Supplement to Commerce reports

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Title:
Supplement to Commerce reports daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce
Uniform Title:
Commerce reports
Volume title page for -<1920>:
Supplements to Commerce reports : review of industrial and trade conditions in foreign countries in ... by American consular officers
Portion of title:
Daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce
Physical Description:
6 v. : ; 24-26 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce
Publisher:
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Dept. of Commerce
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

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Subjects / Keywords:
Commerce -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Foreign economic relations -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also available in electronic format.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with issue for Jan. 8, 1915?; ceased with issue for Dec. 31, 1920?
Numbering Peculiarities:
Each issue covers an individual country and bears a number corresponding to that country. Reports from the various consular districts in a country are distiguished by the addition of a letter (66a, 66b, 66c, etc.), in the order in which they are issued.
Numbering Peculiarities:
Issue no.52f, 1919, contains misprint, November 41.
General Note:
Title from caption.
General Note:
"Annual series."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 004822593
oclc - 16390134
sobekcm - AA00005307_00006
Classification:
lcc - HC1 .R1981
System ID:
AA00005307:00006

Related Items

Preceded by:
Daily consular and trade reports (Washington, D.C. : 1910)
Succeeded by:
Trade and economic review for ..

Full Text




SUPPLEMENT TO 22 A15

COMMERCE RER
DAILY CONSULAR AND TRADE REPORTS
ISSUED BY THE BUREAU OF FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COMM
DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE, WASHINGTON, D. C.

Annual Series No. 7a November 6, 1919

GREECE.
ATHENS.
By Consul General Alexander %,. Weddell.
Greece emerges from the war with an enormously increased na-
tional debtbut a more than corresponding gain in its economic re-
sources. TThe.12 months of 1918 were highly prosperous in charar ter,
despite the: many drawba ks resulting from hostilities. The requiisi-
tion-by the Allies of practically the entire Hellenic merchant fleet
at highly profitable rates, the presence of large Allied armies in the
country, the. granting of a large loan enabling the Government to
pay off arrears, with a remainder for expenditures in the country,
were favorable factors-to the general situation.
Greece of to-day is a country of approximately 5,000,000 inhab-
itants, in a territory of about 44,700 square miles. The public debt
on December 31, 1918, was 2,431,925,845 drachmas (1 dra, hma =
$0.193, normal exchange rates). In addition to this heavy debt,
there must sooner or later be added the outstanding Turkish debt
on the territories acquired as a result of the Balkan wars of 1912-13.
Increase in Circulating Bank Notes.
In the five-year period, 1913-1918, bank notes in circulation
have shown a great increase, the amount in 1910 reaching
$59,946,607, as compared with $271,462,875 at the clo-se of 1918.
More than a third was covered by book credits of the United States,
Great Britain, and France under the loan agreement of February
10, 1918, under which the Hellenic Government is authorized to
draw credit for six months after the conclusion of peace. The
inflation existing will thus be gradually corrected, since the credits in
question can only become available through commercial transactions
which will represent a corresponding reduction in the paper cur-
rency of the country.
The extent of the monetary circulation of Greece is established by
the basic law of 1910. The mechanism of this law is very simple.
Instead of covering bank notes in circulation on the basis of a certain
percentage of deposits this circulation is represented entirely by
deposits in foreign banks, without excluding additional notes cov-
ered by a gold deposit in the issuing bank. A direct advantage of
this system is that the capital designated to cover the notes in cir-
culation is productive, interest being paid on the deposit abroad, and
indirectly serving as a guaranty of the paper money of the country
and for the production of wealth. Furthermore, under this arrange-
ment the bank's circulation is entirely covered, instead of being on
the basis of a percentage of deposits, and exchange is also stabilized.
145985-19-7a-1





I

2 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

Another feature of the system is its flexibility and the fact that the
circulation may be increased with the increase in national savings
abroad.
To meet present and future needs of the country the Government
has enacted a number of laws imposing fresh taxes or increasing
those already in force. It is anticipated that from these imposts
the Government will receive for 1918 some $11,033.810, and for 1919,
$13.470,435, with a natural tendency toward a decline in the coming
years as taxable war profits diminish.
Greek Drachma Continues Stable.
A striking feature of the past two years in Grecian finances has
been the stability of foreign exchange. This may be ascribed in
large niieasure to the gradually increasing difficulties attending:pur-
chases abroad; to the blockade enforced by the Allies, when only the
bare necessities of life were allowed to come in.; to the.enornoous
profits of the merchant marine of Greece, and to the-other factors
aforementioned; to large expenditures made in 1917 by. the Greek
army, then in process of mobilization; to the severe control exercised
by the Government over all remittances abroad, under the provision
of the law of 1910 previously cited; and to the agreement with the
United States, Great Britain, and France, under the arrangement of
February 2S. 1918, which contained a distinct pledge in this sense
of stabilizing exchange.
Furthermore, at the beginning of the war, large sums were held
abroad under the control of the National Bank of Greece. These
were in large measure in banks in the United States, Great. Britain,
and France, but limited amounts were lodged in Germany and
Austria. With the beginning of the fluctuations in exchange be-
tween the pound sterling and the dollar and the franc, the National
Bank of Greece, instead of fixing the rate of exchange on the basis
of the supply and demand in Greece (as was the case in other neu-
tral countries), undertook to regulate the price of exchange on
England and France on the basis of the parity of the American
dollar, in the country of which currency Greece had already large-
deposits.
The public debt of Greece is in large measure under the control of
the International Financial Commission, created in 1898, following
the war with Turkey. This commission has under its control as,
monopolies of the Government the sale of salt, kerosene, matches,
playing cards, cigarette paper, emery; various stamp taxes; the
revenue of certain customhouses; and certain surtaxes on tobacco.
The year just closed was one of the most profitable in the history of
the commission, despite the existence of war. The total receipts
amounted to $17,396,691, against $12,804,028 in 1917 and $10,619,179
in 1913.
Of the various monopolies only those of salt, playing cards, to-
bacco, and stamped paper showed gains. The heavy advance rec-
orded was due in large measure to receipts from the Piraeus custom-
house, these amounting in 1918 to $6,018,859. against $2,752,566 for
1917.
Other Aspects of Economic Situation-Fluctuation in Exchange.
As further indication of the economic situation in 1918 may be
cited the great increasee in bank deposits in Athens. These amounted








GR EECE-ATH ENS.


to $157,-6y,410 the firdt six months of 1917, .as cuimpared with '23.5,-
164,154 the corresponding period of 1918. A number of stock cnm-
panies already in existence augmented their capital during the year.
while other new companies were formed; among there were 3 new
banks, 3 new navigation companies, and 17 new insurance companies
(mostly maritime risks). It may be conservatively estimated that
the shares issued during 1918 amounted to $38,600 000.
As a result of the embargo on exports of capital, coupled with the
accumulation of money in the country, speculation of a frenzied
character was rife on the stock-exchange throughout the yvar. Thi-,
became so unbridled that legislation was enacted checking a;nd con-
trolling stock-exchange transactions. A downward tendency was
especially to be remarked, following the signing of the armistice, andl
this depression affected old established companies as well as I1lmny
mushroom concerns.
The following table sh-ows the movement of dollar exchange during
the 12 months under examination. Between the dates given there
was no change in buying or selling rate:
S Buyers' Sellers' Date. Buyers' tell.rs'
Date. quotations. quotations. quotations.- qut.ionu.
SDrachlros. Drachmas. Drach mas. Drach mu.,
Jan. 1............ ....... 5 14 5.1i; Sept. 1 ................... .5 It5 5..1'
Feb. 15................... i. I 5.165 Sept. 15 ................. 5 17 5.225
Mar. I.................... 14 5.1 i5 Oct. 1........ .......... 5. 16 5.21
Juvl 1 .................... 5. 1 5.17 Oct. 15 .................. 5 1.5j 2
July 15 .................. 5.15 5. 15 'ov. 15 ................... 5. 5 5.2
Aug. I.................... 5.13 .15 P c. 1 ........ ........... 5. 1i5 5.21
Aug. 15 ................... 5. 1 5.19 Dec. 311 .................. 5.16 5.21

Interallied Financial and Military Commissions.
Under tentative agreements signed at Paris on November 30 and De-
cember 3, 1917, between the representatives of the United States, Great
Britain, and France, on the one side, and the Greek Government on
the other, which compacts were finally absorbed into and made part
of the agreements dated February 10, 1918, the three Governments
agreed to advance to the Hellenic Government during 1918, $144.-
750,000. The control of the fund thus created was lodged in an
Interallied Financial Commission and an Interallied Military Com-
mission sitting at Athens. During the course of the year the two
commission, recommended to their respective Governments the open-
ing of credits totaling $118,695,000.
Since the close of 1918, further credits of $21,230.000 have been
recommended, leaving a balance of $4,825,000. Of the total, Great
Britain and France have each established credits of $48,250,000 and
the United States, $43,425,000. Internal loans were successfully
floated by the Hellenic Government amounting to $33,775,000. The
work of the two commissions will probably end in 1919.
Effect of War on Industries.
During the whole course of the war, Greek industries have been
much crippled by the inability to secure the fuel necessary for their
operation, and the raw material therefore. The principal industries
affected by these conditions have been railways, street-ar systems,
electric light and gas plants, distillerie.,, breweries, ice plants cotton
manufactories, tanneries, glass manufactories, soap manufactories,
artificial fertilizer plants, foundries, and machine shops.










SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


On the other hand, as a result of the crippling of transport fa-
cilities and the consequent rationing of the country, several new in-
dustries were created, which, however, it. is thought, will pass out
of existence with the return of normal conditions. Among these
arc the production of a motor spirit made. of turpentine and alcohol
(the alcohol from currants), and the manufacture of "staphedine,"
a sugar substitute made from currants.
Foreign Commerce Statistics.
Throughout the first, six months of 1917 only a few grain ships
were permitted to pass into Greece, between March and the raising
of the blockade in June. The following table gives a summary of
imports by articles into Greece during 1916 and 1917, the latest
periods for which data are obtainable:

Articles. 1916 1917 Articles. 1916 1917

Agricultural products..... 37,786,221 $19,225,306 Metals and minerals,
Animal product ......... 1,293,536 ;R, 795 crude................... $7,321,183 $774,414
Chemical products........... 5,301,791 2,432,428 Metals and minerals, man-
Cotton yarns and lab- ufactured.............. 1,473,439 454,020
rics................... 6,707,620 4,923,199 OU and oil substances..... 486,814 227,855
Esparto and hat-making Paper products and ob-
material................ 561,527 351,305 jects of art............. 2,548,200 1,404,185
Fish and fish products.... 1,941,251 962,672 Scientific apparatus...... 452,929 328,219
Forest products........... 1,500,425 297,372 Sugar and sugar products. 6,482,426 3,989,440
Furniture and other Tannery materials and
wooden articles......... 42,310 79,045 dyes ................ 115;560 .59,536
Glasswareand pottery.... 395,596 114,623 Wines and liquors........ 309,109 446,480
Leather, and manufac- All other articles.......... 886,127 1,474,465
turesof................. 1,310,867 976,019
Livestock ................ 174,765 131,311 Total............... 77,091,696 39,440,692

Export Trade According to Articles.
The appended table shows the value of the exports from Greece
during 1916 and 1917, the last years for which statistics are avail-
able:


Articles. 1916

Agricultural products..... $17,575,356
Animal products.......... 3,609,329
Chemical products....... 254,407
Cotton yarns and fabrics.. 5,196
Esparto and hat-making
material ................ 1,400
Fish and fish products.... 125,445
Forest products........... 1,287,841
Glassware and pottery.... 5,936
Leather and manu ac-
tures of ................ 16,722
Live stock ................ 695
Metals and minerals,
crude................... 2,636,962


1917

$10,402,709
1,318,925
40,071
270

21,944
380,241
2



6,116,308


Articles.

Metals and minerals,man-
ufactured..............
Oil and oil substances ....
Paper products and ob-
jects of art.............
Sugar and sugar products
Tannery materials and
dye ....................
Wines and liquors........
All other articles..........
Total..............


