Supplement to Commerce reports

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Title:
Supplement to Commerce reports daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce
Uniform Title:
Commerce reports
Volume title page for -<1920>:
Supplements to Commerce reports : review of industrial and trade conditions in foreign countries in ... by American consular officers
Portion of title:
Daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce
Physical Description:
6 v. : ; 24-26 cm.
Language:
English
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United States -- Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce
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Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Dept. of Commerce
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Washington, D.C
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Commerce -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Foreign economic relations -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
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federal government publication   ( marcgt )
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Additional Physical Form:
Also available in electronic format.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with issue for Jan. 8, 1915?; ceased with issue for Dec. 31, 1920?
Numbering Peculiarities:
Each issue covers an individual country and bears a number corresponding to that country. Reports from the various consular districts in a country are distiguished by the addition of a letter (66a, 66b, 66c, etc.), in the order in which they are issued.
Numbering Peculiarities:
Issue no.52f, 1919, contains misprint, November 41.
General Note:
Title from caption.
General Note:
"Annual series."

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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
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oclc - 16390134
sobekcm - AA00005307_00007
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AA00005307:00007

Related Items

Preceded by:
Daily consular and trade reports (Washington, D.C. : 1910)
Succeeded by:
Trade and economic review for ..

Full Text



22 fMAR 1955 >
SUPPLEMENT T

COMMERCE R
: D.~DALY CONSULAR AND TRADE REPORTS
ISSUED BY THE BUREAU OF FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COMMERCE TA--
DEPARTMENT CF COMMERCE, WASHINGTON, D. C.

Annual Series No. 8a February 26, 1919

ITALY.
TURN.
By Consnl Joseph Emerson Haven.
The Turin consular district, having an area of 11,"21 ,quiare miles
and a population of about 3,:1"i(l,0II, includes the Provinlices o(, Turii,
Novara, Alessandria, and un('no. Turin, the principal city, li:1i a:
population of nearly 000,'JO, approximately that of Milan. As tlie
term Piedmont will be used tlirotuighoutt lhis report, it slold( 1,ll e(x-
plained that the four Pruvinces mentioned above cuioprie thle Pii-.l-
mont section of Italy.
Scenic and Industrial Attractions.
The River Po, which crosses Italy and empltie. into the Adlriatic,
has its source in this di-trict, as have also two smaller river-, known
as the two Doras. Streams from the mountains on three iides insure
irrigation to the great valley of the Po. The wooded slopes, ru-t-
ing torrents, rugged snow-capped mountains, and fertile valleys
with numerous picturesque villages and ruined media-val ca'tles
make this district unique in Italy from a scenic standpoint. The
Valley d'Aosta, however, although visited during the sumniner months
by thousands of Italians, is unfortunately but little known and ap-
preciated by the outside world.
Aside from the picturesque, this district presents itself as tle mon ,
industrial section in Italy. The center is Turin, which although a
factory city, is noted for its pleasant, appearance. Its wide, tree-
shaded boulevards, its cleanliness, and its air of prosperity and ac-
tivity make it perhaps the most modern-applearing city in the King-
dom. The smaller cities are also industrial centers and attractive in
appearance. The great valley supplies both farm produce and lire
stock, and the hill slopes are devoted to the cultivation of the wine
grape, this being the largest wine-producing section in Italy. Rice
is also one of the principal crops.
Industrial and Commercial Situation.
The industrial and commercial situation of the district during
1917 as compared with that of 1916 was marked by new conditions, ,
due, of course, to the war. Certain industries acquired larg : im-
portance in their increased productive force, while others suffered
much restriction, owing to the lack of raw material, difficulties of
transport, foreign exchange, lack of labor, and Government d, crees
prohibiting the exportation of certain articles from the Kingdom.
In Italy in general and in Piedmont in particular, the year may be
considered as epoch-making in the freeing of women from lthe
102735--19--8a
M








