 5,000
Graplite ...................... 7,' 0 i, .0u Zl ........................... 1,100 2,300
oValue in lire.
It is understood that the ircni ore found in this district during
the year was of a very high quality and almost entirely free from
sulphul r and phosl)holru.
The per capital annual consmpl)tion of tobacco in this consular
di trict is 10S grams (gram=0.035. avoirdupois ounce). Owing to
the increased quantity of all kinds of tobacco requisitioned for the
army and the decreased sul)ply, there were occasions when no to-
ac. o was to be had for several days at a time. In the Province of
Alessandria the cultivation of tobacco was commenced upon a small
scale as an experiment.
Transportation-Financial Conditions Disturbed by Drop in Exchange.
With 1,431 miles of steam railroads in the Department in 1918,
Piedmnnt easily furnished amplle and good transportation facilities
for all of its enterprises, with the exception of times when the
roads were somewhat badly congested with military trains. In ad-
dition to the above railroad lines, which are owned by the State, the
district possesses 093 miles of street and interurban railways owned
and operated by municipalities or private companies. There are
also 11,876 miles of common roads, with 494 miles good for auto-
mobiles. There were 23 miles of trackless trolley lines in operation
There are no internal waterways in this district. In normal times
the annual passenger traffic of Piedmont is, as divided among its
four Provinces, as follows: Alessandria, 4,088,952; Cuneo, 1,780,789;
Novara, 2,650,867; Turin, 4,093,232; making a total of 12,613,840.


IY_*~ _II










ITALY-TURIN.


In 1918 the financial market of Piedmont was seriously disturbed
by the break in the rates of exchange and the great depreciation in
the purchasing power of the Italian lira. All financial transactions
were projected and executed with the greatest caution. In June
and July the lowest point was reached for Italian money, when the
dollar brought 9.21 lire (lira=$0.193, normal exchange). About
this time the financial arrangement between the Allied Governments
brought about a great amelioration in conditions, and the Italian
lira again became somewhat normal. The Italian Government
opened the National Exchange Institute, through which all con-
tracts went for Government approval, and through which all pay-
ments were required to pass for purchases abroad. The banks .were
all active and extended financial assistance to large and small in-
dustries, and, through their close cooperation with the Government,
prevented practically all private speculation. At the close of 1918
the Italian lira was depreciated 16 per cent as compared with French
money, 30 per cent with Swiss money, and 22 per cent with United
IStates and English money.

Economic and Commercial Effects of War.
The war, although hard and long, did not weaken the spirit of the
people of Piedmont in their endeavor to free their land from the
enemy. The stupendouss strides made by the manufacturers of this
district were prnof sufficient of their patriotic endeavors to solve
the economical questions., which before the war -eenled impossible
of solution. The improvement and enlargement of the great manu-
facturing plants. ;nd the erection of many otliers, were the material
evidence that Piedmont intended to produce at home many, if not
all, of the articles imported from Germany and Austria before the
war. The new plants erected during hostilities for the production
of munitions will be u-ed in time of peace for the realization of
this desire for commercial and economic independence along that
line. The following table of Italian importations, by countries
of origin. for 1913. 1611, and 1915, shows Germany's position in Italian
trade:


Comunri.; of origin.


1913


Lire.
Austria................................................. 53,716,678
Belgium ............................................ 22, 2, 3 22
Bulgaria.............................................I 91,7.52
Ienmark ........................................... 1'1,234
France.................. ............................ 120. 007,614
Germany...........................................' 9. 3 89, S, 549
Gibraltar............................................ 1, 30?, 140
England .......................................... 139, 00i, 791
Greece.............................................. 8M53.510
Netherlands....................................... 3,716, 203
Malta............................................... 92, 305
Montenegro ........................................ 79,149
Norway............................................ 689,5t)2
Portugal ............................................ 11,550
Roumania .......................................... 4,126, 9.0
Russia .............................................. 3,214,759
Serbia .............................................. 1, 2,3, g90
Spain................................................2,975,387
Sweden ...................................... ........ 18, 4S9
Switzerland ......................................... 41,973,557
Turkey......................... ................... 410,714
Total......................................... 786,296,757


