Supplement to Commerce reports

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Title:
Supplement to Commerce reports daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce
Uniform Title:
Commerce reports
Volume title page for -<1920>:
Supplements to Commerce reports : review of industrial and trade conditions in foreign countries in ... by American consular officers
Portion of title:
Daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce
Physical Description:
6 v. : ; 24-26 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce
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Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Dept. of Commerce
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
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Commerce -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Foreign economic relations -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
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federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )

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Additional Physical Form:
Also available in electronic format.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with issue for Jan. 8, 1915?; ceased with issue for Dec. 31, 1920?
Numbering Peculiarities:
Each issue covers an individual country and bears a number corresponding to that country. Reports from the various consular districts in a country are distiguished by the addition of a letter (66a, 66b, 66c, etc.), in the order in which they are issued.
Numbering Peculiarities:
Issue no.52f, 1919, contains misprint, November 41.
General Note:
Title from caption.
General Note:
"Annual series."

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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 004822593
oclc - 16390134
sobekcm - AA00005307_00008
Classification:
lcc - HC1 .R1981
System ID:
AA00005307:00008

Related Items

Preceded by:
Daily consular and trade reports (Washington, D.C. : 1910)
Succeeded by:
Trade and economic review for ..

Full Text
.'
SUPPLEMENT TO

COMMERCE R '
DAILY CONSULAR AND TRADE REPO
,. ISSUED BY THE BUREAU OF FOREIGN AND DOMES C C MlRCI. I
.a DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE, WASHINCTO 0

.. Annual Series No. 8b Novm 1919

ITALY.
SVENICE.
By Co( .ul John S. Arllnslron i. jr.
Following the Italian retreat of 1917 the Lpophlation o:f Venice
decreased from its normal number of 155,000 to the low level of
40,000 in the spring of 1918. Immediately after the armistice the
inhabitants of the city began very rapidly to return: by the end of
the year the population of Venice had been restored to practically
its normal figure and corinmerce and industries were undergoing
revival.
Area and Population of Veneto-Description of Venice.
The Conipartment of the Veneto, which compri.-ses thii- con-illar
district, has, norrally 3,129.112 inhabitants. It is estimated that
at least 600,000 persons from the northern Veneto were obliged to,
abandon their homes at the time of enemy invasion and seek refugt
in the more southern part of Italy. A considerable area of thr
Veneto was devastated by military operations and much time. labr.
and expense will be required to reconstruct thi, region and restore
it to normal conditions.
The area of the Veneto is 9,475 square miles,. and thi- district
contains the Provinces of Udine, Vicenza, Verona. Treviis. Padua,
Venetia, Bellhuio. and Rovigo. The principal towns, beside., Venice.
are: Padua, with a population of 82.000; Verona. population. 73,900;
Vicenza, 45,000; Udine. 38,000; Treviso, 34,000; and Chioggia, 31,000.
The city of Venice occupies 122 islands. joined together by 3.'0
bridges and intersected by 17( canals, over which there are some
410 arched bridges, mostly of stone. The city is connected to the
mainland by the Lagoon Bridge, which is nearly 1,000 yards long
and 10 yards wide and was constructed 75 years ago. when Venice
was under the Austrians. There is no connection with the main-
land over which road vehicles may pass; but a project is now under
consideration by the town council to build a new bridge for electric
trams which would connect with the existing electric railways run-
ning from Mestre.
The main entry to the city from the railway station i- by tihe
celebrated Grand Canal by mlens of gondolas or omnibus steamers.
The latter maintain a regular service along the'Grand Canal and
across the lagoon to the island of the Lido. There are also tram-
steamer connections between Venice and the more important lagoon
islands.
145,985-19--Sib





SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


Principal Industries of Venice and Veneto.
The chief industries of Venice are the manufacture of blown and
hlandmade glassware. cotton goods, laces and embroideries, mosaics,
artistic leather goods. glass Ieads, hand-carved furniture, flour,
matches, beer, cement, Ibrooms, and brushes; and naval ship con-
struction.
Tle principal ildustrie, of the Compartment of the Veneto are
agriculture, hydlrolectricity. fisheries, and live-stock raising. Manu-
facturing is not fully developed and is of secondary importance.
The chief nianllif;i'tuirtd products are cotton goods, hemp, silk goods,
lumber, paper, brick. 4 eltient. lbeer. flour. fertilizers, chemicals, and
soap. Thremore imp(olrt;t cotton mills are situated at Pordenone.
Gemona, Rovigo. Vicenza. (onegli:.no, Udine, Venice, Verona, Torre
di Pordenone, Rorn;i di Pordenione. ('aste.lfranco Veneto, Cordenons.
Lonigo. and San M.Iartino Buoimlberto. The hemp mills are chiefly
at. Piazzola sul Brenta (Padua), Udline, Crocetta Trevigiana, Debba,
Vicenza. and San Dona di Piave. Tlhe silk mills are centered prin-
cipally in tile town of Malo ( Vicenza') and in the Province of Udine.
There is a large i;indle and soap factory at Mira: potteries are lo-
cated in Treviso. Pordenone, and Nove; marble quarries at. Vicenza
and Verona, and iimportaint woolen mills at Schio. The latter town
hls also important iron foundrlie,. confectionery works and paper
mills.
Estimated War Loss to Industries.
The fir.-. rough .sti nate of financial loss sustained by industries in
the Veneto through de-truct ion or t oniseation of plant. machinery,
and raw materials, iand through inactivity. amounts to ST7,9S,663
lire ($.5,5S1,812 at normal ex :havige>.
The following t:albh show, tile lo. --sustaiIned by some of the prin-
ciplul classes of illi- l.r, 1li1ie lil.>t in' leen converted into dollars at
noi0in1l xcliMne.
Cotton, w oolen, hemp Dlistillrie- ------------ $1. 040, CS
mills, ete ----------- 4t;, 49 Flour mills 0-------------- 112
Silk mills- 7. 521, 436 M.lciiinle hops--------- 757, 69
Siwmills -_-, 0---, 137 F'iurnlit ure alnd w\ooi oilrk-
Paiier mill. -... 641, 17.7 ing factories G---. 7 422
Iron folmml! 'i 1, 969, 237 I'uilding and .coitructiii
A.'iilture ------- .130, 267 trades--------------- 13, S46
Breweries --- ------_ 6(, 546 Ic ls nnid chiina ware tac-
Caind le and wax factories_ 1. 032. 4 torii---------------- 419,186
Siur refile 'iev- 2(10. .5530 rinti in establishments- 3:45, 168
Brick and cement plants 1, 792. 14 ( novii growing ______ 342, 033
Fertilizer and chemical Taimniees _-, 247,281
ant,; -------------- 702,. 5i2 i Dairi ---------- 125,286
As will be seen from the above, the industries which suffered most
severely were cotton, woilen, ;ond hemnp mills, silk mills, sawmills, and
fertilizer and chemical plants.
Migration of Industries from Venice.
As a result of the Caporetto disaster in October. 1917, most. of
the industries of Venice were obliged to migrate to Leghorn, Genoa,
Rimini, and other places, owing to the nearness of Venice to the
zone of fire, the constant air raids, and the menace of enemy invasion.
Tli glass workers of Mur;an). the damask makers, the. furniture
carvers, and the ceraniicis workers were removed in a body to Leg-