2 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

traditional restrictions common to the Latin countries. In office and
factory women have taken the place of men, not only in the lighter
occupations lbut in every branch of the industrial field, and they
have found a ready place in certain of the newer industries for which
their skill and temperament make them peculiarly fitted. In the
numerous factories of the F. I. A. T. plant practically 33 per cent
of the employees are 1now women. The effect on economic conditions
of this situation in the post-war period is problematic, but it is cer-
tain that a vast adjus.tmient must be made, as the woman worker,
developed by the necessarily intensive training of the moment, will
not be content to forego her new-found ability in industrial lines
for the restricting four walls of a home.
This national industrial development is all the more remarkable
in view (if tlie general conditions resulting after the entry of Italy
into the war, for shortage of raw material, financial disorder, closed
markets, -hortage of labor, and restricted exports had combined to
make a situation apparently insurmountable.
Cost of Living.
The co-t of living has advanced to an extraordinary point, owing
to lark of products rather than to speculation. The scarcity of
labor restricted tlhe crops, andl the demands of the army further
'redinced (Ih amount of foodstuff-, available for the civil distribu-
tion. By the end of December, 1917, average prices were from 14
to 1,;:3 per cent higher than in 1914.
During the year the Governmeint found it necessary to introduce
the card. or coupon. system for rationing food supplies for the
population. The series began with sugar and speedily embraced
bread. riic,, col'rn meal. macaroni, and olive oil. Two meatless days
per week (Thursday and Friday) were introduced; the manufacture
of all cakes and candy ceased: tile gas supply was reduced in pres-
sure and cult off entirely except during certain hours in the day in
order to limit con-ulliiiption: and war bread was not allowed to be
pla'c-d on sale until 24 hou1rs1 after it had been baked.
The great iinrlct;se that lias ocurrl'ed in the cost of living since the
outbreak of tlie war is clearly shown in tilhe following table, which
gives the cot of the principal items making up the average budget in
Janu arly-,June, 11914, and July-Decenlmber. 1917:

Jan. July Jan. July
11,'.,. t' J l niii, to Dl t., Items, to June, to Dec.,
l.1)4 117. 1914. 1917.

Twi v nijo m' :ian I...ll. iir- uitings, '..ard ................ 3.00 7.00
rni hti, j. p r iiii th t il .. .. .n lr. p-i]nd ................ .115 .07
sni il a In lnI [. i ll ldii .. 1.1.1 1' 1 i.. i n Blit L r, poured ................ .32 .90
Si\ lo t, r t ii .r j ; i t 'ht p nt .11 ................ .32 .50
In ftirni-h d pi: m ,li ..I 411. 01J i i. E L:, doz u .................. 30 .60
Eiht ti tren r..in i. .*-. in- Fkih, pr.sier~id, pound....... .30 .80
furrnich d iTr miiin hl...... i .. Il" 7 .. Ti0 Fruit, frIshb po nmd............ 09 .27
Hlard'! tr.i it-n,! ri .. .... '. 11 12l0. to.I Mt.' t, Ireshj, poiund ........... .30 .80
W ood,t l ui .. ............... .. .. itl I 41. Or' Milk, skinmmedJ. IQuart........ .06 .09
Slihot, pair. ................. U0 1 tiii F'ot tluie., pound .......... .. .02 .06
Snd i rear, !t ............. 2.0 (.. i' Rit.e. polnl ................. .05 .08
ShirtsI,.aJ h ................... i .4U 2. .-.j Sugar, pound................. 12 .35

Increased Cost of Fuel.:
The item .shioing the largest increase was fuel. The scarcity of
ocean tonnage caused a coal famine, and by December coal was sell-








ITALY-TURINI.