1916


$240,184
4,734,877
7,936
1,401
148,512
2,097,003
103,362
32,852,564


1917


.............
$1,848,281
3,227


76,567
962,983
20,383
21,191,911


Declared Exports to the United States.
Exports invoiced at all the American consular districts in Greece
during 1917 and 1918 were as follows:


Art icles.


Quantity. I alue.


-~~ 'I I---


Books.......................................pounds.. 54,638
Fruits and nuts:
Olives.................................... gallons.. 72,569
Citrons ..................................... do... 365,125
Currants..................... ............ pounds. 3,537,800
Furs ...........................................pieces. 2,197
Gum mastic..................................pounds.. 10,640
Herbs (aromatic)................................do.... 132,270
Licorice root.....................................do.. ............
Oils: Edible olive...........................gallons.. 5,144


$20,423
49,908
15,866
546,795
8,169
3,580
7,022
8,730


1918

Quantity. Value.


$16,355
48,056
............
367,825
............
4,142
21,803
329,620
............


17,902
26,759

2,845,795
5,778
117,386
4,813,640
............


"












GREECE-ATHENS.


Article.-.


Opium crude .................................pounds..
Plaster c sts .................................... pieces..
Sheep casin s .................................. rin s..
Skins (sun-dried)..............................pieces..
Skins (wild animals)............................do ...
Sponges.................................... pounds..
Tobacco.......................................do....
Liqueurs....................................gallons..
Al other articles.......................................
Total...........................................


19:


Quantity.

2.., 43.
15
34,500
332,407
............
'2,444
16, 296,701
3,158


Value.


5102, ff'S
634
4, 115
693,005
......... ...
11,475
14,122,703
6,093
290

16,201,157


Quantily. Value.


2,904 $76,56:3
........... ........ ...
......... ... .. ... .....
1 I ,51-I 1 7,1iV-
101, 42'2 106,734
21 1, iSr,
13,312,955 17,295,1451
............ .... .... S ,
............ 1,19, 1

............ 18, 479, 97:


Declared exports from the consular district of Athens to the United
States were as follows in 1917 and 1918:


Articles.


Books....................................... pounds..
Fruits and nuts: Olives......................gallnns..
Furs... .... .......................... piece ..
Gum mastic................................... pounds..
Herbs (arimat e)................................do...
Laudanum ................. ......................do .. .
Lie cice root ........... ..................... do....
Oils: Edible olive............................. gillus..
Opium crude ................................. pounds..
Plaster casts..................... ............ ... pierC .
Sheep casings.................................. rings..
Skins (sun-dried ............................. pieces..
Skins Iwild animals)............................ d ...
Sponges....................................prunds..
Tobacco. ..................................... .in ....
Liqueurs.....................................g. llou ..
All other articles.................................
Total..........................................


Qu-ntity.


54,638
72 569
9,197
10,640
132, 270
.. ... .. .
5,144
C,5-'S
I'i
3i, 4ro0
44-1, S4
2,244
13,94r, 627
3, 1.S
i............


Value.


S20,493
40,901S

3, 580
7, 022

8,"7311
S1,555
Q40
4,115
37% W'.b
11,475
11,3.52,515
6,09?5
29


............I 11,936,058


191S

.ullantity. Value.

17,102 $Sli. ,3
26,759 4',03'.
........ ......... .
5,778 4,112
117,3: 6 21, 1.0
626 9.6 I
1, 00,244 70, 31'
1,141 27,7 )


93, 94 148'. l
31,979 112, I',
21`i I f'lfi
11,S16,9483 15,072, r-"2

... ... .... 15,5. 3, 5. 7
............ 15,553,5,7


For 1918 the value of exports to the United States from Greece
exceeded those of any year since the establishment of commercial rela-
tions between the two countries. This result is to be ascribed to the
heavy movement of tobacco, for, with the exception of that commod-
ity, general exports show a decline from 1917, sharp losses being regis-
tered in currants, crude opium, and skins.


Tobacco Stocks and Prices.

Tobacco stocks on hand in
were estimated as follows
drachma equals $0.193) :


Greece, Bulgaria, and Turkey on June 1
(one oke equals 2.82 pounds, and the


On hand Produc- Total
Districts. irom 1917 tion in so
crop. 1918. s k

OLD GREECE. Okt. Okes. Okc s.
Argos............................................................. 5.0,000 2, 5'on, 000 2, 50,000
Agrinium.......................................................... ............ 3,000.000 3,000,Inn
Lamia and Thessaly............................................ 500),000 7,000,000 7, 500,00
Paros. etc......................................................... 110, 000 1,001.000) 1, 100 000
Otherdistricts..................................... ............... 50.000 '2000.0 250,000
Total. ....................................................... 7t.t,. 00 13,700,000 14. 00.000
NEW GREECE. I
Islands: Samos, Chios, Mitylene, Lemnos.......................... 00,000 3,000,000 3, 00000
M acedonia............................................ ........... 1,000,000 000,000 5,000,000
Saloniki .............. ......................................... 500,000 2, 00,000 3,000,000


Grand total............................................ .... 3,000,000 ,200,000 26.200,000


'--- i-- --








6 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

The estimated amount required for home consumption is 8,464,500
pounds, leaving a balance of 65.353,300 pounds for export.
The total Bulgarian production for 1918, together with the por-
tions of the crop remaining from 1917 is estimated at 31,000,000 okes,
(87,420,000 pounds), while the figures on a similar scale for Turkey
amount to 27,000,000 okes (76,140,000 pounds).
Prices in the various districts for successive crops from 1913 to
1917 were as follows, expressed in drachmas per oke (19.3 cents per
2.82 pounds)

Price per oke.
DistriC ts.
1913 1914 1915 1916 1917
*
Drachmas. Drachmas. Drachmas. I Drachmas. DrachTMns.
Argos ...................................... 0.8 0 1.00 1.25 4.50 5-6
Aprinlum................................. 3.00 4.50 5.50 9.00 13
The-saly and Lamia ....................... 2.50 3.00 3.50 7.00 11
.l'ro;, Amorgns........................... 4.00 5.00 6.00 q.0 12
Basima General .......................... 5.00 6.00 7.00 10 00 12
nruos, Chios, Mitylene, Lesbos............ 1.50 1.75 2.00 I 6.00-s.00 13
Macedonia............ .... ............... 4.00 5.00 ....................... ............
-'jloniki (Basma).......................... 2.00 4.00 5.00 10.00 18
B. Bagli.................................. 1.00 2.00 2.50 6.'00 10

Tobacco is selling now in Turkey for G to 8 drachnms lier oke; in
Bulgaria, for 10 drachmas per oke; in Old Bulgaria, for 7 drachmas
per oke.
As a result of the armistice large quantities of matured tobaccos
stored in Samsun, Constantinople, and Smyrna were released for ex-
portation. This has caused a general delay in the marketing of the
1918 crop, and consequently a decrease in acreage planted in 1919,
With the exception of Macedonia, where it is anticipated that the
crop will reach 6,000,000 okes as against 4,000,000 okes in 1918, this
decrease is a general one; a normal crop in Macedonia is about
11,)000,000 okes. [See COMMERCE REPORTS for Sept. 27, 1919.]
The reduction in freight and insurance rates has encouraged spepu-
lation in the exportation of consignment lots of tobacco to America,
Egypt, and England, and it is estimated that since November some
20;,00.(000 okes have gone forward from Turkey and Greece, the bulk
from Old Greece.
Shipments of Licorice Root, Skins, and Olives.
Trade in licorice root is largely a growth of the past few years.
No export-, to the United States were recorded in 1917, but in 1916,
4.-f9i2,543 pounds were. shipped, valued at $263,374, which increased
in 191S to 4,813.640 pounds of a value of $329,620.
The movement of sun-dried skins to the United States from Greece
during 191S showed an enormous decline in quantity and value. On
the other hand exports of skins of wild animals to America increased.
Although there was a sharp decline in the quantity of olive oil
shipped to the United States in 1918, the value of the product almost
equaled that of 1917. This falling off is to be ascribed to the em-
bargoes placed on olives and olive oil by the Government on account
of the domestic scarcity of foodstuffs brought about by the difficulties
of transport.









GREECE-ATHENS. 7

The general shortage of shipping, with high freight rates, reflect-
ing world conditions, accounts for the declines to be remarked in
other lines of merchandise.
Foodstuffs Rationed by Allies.
Following the blockade which ended in June, 1917, the Allied Gov-
ernments were under the necessity of providing for the rationing
of Greece. This was handled in the beginning by an Inter-
allied Commercial Bureau, composed of the representatives of Great
Britain, France, and Italy; later the American consul general at
Athens was made a member, representing the United States. and still
later a Greek delegate was appointed.
The fixing of the food ration was naturally the first care of the
bureau. The wheat supplied was all sent in by the Wheat Executive,
sitting at London, and was bought for account of the Government
by a consortium of banks, which, in turn, delivered it to the Ministry
of Revictualing, the latter distributing the product throughout
Greece. The banks were reimbursed by the Ministry as payments
were received from the various revictualing centers. The wheat
ration established for the 12 months to June 30, 1919, was 144,000
tons, representing the deficit between the estimated domestic crop of
643,000 tons and the total quantity, 787,000 tons, found necessary.
This ration was fixed on the basis of an estimated population of
4,860.000, heavy wheat rations of 564 pounds being allotted to
1,400,000 persons, representing the rura! and producing population,
and a lighter wheat ration of 253.S pounds per ann' u to the remain-
ing estimated population of 3,460,000. The quantity of wheat
allotted for the 10 months to June 30, 1918, had been established at
28,200 tons per month.
The total gross tonnage of imports for the year 191 was as fol-
lows: Tons.
January lo M3Arhe.-------------------------- --------- 165,664
April to June ----------------------------------------------- 155, 015
July to September_ -------- ------------------------ ----94, 184
October to December --------------------------------------- 121,493
Total -------.---- --------------------------- ----_-- 536,356
Of the above total, 354,928 tons represent foodstuffs and pro-
visions in general, exclusive of oleaginous edee. aind vegetable oils,
while 112.340) tons represent coal and coke, including the amount
imported for the Greek Ministry of Marine. To the foregoing fig-
ures, alhout 2,500 tons of general merchandise from the United King-
dom should be included, as well as some 30, 111 packages of parcels
post from France, for which no details are available.
The following figures show the quantity of goods arriving at the
various Greek ports: Tons.
Piraeus ---- -------------_-------------------------------------. 509,990
Saloniki ---- ----------------------------------------_ 21,449
Crete and .-i :ii Isles ----------------------------------------- 2,769
Patras -----__. _--------_ ---__---_---.--------------------------_ 1,528
Corfu ---. --....... .---___ -------.------___ ..--...-...-_ --------- 62_0. .
Tot al ------------------------------ ------------ ---- -.... 536, 356












8 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


Mineral Production.

The following figures show the mineral production of Greece for
1916 and 1917, the. latest periods for which statistics are available:
RAW ORES.

1916. 1917.


Ores.


Bitum en.............
Chrome ore .........
Copper...............
Emery ....... ..
Ferromanganese .....
Iron...............
Iron pyrites..........
Lead ................
Lignite..............
Magnesite...........
Manganese ..........
N ick I..............
Sulphur ore..........
Zinc..............
Total..........


Output.


.lfetric
ton3.
39
9,880
62
19,871
818
84,985
19,S7"
95,418
116,946
199,484
3,600
10,267
21,619
25,553
608,718


Amount
sold.


1At I r ic
tons.
21
10,447
563
19,950
52,755
11,496
2,327
109,225
145,538

13,412
1,820


Value.


$965
172,041
8,725
471,599
10)8,098
47,094
15,572
832,506
1,036,370

104,435
14,924


A average
price
per ton.



545.95
16.46
15.49
23.63
2.04
4.09
6.68
7.62)
7.12
..........
7.72
8.20


Output.


AMtric
tons.
43
6,750

16,440
509
63,364
36,558
157,956
162,938
..........
1,598
9,635
14,290


367,554 12,812,329 .......... ..469,981


Amount
sold.