ITALY-VEN ICE.


horn to site-, requi-iti owned by the Italian Goverln luct. Tlr. gla.,
manufacturers pooled their interests and built. new furlllmna for their
joint use at. Leghorn. The migration of indlu-trie-, took place under
the auspiren of the Alto Conimnissariato per i Profughi. The Asso-
siazione per il Lavoro assisted in this work and also the Ente per la
Organizzazione Civile. The last-namIed organliza tin was composed
of leading Government, municipal, military, and charitablle authori-
ties and formulated an efficient. system of providing food and cloth-
ing to the population when transportation and c(iAollmi'-trc weie in a
state of collapse.
All the most, important. work of art were ieliioved to places of
safety and immovable objects of great listorict and artistic intercti
were barricaded with ,atiffolded sanIdbgs to protect them against
aerial )bombs.
Damage Done by Aerial Attacks.
An incendiary bomb fell on the Piazza San Marco, within 15 feet
of the famous Cathedral, but fortunately failed to explode. Aliionll
the few historic objects damaged in the cour-se of the 50 air raids on
the city were the Church of Santo Maria For'mos.a, whol-, roof and
ceiling were destroyed; the Church of San Pietro di Castello, whose
dome was partially destroyed; the Church of the Scalzi, the interior
of which wa- ruined: and the houne of Tintoretto. The canals of
Venice Awere a valIuable protection ; lundred-, of 1bonil(, fell into them
without exploding. The Venice cotton mills wenr hit by -.eve-al
incendiav 1ry 6 jb-: anid all iost entirely de-troyed.
Loss Through Interruption of Tourist Travel.
One of tile lpincipal -oilrce of reveItuc to Venice in nurmiml y.' rs
is the tourist trafli(t attra actedd by its ex'clpticnal art treao.-ur'et, its
superb architecture and its picture-lqu.l sitluti)o as a city of can;1l.
It. is estimated that an many as 800,000 tourists visit Venice in a
normal year and thia tlhe hotel proprietors derive an annual revenue
of about $3,000,000( from this i.turce; and this sum does not include
the money spent by visitors on souvenirs, in the sale of which Venice
specializes. Tle hotel proprietors of this city and the Lido Beach.
and the small shopkeepers dealing in Venetian -pecialt ies, have thlre-
fore been very hard liit. by the war and are anxiously awaiting (lIt
return of American tourists.
Hydroelectric Developments.
The generation of electrical energy by mie:ins of water power is a
rapidly expanding industry in this district. The difficulty in which
Italy found itself as a result of war in obtlaiinng sufficient supplies
of coal has emphasized the necessity for a maximum utilization of
hydraulic resources. Steps are now being taken to extend the use of
electricity in agriculture, drainage, irrigation. t;racti,''n. and canal
excavation.
The hydroelectric industry of this district is chliefly untde the con-
trol of a. financial group headed by the Societ't Adriatica di Ele(-
triciti. This company has recently increas-ed its capital from
36,800,000 lire to 00,000,000 lire (from $7,10-2,400 to $11,580,000),
and is constantly acquiring large interest- in additiimnal companies.
Several of its subsidiaries are als( increasing, their capitalization.
The "Adriatic" company is now endeavoring to provide hydroelec-





SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


tricity to the Julian Veneto, the Trentino, Istria, and possibly to the
city of Fiume. It has been announced that a contract has already
been entered upon to supply electricity to the commune of Trieste.
Although several of the principal generating stations of the Veneto
fell into the hands of the Austro-Hungarian invaders during the
autumn of 1917, these were finally retaken by the Italians in a much
more satisfactory condition than was expected, as the enemy's re-
treat was so rapid that systematic destruction was not possible.
Condition of Cotton Textile Factories.
The miliinlber of spindles in the cotton mills of the Veneto in 1876
was 37,040; in 1898. 183,700; and in 1912, the last year for which
figure., are available, 551,600. Spinning machinery has been im-
ported almost entirely from England, while weaving machinery has
romi from Switzerland, England, Germany, and the United States.
The average mill has- from 30,000 to 50.000 spindles and from 500
to 1,000 mechanical looms. During recent years there has been a
tendency toward an increased consumption of American cotton with
a coniequent reduction in the importation of Indian cotton.
Several of the mills of the Veneto fell into the hands of the enemy
and were considerably damaged, particularly those in Venice and
the Province of Udine. The large cotton mills in Venice were almost
entirely destroyed by incendiary bombs during an ai air id, and the
mills belonging to the same company at Pordenone, Torre, and Rorai
fell into enemy possession, with the result that a considerable amount
of machinery was carried off. Some of the machinery has been re-
taken from places in Austria, but it will nevertheless be necessary
for a large quantity of new machines to be purchased before the
mills will be ready to renew operations. The restoration of the cot-
ion mills belonging to the Venice company alone will involve an
expenditure of several million lire. Much of the new machinery will
have to be obtained from foreign countries.
Pola to Supplant Venice as Naval Shipbuilding Center.
Venice has for many years been an important center for naval ship
:n',i-trilction, but with the occupation of Pola by the Italians. where.
better facilities exist. it is probable that the yards at Venice will be
converted largely to the building of merchant ships. Steps in that
direction have in fact. already been taken, and a recently formed
shipbuilding company has acquired a portion of the Venice arsenal
for the purpose of constructing an 8,000-ton merchant. vessel of the
-tandard type. The various parts have been imported from Eng-
land. This shipbuilding company is affiliated with the organizers
of the new industrial port to be constructed on the mainland near
Venice, which will be discussed in another section of this report.
The financial interests which are supporting the new port are in
turn connected w ith tle amalgamated hydroelectric companies.
Prospects for Revival of Glass Industries.
The blown and handmade glass industry of Murano suffered
severely by tle war through the difficulty in obtaining fuel and raw
materials and the general commercial stagnation of Venice following
the invasion. The extent to which this industry was crippled may
be judged from the fact that tlie value uf the exports to the United