ing at 1,000 lire (normal exchange value of the lira is $0.193) per ton
at the seaport. Even at this price, the purchase was somewhat of a
speculation on account of the difficulty in transportation. Rolling
stock on the State railways was required by the army for the move-
ment. of the output of the numlerolls munition and ,otli:r State-
employed factories. This lack of available rolling stock also affected
the price of the firewood, which was c;it in the monliit:iiious sections
of tlhe district and brought to the cities in the plain. Wood was the
principal itemr of fuel, and to prevent too great hardship to the poor,
cities established municipal depositories where it was .-ld to the
deserving in small quantities at practically cist price.
Thersuddern demand for the small terra-cotta stoves to replace the
idle furnaces in homes brought, prosperity to several small towns
in the district where these chara:ltristic heaters have been manu-
factured for years. Smiall iron stoves were so prohibitive in price
and so difficult to obtain that ev\en the finest resid1ences were forced
to use the humble peasant terra-cotta substitute, which, however, is
wonderfully efficient. An excellent stove using sawdust as fuel was
developed and found much favor.
Care of Refugees.
Following the Italian retreat in Septermber, the civil population
from the in ailed regions was distributed over the Kingdom, each city
and town receiving a certain number of the refugees and attending
to the many incidental matters relative to such an unprepared-for
migration. The Italian, never wealthy, yet found the means of help-
ing his brother in distress, whether in money, food, clothing, or
household effects, so that as fast as the refugees arrived at their as-
signed destination, they were met by citizen committees and their
wants supplied.
The city of Turin by popular subscription raised more than 1,500,-
000 lire. for the refugees assigned to this city, of whom there were
about. 15,000. The supervision of all refugee work was centered in
a committee appointed by the governor of the Province and com-
posed of municipal and provincial officers, thus avoiding the many
vexatious questions which would have occurred in a committee com-
posed entirely of private citizens. The refugees in the smaller towns
and villages in the Province were looked after by local subcommit-
tees under the direction of the central provincial committee, also a
Government organization.
Employment was easily obtained at good wnaes, and, comb'ilned
with the financial assistance granted by the Government and the
material ansi.stance given by d(ifftrefnt socities, placed many of the
refugees in better economic condiition than they had been in at home.
Construction Limited by War Conditions.
Building construction was much restricted by the Lick of labor
and the high cost of material conseqiulent to de(creasedl manufacture.
Iron and steel, which for the most part is imported from the United
States, was devoted to the nanu;factlire of war material, and even
had ocean tonnage permitted the importation of structu ral metals,
the excessive ocean freights would have made the prices in the Italian
market prohibitive.
Such construction as was undertaken was principally the building
of factories for the manufacture of war material. Several large plants








SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


were erected for airplane construction. It seems that this industry
in Turin may shortly be second only to automobile construction, for
all th lae lae automobile factories turn out airplane engines. Besides,
the city i.; located in the plain, and the surrounding mountains act as
a barrier ngainst high windsi skilled labor is easily obtained or
developed; and electric power is plentiful, because of the proximity
of the city to the Aosta Valley, wherein a number of important
hydroelectric plants are in operation. In this valley, several new
in- tfllntions are under construction to meet the increasing industrial
dCi,,14nd.s, and it is likely that the present steam railway system will
evreniiually be operated by electric power. The conversion from steam
to (le:-tri-city is gradually developing, as is illustrated by the opening
in 1917 of the Turin-Pinerolo line.
Development of Airplane Industry.
Turin is the center of the airplane industry in Italy, every part of
the plane, including the motor, being made here. Such factories as
the F. I. A. F., Pomilio, and A. E. R. are together capable of turning
out many thousand planes a year. For example, the Pomilio plant,
which vi- recently piurchaled by the Ansaldo intere-.t-, has a floor
!pIirar of more than 30,000 square yards and employs more than 2,000
people. In this establishment 10 airplanes can be turned out a day.
P:articular note should be made thliat on the entry of Italy into the
war this industry was of but minor importance and wan more or less
experimental. The war has so stimulated an intensive study of aero-
nautics that in 2 years a state has been reached which might, have
reiltiired 10 years under normal conditions.
Two excellent types of aviation motors have been evolved in Turin,
viz, the Fiat and the Spa. During the year a flight, was made from
Turin to Rome (415 miles) in 2 hours and 50 minutes. A Fiat motor
mounted on a Sia plane made a flight from Turin to London in (--
hours without stop, and a Spa motor, mounted on a Sva plane, left.
Turin at 7 a. m., flow to Udine and along the Italian front, and was
back in Turin by noon, the di taance. covered being about the same as
the Turin-London flight. Motors of these two types are particularly
valuable in scout airplanes. The world's altitude record was also
marle during the year in Turin by an Italian airplane.
Extensive Xanufacture of Automobiles.
The Italian automobile indu-try is centered in Turin, the seven
priniipal Italian cars being manufactured in this city. Of these, the
Fiat is p'rhI)p., the most widely known, as praciieally SO per cent, of
Italian cars are of this make.
It is initer-c-ing to note that the export of Italian motor vehicles
has practically tripled in the p;-t. six years, the value of the 1917
exports bein 'g more than 100,000,000 lire ($19,300,000 at normal ex-
ch' ng1e), or nI.int four times the value in 1914.
All the Italian aunomobniile factories are. working for the Govern-
mont, their output being taken over for the arnmie of Italy and her
allied. The number of touring cars has considerably decreased, and
in proportion the number of motor trucks auginented, the latter
being njmotly of the 11 and 3 ton types, although such a concern as the
F. I. A. T. manufacturers very lieavy tractors for mountain work in
connection with the transport of heavy-caliber guns at the Italian
front.