AMI ric
tons.
37
9,600
17,240
3,050
70,343
10,469
684
157,306
94,934
10,248
.........
1,334
375,245


Valne.


$6,114
283,276
400,508
9,565
169,590
33,425
5,533
1,631,0401)
806,550
--76,223

"22,1 29

3,443,953


Average
price
per ton.



$165.24
29.50


2.41
3.18
8.08
10.36
8.49
..........
7.43
..........
16.58
..........


FURNACE PRODUCTS.

Arsenic acid.......... .......... .......... .......... .......... 436 294 5127,545 1433.00
Lead, pig............ 9,424 10,144 $1,651,606 $162.00 1,422 2,051 348,365 169.00
Magnesitecalcined... 21,326 22,943 701,145 30.00 4,287 6,047 180,249 29.00
Magnesite dead burnt 8,606 7,782 253,113 32.00 9,820 11,062 440,052 39.00
Magnesite bricks..... .......... 102 3,847 37.00 .......... ........ .. ..... ...........
Zinc alcined......... 12,612 14,658 384,508 26.00 7,258 5,075 217,732 42.78
A ll other............. 833 .......... .......... .......... 120 1,313 ....................
Total........... 52,801 55,627 2,994,219 .......... 23,343 25,842 1313,943 ..........


MARBLES AND QUARRY PRODUCTS.

Gypstun............. 356 358 5598 $1.66 44 48 $252 $5.26
Marbles.............. 341 251 13,057 52.01 173 390 22 059 56.53
Millstones (pieces).... .......... 1,321 4,184 3.16 .......... 4,070 2,674 .65
Salt................. 34,522 33,292 713,388 21.42 45,560 39,240 1,378,999 35.14
Santorin earth....... 8,564 8,564 3,377 .39 .......... 5,028 1,941 .38
Total........ ... ....... .......... 734,604 .......... ................... 1,405,925 .........
Grand total.... .......... .......... 6,541,152 .......... ......... ........ .. 6,163,821 ........


The principal marble company of Greece states that it was unable
to ship any marble during the year. owing to freight rates and import
and export restrictions. According to a statement by the company,
"practically the whole stock on hand from previous years was sold
to Greek merchants and contractors in Attica." Total sales amounted
to 1,740 tons in 1918, compared with 1.196 tons sold in 1917. Local
business was fairly good during the year, and there are good reasons
to believe that there will be a large expansion in building operations
as soon as conditions improve and construction materials become
again accessible.

Production of Chrome Ore, Magnesite, and Lignite.

Chrome ore at the present time is produced from three mines in
Thessaly. During 1918 2,640 tons were shipped. of which France








SGREECE-A:THENS. 9

took 1.680 tons,. the remtainder going to Italy. War conditions made
shipments to the United States impossible during 191S.
The year 1918 began well for magnesite producers. All the com-
panies had large stocks, but were compelled to restrain output, partly
because of the ilmpossibility of freely disposing of their product and
partly because of scarcity of labor. Of the two companies actively
exploiting magnesite, one was under control of the British Govern-
ment, while the other was in the hands of the French. No shipments
are recorded from Greece to the United States during 1918. As sui-
cessive classes were called to the colors labor became increasingly
scarce, particularly as the coal miners were all employed in working
the lignite deposits.
Operating costs rose enormously, and owing to contracts which
had been made early in the year, or in some cases in the previous year,
it is thought that profits, where existing at all, are very small.
Selling prices were only slightly higher than in the preceding year.
On the whole, the year was distinctly disappointing for the Greek
magnesite industry.
A natural corollary of the coal shortage of the past few years was
the exploitation of the lignite mines of the country. So long as coal
prices remain at their present level this development may be expected
to continue. [See COM.MERCE REPORT for Aug. 19, 1918.]
Emery Ontput Controlled by Interallied Commission.
Emery is a monopoly of the State under control of the Interna-
tional Financial Commission. During the last few years the entire,
output of emery from the mines of Naxos, the only quarries under
exploitation, has been t:iken by the French Government for the
account of the Allies, distribution being made from the assembling
center at Marseille. The movement of emery during 1918 from thl
central warehouse at, Syra, from which point all shipments have
been made, was as follows: Balance on hand January 1, 1918, 1, .8'2
tons; shipped from Naxos during year, 14,23-.1 tons: total, 16,126k
tons; shipped from Syra, 1918, 12.160 tons; on hand December 31,
1918. 3,966O tons.
The \alue of emery mined since 1913 has been as follows:
1918------------------------------------------------- $314,7M3
1917-------------------------------- ---------------------_ 491,600
1916------------------------------------------ ------ 320,568
1915------------------------------------_ 368, 028
1914--- -------------- ________---------------_____ 160,034
1913 ------------------------------------------ 38, 490
The lessened yield in 1918 took place in spite of many measures
which were taken with the hope of increasing the production of
emery and of ameliorating the living conditions of the miners. The
measures looking toward the more efficient working of the mines
consisted in the mobilization of the miners and forcing them to work
under military law. This system, however, was not adopted until
about September, 1918, at practically the end of the working year:
hence the results can not as yet be intelligently judged. Wages of
miners have been increased by both Greek and French Government.L..
and the sending of grain to Naxos, as well as the use nt better mining
tools, has had a good effect, which will probably be visible in the.
production of the current year.
145985"-19--7a--2








SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


Cotton Manufacturing.
The manufacture of cotton in Greece in recent years has shown a
steady development, although comparative figures are not now ob-
tainable. However, the following statistics, prepared from official
data, show the present stage of this industry.
The consumption of cotton per year at the mills at Piraeus is
8,000,000 pounds: at the mills in Macedonia, 6,000,000 pounds; at the
mills in islands (Syra, etc., and Volo), 4,000,000 pounds; total con-
sumption, 18,000,000 pounds.
On December 31, 1918, there were estimated to be on hand in
Piraeus and in the provinces 4.840,000 pounds of cotton distributed
according to origin as follows: Levadia, 2.240.000 pounds; Laconia,
500,000 pounds; Piraeus and Egypt, 2,100,000 pounds. The cotton
in Egypt refers to cotton already bought, by the Royal Hel-
lenic Government and not yet transported to Piraeus. It was esti-
mated that these stocks would suffice for running of the mills at full
capacity for about four months from the beginning of the year.
Since the normal requirement's of Greece are from 18,000,000 to .20,-
000,000 pounds per annum and the production of the country
amounts to 8.008,000 pounds, it will be seen that there must be im-
ported 12,000,000 pounds to make up the difference, and this quantity
generally comes from Egypt.
In the cotton mills of Greece there are 128,255 spindles and 16,965
looms. The production of cloth per day of 10 hours amounts to
52,600 yards. The employees in the various mills total 4,830 men
and 900 women.
A royal decree has been recently published forbidding the impor-
tation of cotton and cotton goods, save under special permits from
the Government, for an indefinite period. It is understood, however,
that the amount of raw cotton on hand is barely sufficient for a three
months' supply for the mills, so that a repeal of this legislation is
anticipated during 1919.
Live-Stock Supply Affected by War Demands.
The live stock in Greece was estimated at the end of 1918 as fol-
lows: 212.148-horses, 123,285 mules, 298,640 asses, 441,865 cattle,
4,705,597 sheep, and 30.241 swine.
There was no importation of live stock during the year, save a
limited quantity for food consumption from Abyssinia. The cessa-
tion of hostilities, followed by the demobilization of the Greek army
and the gradual withdrawal of Allied troops from Greece, probably
saved the country from a live-stock crisis, since the excessive demand
for sheep and goats was threatening to wipe out the herds entirely.
Animals drafted by the Greek Government at the beginning of the
war, as well as large numbers of valuable animals belonging to the
Allied armies at Saloniki, are being sold to peasants, farmers, and
others. Projects for the introduction of brood mares and stallions
are said to be under discussion as part of the Government's after-
war program for internal development, but no steps have been taken
as yet.
Cost of Living-Increase in Wages.
Although only a small portion of Grecian territory was occupied
by the enemy during the war, yet for nearly seven months Greece










GREECFr-ATH'ENS.


endured a rigid blockade. Furthermore owing to other war condi-
tions the revictualing of the country grew increasingly difficult, anl
made enormous inroads on the resources of the country. At no tiime
has Greece been self-sustaining in the matter of foods, and the lack
is especially noticeable in bread-making cereals. As a result, the
increase in cost of living has been enormous. During 191S deaths
from starvation were reported from various sections of the country,
while deaths following long periods of inanition were frequent.
From official figures prepared by the Ministry of National Econ-
omy, representing the comparative prices in 101 cities and towns of
the Kingdom for articles of standard consumption as food, the ad-
vances were from 100 to 500 per cent between 1914 and 1918. Taking
100 as representing the cost in 1914, and comparing this with price--
prevailing at the beginning of 1918, we have the following costs; for
certain articles of prime necessity in 1918:


Oats----- --------------
Flour -------------
Bread, best .---------------
Bread, medium------------
Bread, poor.--------------
Beans -- ---------
Butter heans ------------
Chick-peas ------------
Potatoes -----------------
Tomatoes --------_-___
Onions -------------------
Beef -------------
Veal ------------------
Mutton_
Lamnib ---_--------- _---_-__
Pork ---------------_
Goat's flesh__------_--
Chicken. --------------
Duck ----------__


466
399
298
200
275
4J93
349
390
417
195
356
255
242
238
241
302
244
338
3061


GoPese_-------- -----_ ----
Turkeys--------- ---
Fish_---------------
Codfish (salt) ---
Butter (eow's) ---------
Butter (sheep's)----
Oil (olive)_----------
Egls-----------------
Milk___ -------
Chese (white), salt- ..__
Cheese (swiss style)- ____
Cheese headl or macaroni).____
Olives (table)----------
Coffee ---------------__
Sugar -----------------------
Rice -------- -------.
Chnrcoal-------------- __
WVood (fuel) -----------_
Hay----------------- .__


Tlih following figure-, illustrate the advance in wages since 1914 in
many of the leading industries of the country:


Iju1lil-I! .:-


Wages per diim.

1914 191I


Heavy manual liborirrs ............................................... S. 79-. 9q
Farm wor-kers.................. ......................... ...............1. 1.34
Dock wor! ers ........................ ............................. 1.
Depart ment-store lcrks .............................................. .77- 1.54
Street borers ............................................................ 5- .77
Tramway conductors............................................... .S- .77
M otorm e'n............................... ..... ........................ 77- 9.5
Carpenters................................. ............. .......... .i- 1. I'V
M aehinists.............................................................. .77- 1. 16
Bank clerks...................... ....................... ... ............ .. ....... ..


