Supplement to Commerce reports

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Title:
Supplement to Commerce reports daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce
Uniform Title:
Commerce reports
Volume title page for -<1920>:
Supplements to Commerce reports : review of industrial and trade conditions in foreign countries in ... by American consular officers
Portion of title:
Daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce
Physical Description:
6 v. : ; 24-26 cm.
Language:
English
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United States -- Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce
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Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Dept. of Commerce
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
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Commerce -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Foreign economic relations -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
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federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
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Additional Physical Form:
Also available in electronic format.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with issue for Jan. 8, 1915?; ceased with issue for Dec. 31, 1920?
Numbering Peculiarities:
Each issue covers an individual country and bears a number corresponding to that country. Reports from the various consular districts in a country are distiguished by the addition of a letter (66a, 66b, 66c, etc.), in the order in which they are issued.
Numbering Peculiarities:
Issue no.52f, 1919, contains misprint, November 41.
General Note:
Title from caption.
General Note:
"Annual series."

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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 004822593
oclc - 16390134
sobekcm - AA00005307_00005
Classification:
lcc - HC1 .R1981
System ID:
AA00005307:00005

Related Items

Preceded by:
Daily consular and trade reports (Washington, D.C. : 1910)
Succeeded by:
Trade and economic review for ..

Full Text





SUPPLEMENT T


COMMERCE R
DAILY CONSULAR AND TRADE R-E
ISSUED BY THE BUREAU OF FOREIGN AND DO
DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE, WASHIN


Annual Series


No. 5c


December 16, 1919


FRANCE.

CETTE.
By Consul Paul II. Craim.
The general prosperity of this district, which includes the coast
region between the Rhone River and the Spanish frontier, depends
on the returns obtained from the production of wine. The crop of
the fall of 1917, which was sold during 1918, was officially valued
at 1,741,967,108 francs ($:336,199,652), or about 1,25 francs ($236)
per capital of the estimated population prior to the war. In spite of
the depreciation of the currency, local bankers believe that the pur-
chasing power of the region increased to a greater extent in 101N
than in the preceding year. On the other hand, a shortage of coal
and transportation difficulties affected unfavorably various manu-
facturing establishments which were occasionally obliged to suspend
operations.
Import Trade by Principal Articles.
The principal foreign products imported at Cette during 1917
and 1918 are shown in the following statement, the quantities being
given in metric tons of 2,204.6 pounds:


Articles.


Beverages, alcoholic:
Wines, ordinary......
All others............
Breadstuffs:
Barley...............
Corn.................
Oats.................
Wheat................
Coal..................
Coal tar...................
Fruits:
Grapes, pressed.......
Lemons and oranges..
Metals:
Iron ore..............
Zinc and other metals


Afeiric tons.
4-19, 450)
14,423
S, 286
21,905
23 ,834
50,776
IS, 093
3,02S
9,879
24, 111
14,407
1,879


Marit Ions.
171.1175
12,247
6. 070
775
15, 4F2
8,063


3.542
5,9.16

663


Article'.


Nitrates............ ..
Petroleum, css,.nce ,guso-
line)....................
Phosphates..............
Pyrites..................
Sulphur. enrde............
Wood stares, oak and
chestrnut................
Vegetnhiles I.potntoesy .....
All other articl(<..........


1917 l'llS

MAltti tons Jftine t,,is.
22,3 j ...........
(0.015 0 ,49'2
7, S.I') lf, .' '4
23,431 5."315
29, 29 36i. S,2
1,411 3. 11l
4.1440 640
:74,695 57,577
S 14, 2.'5 44 31.3


The important decrease in imports in 1918 was due to restrictions
placed upon the importation of certain Spanish products which con-
stitute the largest, element of the import trade. This policy wa4 ant-
tributed partly to the desire of the Government to diminish the high
rate of exchange. Receipts of Spanish wines were exceedingly large
during 1917, as buyers were aware of the intention of the (overn-
ment to prohibit their importation. In f;int, froim December, 1917,
until May, 1918, no Spanish wines were imported. In May an agree-
15119000-19-5c--1


PORTS,& J
MESTIC C
GTON, D. C.