I 1'.\ i.~Y-V I~ N I 4


State.- ;almili ted to 2!,9'73 in 191i i tl al 1d ~.9 in 1917, while in
1918 there were no exports to the United St(;t-. After Capoetto
this industry was moved temporarily to l..'Ldiorn, but has now re-
turned to Venice.
There i.- usually a con.,iderable demand in the United stat-. for
Venetian glass mosaics. The exports. of tlih,, articles to the United
States in 1913 were valued at $37,223; in 1914, $17,100; in 1915,
$14,217: in 1916, $5,971; and in 1917, $-1.28. In 1918 there were no
exports to the United States from Venice.
War-time Lace Trade With United States.
The lace and embroidery industry was not .o badly injured by the
war and a fairly good trade with the United State-. was maiiii(;iined
in spite of the abnormal conditions Tlhe export.s of this classifi-
cation o tho e United States in 1913 were, valued at $175.)s.5; in 191J
at $1229.7-1:; and in 1915 at $200(,842. There wa., a sharp advani. in
19i; to :5,82.132 and in 1917 to $67.T-20; but the exports for 1918
madel a hig( drop to $77,149-which, however, was not ii.(ii-.ilc-
tory in consideration of the gii eral trale (di-nliption then existini g.
Coal and Other Mineral Production.
ThI liiileiral re-oure- of tlie Veneto are of ,ligih iiiportance.
The pirodli'ti- ni of the Province of Belluno in 11 ciii-in-. d of
pyrite of1' eiprliferou.is iron and sulpliate- of lead. zinr. and iron and
was valued at 9;7,099 lire ($184.720 at par). The Province of
Vilcnza in the same year had eight prolductive mines which yiv.led
liigite, lit iiiiinou- coal. and sulphates of iron, lead. and zinc vatled
at 315.07 lire (00,8.06). Anthracite and Iiti liillous coal was pl'-
duce.di iln Imine valued at 6,400 lire (S1.'2,.,), and bituminous s.lhi-l
and lignite were mined in Verona Province to the value of 1.)000
lire (S1 ]9:) ).
Condition of Adriatic Fishing Industry.
Tlie principal fishing ports of Italy are Chi ggia. Sin Benedetto
del TIront. )Orton, Viareggio, and Porto Sauii Stefaii;,i. Of tl'-c,
Chioggia \w\a.- leading in the size of its fishing fleet. before the war.
From MayI 1015, to Novemiber, 1918, fishing in the .1diatic ,wai- pro-
hibited. and more than 14,000 fishermenii were thrown out of their
usual 1-employment and over 3,000 fishing b1ar'res., valued at !)0.000.000
lire ($1.737,000), were either relqi-'it imned by the State or left
unused during the period of warfare. The.-, harige-- are now badly
deteriorated. and it is estimated that the total Ir,, to the Adr(iatic
fishing industry through inactivity during tinh I' : ',,ths of war
will exceed 13,000,000 lire ($),09,000).
Before the war the Chioggia fisheiren w re. permitted to fish in
Aiistro-Hungarian territorial waters in accordance witl, a inre ty be-
tween Italy and Austria-Hungary, but were required to dispose of
the fish caught in that zone in the markets of T-tria and D;illiiutin.
It is reported that. during the war Austria constructed a consiit',deble
number of fishing barges equipped with motr-, whi,1li arn now b.ing
used by the .Jugo-lavs for f-hliing in the ex-Austrian territorial
waters.
The Chioggia fislhermen are bIldl\ in need of new boats 1 ;d par-
ticularl.hy o-f bIages with refrigerating installation'-. An asso, iation






SUPPLEMENT TO (OMIMMERCE REPORTS.


is now being developed at Chioggia whose purpose is to protect the
iDterests of the fishing industry, -systematize the manipulation of
the fish, and conserve and utilize by-products.
Needs of Agrioulture-Production of Principal Crops.
The agricultural industry of the northern Veneto was seriously
upset by enemy invasion during October, 1917, and later by It.aliai
military operations. Consequently the work of reconstruction will
require much time. Large numbers of agricultural machines and
implements, and of horses, rattle, poultry, and other live stock were
taken away by the invaders.
The following statistics show the yields of the principal crops in
the Veneto during 1916 and 1917, the last. two years for which data
are at present available, the figures being given in metric quintals:

1'r o ul t. 1916 1917 Produc t. 1911. 1917

Quintals. Quintals. Qvintals. Quintals.
Wheat ................... .570,000 3,831,000 Nuts............... ............ 2,000
ye ...... ........... .. 34,000 :3,000 Wine ...........2........ 2,813,000 13,211,000
Inri3 .................. 9,500 4,500 Potatoes.............. 1,008,000 799,000
Oats.................... 198,000 21.1.000 Rice .................. 315,000 316,000
'orn].............i I 5, 000 44 000 Oliveoil.................. 12,000 19,000
Four.a .................. 24,017,000 22,103,000 Hemp................ 7,000 88,000
Sugar Icets................. ,.34,Woo0 5.031,000 Flax_.............. ....... 100
Fruits:
Grapes............... 4,727,000 5,480,000
\pplc',e. pedar, q.uinces
.ianl pc, megranjtes. i.j., 000
Carou ............... ..:::::::.... 17.000

1 iectohlter-
Yield of Sugar Beets-Corn Production by Provinces.
The Veneto ranked first among the Compartments of Italy in yield
of -11 '1ar beets during 1917. The comparative figure, for the three
leading district~ are: Veneto, 5,031,000 (itintals; Emilia, 4.081,000;
Liguria. .'88,000. The aveitrag yield of Emlilia from 1909 to 1916,
L]wec er, was 7,216,000 quintals as compared to 6,779,00. for the
Ve neto.
In yield of corn the Comnpartmient. of the Veneto was a clo-se second
to Lom bardy during 1917. The corn production of this district for
1916 and 1917 by Provinces was, in metric quintals, as follows:

lot InI'-. 1916 1917 Pro\ ince. 1915 1917
4------- ______ --____
Quintal1. Q ti .1s. Qutri ul Quintals.
Belluno ...... ......... 70,000 104000 Uhdin. .................... 1.22l.00 647, 000
Padua .................... 3.0Jl) 1, 115,000 Venelia.................. 775.000 S27,000
Rovwo ................... ,UO00 4l10.000 I: Verona ................. 445,000 695,000
lb'. i o................ 5,.)Iui 2,000 I \N' ernza ................... 4S4.000 507,000

Although the total production of corn in the Veneto in 1917 varied
only slightly from that of 1916, yet the outputs of several of the
Provinces showed a distinct change. The production in all Prov-
inces increased, with the exception of Udine, whose yield was dimin-
ished by half by rea-on of military operations.
Rice, Hemp, and Wheat.
In wheat, liemip, and rice the Veneto ranked third among the dis-
tricts of Italy in 1917. Piedmont. and LombardN took first, and sec-






ITALY- -V ;N 'I;.