$1.9.3- $2.38
2. .0
1. 1- 2.:2
L. IC-- 1.54
1.74
1. 3
2.32 2. ,!)
1.54- 2. 7o
a 31. 77-154. 411


a Per mjntli.
Rail and Water Transportation.
Throughout the year 1918 steamships assigned to the Government
for its use were under the control of the High Transport Direction.
[See COMrMERCE Reports for Jan. 16, 1918.] Furthermore, during
July the management of the Piraeus-Athens-Peloponessus Railway
was assumed by the Government, thus bringing under State control
all rail and water transport, save the smallest coastwise steamers


221

2:t1
23 i
197


21 s
21.
197
2001
197
102
304
249
187
229
25t6








SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


and sailing craft of insignificant tonnage. The railway from Piraeus
to Saloniki, with branches. was acquired from its owners in 1917 by
the Hellenic Government; this is by far the most important artery
of trade in the country. It is rumored that steps will soon be taken
for the purchase by the Srce te tate of the Peloponessus line, referred to
above, thus bringing under Government ownership and operation
all railway lines. It is anticipated, however, that all steamship lines
will be returned shortly to their owners.
Sharp increases in railway rates were authorized at the beginning
of 1918. The gross and net earnings of the Chemin de Fer Hel-
l6nique (the Larissa Railway) were as follows for 1917 and the first
eight months of 191S: 1917, gross receipts, $1,288,402; gross receipts
less taxes, $1,218,849; 1918, gross receipts. $1,832,479; gross receipts
less taxes, $1,791,515. During 1917 the same line sold 462,584 ordi-
nary tickets and 192.501 military tickets; in the first nine months
of 1918 the ordinary tickets sold amounted to 333.215, while military
tickets amounted to 287,723. The differences noted are to be ascribed
to the mobilization and to the active movement of troops, with a
corresponding diminution in the civilian movement.
The completion of the so-called junction line from Papapouli,
on the Government-owned Larissa line, to a point on the Belgrade-
Saloniki-Constantinople Railway marks an important event in the
economic history of the country. The ready means of communication
with the rest of Europe will have far-reaching effects on the plans
for the exploitation of the natural resources of the country and for
the development of its ports for trade with the East. and the Indies.
Freight Rates-Shipping Movement.
During the year freight rates between Greece and the United:
States reached fantastic figures. This was especially true of ship-
ments of tobacco and other light articles, for which shippers paid
as high as $400 per ton. Since the end of the war, however, rates
have declined rapidly.
During the last year 310 sailing vessels entered Greek ports with
a total tonnage of 27,921, while 266 steamers arrived, having a total
register of 389,127 tons. This shows an increase of 15.650 tons in
sail and 123,771 tons in steam over the figures of the preceding year.
In 1917, 137 sailing vessels left. Greek ports with a total tonnage
of 7,309 tons: 185 steamships cleared from Hellenic ports, registering
252.957 tons. In 1918 there were 157 sailing vessels with 12.575 tons,
and 230 steamers amounting to 343,583 tons. The next table gives
the nationality, number, and tonnage of vessels entering and clearing
Greek ports during the years under consideration:
1917 1913

Nationality. Sailing vessels. Steamships. Sailing re
Number. Tonnage. Number. Tonnage. Number. Tonnage. Number. Tonnage.

ENTERING.
American ........... .......... .......... 1 2,806 .................... 4 6,428
Greek ........ ..... 64 6,671 106 133,951 87 12,905 93 99,850
English.............. 8 1,954 16 33,471 9 1,444 67 170,618
Egyptian............ 5 261 .................... 9 809 ...................
















Nationality.


ENTERING-COUtd.
French...............
Danish...............
Japanese.............
Spanish............
Italian ...............
All others............
Total...........
CLEAnrIXG.
American ...........
Greek................
Endlid ..............
Egyptian............
Frenrh...............
Dani -h..............
Japa nee.............
Italian..............
Spanish..............
Dulcb...............
Total..........


GREECE-ATHENS.


1917


Sailing vesels. I Steamships.

SN o
Number. Tonnage. Number. Tonnoge.
________I__ i__ ___


10
I

13.3

223



6o
3
*1
I61
" 61"


638 7 11,716 20
86 .......... .... .... ........
.......... 1 2, 157 ..........
.......... 3 1,596 ..........
2,661 67 79,659 I13

12,271 201 2 5,.336 310
Ii


I I
113
215
sr
.....i,...
1.0


137 7,309


.......... ...........
32 G05, 401
. ....... .. ........i..
15 28,021

2 2,414
50 57,474

....... ... ..........
1_M 252,957


110
I



1


Sailing vessels.


Steamnihip-


Number. I Tonnage I Number. T ii'u:nag


635
..........
..........
12, 128

27.921


37

4S
267

5,711
511


157 12,575


11 29, 79S
.......... ..........
37 2i, 7"J
52 53,304
2 2,317
|[ .5.9. 127


3 t., t".2
72 ji,77
59 I 1.7,.72
13 21,
.......... .......
5s iii, t.35
2.1 16,.475
2 2,147
230 313. j,"


Suggestions to American Exporters.

The outlook for American trade to-day ini Greece is exceedingly
bright. Within the last few years, Greek merchants have turned to the
United States as a source of supply for many articles, and these goods
have produced an excellent effect wherever they were sold. Further-
more the presence in Greece of large numbers of Greeks who have
been in the United States and who prefer American products and
methods has further helped to popularize American goods. But this
favorable position will not be retained unless American exporters
take advantage of the situation, in view of the keen competition of
foreign trade rivals. Already Greek trade commissioners have vis-
ited England and France and have been taken on tours throughout;
the country to the principal trade and industrial centers, aecom-
panied by a staff of experts. Other foreign trade experts have
visited Greece to bring before the Greek merchants the advantaies
of commerce with these various countries. Arrangements have
been completed for a large trade exposition of British manufactured
goods and it is planned to make this exposition permanent.
The Greek market offers potentialities that would justify, if not
one, at least a group of merchants in noncompetitive lines sending
out a representative to study the field. Competent translators can
be found on the ground and the presence of an American representa-
tive in the country would do much to facilitate trade relations. The
gain to both the Greek merchant and the American exporter by an
interchange of views can not be overestimated.
Credit-Terms of Sale-Packing.
The question of credits offers difficulties more apparent than real.
Reliable houses are to be found who warrant the same credit terms
as those extended to domestic houses. Furthermore Greek banks
will probably be prepared to carry out arrangements for the out-


_L~_








14 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

right purchase of drafts made against sales in Greece. [See COM-
MERCE REPORTS for Apr. 16, 1919.]
Shipping conditions are improving daily and it. is thought that
1919 will see adequate tonnage for carrying American goods at
greatly reduced rates.
The need for a discount bank which would handle American paper
is very great. Piraeus is destined to become increasingly important
as a warehouse and transit and banking center for a large section of
the Levant. In the past, large transit shipments intended for this
portion of the Balkan Peninsula have been handled through Mar-
seille. Naples, Genoa, and Trieste. In the case of Trieste, the changed
political lines will have a far-reaching effect.; furthermore, the com-
pletion of the railway line from Piracus to its junction with the great
uropean trunk lines offers great trade possibilities. These three
problems, adequate credits, adequate shipping, and banking facilities,
all intimately interwoven, must be studied if the United States is to
take its place in this field.
Prices should be quoted c. i. f. Piraeus, or some other Greek port.
Whenever possible. dimensions should be given in the metric system.
The oke of 400 draiims (2.82 pounds) and the pike (27.9 inches) a-re
in common use not only in Greece, but in Turkey.
Printed matter should be in modern Greek. or French if the
former is impossible. Printed matter in English is"'practically
valueless. Advertising matter should be illustrated as copiously as
possible, in bright colors and a graphic style. This is especially true
of goods intended for the rural districts.
Packing'should be of unusual strength, for merchandise of all
kinds is subjected to rough handling. Furthermore, at many ports
congestion is the rule, and goods are often left exposed during long
periods. Boxes for packing, if so constructed that they could be
used as containers, would constitute a permanent advertisement.
Greece must imnport most of its timber, and an automobile crate, for
example, sells for about $80 .

KALAMATA.
By Consular Agent Sotiris Cnrapaleas.
The year 1918 was not a busy one for the district, of Messenia, the
imports and export-, having amounted to about. $221.100 and $1,-
970,800, respectively. About 80 per cent of the total exports of 1918
were shipped after the signing of the armistice. The value of the im-
ports given is much less than the real one, for it does not include the
value of wheat, flour, sugar, coffee, and several other foodstuffs
which were shipped from Piraeus by the Department. of Supplies at
Athens, and also the value of several other commodities which were
cleared at the Piraeus customhouse. In the preceding year. 1917, im-
ports mounted to $208.160 and exports to $240,740.
During the war the general belief of merchants was that im-
porters would hasten to supply their need of various commodities as
soon as the war came to an end. The successive falling of prices,
however, which followed the end of the war, created a panic among
importers, who finally decided to import nothing from foreign mar-
kets until the freight rates and initial prices of goods were stable, or
nearly so. Importers are still hesitating to place orders with foreign








GREECE--KALAMATA. 15.

firms; they prefer to partially fill their current wants fr'ol other
Greek markets, chiefly from Pirneus, where a con.s-iderablh sock (of
various commodities, mostly of Spanish origin, was a:'cunmul;ite1 at
the end of the war.
During 1918, one American steamer, 2 Spanish, 3 French, and 24
Greek, of a total registered tonnage of 10,163 tons, and also 1 French
sailing vessel, 5 Italian, and 469 Greek, of a total tonnage of 18.ri;:
tons cleared from the port of Kalamata.
Currant Production and Exports.
The currant crop for 1918 amounted to about 40.215,000 pjundt4.
against 40,000,000 pounds for 1917. These figures indicate the currant
crop of only two counties, Kalamata and of Messene (NoNion). The
total crop of the five counties of this Province for 1918 wa, a.j follow- :
I'tl lld,.
SKanalmain ------------------------------ ------------ 10, S15. t it,
M'lssene (Nesion) --------_ ----------------------- 29. 4u.0. (to.
Pylia--------------------------- 27. 300, (N. I
Triphylia _-------------- --- ---21. (030. 1101
Olympia -------------------------------- -------- 13,750, 0UL
Total -----------------------------__ 104,895, 104(
The quality was somewhat inferior to that of the previous year,
because of lack of sulphur, which is used as an insecticide, and al-,o
because of the rain which occurred at the time the fruit was dried.
The average market price of currants was about 4.5 cents per pound.
and the f. o. b. steamer price was about 7.2 cents.
The total quantity of currants exported from Kalalnata to foreign
markets during 1918 amounted to 4,712,150 pounds, 12,150 pounds
of which were exported to Tunis, and 4,700,000 to Marseille. The
exports of currants in 1915, 1916, and 1917 amounted to 21.507.1s5.
9,607,130, and 94,440 pounds, respectively.
Manufacture and Export of Currant Products.
The manufacture of currant products in this district for 1918, as
compared with that of 1917, and the average market prices for 191S
are shown in the following table:

Products 1917 1918 Pri'c Ier.

Alcohol, pur .................................. ........... allous.. 135.130 282,n 00 :. 3. 3
Alcohol, deuaturted .................... .................... do.... 2. n69 92,710 I.30
W ines, dr ........................ ......................... do.... 1,911.200 F3, 101) .352
W ines, sweet .................................................... do ....0 .............. ......
Jell ..................................................... pounds.. 55.071 25..fK WI .20
Staphidine ................................................. do.... 2,384,470 583,700 .15
Fusel oil........................... ................... allons.. 300 ....... .... .......
Must, contlened.................... ................ Metric tons.. ............ 2,452 313. 0(
Must, sulphurated ......... ............ .............. ... ............ ........ 5. 0
Calcium tanrate ..........................................pounds..................... 6. 100 .11
Crude crpam of tartar, argol.............. .................... do .... 15,640 190,100 .05

The following figures show the exports of currant products from
Kalamata in 1918, all of which were consigned to France: Wines,
dry, 1,068,800 gallons: must, condensed, 1,065.1 metric tons; alcohol,
pure, 51,700 gallons.
Small Fig Crop-Increase in Production of Olives and Olive Oil.
The fig crop for 1918 amounted to 28,200,000 pounds, as compared
with :39.500.000 pounds for 1917, a decrease of 28 per cent. The








16 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

quality was inferior to that of the crop of previous year because of
unfavorable weather conditions. The average market price of figs
was about 5.5 cents per pound, and the f. o. b. steamer price was
about 6.7 cents.
Exports of fig, from Kalamata in 1918 amounted to 3,674,200
pounds and were consigned to Marseille. The exports of figs in
1915, 1916, and 1917 amounted to 27,710,000, 2,090,500, and 3,610
pounds, rc-,pectively. [See COMMERCE REPORTS for June 20, 1919.]
The olive crop for 1918 amounted to about 60,098,000 pounds of
green olives, and to about 705,000 pounds of black Kalaniata"
olives, as compared with 12,000,000 pounds of green and 150,000
pounds of black olives for 1917. The average market price of olives
for 1918 was about 3.5 cents per pound for the green and about 7
cents for the black.
Olive oil produced from green olives amounted to about 1,325,000
gallons, against 317,200 gallons for 1917. The average market price
of olive oil was $2.32 per gallon for the first. quality (filtered), and
$2.06 per gallon for the second quality (unfiltered).
There were no exports of olives and olive oil from Kalamata to
foreign markets in 1918, because of export restrictions and prevailing
high prices.
Foreign Trade with United States Greatly Reduced-Labor Problems Unsettled.
The value of goods imported from the United States into Kalamata
during 1918 amounted to about $85,100. or 38.4 per cent of the total
value of the imports. During the same period there were no exports
from this district to the United States, Hawaii, Porto Rico, or the
Philippine Islands.
The labor question remains unsettled because of the increasing
demands of laborers for shorter hours and higher wages. It is said
that unlesi a definite agreement can be effected soon, most of the in-
dustries will lie closed down. The present average rate of wages
of a common laborer (about $2.40 per 10-hour day) is about four
times greater than his pre-war wages. But in most cases the better
living of the laborer has not resulted in any solution of the problem
and production has even decreased.