-i

2 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

ment was made between the French and Spanish Governments author-
izing the importation of 1530(.()0 hectoliters (3,962,675 gallons) per
month. The diminution in the imports of fresh fruit was also due
to restrictive measures of the same character. A Government meas-
ure forbidding the importation of coal into this port continued in
force in 1918. The coal mines of the Department of the Gard were
the sources of local supply. The increase in the imports of petro-
leum essence is attributed to the fact that a larger number of tank
steamers were placed at the disposal of the trade.
Transit Trade-Imports from United States-Reduced Exports.
The imports of merchandise in transit for Switzerland during the
war were as follows, the quantities being given in metric tons: 1914,
49,653; 1915, 201,859; 1916, 598,872; 1917, 350,288; 1918, 320,685.
Cereals originating in the United States constitute nearly one-third
of the totals. The transit trade with Switzerland is the fruit of war
circumstances and will, without doubt, be reduced on the return of
normal conditions. Ordinarily, Spanish and Algerian wines con-
stitute the chief element of this trade. The project relative to the
creation of a Swiss port at Cette has been abandoned.
Satistics showing the imports by countries are not available. How-
ever, petroleum essence and cereals were the only products imported
in large quantities from the United States. Prior to the war con-
siderable. quantities of crude sulphur and oak staves were received
from the United States. Owing to transportation difficulties, the
French Government made arrangements in 1917 with the Italian Gov-
ernment, which controls the production of sulphur in Sicily, for the
delivery of large quantities of this commodity. Throughout the war
restrictive measures and the shortage of ocean carriers have reduced
the imports of staves to insignificant figures.
The general exports from this port amounted to 235,847 metric
tons in 1918, as compared with 147,329 toiis in 1917. The bulk of
these exports consisted of coal, amounting to 189,837 tons, which was
shipped to Italy in accordance with an agreement between the French
and Italian Governments. All vessels sailing from this port to the
United States proceeded in ballast.
Wine Production-Mining Activities.
The wine-growing area of all France in 1917 comprised 3,131,326
acres, increasing in 1918 to 3.223,356 acres. The acreage in the
Cette district for these ears was 1.054,574 and 1,072.319. respectively.
The wine production of France totaled 1.009,844,069 gallons in 1917
and 1,110.403,794 gallons in 1918. The Cette district produced
499,215,888 gallons of wine in 1917 and 509,822,779 gallons in 1918.
Thus, although the acreage of this district is only about one-third
the total acreage of France, the wine production is almost half of
the entire French output. The value of the wines produced in the
Cette district is, however, proportionately smaller, average 92 francs
per hectoliter ($0.67 per gallon) in 1917 and 89 francs per hectoliter
($0.65 per gallon) in 1918; as compared with the average for all 91
France of 98 francs per hectoliter ($0.71 per gallon) and 102 francs
per hectoliter ($0.74 per gallon) in 1917 and 1918, respectively.
Although various minerals are found in this district, only coal,
iron, and bauxite are mined in considerable quantities. The produc-



.








I'IIkANCE-CETTE.


tion of coal and iron was somewhat smaller in 1918 than in the pre-
ceding year. This was chiefly due to a shortage of labor. The coi1
mines, which are in the Departnient of the (Card, were the chief
sources of s,,upply in 1918 for southern France. A certain quantity
was shipped to Italy. The rapid development of the lhydroelectric
industry in the Alps and the Pyrenees Mountain-li has led to a con-
siderable increase in the production of bauxite. It should be noted
that only 4,195 tons of this mineral were extracted in 1915 in com-
parison with 42.8S. tons in 1918. The production of coal, iron ore.
and bauxite during the last three years is shown in the following
table:
Mineral. 1916 1917 1918

Metric tons. Metric tons. Metric tons.
Coal..................................... ................ .. ....... 2,125 17 3,174,998 2,0 -'2,72
Bauxite....................... ................................... 23,412 3: 115 42, .-5
Tron ore............................................................. 383, 251 427, j' J 379,782

Shipping at Cette-Increased American Tonnage.
The number of entrances and clearances, at the port of Cette during
1918 was 5,040, as compared with 4,996 in 1917. But although the
number of vessels frequenting the port in 1918 was somewhat t larger
in 1917, the aggregate net tonnage was much smaller, the fig-
ures for 1917 and 1918 being 2,233.108 tons and 1,55-1,179 tons, re-
spectively. This is attributed to the use of an increasingly large
number of nimall Spanish and Italian sailing vessels. which were at-
tracted to this trade hy the high freight rates. Many of these vessels
are of le.s than 40 tons' burden. The nationality of the vessels fre-
quenting the port in 1917 was as follows, the percentages being b;,t,,d
not on the number of ves-els. but on net registered tonnage: French,
30 per cent; Spanish. 43 per cent; British, 13 per cent; all others, 14
per cent. The corresponding percentages in 1918 were: French, 213
per cent; Spanish, 36 per cent; Briti-ih. 12 per cent; others, 2)9 per
cent. It will be noted that the relative proportion of the carrying
trade under the French. Spanish, and British flags, diminished in
1918. This was due to the fact that American ve.-sel. transported
most of the merchandise in transit for Switzerland. Prior to 1918
this trade was carried by Spanish and British vessels. Furthermore.
in order to avoid the danger of shipping coal direct from England
to Italy, the coal was discharged at Bordeaux, thence forwarded to
Cette by rail, where it was finally rehipped to Italy. This traffic
attracted to the port a large number of small Italian vessels. Shortly
after the signature of the armistice this artificial current of trade
disappeared.
Twenty-three American ves..el.s with an aggregate net registered
tonnage of 60,888 entered this port in 1918, as comiparedl with 4 ves-
sels with a tonnage of 11,274 in 1917. It is interesting to note that
the arrivals of American vessels in 1918 equaled tlie total number
from 1889 to 1917, inclusiive. The clearance,- for American ports
during 1918 were somewhat more niuim ierol.s than in the preceding
year. In 1918, 30 vessels with an aggregate net regi-l Ired tonnage
of 71,5:38 cleared from this port to tile United St a li-. an increase of
4 vessels and 17.958 tons over the corresponding fitiin.'s for 1917.








SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


In 1918, 47 vessels arrived from the United States, 21 of which were
under the American flag. In fact, about one-half of the merchandise
arriving from the United States was transported in American vessels.
Inland Transportation Facilities-Volume of Freight Shipments.
Cotte ha' excellent rail and water communications with the in-
terior. This city is the terminus of the Paris, Lyon & Mediterranean
Railway antd also of the Midi Railway, which serves southwestern
Fraince. The Rhone Canal and the Midi Canal also connect Cette
with the interior. By means of the former, goods may be shipped
to Lyon and northern France; the latter connects this port with
B ,iidlalix.
The following table shows the tonnage of merchandise shipped
into and from C(tte during the war years, 1915 to 1918, inclusive, by
thl.'-.e various carriers-
Can icd .in I direction 'o tratlic. 1915 1916 1917 1918

Pari:, vo'in -n I Me iir:r,anez.n Railway: Mltrirclos ftMrictons. Metric tons. AMe Tic tons.
I nC.mr it ........................................... 102, .31 1 3,907 111,168 134,528
I 1lt :'.in............................................ 741, 53 1, 0(i 032 S27,662 509,844
M idi R .111 ..,':
Incmini .......................................... 112, 65 143,521 172,563 333,089
i Lt, '..;n ............................................ 276,734 344,322 247,967 163,391
Rhone C(an d*
I uD nm m ......................................... 5, 631 11,012 14,057 14,804
Oni i n ....................................... .. 63,57U 97,849 133,028 94,262
Mi'ii Lnail
Iii, Uin ......................................... 50,040 31,132 34,384 57,622
i. ult:im. ........................................... 33,370 27,62S 2'J,262 37,118
ot.d It lc r .T ..................................... 1,417,291 1, .). ;G0 1,570,091 1,345,558

The diminution in tihe outgoing traffic from Cette via the Paris,
Lynn & Mediterranean Railway during 1917 and 1918 was the result
of ihe decrease in the transit trade with Switzerland. The merchan-
di-' -hliplicd liv the canals consisted chiefly of wine.
War's Effect on Chemical and Crude Tartar Industries.
Under normal conditions the chemical factories of this region man-
i,faetuire only fertilizers and fungicides for u-e in the vineyards.
During I, 11. as had been the case since 1914. a large part of the
output cons-isted of sulphuric acid, which was purchased by the
Gov rininent for war plurpo-es. Owing to the high prices of fer-
tilizers aind thel -horttage of labor, the wine-growers had a tendency
to postpone pur, hase.- until the end of the war. A large part of the
frigi.idte were prepared by the farmers themselves, who received
sulphiate (of copper, which is the basic element of this product, di-
retly from the Government. It is possible that the farmers who
have ti!, h learned to prepare fungicides for their own use will con-
ticite to dii so, to tlie detriment of the manufacturers.
The lWproduc:tion of crude tartar in 1918 was approximately the
Pan-i" : in the pie, eding year, or about two-thirds of the normal
output. During the first four months of the year licenses were
grated foer lie expIortation of 400 tons per month. In order to sat-
i fy the requirements )of the army. the exportation of crude tartar
was forbidden in May. The Government purchased from the ex-
porters their entire stocks-. As a result, the wholesale prices of crude
tartar rose to -1 francs ($0.77) per degree. This price was maintained
until the signature of the armistice, shortly after which the Gov-



j!









FRANC'E-C'ETTE. 5)

ernnient canceled its contracts, and proposed to dispose of the con-
-iderable stocks which it possessed. In consequence the market went
to pieces and no quotations were made during the rest of the year.
The future of the export trade is very uncertain. The excessively
high price of tartar during the war favored a more general use of
substitutes, which are apparently satisfactory. According to reliable
information the consumption of crude tartar has greatly dimin-
ished during the last few years. Under these conditions the exports
of crude tartar will practically cease unless prices fall considerably.
Increased Value and Output of Fisheries Products.
The catch of the fisheries of this district during 1918 was valued
at 1,586,841 francs ($306,260) ; the value of the 1917 catch was esti-
mated at 1,212,123 francs ($23',0;3). The quantities of various fish-
eries 1)roducts of this district for the years 191G, 1917, and 1918 are
given in the following table:

V jric.ry 1916 1917 1918

Ma. lel c................................... ........... metric tons.. 85 93 57
'. ,: .r............... ... .......... ......................do.... 93 122 143
Tnui v .... .................. ... ........................do.... 61 16 25
Lob, crt ......... ... ............... .........kilos.. 4,800 3,600 2,600
Ovs r r........... ..... ...... ................................num ber.. 539,000 l>1.000 220,000
All ot-er vjr tiLS ......................................... metric tons.. 238 274 292

Declared Exports to the United States.
Tlhe following table gives tlie quantities and values of the principal
articles declared at this con.-uilate for export to the United States
during 1917 and 1918:

1917 1918

Quantities. Values. Quantities. N:1, a'0.