ondl place in rice production with a cmbiniied yield of 4,711,000
(quintals. Of the total, crop of 310,000 (quinta for the Veneto, the
Province of VerConi produced 170,000 quintall-.. mnd the Province of
Rovigo 08,000.
The Veneto produced 88,000 quintals of hemp in 1917, being out-
ranked by the Compartments of Emilia and Campania, which pro-
duced 447,000 and 0l20,000 quintas, respetively.
Emilia also took first. place in wheat productijii. with a yield of
4,981,000 quintals, Sicily being a close. second with 4,719,000 quinilll.
The yield in the Veneto was 3,831,000 quintals, the records of the
chief producing Provinces being as follows: Padua, 843,000 quintals;
Verona, 819,000; Rovigo, 525,000; Vicenza. 512,000; Trevi-o, 463,000;
Venetian, 371,000: and Udine, 291,000 quint.al. The pirourtion
during 1917 fell iinerly a million quintals below the average pre-
war'1 yield.
Forage, Grape, and Potato Crops.
The Veneto produced ~2,10;),000 quintals of forage, ranking below
Lombardy (43,813,000 quintals), Emilia (35,0N.5,000 quintals), and
Piedmiont (29,243,000( quinltal).
The Veneto ranked sixth among the Compartmentsw of Italy in
production of grapes during 1917. The Province, lending in yield
were Pidii;i. Tirvi.o, and Vicenzn. Tle output of wine was the
eventh largest for Italy, the Venelo being out ranked in this respect
by Cai1pl)ania. Piedmiont, Emilia, Sicily, Tu1= iiny, and Lazio.
In yield of potatoes the Veneto ranked eighth. The Provinces
leading in this crop in 1917 were: Udine. -'i`,.000 quintals: Venetia,
"0;,000, and Belluno, 200,000.
Prices of Agricultural Produce.
The comparative mean prii-s, of the leading agl i'i-ltural produ.I-
in 1913 and 1917 are shown in the following table. lire having been
co-nverted into dollars at normal exchange rate:

Price per metric Price per metric
quintal. quintal.
I' ,., Iii. r lu .(.
1913 1917 1913 1917

soMt ... ........................... .. .
Soft nwheal...... ................ 85.53 S8.35 Potatoes.......................... 82.05 $6.24
Hard wheat ...................... I 6.27 9.70 Hay.............................. 1.63 3.73
Oats............................ 4 4.34 i.37 W ine............................ 15.80 115.17
Rice .............................. 7.97 9.7 Olive oil........................ 28.35 56.89
Corn.... .......................... 3.50 C 03
1 Price per hectoliter.
Docks and Harbor of Venice.
The present port of Venice includes the basin at the Stazione
Marittima. with the Scomnenzere Canal, the Gindec,. Canal, and
the Basin of San Marco. The basin at the Stazione M;aritliian; meas-
ures 49 acres. the Giude-.c! Canal 161 :oire-. and the Basin of San
Marco 103 acres..
The area of the docks of Venice Iiea.isurts 310,000 square meters,
while those at Trieste, including the new port of S.n Andrea, cover
1,020,000 square meters. TIhe area covered by warehouses at Venice
is 45,000 squaiirte meters. as ciii)npared to 285,300 -qjiiiae iiieters at






SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


Trieste including San Andrea. The following table shows the di-
mensions of the different docks atl Venice:

Year of Lengh Depth of Height
[i.atJLan of qii\y- or ludiing desi .nts.. inaugura- .ngt of water overthe
tion. o quay at quay. sealevel.

East Pier: AMters. Meters. Meters.
Toward thl Ba.in......................................... 1880 482 8.0 2.4-3.4
Toward n m nzra............................. .......... 1880 250 6.0 2 4-3.3
.;,in ,, / 1880 81 8.0 4
Ba.iu Il d.................................................... 1886 80 8.0 2.4
1886 .00 8.0 2.4
W est Pier...................................................... 1886 405 8.0 2.4
Sanla Malta:
Toward Scoimenzera................................. 1896 64 6.0 2.0
Toward the Giudecra ...................................... 1896 131 8.0 2.0
General warehouses........................................ 1896 336 9.0 2.0
Punto Franr-o ( F e .I /' ............................... ... 1897 191 9.0 2.0
New East Pier
Ba'in side ..... ... ................................. 245 8.5 2.4
roi- tiol!............ ................... ........... ............. 1902 -92 .5 2.4
r1 92 X..5 2.4
S"trnnw Ilr l i -.it........ ......... ....... .. ........ I227 8.5 2.4
San 3.1llio......................... ......................... 1304 175 10.0 2.2
Wedt P ,r w.st-,,I ........................................... 1907 s 8.7 2.4
\ c Wr'l P n'ij i.r: ........... I 1907 O 8.7 2.4
New We-t PiNor;
Front ide..... ................................ .......... 192 100 10.0 2.4
S-id ... .............. ......................... 113 s60 10.0 2.4

New Port and Industrial Zone at Marghera.
Step- are now heing ta>keni to collitruct a new port with an an-
nexed ijndll-trialn zone iC Bottenighi (nlso called Margliera) on the
miainland near Mi.t tre ;icaross the lagoon from Venice, which area
will Ibe included in the Inunicipa] limits of Venice. The arrange-
nient for the project has been iimade jointly lby the Italian Ministry
if Piillic Work-;. tile iiiunicip;al authorities of Venice, ;aui tile So-
ciet'ti per il Porto Indlustriale di Venezia (tile joint--,tock company
formed fIr taii dminiisterin- the port ). It is proposed to expend the
MuIl of (i,( 1J(00,000 lire ($11..530,00( at par) on thi- undertaking.
Sone of tlie principal shalreholder,- are the Societa Veneziana di
Navigazionie i Vapore di Venezia. the Societ' Adriatica di Elet-
tricitii, tlie I1nione Con-imli of Milan, the Societh Italiana di Servizi
Mllri ttiifi ,f Iou11t' anid Venice. the Societa Veneta di Costruzioni e
Ferrovi, i SectindIlrie of Paidua. Staibilim lleto, Vialnello-Moro, and
other'.
The It a;liami (Givernmeint \will allow to tlie ilndtistrial zone of this
pirt where tlie rna\ materials are to be converted into the manu-
factuired pri1,tirn ..- the financial benefits accorded to the port. of
Naples in tlh law of July S, 1904. The-e benefits include an exemp-
tion from all t;axation for 1. year, and importation free of duty of
al l i mcliiner\ aml niateriais necessnarv for the construction of the
port. TII, (ve)\'rnmlltnt has also specially authorized the establish-
ment of factories in the industrial zone by means of excess war
profits inside in other sections of Italy, and it. is probable that this
conI.ession will bring a large amount of outside capital to this port.
Among the enterprises which have secured sites in the industrial
zone are several large steel and shipbuilding companies, a chemical
fertilizer factory, an oil company, a candle and soap factory, and a
paper mill.
Projected Canals to Connect Venice, Milan, and Switzerland.
Another project of niuch importance to Venice is the proposal to
construct a canal between Venice and Milan, giving this port a deep-