ITALY-TURIN.


Nowhere more than in Italy has been demonstrated the very im-
portant part played by motor vehicles in modern warfare. The
Italian-made motor truck, because of its rugged construction and
simplicity of engine, is especially adapted for w~ar work, as is shown
by the fact. that practically the entire export of Italian motor-driven
vehicles since 1914 has been taken by the Allied Armies.
Decrease in Output of Pelt Hats.
The output of felt hats during 1917 wai- reduced for several
reasons, principally because of the very high prices for raw material,
all of which is imported, and the high rate of exchange. Belgium
was the chief .-ourcc of supply of -kins from which hair is cut to be
woven into fabrics for hat material, but large quantities of skins
which had been stocked were seized by the Germans. Next to Bel-
gium, England and France provided a considerable amount of the
material, but its preparation decreased in those countries, becaui,,e of
the lack of labor. Skins are still imported from New Zealand and
Australia unt. in mu 1h s'inaller quantities than that required by the
demands of the nm:arket, notwithstanding almost prohibitive prices
due to the high ocean-fruight rates.
A,. a result of the high cost of the raw material and the high wages
paid for labor, the price. of the manufactured articles twere about
four times as high as normal.
Horticulture Capable of Development-Preserved Fruits.
With regard to the question of fruit growing in Italy, it rniut be
said that with the exception of Sicily and Sardinia (with their citrus
fruits) horticulture is not given sufficient attention, the farmer de-
veloping only fruits that require little application and fertilization
and are not readily susceptible to plant disease. (Exception is of
course made to the giape, which is grown in all parts of Italy.) This
condition is to be regretted, as the fertility of the soil and the excel-
lent climatic conditions are such as to make fruit growing an induli-try
worthy of further development. Thlit the situation will change,
however, when a market for fruit is assured is indii.trd in the
case of the town of Rivoli, in the Province of Turin, where the cul-
tivation of .uch fruits as strawberries, ranpl(,rrie-, currantk, plums,
and cherries, has been intensified for use in the manufacture of jams
and jellies.
Until a short time ago fruit preierve>-, jaii--, and jellies sold in
Italy were imported products with the exception of :-mall quanttities
of national manufacture, suli'l as candied fnrit which were con-
sidered luxuries. The export from Italy was small, the average for
the years 1907 to 1912 being but 2,500 tons. The larfe quantities
imported from Germany, Switzerland, and parti-ularly England
were retailed in Italy at about $0,).0 per pound jar and hence were
purchasi'd by only the we:iltlic'r ,1a-.s.
Appreciating this -,ituation, a -Iufar-riefining company in Grnoa
began the manufacture of jams and jellies the year Inlfore the war.
The factory at Rivoli was acquired, two other factori, were erected
in other parts of Italy, and the home market, was shortly -toc.ed
with the national product, the jai i- selling at 1..5 lire ($0.3) per
pound jar. This, as will be noted, was $0.08 cheaper than the im-
ported article, and the demand for Italian pre-erv\- immediately








SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


increa-ed. Had the war not intervened, with the resultant scarcity
of sugar and high price of t'la., the new industry would have reached
a very --:ti-fu tory point of development. As it is, matters are merely
delayed iutil normal conditions ret urn.
Decrease in Crop Production.
The ]a nd area in Piedmont devoted to the cultivation of grain
was 80W;,1.'5; acres in 1916, with a yield of 460,300 tons, as against
775,166 acres in 1917, with a yield of 3160,0() tons. Tle figures for
all of Italy were 11,678,49t 3 acres in 19106. with a yield of 4,804,400
ton; against 9,5350,546 acres in 1917, with a yield of 3,810,200 tons.
The 1917 yield was the small t in the la-t (decade.
The principal causes for this condition were the smaller amount
of land under cultivation and the poor crop. The first cause was
due to the reduction of farm labor (in account of military service;
the :.econd to heavy rains during the seeding period, to a late spring,
and to the great heat. in the ]Ilonth of June \\ lich canuedl the falling
of the granules. The supply of fertilizers wa- in-.iiu-icient, as imports
d(htcea.sed, except in the case of nitrate of soda, which was diverted
for use in the manufacture of munitions.
Farmers Called to Military Service.
It is estimated that when Italy entered the war there were 126 in-
habitants per sq(luare kilometer in the Kingdom. this being a grad-
ual develop-ment, as according to the census of 15.tl' there were 87.2
people to the square kilometer. Tile call to army service was partic-
ularly hard on the agriciiltliral inulistry, as the following table show-
ing the population in 1916 and the number of men drawn from differ-
ent occur 1pationl- indicates:

Populatiorin h\ oe 10 Men calle'l to Army
years of iae. ser- ice.
Irndustry.
Number. Per cont. Number. Percent.