1915


Lire. Lire.
44,130,155 16,071,181
17,390,060 1,103,885
862 19,200
213,327 331,575
96.31 .11. 15 95. 5.f637
320. 1241, 4192 11 7.11, 01 I ;
1,31 ;, c401 3. 2 7, .11
103, 572, 019 11.3,2727,11
92,7S4 9 115
3, 92' 712 4. 12 1, .ii
S 61;'S 21 i.', '02
11.162 1, '1'2
75.3,9501 6.. '12
4,5).S ...........
4, 651,746 2iif, :1.
1, 703.08) 179.25')
1,4S,497 1 ,106.42
2,512,907 14,k667,719
866,739 1,30S, 598
33,419,6SS 51,546,149
89,803 23,598
623,205,885 414,880,114


L .


Total.


Lire.
113,918,014
40,846,867
111,814
735,136
301,969, 130
520,417, 0S9
5, S26,412
35.,, 850, 554
1,011,99'
12, ( 9, 771
392,020
123,973
2,112,276
16,139
9,035, 211
5,097 089
3,&33,815
20,156,013
3,363,826
126,939,394
524,115
1,824,382, 756








24 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.
Labor Conditions-Automobile Industry.
With the signing of the armistice and the ceasing of hostilities,
came also the canceling of the war contracts and the discontinuance
of many departments of the. large factories-employed on war work.
This was the cause of large reductions in the number of employees.
The number of unemployed continually increased, and among them
great discontent began to grow as their funds became exhausted. The
number of employees in the various industries of Piedmont in 1918
are estimated as follows: Mines, 8,450; agriculture and fishing,
73,670; metallurgical, 80,000; construction, 45,500; textile, 131,000;
chemical, 13,000; miscellaneous, 10,200; making a total of 361,820.
One of the greatest industries of Italy, and especially of Piedmont,
is the automobile industry, which now sends its products to all parts
of the world. In 1913 there were nine automobile companies in Pied-
mont with $3,500,000 capital, while in 1918 there were seven com-
panies with $30,000,000 capital, which produced 30,000 chassis, and
gave employment to 50,000 men. Before the war these companies were
producing approximately 8,800 cars annually. While the importa-
tion of foreign cars declined from $2,750,000 to $1,000,000 in 1918,
the exportation of Italian cars increased from $6,500,000 to $22.000,-
000. This industry during the war was a national pride. The Fiat,
the largest manufacturer of automobiles in Europe, alone furnished
the Allied Governments with more than 50,000 cars during the hos-
tilities. In normal times this industry exported practically four-
fifths of its annual production. There are in Italy 35,555 automo-
biles, 3,550 of which are in Piedmont.
Cotton and Woolen Industries.
The cotton industry is one of the oldest industries of Piedmont; it
represented, in 1918, an estimated capital of $30,000,000 and gave em-
ployment to 52,000 employees, of which 70 per cent were women and
30 per cent men. There were 1,000,283 spindles and 31,900 looms in
the mills, which consumed about 250,000 bales of cotton. It was
estimated that 200,000 bales were imported from America, while the
remaining 50,000 bales came from India, Smyrna, and Egypt. In
normal times about 40 per cent of the production is exported, mostly
to Argentina, the Balkans, and the Far East.
The number of sheep in this consular district in 1918 was estimated
at 350,000; and the wool produced (clean basis) approximately
1,100,000 pounds. The shoddy production was estimated at 3,000,000
pounds. The number of mills in operation was 190, some of which
with but one loom or one set of cards, while others contained hun-
dreds of looms and many sets of cards. The smallest worsted-spin-
ning plant had 800 spindles, while the largest ones possessed from
55,000 to 65,000 spindles. The number of employees engaged in the
woolen industry was about 23,000. The woolen industry of Italy
centers around Biella, near Turin; it is one of the oldest and most
important industries of the Kingdom. The capital employed in the
woolen industry in this district is approximately $40,000,000. The
woolen spindles are estimated at 155,000. The card sets are of
English, Belgium, Italian, and German make. The self-actors
were supplied mostly by English manufacturers until recent years,
when the German machines began to dominate the Italian market.
Worsted spindles in Piedmont are estimated at 162,000. The comb-