PATRAS.
By Consul A. B. Cooke.
Complete statistics showing the foreign trade of the Patras con-
sular district for 1918 are not available. The following table, com-
piled from official statistics, shows the movement of import and
export trade through the port of Patras, the most important port of
this district. The table can hardly be taken, however, as a fair index
of the actual foreign trade of the various nations with this district
during 1918. For whereas perhaps the bulk of trade with countries
of the western Mediterranean was handled directly through the port
of Patras, by far the greater part of the trade with other countries,
except certain import cargoes of foodstuffs, was handled through the
port of Piraeus and so does not appear in the statistics given. It may
be stated that the bulk of the district's imports (except cereals) came










GREECE--PATRAS. 17

from Italy, with imports from Spain following; and that the b111k
of the exports went to England:

Articles. America. England. France. Italy. Spain All others..l

IMPORTS.
Pounds. Pou ndq. Pounds. Puniiri. Pun1mil. FPoundit.
i i ii : ... .. .. .
Bags .. ....................... .. ........ ... ..... .......... .. ..
Barre hoops ................... ...... ............ ... ...... 147, .......
Beeswax...... .................. ............. .. ...... 12 47 l. ,27 13,234
Brushes........................... ............ .321 .......... ,7., .. ....... .. ............
B uttons....................... ... 1,5 6 .......... 116 ............ ............
Caustic soda.. ...................... ... ....... ... 30.750 5.44 ............ ............
Cereals ............................ 40,5 ............ .................... 17,197,620
Chem isr s' supplies ................ ............ .. .......... 39 2,972 ............ .... .......
Coffee......................... ............ ............ ........ 512 60,361
Cotton and wool issues and yarns. ............ 24,382 23,966 408,425 12', 520 ............
Fish, cured............................... .. 291, 9 ....... 4,262 2 14,577
Flour............................. 2, 91, 258. ........... ......... .....
Fruit, dried....................... ............ ............ ......... 4 : 31 ......... 74,710
Glass and porcelain....................... ......... .5...... 3 42,51)
Hardware........ ....... ....... ...... ........... 5 9,54 ...........
Hats b ...................................... ............ .......... 10,544 ...... .. ...........
H ides ........................... ............ ............ .......... 4 4, 632 5,771
Leather ..................... ......... .... ............ ........... ............
Lum ber and staves .............. 123,583 ............ .......... 9 15 ........................
Nuts ........ ............... ................ ............ .. ........ 20,59 ........................
Paints and oils.................... ............ 651 1,905 12,6S0 ....................
Paper............................ ............ ............ 113,297 234.949 64,27X 36,407
Perfumery ............. ................... ............ 44-16 .......... 119 ...........
Pulse.............................. .... ............................ ... 737, 57 ...........
Rice .................................. ..... ..... ....... .. IS, 086 ............ 84,636
Rope and twine.................... ........... ....... ... ... 36,302 ........ ............
Silks and z6 t ins ............................. 10,219 20,165 25,22d ........... ............
Soaps ............................. ............ ............ .......... 925 1, ..........
Spices............................. ........ .......................... ,602 ....................
Sponges.............................. .............. ..........2 .. ...........
Sugar...................... ... ......... ....... ...... ..... ..... 2,629 ........
Tobacco ................ ............ 119,290 ..................... ......... .......... 4,360
T oys ............................ ...................... 8, ..... .. .. .. ........
Vegetables, dried.......... ......................... .. ... .. ..... .................. .1.5S,27 ............
Wines and liquors................. ..... ....... ......... ........ 1,432, 12 ................
EXPORTS.
Currants.......................... .. ....... 535,679,937 ....... ..... ........... ........
Figs.......... ..... .... .................. 266,552 .............................
Licorice root ...................... 1,842,500 ............ 11,175........ 101,5 .............
Rags............... .......... ....... .. .............. .......... 0,900 ............. ........
Skins b ............................ S)0 ............ 69,20') 107,200 ........... .........
Tobacco .......................... ,5 79 ............ 3 ,932 12, f'79 ..2 ......... 4,570
Valonia... ................ .......... ..... 76,216,765 .......... 2 000 ........... ... .......

a Chiefly India and Argentina. b Number or pieces.
Currant Crop Fair-Market Conditions Variable.
The Greek currant. crop for 1918 was estimated at about 125,000
long tons, as compared with an average of 138,000 tons for the five-
year period 1913-1917. The quality was medium. The stock carried
over from 1917 was about 25,000 tons, making a total of fruit in sight
at the opening of the 1918 currant season (August 23) of 150,000
tons.
During the calendar year 191S exports of fruit, according to sta-
tistics of the Privileged Company, amounted to 76,511,75'2 Venetian
pounds, as compared with 19,181,616 pounds in 1917 and 150,434,356
pounds in 1916 (1 Venetian pound=1.05 pounds avoirdupois). Ex-
ports for the period August 23 to December 31, 1918, were, according
to the same authority, 33,189,296 pounds, as compared with 8,644,720
pounds and 97,022,732 pounds for same periods in 1917 and 1916,
respectively. In both 1917 and 1918 the Privileged Company, by
special action, fixed the retention tax on exports of currants at 10
per cent in kind and 25 per cent in cash, instead of the regular 35








SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


per cent in kind which is provided for in its charter. This action
left a larger amount of fruit free for trade.
The local market, which had been inactive during the summer.
months, became increasingly active and firm toward the end of the
year, being influenced by the prospects of peace and the opening of
foreign markets. In December seven steamers arrived at ports of
this district for cargoes, in whole or in part, of currants. One of
these was-ldestined for the United States, one for France, and five for
England.
Prices-Heavy Home Consumption-Exports to United States.
Prices quoted on the local markets for spot currants at the end of
December were: Good Provincials, 360 drachmas ($69.48) per mille
(1,050 pounds) ; Amalias, 380 drachmas ($73.34) ; Patras, 390 drach-
nmas ($75.27); and Gulf or Vostizza, 400 drachmas ($77.20) per mille.
The domestic consumption of currants, which in former years was.
negligible, was heavy during 1918, especially in the lowest grades for
the manufacture of wine and alcohol. It is estimated that the takings
for these purposes amounted to some 30,000 tons of fruit. At the
end of the year distillers were paying 330 drachmas ($63.69) per
mille for this fruit. There was also a slight consumption for food.
There were exported to the United States in 1918, according to in-
voices certified at this consulate, 2,845,108 pounds of currants with
a declared value of $367,825, as compared with 3,537,800 pounds
valued at $546,795 in 1917, and 29,141.830 pounds at $1,293,191 in
1914.
Tobacco Crop and Market-Exports to United States.
The chief tobacco-growing region of this consular district, so far
at least as concerns the American market, is around the town of
Agrinion, covering an area of roughly 6 by 20 miles. Three kinds of
tobacco are grown here, known locally as Tsembelia, Mirodata, and
Basma. The first is a heavy and cheap tobacco, with leaf 6 to 12
inches long. The cther two are light in color and weight, with leaf
2 to 7 inches long and highly aromatic.
The following table, based upon estimates of tobacco merchants,
shows the crop of this region for 1917 and for 1918, with average
prices paid for the crop of 1917. Prices are not yet fixed for crop
of 1918, which is not yet cured:

Crop of 1917. Cropof 1918.

Kind. In hands
Produced of local Prices per Produc-
and sold. dealers. 100 pounds. tion.
Feb., 1919.

Pounds. Pounds. Pounds.
Tsembelia.............................................. 4,125,000 1,37,003 3000, 000
Mirodala... ........................................... 4,125,000 ,00 9.76 6,500,000
Bama............................................... 1, 10, 00) 275,00') 102.00 1,500,000
Total........................................... 9,350,000 2,37,00 ............ 11,000,00

In addition to the above, there was a small crop of about 700,000
pounds grown in Arcadia in 1917 and also in 1918, witli prices about
$61.56 per 100 pounds. The tobacco region of Corinth-Argos. which








GREECE-PATRAS.


lies partly in this consular district, produces an average crop of some
8,000,000 pounds. The average price for the 1917 crop of this section
was $37 per 100 pounds. The Argos tobacco is large of leaf, heavy,
and of low grade. American buyers had not formerly been interested
in this tobacco, but in the summer of 1918 they bought somewhat
heavily.
Tobacco in leaf invoiced through this consulate for the United
States during 1918 amounted to 663,110 pounds, with a declared
value of $564,198, as compared with 549,038 pounds, with a declared
value of $990,682 in 1917.
Production of Foodstuffs-Cheese. Butter, Meat, and Fish Were Scarce.
Official estimates at the close of the calendar year placed the
cereal crops of thi.; consular district, for 1918 at approximately the
following figures: Wheat, 3,275,000 bushels; corn, 2,000,000 bushels;
barley, 2.500.000 bushels; and oats, 4,550,000 bushels (bushels all
standard weights). Imports into the district during the year prob-
ably amounted to 1,000,000 bushels of cereals and flour.
,The olive crop of this district suffered severely from ravages of
the olive fly, and the output of olive oil was, as a consequence, nearly
cut in half. Official estimates place the oil outturn for 1918 at
59,000,000 pounds, compared with 100,000,000 pounds in 1917. The
production of cheese, one of the chief articles of food, was wholly
insufficient to meet domestic needs. Its exportation was prohibited
by the Greek Government, and it almost disappeared from local
markets. Butter also practically disappeared from the market, a
small amount being imported from Argentina and retailed at $1.64
per pound.
Fresh meats such as beef, pork, mutton, and goat meat became
scarcer as the year progressed, and butchers were prohibited, under
penalty, from selling except on two specified days each week. How-
ever, meats were not sold by ticket. The shortage of fresh meats was
the more acutely felt, as there. were no importations of cured fish
(codfish, herring, salmon, sardines), of which large quantities are
normally consumed in this district. Supplies of fresh fish were very
difficult to get, even at the exaggerated price of 55 cents per pound.
Banks and Banking-Money Plentiful.
Banker-' estimates of the bank deposits of the district for 1918 put
ures were recorded, which was. perhaps, due in part to the mora-
torium, which continued in force through the year. Money was
plentiful. The National Bank loxvered its loan rate from 6 to 5
per cent. Local banks reported difficulty in placing their surplus
funds, even at favorable intere-t rates, owing to the fact that there
were few new business undertakings during the year, and that
regular business enterprises had funds to cover obligations.
Bankers' estimates of the bank deposits of the district for 1918 put
them at not less than 30 per cent above those of 1917, which was a
very prosperous year for the banks. Deposits held in all the banks
of Greece at the end of 191S (including Greek bank deposits, appar-
ently not large, with the National Bank) were 1,132,506,668 drach-
mas ($218,573,786), as compared with 498,946,906 drnchinan ($96,-
296,752) at the end of 1914. The deposits of this district would
doubtless show a similar increase for that period.








SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


Bank deposits can not in this case, however, be taken as an alto-
gether true index of economic conditions. Although there was more
money in the district than ever before and it was distributed among
practically all classes, there was less volume of business than in
many years. Domestic production was below normal, few new
undertakings of consequence were recorded, and foreign trade was
at a low ebb. Among the things which contributed to the increase
in the circulation in the district of money coming from outside
sources were: (1) Shipping, which, though for the most part under
allied control, nevertheless brought revenue to owners here; (2)
Inrge buying here of wines, fresh meats, and other supplies by
allied authorities; and (3) sales of tobacco, chiefly to American
buyer-.
Inflated Prices Increase Bank Figures-Gold Premium.
All source-, of revenue taken into account do not suffice, however,
to expllain the big figures. These figures apparently reflect, in no
small measure. inflation of values rather than increase of business.
Other facts tend to bear out this view. For instance, the average
cost of 45 leading commodities on the markets of Patras at the end
of 1918 showed an increase of 242 per cent over the cost in 1914.
It. is instructive to note, too, in this connection, that the amount of
currency in circulation in the entire Kingdom was in September,
1918, 1.187,485,015 drachmas, ($229,184.608), as compared with
562,951,915 drachinas ($108,649,710) at the end of 1916. As there
were no new coin issues during that period, the figures evidently
mean that between the first day of 1917 and the last day of Sep-
tember, 1918. there was issued paper money (against London or
Paris credits to the amount of 624,533,100 drachmas or ($120,534,889)
The premium on gold. as against Greek paper money rose in the
Kingdom during 19.18 to as high as 40 per cent. By a decree of the
Government. issued in 1917, transactions in gold and even quotations
on gold were forbidden under penalty. The selling of drafts on
foreign markets by Greek banks was limited to 1.000 drachmas
($193) per month to any one person, except by special permit of the
Government.
Labor and Wages-General Advance in Compensation-Cost of Living.
Labor was sca-ce during 1918 in this district owing to mobilization
and to the recruiting of labor here in connection with Allied military
operations. It is reported that owing to shortage of labor in the
harvest seasons a considerable part of the wheat, corn, barley, and
olive crops was not harvested.
Wages were high, with an upward tendency. Field labor, which
in 1914 cost 5 drachmas ($0.96) for men and 2.50 drachmas ($0.48)
for women, cost. in 1918 as high as 10 and 6 drachmas ($1.93 and
$1.16), respectively. Labor in currant-packing houses cost, in 1914,
5 drachmas ($0.96) for men and 3 drachmas ($0.58) for women; and
in 1918, 16 and S drachmas ($3.09 and $1.54). respectively. Long-
shoremen, who in 1914 were getting 7 drachmas ($1.35) got 20
drachmas ($3.86) at the end of 1918. Professional classes and em-
ployees of industrial systems did not fare so well. Public-school
teachers, whose salaries averaged 250 drachmas ($48.25), 300
dracihmas ($57.90), and 350 drachmas ($67.55) per month, accord-









GREECE-SALONIKI. 21

ing to rank, received an advance of only 30 per cent during the war
period. Of the railroad employees, train conductors employed at 400
drachmas ($77.20) per month, locomotive engineers at the "aiile, fire-
men at 3.25) drachmas ($62.72), and trackmen at 275 drachnlas
($53.08) received an advance of 30 per cent, effective from the latter
part of 1918.
The cost of living, which already at the beginning of 1918 had
reached an advance of 205 per cent over the pre-war cost, advanced
during the year another 18 per cent over the cost of 1917, the ad-
vaice applying to nearly all articles of prime necessity. For in-
stance, brown bread advanced 374 per cent; fresh meats 24 per cent,
selling in December, 1918, as high as 75 cents a pound; olive oil 22
per cent, selling at. 33 cents a pound in 1918; fresh fish 34 per cent,
selling in 1918 as high as 55 cents a pound. Clothing and shoes, hav-
ing reached high-water mark in 1917, advanced only slightly in
1918. Firewood advanced 33 per cent in 1918, selling at $71.80 per
cord. No coal or coke was available. Charcoal sold at $99.50 per ton.
Declared Exports to the United States.
,The.t.otal value of merchandise invoiced for the United States
through the consulate at Patras during the years 1917 and 1918 is
shown ij.the following table:

1917 191'
Articles.
Quantities. Value. Quantities. ialue.

Fruits:
Citrons ................................. pounds.. 365, 125 $15,866 .............. ....
Currants.................................... do.... 3,537,800 546,795 2,843, 10. $167,825
Licorice root......... ....................do............. .............. 3,71, 396 259, 3.4
Skins:
Fox ........................................ pieces.. ............. ............ 1,594 3,34-
Badger ................. .................. do.... ........................ 271 241
Jackal ......................................do ..... .......... ........... 117 90
M arten.....................................do.... ........... ............ 289 9W
W ild cat.................................. do.... ........................ 72 65
Tobacco................. .................. pounds.. 549,038 990,682 663,110 r)6-, 193
All other articles ....................................... ............ ...... ............ 200
Total............................. .. ............ 1,553,3 1 ............ 1,19ti,30

,There were no exports to Porto Rico, Hawaii, or the Philippines,
and no returned American goods.

SALONIKI.
By Consul General George Horton.
The commercial history of the consular district of Saloniki for
1918 is practically the same, except for the last month, as that of
1917. The influx of refugees from the devastated regions of eastern
Greek Macedonia, since the (late of the Bulgarian armistice, has more
than counterbalanced the withdrawal of the military forces of the
Allies, so that the normal population of Saloniki (about 175,000)
has been increased to fully 500,000. Most of the new arrivals are
Greeks, which gives that element predominance in this region, while
the Jews are second in importance. A mixture of elements, repre-
senting all the Balkan races and most of those in the Levant in gen-
eral, makes tip the remainder of the population.








SUPPLEMENT TO 'COMMERCE REPORTS.


Port Facilities and Tra,;sportation.
Saloniki has been the principal port in this district and the only
open one of any importance until the evacuation of Cavalla by the
Bulgars early in October, 1918, threw open that city to commerce.
The principal articles exported from Saloniki were tobacco, opium,
and hides and skins. No goods were shipped from Cavalla during
the year. Normally that. port ships the bulk of Macedonian tobacco,
the geographical position of the city making it a most convenient out-
let for the rich tobacco-producing regions of Serres, Drama, and
Xanthi. Its importance in this respect will be greatly increased if
the French project of a railway connecting Cavalla and Drama is
realized. There is really no harbor at all at Cavalla, merely an open
roadstead in which steamers must anchor from three-quarters of a
mile to a mile offshore, thus necessitating the use of lighters in load-
ing and discharging cargo. At present there is a total lack of
lighters and a great scarcity of labor, which makes shipping of
cargoes practically impossible.
The attention of American harbor-dredging companies is called
to the situation at Cavalla. for projects for the improvement of its
port facilities would probably be indorsed by both the Greek Govern-
ment and the tobacco co lmpanies.
The harbor of Saloniki is a large and fine one, but port facilities
are very limited' at present. Fuel oil is obtainable in almost any
quantity on 24 hour,' notice, and within a few months a limited sup-
ply of coal will probably be available. When all military forces are
withdrawn, port and warehouse accommodations will be ample for
the ordinary commerce of the place.
Steamship Connections with Saloniki.
Since the suspension of hostilities railway communication has been
freely reestablished with central and southern Serbia and with east-
ern Greek Macedonia, and, under military supervision, with Bulgaria
and European Turkey. Steps have al-o been taken to link up the
Saloniki-Athens Railway with the continental line, Paris-to-Constan-
tinople.
The Messageries Maritimes of Marseille, the Servizio Marittimo
of Naples, the National Steam Navigation Co. of Greece (with head-
quarters at Piraeus), and the Johnston (English) line continue to
be the principal ones touching regularly at Saloniki. No direct line
has yet been established between this city and the United States,
though the Banque Nationale de Grice is reported to be working to
establish a line for this purpose.
Freight from New York to Piraeus has lately been reduced from
$250 to $90 per ton, but the rate from Piraeus fo this port has not
been reduced. Only Greek steamers are regularly plying between
New York and Piraeus, where all goods intended for Saloniki are
shipped. Saloniki is the natural port for distribution of goods to
the interior of Greece, Serbia, Bulgaria, and even Roumania, and
the local merchants have old commercial relations with all these dis-
tricts, and, once peace is established, would.be able to obtain ample
return cargoes. There are direct steamship lines from English,
French, Italian, and Spanish ports to Saloniki.








GREECE-SALONTKI.


Trade Conditions.
The comparatively sudden suspension of hostilities brought about
an acute trade crisis in Saloniki. Merchants had previously given,
during 1917 and the early part of 191S, large orders for merhandise
which, on account of lack of boats, had accumulated at Barcelona,
Marseille, Genoa, Naples, and other Mediterranean ports. Early in
October, 1918, the Greek Government asked for and received boats
for transporting this merchandise to Saloniki, where the market had
been fairly well sold out, and these goods, arriving all at about the
same time, clogged the market. Merchants had very great difficulty
in finding warehouses for them.
Then came the general armistice, which deprived the city of a
good share of the trade of the Allied armies in the vicinity. About
the same time there occurred a great fall of Spanish exchange and
also in freight and war-risk insurance rates, and the Saloniki mer-
chants found themselves stocked up with high-priced merchandise
which they were unable to dispose of on the local market. The Greek
Governnont was at once besieged to obtain permits from the Allied
Governments for the exportation of these goods into Serbia and
RQumania. The Allied Mixed Commission for Macedonia shortly
afterwards'relinqu(ished control of commercial conditions, except in
those regions immediately contiguous to Bulgaria and Turkey, but
the. Greek Government issued few permits until after the close of
1918. Trade conditions during the last quarter were also affected
by the continued demobilization and the release of native labor by
the various armies.
The banks report no failures f0d the past. year. They ascribe this
fact to the continued existence of the moratorium. Most import and
export, firms have been dealing on a cash basis, which has had a
tendency to limit speculation and confine operations to current needs.
The presence of the Allied armies has lso largely offset the loss of
transit trade, so far as local retailers are concerned.
Effect of War on Shipping.
Military necessities restricted the maritime and com nmereillI move-
ment of the port up to December 1, 1918. Transports and slpplly
ships utilized that part of the port and warehouses formerly used by
ordinary merchantmen, obliging the latter to discharge into lighters
out in the roadstead and giving them limited wanrhouse i'ec.-omI ioda -
tions. After December 1 the control was abolished, but the port is
still crowded as before.
After an absence of exactly two years, the American flag appeared
in Saloniki Harbor over merchantmen in Novenmber, though they
were tramp steamers and brought no American cargo.
Shipping Statistics.
The movement of the port during 1918 was very llirge, but the
bulk of it was comlposed of naval vessels, their auxiliaries, trans-
ports, hospital ships, etc. The arrival of purely merchant tonnage,
both sailing and steam vessels, registered a 12.5 per cent increase
over 1917. The arrivals of small sailing vessels under the Greek
flag show a 15 per cent increase over those of the preceding year.
Fully one-third of the total merchant tonnage reached port during
the last quarter of the year.








24 SUPPLEMENT TO C'O(MMERCE REPORTS.

The nationality, number, and tonnage of steam merchant vessels.
entering port (during thle past three years are given below:

1916 1917 1918
N ltio ahlily. --
Numner. Tonnage. Numlier. Tonnage. Number. Tonnage.