A rli, llri u il ............................................... ,0 5, 7 31. 1 2,0i ,714 47.87
Indu rii l ................................................ J91-. '.'!91 1. fI 1, 41,0 56 34.80
Corr nir ei l .................. .............................. l. 21.1. 3. 17 2 ,371 6.67
A d anl ir I '. ................................... ..... 1, 11 ,. 5. A3 219,' I 7 5.&2
Prof- ni n ............................................... :1l. 7 .12 .2 910 .09
Uncl irit.J ................................................ 1 177, 7T 3. 29 204,00- 4.75
Tol l ............................................. 2ri,340,0l .U I5 s J. 0 4,2 0, 771 100.00

As will lie seen from the above table, more than one-third of the
population over 11 years of ;age comes in the agricultural class, and
it is said that fully half of the army is made up of men from this
calling. In Piedmont the rural population, according to the official
census, was 1,05,;_7, of whom C;07,346 were males. Of the 438,852
men called to army service, 200,GS2 were drawn from agricultural
pu-rsu its.
Live-Stock Statistics.
To the Italian pea-a:nt, farmer, the ox as a draft animal is essential,
although the horse and mule are used to a certain extent. According
to the census of 1908 for Piedmont, the percentage per square kilo-
meter (0.3801 square mile) for oxen was 4.55 and for horses and
mules 2.96. Between 1908 and 1915 there was a notable development
in animal breeding as a source of income.







ITALY-TURIEN.


The beef cattle (excluding veal under 1 year of -age) requl-itioied
in Piedmont from September, 1915, to July 31, 1917, numbered
717,114, of which 224,742 head were reserved for the ariiy. In all
the Kingdom of Italy a total of 4,2i611(, head was requisitioned, the
army taking 1,23,872, or 29.07 per cent.
It is impossible to tell to what point draft animals were reduced,
but from the figures of September 15, 1915, to December 31, 1916,
one may assume that. about one-third was taken. Other reasons
for a lessened live-stock supply were the utilization of cows as draft
animals, the scant production of fodder, and the requi-ition of hay
and straw.
Use of Modern Agricultural Machinery.
In Italy the use of modern agricultural machinery has never
reached a point of serious consideration. 'hi.s has been due to a
number of causes but for the most part to the relatively low income
of the farmer. In war times it would seem essential to meet the
reduced labor supply by the utilization of mechanical power, but this
opportunity for the introduction of modern agricultural machinery
is blocked by the difficulties of ocean tonnage from Amerija, where
the greater part of such machinery is manufactured, and by the
consequent. high prices and the matter of foreign exchange. Prior
to the war the import of agricultural machinery into Italy was about
20,000 tons annIully, but in 1916 it had fallen to 4,400 tons (latest
statistic. available).
The Ministry of Agriculture endeavored to relieve the situation
due to the lack of field labor by importing a number of tractors for
plowing. Machines were also imported by private individuals and
agricultural societies. As the greater part came from the United
States, the Italian Government transported these and other types of
farming machinery on Government-owned vessels. A -vconldary
interest lay in the determination of the Government to educate cer-
tain sections- of Italy in the use of modern farming methods in order
that greater crops might be produced and that vast plains, at present.
idle, be utilized.
In connection with motor tractors it should be mentioned that the
American machine is particularly appreciated. As the market de-
velops, the type of tractor likely to meet the most favor will be of
light weiLhlt, (10 to 14 horsepower), 1iurning., heavy oil as a fuel. The
Italian tiold is one that can be profitably tilben d hby American manu-
facturers, as with the termination of the war the Iarge Italian auto-
mobile corporations will probably branch out and pr4'oduce tractors
and farming machinery in general.
Rice an Important Crop-Grape Yield.
Rice cultivation is one of the principal inldustrie; of the district.
In this connvm. tion it should be noted that the latest types of ma-
chinery are iu-cd in the fifty-odd factories wlhre the rice is prel)pared
for market. Despite the lack of labor and fertilizer-, the 1'17 Irop
was particularly satisfactory, owing principally to the dry weather
at the. period in the cultivation of the grain when it was nmst
beneficial.
Rice growers maintain that the Governmieniei should apprecintoe the
national value of the crlop. (in 1917 valued at $30,000:000), as they