ITALY-TTRIN. 25

ing machinery is mostly of the French system and came from Alsace.
For the Bradford system all English machinery is used.
Sources of Machinery and Dyes-Power Used.
The spinning and twisting machinery for the French system was
mostly all supplied by manufacturers in Alsace, while the machines
operated under the Bradford system are all of English make. The
power looms in Piedmont are estimated at 4,970, while t.he hand
looms are given as 385. These looms are nearly all of German manu-
facture, with Crompton harness and boxes; a few, however, are of
English and Belgium make. The hand looms are decreasing in num-
ber each year, owing to the slow process, increased cost of labor, and
the highly satisfactory power machinery now in use. Before the
war the greater part of the cards were purchased in Belgium and
Germany; those purchased during the war, however, came from
England, France, and Spain. The dyes used in the Piedmont
market before the war were almost entirely purchased from Ger-
many; a few, however, were obtained in England, France, and
Switzerland. During the war these were replaced by the wood ex-
tracts from America, with the exception of a few which the Italian
manufacturers were able to buy in England, France, and Switzerland.
The power for the first woolen mills in Piedmont was water, the
old-time water wheel being used; this was followed by the turbine.
At the present time nearly all the larger mills are supplied with
both water and electric power. Very little steam power is used,
because no coal is mined in Italy and the amount imported is sold
at such high prices that it can not be used economically. The only
steam used is for heating, dyeing, drying, and finishing. The hydro-
electric plants which furnish power are mostly equipped with Swiss
and German machinery, with the exception of a small portion of
Italian manufacture; this is now beginning to replace the foreign
nmakes. The electric power is transmitted many miles to the mills
and sold at annual rates of from $30 to $35 per horsepower, for day
and night use. The war had a remarkable effect upon the Italian
woolen industry; due to the enormous demands upon the manufac-
turers, existing mills increased their capacity and new one- were built
in order to supply the growing demands of the Italian Government.
for its war needs. The result is that the mills are now in splendid
condition, and can not only supply the home market Ibut will be able
to export many millions of dollars' worth of woolen goods to foreign
markets annually.
Silk Industry-Cocoon Crop Late-Raw-Silk Prices High.
Owing to the bad weather in the spring of 191S, tie Italian cocoon
crop was very late, and the Governmint's ci.,terva"tive (':Stinmae was
approximately 63,00,000 pounds. while the Aati-tic-t of tlie Silk As-
sociation showed a much mi1ore optimistic estimate. ranllingp. from
72,600,000 to 74.800,000 pounds. In Piednwit tie- cicoiin crop for
1917 was 6.835.400 pounds, while in 191S colnserva;tive e-ti:n tec- range
from 12,000.000 to 14,000.000 pounds. During the year all records
were broken for high prices; the highest prices obtained were in cen-
tral Italy and Lombardy, where they ranged above 150 lire per
myriagram ($28.95 for 22 pounds). In the regions where the crop
was delayed, and especially in Piedmont, the prices were subject to
great fluctuation. At the commencement of the crop season the




r .. .. .. .-. : 9". i w ': '..,.:.. .,.flhA:*tqV..,W,:.: :.: : ,"_: iiA __A________wiI__ _