ITALY-VENICE.


water connection with the great industrial center of Lombardy.
This water route will run from Venice to Brondolo, thence to the
Po, and along that river to the mouth of the Adda, where it will be
connected to Milan. The cost of the undertaking will be borne.
jointly by the Italian Government and the municipality of Milan.
The total necessary expenditures are estimated at 50,000,000 lire
($9,650,000). The length of this canal will be 380 kilometers, for
two-thirds of which distance it will run along the Po River. It will
permit the passage of barges of 300 tons.
Another project is to extend the navigable waterway from Milan
to Switzerland via Lake Maggiore. In this case Venice would -iend
to Switzerland by this cheap water route cereals from the Black
Sea and levantine cotton, which now reach that country by the more
costly rail route via Genoa.
As a result of the water route to the rich industl.ial center of
Lombardy, a flux of incoming and outgoing traffic is expected to
pass through Venice, consisting of raw materials for the Lombardy
textile factories and the outgoing manufactured products for for-
eign exportation. It is calculated that this traffic alone would aug-
ment the volume of merchandise passing through the port of Venice
by 2,000.000 ton,.
Restoration of Maritime Commerce Not Yet Completed.
The port of Venice \wa, closed to coinier'niail shipping froil May,
1915, to November 3. 1918, during which time all dock work was en-
tirely stopped and all conlnerce in the Adriatic Sea was suppressed.
The. liners plying regularly from this port were transferred to ports
on the Tyrrhenean Sea and the authorities have not yet been able to
restore all these lines, to Venice. In normal times this city carries
on commerce principally with the East. As long as the Dardanelloe
remain closed to merchant vessels, it will be impossible for it to re-
sume its pre-war traffic with the Black Sea.
As a result of three and a half years of inactivity the port equip-
ment has greatly depreciated, the harbor is )adly in need of dredg-
ing, and many new dock appliamnes will be necessary before Venice
will again le in position to lhndle its normal traffic of over 2,000,000
tons per annumil.
Steamship Lines In Operation.
There is no regular ,teaimship line between Venice and the United
States. There are at present regular steamship services between
Venice and Trieste, which city has a regular navigation line to the
United States; and there is also a regular line between this port and
Fiume. The service between Venice and Calcutta is being resumed,
and there is supposed to be a weekly service between Genoa, B:ari,
Venice, and Trieste, but this line fails to run regularly. In normal
times Venice has regular steamship connections with British ports
and ports in the Levant, including Alexandria.
The following are the principal trans-Adriatic lines at present in
operation, with their respective frequencies of sailing,-:
Lloyd Triestino: Venice to Trieste, daily; Tripoorich Line: Venice to Trikte,
cargo only, triweekly; Hungarian-Croat Line: Venice-Pola-Fiume, triweekly;
also Ancona-Pola-Fiumie, triweekly; Puglia Line: Ancniia-Zar; triweekly;
also, Anconn-Sebeuico, triweekly; Ravenna Line: Bari-Curzola-Seblnil .o,
weekly; also Ravenna-Trieste, weekly; and Ravenna-Fiume, weekly.






SULJ'E'.MI.,NT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


I'li li; l.ini. : .\in,- i in'i l'li il -liltllni-Zara-i Sel'tclie., weekly.
I.-.-'i;-Trit,- Linei : Te 'ilte-t-il',;. (;daily : Trieste-Gradto, daily ; Trieste-Pirano,
dl;,ily.
Hllig;:ll ii --I 'IuI Lineil : lllllm'-l'oii, triweckly i ; FiulUe-Lussllpiecolo, bi-
W'iklly: FiliiII'--Vog, liai, livt lime- week; Fiume-Arben, triweekly; Fiume-
F1Tinnln:i six liiini.- week; Fiuine-Ablbzia, three times a day; Fiume-Zarn,
Ii\\I.ekly.
Ifnlliiini; li lLilni ; Zill'u-Sebenicu, weekly; Zara-Obbrevazzo, biweekly; Zara-
1Ii(,. Ii\\,.lwevkly ; 7A-Snlc, biweekly; Zara-Arbe, hiweekly; Sebenico-Scardone,
i\-x liin-- :i weok: Sebenico-Zlosela, triweekly; Spalnto-Metcovich, five times
:I \\vrek; St.el.enico-Royoznie, riwkly; palate, tri kl; aSpal, (riweekly; Curzola-
\'alle-raflnde, biweekly; Curzola-Spalato, weekly; Spalato-Cittaveechin. tri-
*,kly.: Spi:'l -Sl<-S1ata;, triweekly; Macarsca-Stagnopicco]to, riweekly.
Railway Connections of Venice-Projected International Line.
Viueiicc ie tlhe terminius for State railway line., as follows: Milan-
\Yeic'. : Venicee-Udine-Pontebba-Trieste; Venice-Bologna ; Venice-
JPr'iolall iiio-Trent (Valsuganan Line); Venice-Portogriinaro-Cervig-
iil: nii-TrieP.te.
It i- expected that tie raiiwavi connic'tiions of li te porl will ble iate-
liNilli iilproved by the elimination of hoe frontier between Venice
;imll Trieito'. a;ind i) the annexation of the Trentin(o to IItaly; for the
A\-l lian riilw;iwas iniiinediately to tlhe north of the Italian border
\wrlr iised greatly to the detrinmnt of thlii port.
Ai the pr'eent t time Venice hf ready for intelntionalil traltic only
ice' i;iilwaiv ;iiteryte completely piercingl tihe Alps. This is the Padun-
Veir,,nii-Tretit-Brennero line. But thii route iniakes a big detour
in';i'r Vtenl)ll. wlich prjololng. it.- distance a 's i trIins-A ljine line; and
il i.- ;lre ;idv overly ided witli itrffic.
'i'l \l :i slaliliini iine1, wihic lillln froitll Vetnice (t TI' lnt \'vl Prit110-
ltlnie. Iej lP'nttl-' lie IioWstriiilk of thle 11cu floried I nl y tlhe Paidua-
Vrniia-T'reit-Brenneri'o li ne. ald i.t i.-.1 for international traffic
w(0id involved ;i .1 -iving iIn ditIance of 40 kiilolieteis'. Tile Val.iiugana
li]e l;iM- ietCiiVfor'e beei usedl oillv for local traffic. I-s Allitriai-Huin-
il;!\ wv il Oppo.-ed to its lii forSC nillti I teIlitn.iiion coliiim This line
i- fite i!;itii'Il pivot (if cuiiniiiieattlioIlS litweil Venice alnd Central
Niinar p'. aind its complete utilization would bring Venice and the
.Adr\iii.ll ceo-' to tlie distr'ict-. to the north of Trent. The coinimr-
,i;tl iiitet'O-I-4 (f Ven 1 i 'ce are repeatedly rllP'iniu ti1 ItialiIn Govern-
lilt'lit Ito improve thi.- lAiilri'o d.
A.iIotillr railroad project which i, now .being ci.nsideraibly dis-
li--e il's t: Istult of tliLe iiitintioll of Au.stro-6(eriiln economic
rie--iire. i.- tle' proposal It, connect the existing line terminating at
Alill to it'e Swis-s State I;uiliway at Landquart, providing Venice
\\iilth i irec express -ervice to ('alais. via tile Valsugana line, Trent,
;nd lBolzaino. Venice would derive great advantage from this con-
iirtioiinh l ei cig pliiced in clo-er touch witli the important. Swiss
iiistriil centers. The .saiVing in distance between Venice and St.
Gall. for ins'ta-lce. via tllhe proposed Mals route. as compared to the
St. (ioltih;rd rolite, is esitiilateel ; at 102 kilometers.
Natural Hinter-land of Venice-Coin)etition With Trieste.
'li ji t-wiM i- :i~ (ij:1oiti:li, lmoilleint for Venice to develop its
.-el\illr ;il ;i :is aI flet. l t i'l i ( Ie ol li'e was prevented from