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

I I II llll lllllllllI llllll lll H llll
3 1262 08485 1996


8 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

]have furnished a food substitute for the wheat which has been lack-
ing sin-re Italy entered the war. They further hold that the Govern-
ment 'houldl not lower the prl.ent high tariff on rice but should en-
coura1ge this national indui trIy b discouraging imports from the
Ea;-st.
A large part of tle wine exported from the various districts of
Italy orig'ina:ted in I'ielllmnnt, which has the largest grape yield in
the Kiiirduin. Vermouth is distinctly a Piedmont product, and its
calefulll .reparation has gained for it a world-wide reputation, which
makes it one of the principal national exports. Notwithstanding
adlvr.e we.AItlier conldiions in April and two temporary plant infec-
ti i- lait,,r. the rranpe crop for the 1917 season exceeded that of 1916,
beig '.) 917, 1 )1) tons in 19.17, compared with 830,000 tons in 1916.
Declared Exports to the United States and Possessions.
T'lhe following tablel shows the quantity and value of the principal
exl,"ort from Turin to tlhe United States during 1916 and 1917, as
invo.iced I.by tihe American .coni;iulate:


Articles.
Quianity. Value.

A ut.rni l-il .I, ................................... 71 $15 7 3
A'. ,rm li,. r, r...................... ................ ..... .........,0
A i l :I.m no tl ...................... n i.... ll t r ..............................
J;.,rl le i -.. ........................ d ... 1.. 327,) 0'0 21,131
Clh o. .1 11. ................. ............ .po n i. .. 20. 71 1 10,167
Cmi. r -' 1 .... ........... ...... ..... do ... 6',2,5.0 I 4
C l,.n re.ja s. ...................s ju.a e .ar s.. 23i, 193 .1, ,h.j
Film .. ............................... .. t. 11 1.I 19 7. 9
1 I-l, ir.:.erved ....................... po-in 1s.. 79 rC00 I,,5.,1;
(;l, ..................................1. .... 130 51H) 20), 02
G luir .::: ............................... ... 2,514,3 7 212,714
jil h n lln ............................do.... 5,0;0 40,912
.i-. fur ................. ........... ... n.. 111 2 N, 711
Hi't- :1iiiJ ; in .......................... -o.... N, fi'9 77,550
Jei l ', '.ll ...... ............... .n mb r.. 1, 244,0 0 1 '
M e h'n, s ................................ ... .............. 3,911
P 1 .-.r ............................. pounds.. 7 4
Pl nlil LI ....... ............... ..... .d 1 1,323 1, .16
Sllie- rer u I ..tineJ ..................... do.... 2, 211 532
:Z l l. -
Arlificill ........................... do... 10,564 1l,C50
II ax .......................... .. .do.... 61. 15 32 432
Talc.............. ......... ......... do... 10,31;, 1 125,217
T\v t ........................... ....... o. .. 1.,010 3,55
V 0,r I lh t h ................. ......... ... allow no 1 70 179 774. 7
M I nt.f r............................ po n I.. 319,0 0 :1,042
. irl ....... ..........................g. llon.3. 134,2:2 147, 442
All other ar ilet ............................................ 37,952
Tot l ........................................ .. 2,613,343


Quantity.


56
.............. .
I
2,4-26,000
5,9J1
226, 162
101.746
2".1,202
2,594,236
4,517
22,110
2,801,720
2.3,025
176,000
543,429


6,700, 6f:O
15,5lid
534,24 5
61,602
15j,,456


Value.


1128,224
7,903
7,986
3,782
.3,202
94,159
7,614
43,243
1?5,480
44,913
418,211
..............
51,762
5,827
8,002
4,143
130,154


108,404
3,896
760,312
7,574
168,501
12,552
2,205,873


Declared exports to the Philippine Islands amounted to $6,017 in
1916 and `10,465 in 1917. Exports to Porto Rico, consisting prin-
cipally of vermutlh were valued at $2"2,060 in 1916 and at $26,637 in

i' ere x no exports to Hawaii.


WASHINTON : GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1919