Chemirnra';, idrums, andl dyE:
Tartar aigols. .................... ......... ,un s.. 4, 24.-,99.3 .$9.3,*3-1 1, 4, rr, $295,695
W ire lcs.. ..... ............... .o .... I.34, 739 17, F.22 01O, 211 .37.' 13
Miscillaneo s crude drugs ..................... .... ......... 2"3 ............ ,.1, 7.3.-t
'igarette paper............................... ... I .......... G. 432 ...................... .
Coupper m ar tt ..................................... .. tou .. ............ ... ....... 38 14,739 1
Fruits, candied. ...................... ... pounl:.. 24,27 9,114 9,169 3.050
Tron anid steel machiierv ............................. ..... .. ..... 2.7
Lime. tartrateof................... ..... pounils... 25, 684 4.L6' 5i. s74 11. lM)
Paper slock, (rude ........................ ............ ........
V'c milh.............................. dozeu quarts.. i 1.,P 2 57,061 17.438 74,535
W lines, still ................... ........... .. gal us.. ... ..... ...... ......... 813 1,497
Wood, willow.', for basket makers' use.................. .................. .... ...................... .
T tla ............................................ ........ 1,061,995 ............ ..192', S

Shipments to the Philippine Islands consisted exclusively of'
cigarette paper valued at $1,227 in 1918, as compared with $34,973
in 1917. There were no exports to Hawaii or Porto Rico diiring|
these years.
American exporters desirous of extending their trade in this region ,
should bear in mind that this district is situated between Marseillei
and Bordeaux. both of which have excellent steamship comnmunica-
tions with. the United StattC. In consequence the bulk of American
merchandise is received through these ports. For these reasons it
is alvisable to assign the a-,tern and western portions. of tlie district
to f;?,nt, established at M:I;r-cille and Bordealux. re-.pectively.








6 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE IEPUOIITS.

Furthermore, local firms :are usually small establishments which
prefer to purchase through agents rather than import directly from
the United Stat. s. In fcirt. pretroleum, crude sulphur, and oak
staves are the only American products purchased in large quantities
at this port.
NANTES.
By 'anmul M. K. Moorhead.
The consular district of Nantes consists of that portion of western
France extending from the Atlantic Ocean inland along the valley
of the Loire River, and comprises the four departments of Loire-
Inferieure, Ma ine-et-Loire, Indre-et-Loire, and Vendee. The popu-
lation and area in 1914 were as follows:

Popular. Area in Density
Deprouen-. s a sqper
mile.

Lof rr--Infrri.i rr,.......................................................... 669,930 26,701 25.0
MaUiM. i -LoiNr... .... .................................................... 50 ,.0 27,481 18.4
Indre-ri-Loir, ....................... ............................... 34 1, 200 23,583 14.4
Vendee................ .... ............................................ 438,520 25,915 16.9
Total ............................... ......................... ... 1, 957,800 103,680 18.8

Water Transportation Facilities.
Nantes, .50 miles from the sea, is built on three islands in the Loire
River and stretches on the mainland on both sides. Two small rivers,
the Erdre and the Sevre, flow into the Loire at Nantes, the. Sevre
coming from the south, its source being in a small range of moun-
tains. calledd the Houteurs de Gatine, which form the natural boun-
dary between the Department of the Vendee and the rest of the dis-
trict. With the exception of thi- small range of mountains the en-
tire district is low-lying and flat. being less than 300 feet. above sea
level. The Erdle River i. a sinall stre:uai flowing into tlhe Loire at
Nantes from the north. This river is connected with Brest by
means of Nantes Canal, so that goods may be transported to Brest by
horse-towed .anal boats.
Proposed Improvement of Inland Waterways.
The Loire is navigable from the sea to Nantes by ocean steamers
up to 8,000 tons gross. Above Nantes the river is little used on ac-
count of the swift current and shifting channel. It is proposed to
dredge the river for a con-idernble distance above Nantes or to build
lateral canak so as to join the Loire with the canal systems of central
Fran, e leading to Paris, and with the Rhone. making a waterway
from Switzerland to tle sea. Other rivers entering the Loire are: The
Maine, which i,- formed by : junction at Angers of the Mayenne and
Sarthe; the Vienlie, the Inhre and the Cher, between Saumur and
Tours: and thle Allier. The, Loire and its branches thus stretch out
from the sea in all dire tion- into central France to within a short
distance of the Rhone and S;iune Rivers.
Much of the inland trade of this district is carried on the rivers and
canals. The bhct-known 'ianal is the one from Nantes to Brest which
penetrates Brittany. In 11016, the rivers and canals of this district