Amerian ................................ 2 3,4 ......... ...... 1 1,476
BP iin.......... ........................ 6 5,474 .......... .......... .......... ........
British .................................. 22 2 4,2.4- 7 5,416
French.................................... 16 4, %06 46 39,264 all a79,280
Greek .................................... 953 321,629 419 112,322 28 80,414
Italian .................................... 31 52,417 22 34. c76 30 46,500
Roiim anian ............................... 1 1,900 .......... .......... ..... .... ..........
Spanish................................... .......... ............................. 6 3,843
Total.............................. 1,011 42..S7 479 11,796 416 216,929

a Of thi3 number, 112 vessels, aggregaling 61,975 tons, flow he Greek flag, though requisitioned by the
French.
In addition to the foregoing, 4,593 Greek sailing vessels aggregat-
ing 137,719 tons, made entry during 1918, as well as 115 French,
Italian, and Egyptinn vessels, aggregating 6,069 tons, ninking a
grand total of 4,7I08 vessels with an arjgregate tonnage of 143.788 tons.
By royal decree early last year the sale of Greek ships was pro-
hibited without written permission of the Ministry of Marine. Dur-
ing the last quarter of 1918 the Greek Government opened negotia-
tions for the purchase of several merchantmen in England, but noth-
ing definite was arranged.
Introduction of Modern Agricultural Machinery.
Ai-ericulture and allied industries are tile most important factors
in Greek Macedonia. The soil and climate are favorable to many
crops, the most important being tobacco, opium poppy, cereals, wine
grapes, garden truck, cotton, and rice. Only a fifth of the soil of
Macedonia, which i- very fertile, has been cultivated in modern
times.
The introduiwtion.l al far as possible, of motor and tractor imple-
ments would render laIbor conditions easier in this climate, and would
solve to a great extent the question of obtaining sufficient labor. The
Greek Government i:as in the last two years bought over $1,000,000
worth of agricultural machinery of American manufacture for use
in Macedonia and Thessaly, and has employed a small staff of
American expert mechanics to instruct students in the various agri-
cultural schools in the use of these machines. The American Red
Cross has also brought in a large quantity of similar machinery for
use in southern Serbian Macedonia, near Monastir. The French and
British armies ;lso brought in a large amount of American ma-
chinery during 1918 in the expectation of a longer war, and made
preparations for cultivation on a large scale with a view to furnish-
ing food and forage for the Allied forces. The French and British
report tt t caterpillar tractors of 45 horsepower, drawing 6 plows,
gave the best results, as they were cultivating plains of great extent
with furrows of a mile or more in length. The tax on gasoline for
a;Iricultllral purpo'l)es and the dime tax (an 1-14 per cent assessment in
kind or equivalent value) retard the progress of agricultural in-
dustries.









GREECE-SALONIKI.


Stock Raising.
Stock raising as an industry is nonexistent in Macedonia. There
are no large herds of cattle or horses. Every peasant keeps some
sheep and goats, the number depending on his wealth. During the
war, requisitioning by the Allied armies and the lack of importation
of farm animals have led to a material reduction both in the number
and quality of every kind of stock. Each stock owner makes butter
and cheese, but there are no dairying business concerns.
Tobacco Trade.
Filler leaf tobacco, unstemmed, was the principal article of ex-
port from Greek Macedonia in 1918. Normally, the annual value
purchased by American firms alone is about $6,000,000, which
amounts to nearly half the total production, and fully three-quarters
of the finest grades. During 1918, 862,862 pounds of tobacco. valued
at $1,659,230, were shipped to the United States.
Preparations were made in the early months of 1918 for planting
a large crop, as the result of the high market prices then prevailing.
It was expected the yield would be about 5,000,000 okes (14,100,000
pounds), but, on account of the exceptionally dry summer and the
lack of labor to care for the growing crop, the total yield was about
3,000,000 jokes (8,460,000 pounds), which was, roughly, equal to the
1917 crop. The quality was very good in nearly all districts, and
considerably better than that of the year before. This refers solely
to tobaccos grown in Macedonia, west of the Struma.
The suspension of hostilities and the liberation of the productive
regions of eastern Greek Macedonia, after a two-year occupation by
the Bulgars, introduced a new factor in the estimates for 1918, in-
creasing them by 6,500,000 okes (18,330,000 pounds), so that the
yield figured as follows:
Eastern Macedonia: Pounds.
Crop of 1916 ----------------------------------------- 4, 230,000
Crop of 1917 -------------------------------------- 7,050,000
Crop of 1918 _--- ------------------------------- 7,050,000
Western Macedonia:
Crop of 1918 ---------------------------------8, 4Qi0, 000
Total -----_---2__---- ----------------- 2, 790, 000
Probable Reduction in Price of Tobacco.
It, is not likely that the high prices paid for the 1917 crop will be
maintained. Up to the end of the year prices had not been fixed on
the new crop. and the market was calm. There were still about
250,000 okes (705,000 pounds) of the 1917 crop remaining unsold in
the villages and also about 750,000 okes (2,115,000 pounds) in the
hands of Saloniki merchants.
The liberation of the important tobacco districts of Eastern Mace-
donia freed about 4,000,000 okes (11,2S0,000 pounds) of old stock ready
for immediate shipment. Moreover, there were also largo stocks,
about 25,000,000 okes (70,500,000 pounds), of old tobacco in Bulgaria,
including a certain quantity in Xanthi. and in the regular Turkish
markets, Samsoun and Smyrna, which would be open again in the
near future.
All these circumstances will tend to lower the market in Greece,
and prices may be affected by the preference which merchants may








SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCIAL REPORTS.


.show, for tobaccos from Bulgariia and Turkey, in order to avoid the
export tax of 1 draclhin per kil, (,.7 cents per pound) on Greek
tobacco.
Local tobacco men do not expect any sudden or violent change.
Tobacco, either old or new, costs the grower about 8 drachmas per
oke ($0.547 per pound) under present conditions, and to the mer-
chant. 25 to '30 drachmas per oke ($1.70 to $2.05 per pounds). As
German, Austrian, Roumanian, Dutch, and Swiss stocks are ex-
hausted, the demand will tend to counteract any great fall in price,
which might otherwise occur because of the large stocks on hand here.
The gradual fall of prices to normal level will depend on whether
or not the methodical planting is used as has been done in the past.
However, many of the best field are spoiled, there is a serious lack of
male labor, and implements and buildings are lacking for the plant-
ing, caring, drying. and manipulation of the tobacco.
Conditions are quite different in Old Greece, where there is an old
unsold stock of about 15,000,000 okes (42,300,000 pounds), which
added to the 15,000,000 oke.s of the new crop, makes a total of
30,000,000 okes on hand (84,600,000 pounds). Tobac(o stocks in
Eastern Macedonia, held by American companies at the time of the
invasion by the Bulgars in the fall of 1916, comprising about 1.000,000
okes (2,820,000 pounds), were left intact in the warehouses at Cavalla.
Crude Opium Production.
The crop of the opium poppy in Greece, harvested in June and
July, was mediocre as to quantity. The cool cloudy weather during
March caused considerable damage to the growing poppy, and con-
sequently the Maicedonian regions of Saloniki, Kilkich, Langaza, and
Chalcidice produced only about 40 cases of opium, weighing approxi-
mately 1,500 okes (4,230 pounds). The quality was good, yielding
an average of 13 per cent of morphine, according to the English test.
The sowing for 1919 took place in September and October, 1918,
under fairly favorable cirl'cumstances, so the prospeCts for the coming
crop are favorable.
The Serres and Dranma districts, which were occupied by the Bul-
gars, did not produce any appreciable quantity. These regions usually
produce the bulk of the crop in Greece.
At the close of 1918 the amount of ready stocks in Bulgaria was
unknown, though it was learned that there was a certain amount for
export. It was also learned that at Uskub, Komanovo. Istib, Veles,
and Kavadar, Serbia, there were about 2,000 cases of opium of good
quality stored, aggregating about 50,000 kilos (110,230 pounds)
which were ready for export, free of duty. None of this had been
brought to Saloniki up) to the end of the year. At that time about
160 cases, weighing about 6,400 jokes (18,018 pounds) were on the
local market.
Fluctuating Prices-Opium Tests-Lumber.
The prices during the 1917-18 season flucullated greatly. The
last price quoted in 1917 (November) was 404 drachmas per oke
($27.65 per pound) for opium with 14 per cent of morphine. Since
thait time the lack of demand and the prospects of being able to
co(uiiuni i't(:o with Serbia, Bulgaria, and Turkey have caused a great








GREECE-SALONIKI.


fall in prices. At the close of 1918 merchants were offering to sell at
rates from 170 to 200 drachmas per oke ($11.63 to $13.68 per pound)
for opium of 13 to 14 per cent morphine, but only speculators were
buying at these prices.
For many years merchants have been testing all opium under the
so-called Harrison or English formula, have arranged their labo-
ratories to use this system, and have sold their products according to
it to American firms. Most American firns have now discarded this
system and are using formulas of their own, the results of which
differ not only from the Harrison test but from one another. It is
said that the difference sometimes amounts to 2 per cent. Therefore
it has been suggested that American drug houses unite on some one
formula to be used in foreign transactions to facilitate this trade.
The greater part of the wood used for construction purposes in
Greece is imported. The only important forest is at Naoussa, about
30 miles northwest of Saloniki, and this has been mostly cut off for
military purposes.
Magnesite Mining-New Lignite Deposits.
The only minerals being mined at present in paying quantities in
Gieek IMacedonia are nmanesite and lignite. The magnepite oper-
ators report no sales for 1918 on account of less active demand and
the impossibility of obtaining means of transport. The work at
the mines has been cut down and is proceeding only to an extent
strictly necessary under the charter and to keep employed the best
workers, so that they may be immediately available when work is
renewed on the old scale. Operations were impossible during most
of the year on account of the general mobilization, which took most
of the miners, and the difficulty of obtaining the necessary mining
materials. The operators have on hand about 5,000 tons of crude ore.
There has been no production of calcined magnesite since the early
part of 1915, when work was suspended on account. of lack of fuel
for the calcinating process.
The necessity of importing practically all fuel has been a serious
handicap to manufacturing in Greece. An inferior quality of lignite
has been mined for some years in the island of Euboea and the Pelo-
ponnesus, but within the last few months large deposits of a good
quality, which burns well alone without an offensive odor, have been
discovered in this district, 61 miles north of Bkaterina and ncro-,s
t.h, head of the Gulf of Saloniki from the city of Saloniki. Investi-
gations have only proceeded over a small area, but a mass of ap-
proximately 700,00o tons has so far been traced. The whole region
bears promii-.e of further large deposits. Three veins of 12 to 18
inches in thickness have been uncovered. Mining operations have
not been greatly developed as yet, as only 100 men are now em-
ployed, but engineers estimate that 200 tons per day can be extracted
from the present galleries. A railway spur has been built, to the
mine from the Athens-Saloniki Railroad to allow free transporta-
tion to all points on this line.
The mining company is a private one, controlled by Greek sub-
jects, the principal stockholders residing in Saloniki. It has an ex-
clusive contract with the British authorities for the total output until
the end of their occupation in this district.








SUPPIE.MENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


Domestic Industries.
Few factories of IIay size exist in Greek Macedonia, but a very
large amount of manufacturing by hand is engaged in, which con-
sume4 a great deal of imported raw materials. Flour, soap, cigar-
ettes, cigarette paper, bricks, tiles, lime, simple agricultural imple-
ments, leather goods, simple furniture, cotton and woolen yarn, shoes,
and beverages are made here. Practically all these articles are con-
sumed by the home market, and in normal times are produced in
sufficient quantities to supply local needs. The only factories are
those making flour, cigarettes, bricks and tiles, beer, and yarn.
Industrial development is backward. Skilled labor is scarce, com-
mon labor abundant. Foreign capital is well represented here, be-
ing in\%tved mainly in public utilities, banks, and larger factories.
France leads in this respect.
The great industry of Saloniki is its transit trade. Its geograph-
ical position makes it the natural port for the whole of the Balkan
Peninsula south of the Danube, and in normal times the volume of
merchandise received and forwarded is enormous. The great major-
ity of the importation and exportation is carried on by the Jewish
element in Saloniki. During the war this trade was virtually at a
standstill.
Banking Conditions.
Saloniki banks report exceedingly few discount transactions dur-
ing 1918, except in connection with subscriptions for the bonds of the
Greek National Defense Loan. During the early part of the year
a considerable business was carried on in documentary credits,
given on imports of merchandise, but toward the close of the period
such advances were greatly restricted because of the accumulation of
merchandise at Saloniki. At the same time, loans in general were
greatly reduced on account of Government restrictions. Credit be-
tween banks and local business men was restricted to exceptional
cases where the business house was of unquestioned standing.
The expenditures effected by the Entente in this district produced
no effect on banking affairs. According to an agreement concluded
early in 1918 between the Allied Governments and the Banque Na-
tionale de Grece, the latter engaged to furnish to the Allied Powers
the necessary sums for the transaction of business in drachmas, debit-
ing each one in an account. of drachmas payable six months after the
conclusion of peace. Consequently, the Allied paymasters have not
been obliged to sell exchange and have procured drachmas at the
Banque Nationale de Grece.
At the close of the year English banknotes were being exchanged
at the rate of 25 drachmas to 1, practically a par rate, and French
notes at a rate of 97 drachmas to 100 francs, only a 3 per cent loss.
French, Belgian, and Swiss silver was accepted at par. Greek bank-
notes maintained their par value, but Greek gold was not in circula-
tion, while European gold specie was at a premium of 40 per cent.
Local bankers say tlat the value of the American dollar has followed
more or less the quotations of Paris and London.
Import Trade by Countries and Articles.
France was the largest exporter to this district during the calendar
year 1918, shipping a total of 26,546,435 pounds of cargo. The im-
ports from France consisted of nearly all classes of articles. India










GREECE-SALONIKI.


was next with a total of 21,449,478 pounds of sugar, wheat, cereals,
and flour, with the United States third in tonnage. The principal
exports from the United States were foodstuffs, leather, machinery,
and manufactured articles.
The total imports by countries are:

Countries. Pounds. Value.a Countries. l'.und.. \'alur'..