26 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

prices were from $27 to $31 per 22 pounds, but soon dropped from
$19.30 to $21.25, largely owing to transportation difficulties; shortly
afterwards they increased to from $23.15 to $27, and remained at
these levels alnmot constantly throughout the season. Although there
were decided (lift'rences in the prices of the various districts, the
mills of Piedmont enjoyed the most favorable conditions. At the
beginning of 1918, the cash prices for raw silk for the more impor-
tant grades were as follows: From $27.40 to $27.80 for 22 pounds,
exquis; $27 to $27.40, extra; and $26.45 to $27, classiche.
Course of Raw Silk Prices During 1918.
The month of January started with a great demand for the above-
mentioned grades, and toward the middle and end of the month,
owing to considerable speculation, the prices jumped to from $30.88
to $31.27, exquis; $30.11 to $30.49, extra; and $29.34 to $29.72,
classiche. During the month of February prices were practically
stationary, and contracts were made with difficulty, owing to the
constant increase in the rates of exchange. During March a slight
increase was noticed, and the month closed as follows: $31.85 to
$32.23, exquis; $31.27 to $31.65, extra; $30.49 to $30.88, classiche.
Owing to the fact that the Italian Government prohibited all ex-
portation of silk, the month of April saw a great accumulation of
stocks, and the prices fell to $30.49 to $30.88, exquis; $29.92 to
$30.30, extra; $29.34 to $29.72, classiche. The first of May ex-
portation was permitted on account of the accumulation of stocks,
and during the month prices began to advance; the month closed as
follows: $32.23 to $32.62, exquis; $31.46 to 31.85, extra; $30.30 to
$30.88, classiche.
New contracts and the uncertainty about the new crop during June
caused an increase in prices toward the end of the month, and on
the 1st of July silk brought the following: $35.71 to $36.67, exquis;
$34.16 to $35.13, extra; $33.20 to $33.78, classiche. The above prices
were obtained throughout the month- of July, but toward the 1st
of August dropped to $34.55 to 34.93, exquis; $33.58 to $33.97,
extra; $32.42 to $32.81, classiche. The 1st of August brought dis-
turbing reports regarding the sudden drop in the rates of exchange
owing to the financial agreement between the Allied Governments.
In 10 days exchange with France dropped 27 points, and with
Switzerland 39 points. All exportations were stopped, and losses of
from $2.90 to $3.86 for 22 pounds occurred on silk threads, while
from $0.97 to $1.16 for 2.2 pounds was lost on cocoons. The market,
however, quickly recovered, and prices at the end of August were as
follows: $32.62 to $33, exquis; $30.88 to $31.85, extra; $29.72 to
$30.49, classiche.
Fall in Exchange Disturbs Market-Government Aid.
The continued decline in the rates of exchange caused considerable
anxiety to the Italian Silk Association, and the Italian Government
was asked to come to the aid of the silk-spinning industry, as the fi-
nancial market was such that Italian silks could not compete with
either the Chinese or Japanese silks. During the early part of Sep-
tember no sales were recorded; in the latter part of the month, how-
ever, the accumulation of stocks of August and September were per-
mitted to be exported; these sales were greatly aided by the increased









ITALY-TURIN. 27

value of the Italian lira. The following table shows exchange rates
during the summer months of 1918 between Italy and Switzerland,
France, London, and New York:

Siderd- France- London- New
Date. n 100 1 poimd York-
0rancs-0 rancs= sterhng- 1 dollar-
francs=

1918: Lire. Lire. Lire. Lire.
June30............................................ 229.50 159.50 43.33 8.92
July 15............................................ "226.50 157.50 42.10 8.78
July 31............................................. 225.00 153.75 41.70 8.55
Aug. 15 ................ ......................... 187.00 130.00 35.S7 7.86
Aug. 31........................................... 165.00 120.00 30.,1)0 6.32
Sept.25........................................... 145.50 11s.50 30.2.r 6.35

In'the meantime the Italian Government, in an effort to assist
the Silk Association, created a central office for the silk market,
under the direction of the Banca d'Italia, in Rome, by a decree of
September 29, 1918. This decree contained the list of prices agreed
upon by the Government; at these prices the central office was obliged
to buy all raw and manufactured silks on the market. This was
greatly responsible for the partial recovery in prices obtained for
the August and Septemiber stocks, which were sold at the following
figures: $32.42 to $33, exquis; $31.65 to $32.04, extra; $30.88 to
$31.46, classiche.
Exchange Rates Established by Allied Governments.
The prices for October continued without any noticeable change,
although several of the mills were compelled to close on account of
the influenza, while many others operated with a greatly depleted
force. At this time there came into effect the new financial arrange-
ment between the Allied Governments, which brought aboutt a most
advantageous result for the Silk Association. The following are
the rates of exchange agreed upon, and which gave thel Italian lira
almost 28 per cent more purchasing power than it haIad in June.
The established rates in Italian lire were: Switzerland-for 100
Swiss francs, from 145.50 to 1I29 lire; France-for 100 French francs,
from 118.50 to 115.75 lire; London-for 1 pound sterling. ;0.25 lire;
and New York-for 1 dollar, from (1.35 to 6.3-2 lire. TheI prices
received for the three principal grades of -ilk were: $31.85 to $3'2.42,
exquis; $30.88 to $31.46, extra; $29.92 to $30.-19, clas.sihe.
On October 1 was published a decree which dlirectled that on and
after October 15 all foreign payments for silk exported must be
turned into the Banca d'Italia to the account of the National Insti-
tute for Foreign Exchange. Below are given the prices peter myria-
gram made by the Italian Silk-Purchasing Office for tle four prin-
cipal grades:

Gradt'e.
Quality.
Sublimi. Classiche. Extra. Exquis.