I1


. I:AN('E-NANTES.


transported only 56.861 ton.,: in 1917, 106.155 ton-,: and1 in 191S,
316,616 tons.
With cheap river tran.-puirtation by mean-, of a navigable Loire
and its branches, the extensive iron beds north of Angel- at S.i're
could be worked profitably to much greater extent. and the ore could
be transported all the way by water to the furnaces near St. Nazaire.
Towns of Industrial Importance.
The following table gives the location and chief induiistrie- of the
principal towns of this consular district, the statistics of population
being for the year 1914, as published in the Annlulaire dli Commerce:


Townw. Popula-
tion.

St. Naziire ...... ....... S 7

N ante ................. 170, r.53.


LaBasse-lndre .........I 4,u.0)
Indret ......... ........ ....

Coueron................ 0, <.5
Trignac........... .........
!


Angers.................





Saum ur....... ........

Tours.................

Roche-sur-Yon .........
Les Sables-D'Olonne...


3. 7




1,', I


Loct ion


Seapoit on Ith i Atlarntie at
lihe mouth of tllh Lrtit..
Raiilw.iy :tatiion
Stia]iort 5!i nuils upt he loire
from St. Nazrire. Rail-
way station.

On thi:- Loire 6 milks from
Nantc's. Railwaystation.
5 miles from Nantes on the
Io.ire. Railway station.
On the Loiro 20 miles from
Nantes. Railway station.
Ncar St. Nazaire. Railway
t-t ion

'n River M.iin..' nioar con-
11iienle 'i[jih Loire. About
70 mile: from Nanles by
r.iilv.:y


On the Loir,, 3i miles a bo7e
Anger?. lJilway station.


73, 9/ ': On the Lotir, 41 miles from
Saumnr.
16, S%5 I l -nd town on rail way from
SNante3 to Bordeaux.
14,0.)3 Se.rort on Atlantic Ocean..


Tndustriit .

Ship'buildinz, irrn :u.1I .!-eol fluriindrii-,
Iocomol ive. work-, in.',i:iieflire of
oill briqlet Ier.
ShipbuildinL. 'igsir refininz, :,oap mik-
ing, paper man;fila'lurine i'e:rci-aeilly
cirarctte pipetri, I'i eit nianufa'c-
turing, :,irtine canning. preserving
ol fruit?: .nrid ',eet.-bl., br'wine.
Lar.e iron mill, "Forges d: B.i so
In ro."
Large Frrnclih IG'.-crnmeut f[(tory for
tifo mr nufiettire of machinery for
nav'al o-s ls.
Largc linndry .ind -ni.]ting works
Iml:ort-.int iron anid teel works, pro-
dutiing pir inin, sheet iron, steel
aiils, I'e. Also Portland cement,
und linim mnnufir t uro.
Textile imanif.icturin:, tcll as hand-
i.-,clhicf, canv'.a', line rope, yarns
fn cotlton, wool, and hemp: also um-
hrellec,hnrus,-l ,te for roofing. Largo
tirade in nursery stock, seed-3, truck
p.irJeninrr. Iron ore miners in vicin-
ity. Wine, cpints produced in dis-
tril'
Maniilaciiure f sn'.Piklin. wini-" ; also
liquors; chapKlt, roniries auol oilier
religious ornamonri..
Silk poods, leather tanning, r-parkling
winery i ladiie' wering apparel, agri-
cultuiral micin .q
Farming and lhor:c r.i-in
Sardin.' fi-e',.; f im'uns srt mmcr
watering, plIC'.


Temperature and Rainfall in 1918.
The climate in this consular di(trirt. is temperate, very damlp and
humid. The total rainfall in 191S at Nante. wa- 2S ilnche s, the aver-
age per month being 2A inches. The heaviest rainfall occurred in
September when the precipitation amounted to 4.05 inches. The
driest months were, June, precipitation 0.86 inches, and August,
precipitation 1.1 inches. The average temperature for the year 1918
was 52.39' F. The variation between the mean temperature in the
coldest month, January (41"'), and the. hottest month, August
(65), was only 2-4. The relative humidity in Nantes is exceedingly
high, the average for the year 1918 being S0. 1 per cent. The varia-
tion in humidity was small throughout thie year, the highest being
89.9 per cent in December and the lowest 70.7 per cent in June.
Railway Lines and Projects-Principal Ports.
This consular district is well s-upplied with railway.-,. Two main
trunk lines pass through it: Tlie Pari, and ()Orlean, railway (Com-