ITALY-VEN I'E.


provisioning the zone immediately beyond the old northeast Italian
frontier by the .special tariff on the Tarvis-Pontebba line. The ho--
tility of Austria-Hungary to the use of the Valsugana line for inter-
ilational commerce, and the favorable rate along the Villaco-For-
tezzat or Franzenfest route which deviated traffic from tlie Tridentiil
to Trieste instead of Venice, also prevented Venice from i) pr, iding,
sufficient return cargoes to incoming ships and thwarted its develop-
ment into a port of more than domestic importance. The situationn
in which Venice finds itself to-day is entirely different. as Italy will
acquire control of the competing port of Trieste on thle Adriatic
with its railroad connections and will al-o acquire the important rail-
way artery of the Trentino.
Although competition between Trieste and Venice will continue.
this will now. by the elimination of the intervening boundary line
and the dissipation of the forces which used Trieste as an eco-
comic weapon against Italy, become more natural and les- forced.
There is now a movement on foot to delimit the zone of influence of
the two ports by the application of tariffs appropriate to the natural
and most convenient serving areas of each.
As a result of the changed conditions, Venice h:a an opportunity
to become more closely linked to new distributing area -, .uch as the
Trentino, the Alto Adige. and eastern and southern Switzerland, bI
means of railroads and inland waterways.
Imports and Exports During 1918.
As has been previously pointed out. the port of Venice w\as closed
to commercial shipping during all but the last two months of 191s.
Therefore the shipping for the lpat calendar year was incesarily fair
below normal.
The following statistics obtained from tlie i:u.-tols ;ilithorities of
Venice will indicate the port movement during 1918:


Article, and cotintrie. of[ frigin.


IMP IRTS.
Petroleum Init.ti St te<. ..............
Coffee, Brazil]................ ..... ....
Sugar, Austria-Hungary................
Cinnamon, British India..........
Pepper, Straits Settlenints (Asia,.....
Nutmegs British India................
Vinegar, France.....................
Nutgall, Greece.....................
Cotton, Turkey ...................
Coal:
Great Britain ......................
United States.................
Wheat:
R ussia .... ........................
United States. ...................
Oats, United States....................
Sesame seeds, Turkey .................


Y. i A ttll


IC
2




1

32,2


]


I/O..5
dins
,)0., 5SIJ
'.13, SC
o, 64t,
1,091 iL
2,2SI1
957 |
.3,526
00,300 I
27,S10
Y3, 170
M8, 000
34,21 1
46,028 |
i00,000
4,72S


Pr and counlr r--I f 9d1rtin ition. Qu'antrl .

LXPl. HT4.


Paraflin i Jl.. E pt ..............
Cut ton f b ii. .... ............. ........
Canada. .......... ....
France. .......-"...."" 2 ...2
Great Britain. .... ...........
United States ......................
G s and glas are...................
Franne........................ ....
(;reat B ri .. .....................
Tudnis..
I'l tedi .Stat.c; ....................
BeaNs ..................................
France .............................
Great Britaiu .............. ......
M os.ait5, e et ............... ...........
Great hit\lt ...... ... ...........
France ... .........................
LUniled S ita ......................


Ino IlI
'; ,.
i",

7, '1,
.1, .j1
., 137
171


2, *1' I
-M-lu


Review of Coal Trade of Venice.
On account, of its lack of coinbus.-tibleo:. thi l district lIi.-, found it
industrial life severely crippled during lie war. A noriiil annual
importation of coal at Venice is about 13.()00,0l00 tuintals: but thlie
amount actually imported during 1918 \waS only :18.000 lquintals. all
of which was brought in by the Governmwnt. Altlhougli the Uniited
Kingdom has been by far the principal source of sipplly. tlie imports





S UPPLEM : NT TO COMiMEIC'B HBE PUTS.