10/12......................................................... 29.34 29.92 $30.49 $31.07
12/14................................ ............ 29.14 29.72 30.30 30. 8
1315........ ..... .......................................... 29.05 29.63 30.21 .30.79
14/16..................... ................ ................ 2. 95 29.53 30. II 30.69
120 .............. ............................. .......... 28.95 29 53 30.11 30.69









128 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

Government Bounty for Silk Exports-Graphite Production and Exports.
In November, with the signing of the armistice, no immediate relief
was obtained for the market, but on the contrary, the situation became
still more aggravated. In December the decrease in the prices of the
Chinese and Japanese silks made it still more difficult for the Italian
silks to compete, and the result was that between 1,320,000 and 1,540,-
000 pounds of raw and manufactured silks accumulated. The Italian
Government, through its Silk-Purchasing Office, was accumulating
silk at high prices, and at the same time permitting the Chinese and
Japanese silks to dominate the European market as they did that of
America. In an effort to avoid this, and to stimulate the exportation
of Italian silks, the Italian Government put at the disposition of the
Silk Association a premium of $8,106,000, provided contracts for a
maximum of 3,960,000 pounds were signed before December 31, 1918,
and exported before March 31, 1919. This plan failed to aid the ex-
portation, however, and the amount sold fell considerably short of the
requirements.
Italy ranks third in the production of graphite, the principal de-
posits of which are found near Pinerolo, in the Province of Cuneo.
In this zone are found two qualities of graphite; the first and best is
a very soft variety with a high percentage of carbon, while the second
and cheaper grade is a rougher quality with a low percentage of car-
bon. The first mining of graphite in Piedmont occurred at the be-
ginning of the last century; it was used as a raw product and was ex-
ported at a very low price to other countries, where it was refined and
afterwards sold at the highest market prices. In recent years, how-
ever, the raw product has been refined at the mines. From 1901 to
1914 the total production in Italy was 152,084 tons, of which Pinerolo
mined 118,477 tons, or 78 per cent. The annual consumption of
graphite in Italy is 31.6 per cent, or 48,059 tons.
The following table shows the exportation of graphite from 1910
to 1915:

Year. Germany. England. Total. Value.

Tons. Tons. Tons.
1910 .......................................................... 3,023 5,390 8,413 $125,456
1911 ........................................................... 3,574 4,822 8,396 125,218
1912........................................................... 3,773 4,791 8,564 125,711
1913........ .................................................. 4,184 4 978 9, 2 152,722
1914....................................................... 4,751 3,597 8,318 131,819
1915........................................................... 3,546 3, 13 7,159 113,044
Total..................................................... 22,851 27, 191 50,012 773,970

Export Legislation for Piedmont.
Exports from this district were very limited throughout 1918, as
every available article which could be used for national defense was
immediately added to the prohibited list. Through an agreement
with France, England, and their colonies, the Italian Government
permitted the exportation of dry mushrooms; to America and coun-
tries beyond the Suez Canal, hemp products were exported. During
February, March, and April the exports to America, England,
France, and their colonies amounted to 2,200 tons. Merchandise for
Saloniki could only be sent if billed to the Italian consul general.