France..................... 2,540,43 5157,313 | Australia................... .11........
India..................... 21,440,178 ......... Netherlands............... S ........
United States............. 21,053,970 11,% I6 R,,mrnania.................. ............ 12,)
England.................... 13,2.5,66f5 48,165 Turkto. ..................... .,27 .. ..
Italy....................... 12,146,532 110,349 Malta ....................... 2,744..
Eg ...................... 3,02', 219 2,593 \bvssinia................ 2 ........
Span ....... .... ........ 2,338,760 7,095 Irtugal........................ 12.0 .
Island of R odes........... 737,749 .......... Japa n...................... 11,927 ....
Switzerland................ 352,449 3,80 I ussia.............................1,276
Serbia .................... 289,954 1,376 Bulgaria.................... 948 .........

a figuress giten in dollars are for imports for which weights are not given in the records of I- t lustujnl-
house and are not included in the first column.

The following table shows the quantity of articles imported into
Saloniki during 1918:

Articles. Quantity. Articles. Quantity.

Agricultural products: Pounds. Pounds.
Cereals, vegetables, etc.............. 74,474,264 Leather, and manufactures of.......... 6 6,O j
Roots, plants, and seeds.............. 2,256,940 Machinery, n. c. s...................... 60,099
Other.............................. 1,398,410 Medicines and medical specialties...... 1,615,033
Animals,living..... ................ 1,430 Metals, and minerals, unmanufactured.. 1,779,607
Animal and dairy products............. 1,027,137 Metals and minerals, wrourht ... ....... 1,411,130
Bone, manufactures of ................ 22,179 Paper, and manufa tures of....... ... 2,6R,.3x7
Bronze articles........................ 14,752 Pharmaceutical and chemical products.. 3,153,529
Clocks, watches, and parts of............. 285,316 Silk and silk goods .................... 42,229
Confectionery....... .................. 5,106,961 Silverware............................ 1,073
Cotton and cotton goods................. 4,175,358 Spirits........... ..................... 1,268,248
Dyes, vegetable and tannin............. 156,742 Steel, manufactures of ................. 21,308
Earthen, stone, glass, and china ware... 773.802 Surgical supplies........................ 11,065
Edibleand industrialoils, and oily seeds. 476,918 Textiles, n. e. s........................ 1,714,419
Fish and fish products.................. 1,618,650 V'in, manufactures of................... 2,334
Forest products ........................ 353,8 .5 Vmbrellasand parasols................ 29,65
Fruits, fresh and dry................. 4.234,486 Wood, manufactures of.................. 562,134
Gold, manufactures of................... b 5,918 Woolen coods ......... .... .......... 399,058
IIlts.................................... 58,152 Zinc, manufactures of................ 9,179
B emp, linen, and jute goods............ 13,729 All other articles....................... 267,535
Lead, manufactures of................... 16,975


a Number.


b Pieces.


Exports According to Articles.
The following table shows the quantity of the articles of export
shipped from the port of Saloniki in 1918:

Articles Quantity. Articles. Quantity.

Pounds. Pounds.
Beer................................. 2,2 5 Olve oil .............................. 53,157
Carbonate of soda..................... 20,304 Opium................................ 2, 53
Cocoons............................... 153,306 Oranges, lemons, and mandarins...... 14,173
Coffee..................................... 5,538 Rki ............................ 22
Confectionery........................ 10,307 Red pepper........................... 76,988
Condensed milk....................... 5,011 Resin................................. 42,300
Cotton........... ..................... ,5 Rire.................................. 6,598
Cotton goods.......................... 103,056 Saffron ............................... 941
Currants............................ 334.828 Skins, raw, moist, and dry........... 1,008,780
Figs................................... 41,761 Soap, laundry, common............... 376,800
Fish, prepared ..................... 5,905 Tobacco.............................. 1,174,186
Fruit, dry............................ 56,383 Vermuth............................. 26,708
Gum, chewing........................ 6,048 Wine............................... 501,740
Leather, upper........................ 20,439 Zinc, old............................. 21,996
Olives............................... 173,855








30 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

Declared Exports to the United States.
The exports of this consular district to the United States during
1918, as compared with 1917, show a decrease of $981,651. In the
average cost per unit of hides' and skins exported, there was little
change, but in tobacco and opium a substantial increase.
The following statement shows the quantity and value of declared
exports from Saloniki to the United States during 1918, and a com-
parison with the preceding year:

1917 1918
Articles.
Quantity. Value. Quantity. Value.

Opiun, crule. ................................ pounds.. 18,907 $3]8,053 1,763 548,774
Skins:
BadLer....................................piece.. 6,844 ,830 ............... .......
Cal .......................................... do.... 682 S77 ............ ......... ...
Fox...................................... do.... 3,007 9,589 1.500 4.161
GoJ. ....................................... do.... 18,110 22,S35 ........................
Kid ...................................... do.... 2,400 1,853 .......................
.m b ................. .................... do.... 144,155 149,778 8,7 50 7,071
RItbbil ....................................do.......................... 73,600 9,708
S.hei p ......................................do.... 126. 802 122.435 660 1,158
Tobacco, filler, unstenmmed ............... pounds.. 1,S01,036 2,0.9.506 862,862 1,659,230
Total...................................................... 2,711,756 ......,.... 1,730,105

There were no returned American goods nor were there any de-
clared exports to Porto Rico, Hawaii, or the Philippines.
Credit Information.
No comminercal rating agency maintains a branch in Saloniki, where
information as to the standing of lo,-al business houses can be ob-
tained. The latter usually transact business through at least, two
local banks, and American firms desirous of obtaining information
as to the financial position of Saloniki concerns are advised to make
inquiries of New York banks having correspondentss here. The lead-
ing Saloniki banks are: Banque Nationale de Grece. Bank de Sa-
lonique, Banque d'Athhnes, Banque d'Orient. Ionian Bank (Ltd.),
Banqlule Iniperiale Ottomane, and Banque de Commerce et de Dep6ts.
The first two named are (orrespondents, respeL.tively, of the Irving
National Bank, and the National City Bank, of New York. Unless
a Saloniki merchant maintains an open, confirmed credit in a New
York bank, American business men are advised to ask terms of
"cash against documents," as the moratorium has been in force for
so long a period here that the standing of many local merchants is
obsc 11'e.
Methods of Obtaining Trade.
Before the World War the great hulk of the trade of Saloniki wa.
with Eluropean countries, Austria, Germlany, England, France, and
Italy, in the importance indicated by the order. American goods
had small direct sale here, except for articles distinctively American,
but a considerable amount entered this port indirectly. Trade with
European countries was the result of more favorable quotations and
long sterns of credit, direct shipping facilities, and the comparative
indifference of American business men in the past to this market.
Merchants usually prefer American goods.








GREECE-SALONIKI.


European firms almost invariably quoted goods c. i. f. Saloniki,
and gave 30, 60, 90, 120 days', or even 6 months', credit. The latter
was especially true of German business houses. During the war
credit operations entirely ceased, and most of the purchases made by
local merchants abroad were on the bases of confirmed credit in some
bank of the country of purchase or of cash against documents.
While it is highly improbable that the German and Austrian banks
will be able for many years to resume operations on the old scale,
others of the European countries will probably begin extending
the old terms of credit. The usual American quotations are f. o. b.
port of shipment, and 30 or 60 days' credit, discount, for cash. The
only certain way of meeting European competition in respect to
credit, terms is the establishment in this district. of a branch of some
American bank to engage in the business of handling American trans-
actions. The question of direct steamship lines between Saloniki and
the Unite'd States is also extremely important.
Suggestions to Exporters-Importance of Trade Publications.
Periodical visits of salesmen would be the most efficient method of
extending and maintaining the local market. If this is impracticable,
the systematic sending of letters and well-illustrated circulars and
catalogues, printed in the French language, would be next best.
Wbights ~lAd measures should preferably be expressed in the metric
system, quotations of prices and terms of sale should be made per-
fectly clear, and rates of insurance and of freight, whether by weight
or measure, plainly stated.
It is strongly recommended not to fill an order by substituting
products other than those originally ordered. Packing should be
most thorough, and as economical as is consistent with reasonably
safe transportation. Freight handling, especially at Piraeus, is very
rough.
The consulate maiaitains a commercial reading room, where cata-
logues, circulars, trade journals. magazines, newspapers, and trade
directories are systematically filed for the inspection of interested
persons. The files are frequently and increasingly being consulted
by local merchants. Publishers of trade journals, etc., and exporters
issuing catalogues are urged to contribute their publications regu-
larly to this ollice. It is especially necessary to obtain as many and
as varied a selection as possible at as early a date as possible, becani-e
war conditions have for three years practically cut off this office from
close touch with American busine-s houses.
Opportunities for Extension of Trade.
The presence of the Allied forces in Saloniki han created a demand
for goods never before used here, and have widened the tastes of the
local trade. The wants of the population in the past were relatively
small and simple, but there ha. been a noticeable increase in the dle-
mand for better wearing apparel. foodstuffs, petty comforts, and
semiluxuries of modern civilization.
Imports from America during the occupation have been mainly
articles of prime necessity, principally foodstuffs, fuel, and textiles,
with the addition of considerable agricultural machinery. These
articles, together with construction materials, will constitute the main




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

IIIIIIll IihUl ABll11.1
3 1262 08485 1848

32 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS. -

line.s which Amlerica will continue to supply, and which will consti- l
tute a permanent market in New Greece.
Saloniki will )e a vast market for construction materials as soon
a, tippingg conditions permit. The burned area of the city is about
1l miles square. If the city is rebuilt according to present plans, this
district will h)e restored in the most approved modern way. New streets
will be inade, new water, gas, electric, and sewer installations put in, a
uniform plan for the rebuilding of the business section, as to height
and depth of buildings and as to construction materials, i. e., smii-
forced concrete, will be put in force, a university and other schools
will be erected, and parks and a long promenade on the sea front will
be provided for.
Market in Bulgaria and Jugo-Slavia.
It is known that Bulgaria, opened to foreign trade since the end
of the war, needs textiles, leather, petroleum and derivatives, fats,
medicines, and sanitary appliances, and is also in the market for
agricultural machinery and implements and motor transportation.
The country has for export considerable quantities of tobacco, opinm,
and essence of roses.
Serbia, or rather Jugo-Slavia, needs everything entering into the
world's commerce. The articles which would perhaps most interest
American manufacturers and exporters are foodstuffs, cldlh, cloth-
ing, thread, yarn, electrical plants and materials, farming products,
agricultural machinery and implements, motor transportation, rail-
way material and rolling stock, and bridge construction materials.
All railroads, bridges, and roads are in need of repair, and new rail-
roads, some of which were begun before the war, must be constructed.
Serbian commerce of the future will probably be under Government
control, end already two large organizations are in existence for this
purpose.
Before the Balkan wars, within the boundaries of old Serbia there
were annually turned over goods amounting to 900,000,000 kilos
(991.800 tons). After the addition of New Serbia in 1913, this
quantity was doubled in the time between the end of the second Bal-
kan War and the beginning of the World War. Now with the forma-
tion of the Jugo-Slav federation, including Serbia, a much larger
market has opened up.

UNIV. OF" R _
DCJ

Orr'j


WASHINGTON : COVERV.RMET PRINTING OFFICE : 1921