from the United State-, have been constantly increasing. Now that
it. is evident that the difficulty in competing with Great Britain,
owing to higher freilghts from tile United States. is counterbalanced
by the lower ',.(,! of production in America, it. is believed that the
proportion of A merien :n coal imports for 1910 will show a note-
worthy increase.
The qu(antity of cual imported into Venice in 1913 was 13,004,619
quintals. of which amo!un 1,040.145 came from the United King-
doni. 573,75l quintals from the Netherlands. 354,836 froni Austria-
Hung'ary, and 35..;8S from Germany. There were no imports from
the United States during that year. In 1914 the total imports
:Imounted to 10,311,070 quintals, of which 9,156,080 came from Eng-
land and Wales, 673.000 from Germany, 379.550 from the United
States. and 102,440 quintals from Austria-Hungary. In 1915 all
the coal imported directly into Venice came from the tTUited King-
dom. In 1916 the total imports were 94,950 quintals. which were
entirely for naval use. The total quantity received by sea in 1918
was 38,261 quintals, of which 39.293 came front England and Wales,
and 5.;OS from the United States.
Analysis of Wheat Imports Since 1913.
The quantity of hard wheat. imported in 1913, tlie lah-t normal year,
was 140,156 quintals, 81,309; quintals of which came from Russia,
43,678 from the United States. and 15,082 from British India. The
quantity of soft. wheat directly imported by sea was 567,151 quintals,
of which 218,940 quintals came from Argentina. India. Turkey, and
the United States, 173.787 quintals from Russia. and 142.047 from
Roumania. In 1914 the entire importation of hard wheat. amloulnting
to 73,803 quintals, ctime from Russia. During thli samie year the
total imports of soft wheat consisted of 70,887 quintal.-. 60,741 quin-
tals coming from Russia, 5,547 from Roumania, 4.019 from Germany.
and 5s0 from British India. In 1915 the entire quantity of hard
wheat directly imported, consisting of 36.300 quintals. ,ame from
the United States, and the countries of origin of the total imports
of soft wheat, amounting to 405,,715 quintalls., were as follows: United
States, s'92,206 quintafl.; Argentina, 107,5(4; Ru9sia. 5.944. No
statistics showing the imports, for 1916 and 1917 are given. In 1918
the direct- imports of wheat, which are not classified between hard
and soft, amounted to 580,247 kilos. of which the United States sup-
plied 546,028 kiloe, and Rus siai 34,219 kilos.
Imports of Fertilizer.
Venice imported 25,416 quintals of fertilizers in 1913. Of this
aiiiount. 15.,:306 quintals came from (Gernnany, 8,661 from the United
Kingdom, and 1,419 from Norway. In 1914 the total imports of
this classification were 23,700; quintals; Germany supplied 16,426
quintals; the United Kingdom, 5,123 quintals; and 2,150 quintals
came from Norway. In 1915 only 451 quintals were received, all of
which came from Norway. In 1916, 1917. and 1918 there were no
imports of chemical fertilizer.
Pre-war Trade of Venice with Former Central Empires.
The principal direct imports into Venice from Austria-Hungary
before the war were mineral waters, bottled beer. arsenic acid, oxide
of iron, carbonate of potassium, candle wax, tar. firewood, charcoal,
sclr:ip iron, Tstria -tone for construction purposes, prunes. medicinal







ITALY-VENICE.


woods, paraffin solids, raw and washed wool, redwood, timber, cellu-
lose, stones and earths.
Germany was one of the principal sources for caustic potash, u1l-
phate of potassium, steel hearths and grates, part.- for watches, heavy
mineral oils, iron plates, wrought iron, milling machinery, and also
did a very large trade in hardware, tools, agricultural impleniints,
celluloid articles, novelties, and cheap manufactured goods.
Principal Imports from United States for Three Years.
The leading direct imports at Venice from tihe United States dur-
ing the calendar years 1913. 1914, and 1915, are s own in the fol-
lowing table:


Articles.


Benzine..................
Cast iron ................
Coal.....................
Colophony (resin)........
Copper sulphate..........
Cotton, ranw..............
Linseed................
Maize...................
Mother-,':f-peai..........
Oats....................
Oils:
Coconut...............
Corn .................
Cottonseed...........
Fish .................


1913

Tons.




10,700
51,00
1,200


19141 1915

Tons. Tons.
........ 156
3,32.5 .
37,955 9,28
900 278
617 A23
10,200 I 93r

10

30 .......
7,000W 2,2-54
1,502 173:
327 -4


.\Artieles. 'll.3 1911 1915

T',i Ton',. 7Tni?.
Oils-- 'onitinucl d
Fixed, for paints..... 5,800
Mineral............. 1,904 1,4-0 1,2;
ili e .............. ... .. .. ...
Petroleum........... 9.7-1 l 10i,50o 0 i .
Turpentine ........... ......... ....37
Sl ieat id ................ ..... 1l
Paraffin solid ............. 1,040 .n | 3,321
Phlosphates............. 29,57S 16,2()00 I
Soap ats...... ..... 2,700 2,00J i 2,'20'i
Tim ljcrr a lumljer....... 4,200 1. t)10 I
Wax.... .... ........... 07 712 I
'Wheajt................ 4,46S .. ', s1
Wood prilp............... 10 .......


There is. in addition, a very large quantity of American Lnn-1il-
factured good received indirectly at Venice. Before the war the
American manufactured goods appearing on thi- market were chiefly
those articles turned out cheaply through large--',-ale production;
such as watches, typewriters-, cash registers, sewing machines, cam-
eras, safety razors, toilet articles, boots and shoes, and similar goods.
After the outbreak of war the variety of American manufactured
goods appearing on the market greatly increased, but thi- indirect
trade was later reduced through import restrictions and the crimneiilr-
cial stagnation of the Veneto due to invasion.
Declared Exports from Venice to United States.
The following statistics show the values of tlie expo1it front mt V ici'
to the United States during the calendar year- 1917 and 111'.'s as
declared at thi, consulate:


Alabaster, ian Llufa I tired......
Art, works of:
Antique.................
Engravings, etc...........
Sculpture................
Bead curtains, thieaded......
Beads and spangles...........
Bronze wire, manufactured...
Cuttlefish bones.............
Enamel paints...............
Furniture, cabinet.............
Garlic........................
Glass bottles, ornamented....
Glass or paste, manufactured.
Glassware, blown............
Glass mosaics, loose.........
Hats, straw:
Bleached ...............
Unblocked..............


'112
13,0-29
2r.5
065
16,349
162, 3.&
21.3
31,91S
101
240
3,766
1, 826
6, 552
.1,217
1,2S3
1,2ri0
1, S2609
I, S39


191S






1, 49.3

5i,411
..........
..........


..........


i

Lace and embroidery.......... i;72.,. 'i S.7, 14-.1
Marble and stone............ .993 .......
Mediine.......... ............ .......
Mineral substance- ..... ..11 .........
Shells, ornamented.......... 2 .........
Silk fabrics, yarn .............. 2 1.........
Silk, all, in the gam" ......... 1,010 ..........
Silk velvets ......... ...... 'I .
Strings for mu i.-al instru-I
m entfi .. .................... ,'-72
Tapestries, cot tou ........... 7 ..
W ine in iasks ................ 11. 17') ,.
Total ............... ,' : *, *27
Ii


. rtircl.. 191;


.........
...........





SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


The sweeping reductioll in declared exports during 1918 as com-
pared to 1917 is iccirounted for by the fact that during the greater
part of 1915 tlhe comliiiercial ;nd industrial life of Venice was al-
niost completely at a -tan1dstill. most. of the population having aban-
doned tlic city following the invasion of October, 1917. During
19,18 only T7 consullar invoices, were certified at this consulate, as
compnlared( to .374 durin'lg the previous year.
Venice ranked second among the ports of Italy in tonnage of
'rjrgo loaded and unloaded during 1913. The comparative figures
for the year as published in the Annuario Statistico Italiano were
as follows: Genoa, 7.446,000: Venice, 2,662,935; Naples, 2,419,210;
Leghorn, 1,600,390; Palermo. S89.803: Catania. 880.753: Messina,
;7s,9i04; Brindisi, 309,936.
The tonnage of vessels arriving at and departing froni the port
of Venice was 1,602.783 during 1913, 4,065.028 during 1914, and
,,'-,8 during 1915. Venice ranked seventh among the ports of
Italy in tonnage of vessels arriving and departing during 1913 (the
last normal year), the comparative figures being as follows: Naples,
1S.."s.131: Genoa, 14,457,442; Palermo, 6,930,037: Leghorn. 5,421,-
7:: ('atania, 4.71.809; Miesina. 4,3S.38.37: 'enice. 4.602.783 Brin-
disi, 4,015,766.
In the number of vessels arriving and dept cl titng during 1913, this
port ranked fifth, with 8,077 vessels, as compaiired to L.,"225 at
Naples, 12,38: at Genloa. 8,s,3 t Leghornl. and 8,373 at Catania.
NaseiC. CGeiloia. and Paleriino outranked Veniice in tlie number of
p;>-ienigelr rivalss .iand depaiiitu'rc in 1913. Venice taking fourth
place.
Suggestions Relative to American Terms and Prices.
Important iion- of American limanufactuired in_ "od- ;i- a rule reach
this district through the port orf Gelnoa and are distributed through
:li ilicies or branches in Mlilan. Raw materials and fnod.stulifs are to
some extent imported direct. to Venice.
American shipper.s to this district should, when ,vr practicable,
quote c. i. f. Genoa; in ca this i tisi inexpedieit thev should inform
their prospective customers of prevailing freight and insurance
charges at time of coniunlnicating. In every instanlle prices should
be at least f. o. b. an AmLierican seaport and never f. o. b. factory,
as the Italian importer-does not possess facilities for ascertaining
freights to saenloard, cartage to ship, and similar charges which in-
crease catalogue prices.
On mo-it goods a credit of fromlr G0 to 90 days is usual and some-
times longer credits are granted. Particularly at this time is lenient
,.r.dit necessary. One or two per cent is as a rule allowed for cash
payment, this term being taken to include 30 days from invoice date.
Some American shippers are successful in selling on a stricter basis.
but this is possible only by reason of a marked superiority of their
products or a lack of competition.
German aind Austrian products were iml)orted into this district in
large quantities before the war. and were sold with lenient credits at
low prices. Also slamlple stocks were kept near "t hand.
Prospects for American Trade Expansion,
TiLet lite( zone of fighting hav-ing been near to Venice. a consider-
able quantity of inl:terial- for reconstruction will be required. Mer-





ITALY-VENICE.


chants now find their stocks seriously depleted. and it will be neces-
sary for them to make large purchases, which will increa-e au the
import restrictions imposed by the Italian Government are removed.
Among the principal impediments to American import. trade with
this district at present is the difficulty in obtaining licenses from the
Italian Government, which evidently desires to restrict the imports
from the United States as much as practicable while the balance of
trade is so largely in favor of the United States. [Since the writing
of this report many of these restrictions have been removed or
modified. See COMMERCE REPORTS for Aug. 6, Sept. 17. and Nov.
4, 1919.] Another detrimental factor is the fluctuating exchLtanig
rate and the high cost in lire of each dollar's worth of goods re-
ceived from the United States. The present railway congestion be-
tween Genoa and Venice and the long delays in getting -hipmlents
across the peninsula to Venice constitute still further difficulties for
the American exporter. It is believed, however, that when conditions
become more nearly normal the flow of goods from the United St.te-'
will be certain to increase greatly, for the reason that the United
States is the source least disturbed by the war and in be-t pnoition to
supply Italy with many products which are indispensable.
Emigration and Illiteracy.
The Veneto ranked first among the Compartiiients of Italy in the
number of emigrants leaving for foreign countries in 1014. Tle
stat.ititic of emigration for the principal districts of the coi-untry
during that year were: Veneto, 113,974; Lombardv. (0.20i;: Pied-
mont. 51.826: Sicily. 461,610; Campania, 41,039. The number of
emigrants from the Veneto during thle five years ending 1915l were
as follows: 1911. 97,58S; 1912. 114,117; 1913, 123,853: 1914, ,13,.9 1:
and 1915, 11,684. Many emigrants from the invaded districts are
anxious to proceed to the United States. some of them having rela-
tives in that country.
The proportion of illiterates in the Veneto among per-oni over 0
years of age, computed by the census of June, 1911, was, 25.2 per cent.
This compares favorably with some of the other districts in thei ex-
treme south of Italy. For instance, in Calabria 69 out of every 100
inhabitants were illiterate; in Basilicata, 65.3, and in Pluzlie. 59.4;
while in Sicily and Sardinia the percentage was 5S.
Condition of Labor.
The number of labor organizations in tile Veneto on .ailJania.' 1,
1916, was 303, with a membership of 41,451 person. The Veneto
ranked sixth among the Compartments of Italy in tlii- respect,
having fewer groups of organized labor than Emiilia. LomI11bardy,
Calabria, Apulia, and Piedmont.
Therere ere 26 strikes among industrial workers in the Veneto in
1913, involving 2,886 strikers; as compared to 70 strikes during 1912,
involving 9,947 strikers. The number of strikes among agricultural
workers was 25 in 1914 and 9 in 1915; these strikes affected 6,470
farm workers in 1914 and 5,360 in 1915. These are the latest labor
statistics at hand. It is believed, however, that data for the pa-t
year would show a large increase in the number of strikes,, as labor
unrest has been very much on the increase in concurrence with the
general agitation passing over Europe, and in view of the fact that




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

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industrial deranigemecnt hI.- I.u'en particularly acute in this.consula- *.,
district, where unetilploy ient has been extensive.' *..
Cost of Necessities-Food Scarcity. '
As an indiC;ltion of the greatly increased cost of living it may be,|j
Mentioned that in f101. when Italy entered the war, a kilogram o!i
flour cost 52 centesimi (10 cents. at normal exchange), while the saiW .:
quantity now costs TS centesimi (15 cents, normal exchange). Rib
was 51 centesimi per kilogram and is now 1.10 lire (21 cents). Cora
flour was 37 centesimi (7 cents) per kilogram, is now 56 centesimi' i?
(11 cents). Olive oil went up from 2.20 lire to 5.40 lire (from $0.41 i
to $1.04) ; macaroni from GS centesimi to 1.05 lire (from $0.13 to
0.20) ; and coffee from 3 lire per kilogram to 10.50 lire (from $0.58
to $2.03). To meet the increased cost. of living it is estimated that
the average workman now receives as much in a day as lie received
in a week before the war. and demands for higher pay are being
constantly made.
There is still a great scarcity of meats, fats, milk, and fuel. Freshl
Miilk, butter, lard, cream, and cheese are seldom seen. and war bread
is still in use. It is apparent, ho, however, that economic conditions will
gradually improve after peace is -igned.


WAsTIN i';'roN : r Ov-[i: i,: I 1:;\ITIN OI'r FIC : 1018