SITALY-TURIN. 29

For Switzerland. shipments could be released from the frontier cus-
tomhouses only if accompanied by a certificate of guaranty that the
goods would not reach enemy countries. To the above-inentioned
countries cotton products (raw and bleached), towels of any woven
material, and straps of camel's hair were permitted to be exported
only by special authorization of the Minister of Finance. To the
Netherlands and Sweden, exports of the following articles were
permitted: Spare parts for textile and beer machinery; sewing ma-
chines; ribbons; oil paintings; combs; hats; small articles of leather;
imitation jewels; perfumes, except oil extracts; painters' materials,
except oils and turpentine; cash registers; photographic materials,
except moving-picture films; fountain pens; laundry machinery
having no copper or brass parts; clocks; and razors contaiining no
nickel or tin. To Switzerland, jewels for watches and other instru-
ments, of which this consular district exports annually great quanti-
ties, were permitted to be exported if a guaranty was given that they
would not reach enemy countries. Herbs, flowers, and medicines
could be exported to Allied countries on application for an export
permit.
Grapes and Wine-Crop Shortage and High Price for Wine.
The grape crop of Piedmont for 1918 was reduced considerably by
the attacks of peronospera. Owing to the lnck of copper sulphate its
general use was limited to such an extent that the parasites caused a
great loss in the annual yield of wine. The ripening of the grapes
was very slow because of the long dry spell, and great quantities were
also lost on this account. Foreign commerce in wines was reduced
to a minimum in 1918, as the Italian Government prohibited the ex-
portation of practically all grades, and requisitioned wines for the
troops wherever possible. Due to the increases in wages and scarcity
of labor, the prices of wines rose as the year progressed. In the
principal wine centers of Piedmont-Asti, Alessandria, Acqui, and
Casale-the prices of wines averaged from $18.94 to .$34.74 per 26.4
gallons, according to the percentage of alcohol, which averaged from
11 to 15 per cent. The production of wine in Piedmont for the year
1918 was 163,785,690 gallons. The number of public places where
wines and other alcoholic drinks were sold at retail in Piedmont were
as follows: Bars and caf6s, 3,236; hotels, 2,503; public houses, 10,535;
restaurants, 4,531; taverns, 1,004; a total of 21,809; an average of 1
for every 165 inhabitants.
The annual exportation of vermuth from Turin is worth be-
tween $3,500,000 and $4,000,000. The amounts imported b the
United States during the past five years were: In 1914, 865,46 gal-
lons, valued at $807,249; 1915, 358,086, at $349,550; 1916, 700,179, at
$774,877; 1917, 534,235, at $760,312; 1918, 280,755. at $752,359; mak-
ing a total of 2,738,722 gallons, valued at $3,444,347.
A large part of the vermuth-from 845,345 to 924,597 gallons-is
exported in casks, the greater part of which, before the war, was
sent to Germany. Between 13,000,000 and 14,000,000 bottles are ex-
S ported annually, principally to the United States and Argentina.












SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


Trade with Argentina and United States and Possessions.

Principal imports at Turin from Argentina and exports to that
country from the same city were in 1917 and 1918 as follows:


Articles. 1917 1918


IMPORTS.
A lcohol].....................................................................gallns........... 12,000
Honey .....................................................................pounds............ 107,545
SRubber ........................................................ ..............do. 29,480 ..
Scrap iron....................................................................tons.. 794 ..........
Eugar .....................................................................barrels.. ....... 286
EXPORTS.
Automobiles............................................. ........... .....number.. 13 2
Buttons ........................................................ ............. .. ........
Chocolate..................................................................pounds.. 17,460 3,768
Cot ou ,lt h ................................................................ 3ards... 98,749 13,450
Cotton rilbou ...............................................................do.... 126,400 78,500
IThrsand medicines......................................................pounds.. 137,174 99,136
I ace, cnrton .................................... .......................... ards... 87,650 68,500
Iilub)er, elasi............................................................... do... 98,500 16,800
'Tires, aLlomobile.......................................................... uurber.. 100 800
Veermith ..................................................................bottles.. 2,417,624 2,296,200


The principal imports at Turin from the United States in 1917 and
1918 were as follows:


Articles.


A unmin um ............................................................. i.ns.
Ailr hl.........................................................all.n-.
C I'l IC I ................................ .............................. I ns.
A ,' il,. (]id..................................................................do ..
A etol ..................................... ............ ........... ....... (to ...
C:.ata ................................................................rounds.
CIH" I i t ....................................................................do....
Copper:
Inrots ...................................... ......... ...... ............ n.
Sheets.................... .......................................... ........o..
'l' I. ................. ....................................... do...
Cotton:
W a ro ..................................................................pound .
In b.,l-rs.......................... .. ... ................................... do....
Fire bri. i:' ............................................................... ons..
Iron and t- el:
I ..................................................................... d....
Sheel ....................................................................do.
Rail .............................................. ............... do....
N ickel ................ .................................................... pounds..
Pig iron.................. .................................................. ns..
R ubber. I rodi ........................................................... pounds..
R aw iron..................................................................... tons..
Scrap iron................................................................... do ...
Sugar .......................................................... ........ do....


4,73?
I11
11
1,?62

..........


F75
159,000

22,179
43
145
42,000
21,518
20,400
6,292
25,097
544


107
14,464


353,443
4,424

48
41

5S,420
1s5,000
455

14,010
38
142
197,000
5,742
68,500
296
1,038
3,621


3













ITALY-TURIN.


The declared exports from this consular district to the United
States and possessions in 1917 and 1918 were as follows:


1917

Articles.
Quan ity.


TO TI!E UNITED STATES.
Antiquities.....................-................ ........
Automobiles ........................................numlber..
Automobile part'..............................................
Aeroplane engine .................................. nunirmer..
Bottle caps .............. ........................ do....
Books....................... ... ..............................
Buttons................................................. do n
Cap unles............................................ nuImber..
Chocolate .................................................. pounlnr ..
Cotton spread ............... ............... lu.ir ird. .
Films ....................................................... i t. .
Glu. ............. ....... .......................... pound;..
Glur I tock............... ................................. do ....
G rap te .................... .. .............. ...... ....... do....
Hair, human................ ....... .................... do....
Hats. fur ............................................... oen..
Jewels, watch ................................. ...... numbn r. .
Juniper berrie.3 ....................................... pound;..
Medicines ................... ...........................
P per............................................... pounds..
Plumbago .................. ......................... do .....
Post r ard ........................................... u m (-r..
R ubl-er, rel:i nlm:l ................................... pound'-..
Silk spreads .................. ............... .. qu. i ri ar d-. .
Silkw'ormi gut ............. ..... ...........................
Statuei s ................................................ ......
Talc ................................................ pomnd3..
Type .......................... ............. ............ ...
rrumui h ....................... .. ............. ....... illons.
W\\se, fur ............. ......................... .pIound ..
WVin. ................................................ I llo ;..
W works of ar .....................................................
All other irt i:-le ................................... ........


5. .



..........
2, 4,. 000

2A1, 5t.'
85,000'
",Oil
22'., 162
101, 74l
251, 202
2, 594, 2'',
44, 1')10
4,517
22, 14'
2, c .. 72':1
... 1

',. '?3'

13.'. I i
54 42
l 'I

ti, 7nIi, i ,ii



1e... 4-'..
5.1l,23 *..
i. l0 ,0.02
1.. -1.1*: *)i


Total ................. .............. ............................

70 Tili rmIL.IPPINES.


Post cards ............................................number..
Umbrella rih ...........................................ur. ri..
Verm ulli................. ........................... .gallons..

T otal ....................................................

TO PORi' R!CO.
Hats, ur ............ .. ....... .... .... ............... o n..
Vermuth............................................. gallons..
Film s.....................................................fect..


12, 0111
4,3 in
10, "z37




101
13,050
... .......


Total.................................................... ..........


Value. Quantity.



$917 ..........
128, 224 ..........
7,902 ..........
7,986 ..........
3,782 ..........
1,298 ..........
830 ..........
963 ...........
3,202 .........
94,159 34,837
7,614 41,879
43,243 ..........
185,480 612,518
908 66,000
44,913 2,625
418,241 14,296
51,762 4,323,128
2,271 .........
5 R27 ..........
(1112 ..........
4,143 ..........
1,766 5. ',. 3
130,154 21-'i 214
401 ..........
185 ..........
671 .........
108,404 1,112,724

7.1'.2 20n. 755
7,574 1.2,000
168,501 92,531
802 ..........
1, 5' 0 ..........


There were no exports to the Hawaiinn Islandn. Retllrned Ameri-
can goods were of the value of $8,091 against $s35 in 1917.



















WASHINGTON: COVERNMBENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1U9


2. 21.. -S .



,. 1 -.
4. 153

10, 4.1 .


2,' 1
2.3, .,-li


26,1 ,37


..........
1, 7,71
I3, 2)7

. ........ .


... .... .. .
. ... ......
15,20 '7.


Value.



..........
....... ...

.... .17

1,062
..........


20,637
6,511

80,456
791
34,685
480,986
101,585



121
..........

288

31,046

7"' ,'3, :,
1'd, 72
....-......


I. 7.j,, 17



S 3, ', 13
7, Ijl t




..........
5,115

5,115


191R




,. ..L..,.: _'
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
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3 1262 08485 2291












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