I








8 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

pagnie du Chemin de Fer d'Orleans), connecting Nantes, St. Nazaire,
Brest, Tour. ainil other towns with Paris; and the State-owned rail-
way (C'heriin- die For de l'Etat), connecting Nantes with Vendee, La
Rochelle. Bordeaux. and the South. There are a number of local
na rrow-ga Quge railways which, together, serve practically every town
of importance in the district. The State railway also has branches
running frino Nantes to St. Nazaire, and north into Brittany, con-
necting with the line from Paris to Le Mans, Rennes, and Brest. At
Tours connections are made with the Paris and Orleans line running
from Paris to Bordeaux. It has been proposed for the Paris and
Orleans railway company to construct a main line from Tours across
country to Lyon and thence to Switzerland. Such a line would join
the main line from Paris to Nantes and St. Nazaire at Tours. The
construction of this line would make Nantes and St. Nazaire the prin-
cipal ports for the import and export trade with Switzerland, as well
as for the large trade of central France.
St. Nazaire is one of the best-equipped ports in France. Geo-
graphically it is the natural port for vessels from America, but little
of the commercial trade of the United States has passed through the
Valley of the Loire. During the war, the United States Army used
St. Nazaire as its main port for the importation of supplies and also
for troops.
American shipping companies desirous of establishing new lines
would do well to investigate, the possibilities of St. Nazaire and
Nantes. Nantes is well equipped for handling vessels up to 8,000
tons gross.
Shipping Statistics-Increase in Number of Sailing Vessels.
The number and tonnage of vessels entering and clearing at Nantes
during the five years from 1914 to 1918. inclusive, were as follows:

I14l MI5 1916 1co!7 1913
Kind of veessel.- N
Tons u- Tons. r Tons. in- Ton1. N m- Tons.
ber. e Ton-. be.. rtr. Ne .m-

Enirr !:
Si eini r: ........... ]1.2?7 1,070.375 !. : I 2--1.'44 1, 5 1 1.310.4 4 97t- 891, 2; 951 1.172,434
Sailing vr. :........ 2,-4 :33."', 2. 45, "1 --c2 7Q, 610 32.' 36, -14 54' 30,713
,11, i ............... ..l I i'i ,"'. i -7l"!l, 0,71., ,.y' ., 74 1,2 922. S12 1.501 1,203,147

T i r.... .. 37 .Ill. I .l 5.=,.!i 1,, 27 1. 4 7 9s7 R53,817 94- 1,156,965
Rilinr vm": S.... 1', .71 '. ". 259. 2&50 f ..44 335 39,937 535 32,808
T l31............. 1 .7,'57 1,72 11.%'-7,210' 1,777 1.32.035 1, 22 S93. 7Aj 1,47S 1,189,773

The large increase in the munuier of sailing vessels entering and
clearing in 1917 and 1918, as compared with 1914, was due to the
world shortage of ,toeamers and to the utilization of coasting sailers
for the transportation of coal from Bristol Channel ports, Cardiff,
Swan-ea, etc. In 1914, of the 1.237 steamers entered at Nantes 629
were French. 345 Britis!h, 1"20 Norwegian, 30 Spanish, 24 Swedish, 26
DA.nish, 17 German. 17 loelgic, 12 Dutch, and only 1 American. In
191S there were 2)61 French, 229 British, 201 American, 127 Nor-
wegian, 62 i Swedish, 20 Danish. and 15 Greek vessels entered. The
entrance of vessels under the American flag increased from 1 in 1914,






I


FRANCE-NANTES.


none in 1915. 2 in 1N1. 19 inl 1917, to 201. of a tonnage of -I>S,i14, in
1918.
Leading Imports at Nantes.
Imports at Nantes reached the largest volume in 1916, when the
total was 2,701,556 ton.-, as compared with 1,480,735 tons in 1914
and 2,350.469 tons in 1915. In 1917 there was a decline to 1,018S,S1
tons and .a good recovery in 1918 to 2,067,194 tons. The imports
during the war, therefore, were considerably greater than in the
normal period preceding hostilities, due principally to greater re-
ceipts of coal from Soutli Wales, bread-ituf(1 from America, and iron
and steet nianufacture-. Thle increase in the 1916 trade over that of
1914 was 1,220,891 tonls, of which coal accounted for 381,(O0 tons,
iron and steel for 492,000 tons, and breads.tuffs for 12.8348 tons. In
1918 imports showed an increase of .580,4305 tons over 1914, of which
breadstoifls accounted for 1'4,'40t tons, coal 114.3120 ton I, and iron and
steel 25,291 tons. Of the total 1918 imports of 2,067,194 tons, 800,-
307 tons represented coal, 340,000 tons breadsttiffs (mostly wheat
an]d flour), 78,000 tons flts, and 50,600 tons iron and Teell. It -hoilil
be noted that these articles represent only direct imports by sea.
Large quantities of imported goods are consu., ed in the district,
which are purchased friom whloledalers in Paris, who import through
other ports.
The following table: show, the quantities of the principal articles
iliIported into Nantes d(luring the years 1914 to 1918, inclusive, the
statistics being given in metri- tons:


Year ended December 31-


I irii.!.-. -- -



.A irkiinc s.
Co'il. ................. .............. '. 77
Co k ...... ....... ....... .............. ........
Iron and ste 1 l.............................. 2... ; l
O re. ..................... ......... ....... 1 080
Fai s. .. .................................. l. 021
R oqin. .................. ................ 7 '043
Pyrites ................................... 53,780
N itrate .................................... 224,675
Kaolin (china cday)........................ 100ll72
IBuildine material.........................I ., l25
W ood [or buildings....................... 2G, 0 12
W ood pulp........... ................... 41.71';
Codfish and conserves ..................... 4,240
Illum inating oil ............................ 1.470)
O il seedJ'.............................. .... 'L34
Hcmp and flax............................ J3. 7
Oranges ................................... 1S6
Vegetable oils .............................. 25S
Rice ....................................... 21, 5;5
Bran ...................................... 250
W heat.................................... 11.3,164
Oats.................... ................ 35, 8 "
Barley..................................... I,95)
Rye..................................... ..........
Corn...................................... 1,007
Flour...................................... 6 u
Beans ..................................... 330
Cotton.................................. ........ .
Salt ....................................... 10. 50AI
Slate .................................... ........ ...
Sugar...................................... :3', 591
Hay ....................................... ..........
W ine.................................... 31, (l )
All other articles........................... 1"1, 831
Tol2a .............................. 1, 4 9.735

1511900-19-5c--2


Metric tons.
1, 15.37 73
411,193
115,361
17,344
77,265
43,016
4,024
7.i5)
42, ,2,
7,16
1,72.1
7,546
2, 974

5,7115
. . .
"1,23 1)
75,059
13.423
. . ."
2,443
. .
12, 6"97
10.943
.Il. 12N!
172,574
'!71) WV)


1916


.Metric tons.
1,067,647
517.311i
5., 3 -1
71,641
8,948
121,412
50,229
4,278
." 271
'17. 12?)
619
I, 820
3,513
.. .

2311. Y51
4q 7S2
17,142
. .........ii
35, 877

10, SO5
3,920
90, 729
24,2.17
219,883,.
2,701. 156


1917

.Ir m.c ll nt.
. 77011 9. ;
.", .1, -'
4,147
34,229
25,824
34,564
37,692
143
i,, '.lti
2'7, 52.3
.1. 145
21.3
'4,i .
1,41).3
I .........


1. 31, '2


I. ..' I
41. i,7

.9, 5'i,;

400
1. 71.11
121.957
I '.1" "21


1918

Metric tons.
8(0), 307
1,383
50,632
5,715
77,992
l ,i '.2ri
14,734

23, 175
G, \'7
.131
1,200
. . .




172, 436
,53, 54
551
1, )00
10i3. 2G
1, 300
12, 62
15.717

9.06. 139
2.1)67.194


I




4-~


10 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

Export Trade of Nantes.
The direct export trade of Nantes, by sea, has never been of much
importance and during the" wlar it showed a marked decline. In
1914 the total exports amounnted to only 278,290 tons, and in 1918 to
110,i9.2 tons. Of tlh tital exports in 1914, there were 119,101 tons
of ore,; (rno-tly iron), 4.,466 tons of pyrites; 19,166 tons of building
material,,: 1,.(.30 tons of wheat and flour, and 7,573 tons of sugar.
In 191S, the export of iron ore had declined to 3,130 tons and sulphur
ore (pyrites) to 12,1s.'<" tons; but in 1918, for the first time, bauxite
wa;s exported, the quantity being in excess of 23,000 tons.
Lack of Export Cargoes.
A .oniiderable number of vessels proceed yearly to Nantes with
imports, ibut a large proportion have to leave in ballast for lack of
cargoes. The following table shows the number of vessels which
cle'lred fr,,in Nantes in ballast and with cargoes during the five
years. 1914 to 1918:

Number of vessel'.
Cicearancis; from Nantes- -----
1914 15. 1916i 1917 1918

W ith .lrL)..). .................... ..... .... ............... ... 7 ., 513 1'.6 487 6073
II m ll 'I ............................. ... ................... 711. 1,177 1,311 03 605
T UtI l ................................................... 1. I .( 1, 720 j 1,777 1,292 1,478

Principal Items of Export.
Th11 following table shows, in metric tons. the quantity of the prin-
ciail article exported from Nantes during the years 1914 to 1918,
inHCilsive:

Irti .le.. 1914 191 1'91) 1917 1918

DBr, I ilT-: Vl/et i')n.. .l tric 'rn.T. Metric ion M. triclwn s. M tdric tons.
W heat ................................ 1. 0 3.1.1,.1 22. .2 11,0 9 4,844
Flour.................................. 1, 7 3110 810 3,377 2,270
All other .............................. -. .. 20 i'.) ....... .... 1, 173
LudiJ'1,n material ......................... I. 1H 11, 53 1,121 6,231 370
B 'i:.1 ..................................... ...... .. .. .... .. .-... .. ............ 23,030
Coal....................................... ',.. 1 3, 11.; 1,377 1, C; 5, 625
I i i i i r:- ( '........ ............... ..................................... 11,526 ............
F i-1 I lor i l l' I i ..I ed .............. 1,: 2-5 ............ ........................
I1- : ............................ ........... .. I'. 3,5 3,317 70 3,182
TI,-, and steel ............................. 1:, .2 1, l11 1, .37 2,595 761
Nitrates ................................... ,30 ............ 3, (. .............. .......
Ores....................................... 119, 101 13, .-I0 ............ 4,137 3,130
Salt...................................... ......... 30 ............ 6,995 1,221
il............................. ..... 1, f2 ........ ... ..................
i,4 ......................................, -:2 3,(0 7 ,0 1, l 385
Sr ............ ............. ...... ... 7,573 .03 5.2 ............ 3,240
.ri ................................. 21, '6 11,5'A 23, 156 31,40S 12,186
Lumber ................................. 4, 76; 2, (30 2.91:' 8,9.55 3,955
All other articles.......................... 4Nj1 $.0, 59 53,945 56,919 45,620
Total............................... I .,290 133,2.5 117,511 149,996 110,992

Declared Exports to the United States.
The expii's ItI thel United States declared at the Nantes consulate
during 10.17 and 11'.s. vwe'e -lipped through the ports of Bordeaux,
IIleiv, .te., and not ilirr.t by sea from Nantes. These exports,
therefore, do not appear in the returns of exports from Nantes given








I










FI'lL' N('l-NANTES.


ill the foregoing table. Inll 1L7, the dechlred expo)rt- t, tOlt IUnited
States were valued at $1.1.6,838, of which the principal itlni- \Vwe'.
cigarette papers, $107,790; nursery stock. $105.(01.: 11an1 -ild-.
$41,529. In 1918, the total exports to thlie United Stalet-i inr',asei1
to $2,463,022, cigarette paper increasing to $2,-215.0(14 ;an7ld ME.,l'
to $89,619; but nursery stock declinedI to $(6,SGt:i T'he fI'llowin,-
table shows the quantities andi value's of dlecd:i1 i .Xil .Niil- t'lrili
Nantes to the United State- during 1917 amn 191.:


A.rtio'l'-.


Qu. ltil .


Beads, rosaries .............................. .. ............... ..........
Cigarette pae r....................................... ... ....
Cork stoppers .................................. ... pound-.. 2, 147
Fertilizers, anim al carbon............................ ...t.on-.. 172
H ides, horse............ .............................. p, .. I. 1,,3 4
Nursery sto k............................. ........ t ti' nLI:"',d 1 ., i1 t
Seeds, vegetable, flowsvr. ,t ......... ................pounds.. --2, t919
Vegetables, prepared: Mu-hrooms and trufle; ...........do.. 772
W ood, peeled -illow ........................................ .. .........
All other................ .. .................... ... ..........


Total..... ........................... .............. .


I -
Y .l o i .... 1 l. i
II7, .'' .. ,2 1i i'l
5,71. \ i'6 1 *'. ,'12
1 7.'I 1 7 71. 1'7

, .. .
1ii-I's 11 I r ,i,


Imports from the United States.
The direct imports by sea at Nantes from the United StatS- during
1913, the lant year in which trade was normal. amounted to onlv
22,808 long tons. In 1914 there was a marked increa-e to 71.S81 tons;,,
in 1015. to 156,793 tons; and in 0l16, to 222,038 ton-. In 1917 then
was a slight decrease to 218.412 tons. Statistics for 1918 are not
yet available. The increases occurred lhiefly in whe.nt, oat:,, 1i.i',ar,
iron and steel. In 1917 the amount of American whZna( imported was
3,815,762 bushels. The following table show.-, in Imetri, (iluintal-
(220.46 pounds each), the (quantities of goodc- imported into Nante-
from the United States during the years 1913 to 1917, inclusive:


Art lles


l l 1911 I'll


Quinfals. Quinialq.
Agricul I ral iniplenients................... 12,1 1 9,0 (72
Breadsl LIlTs:
Corn and rye..................................... .. ...
O ats.. .... ..................... .............. 2 4 l
Rice .... ......... ...... .......... ....... .... .. ... .
W heat, rain.............. ............ ........... 7, 2
Sem olina......................................... ........... .
Coal ........................ ... .... .
Cocoa .. ................... .. ... ......... .
Copper..................... ....... ........ ... .......... ... ...... .
Cotton, new.................. ....... ...... ...
Fertilizers, phosphate...................... 203,814 409,831 .
Fibers, yarns, cordage, etc................ ........ ........... .
Fodder.. ... ... ................ ............ .......... .
Fruits:
Apples and pears.. ................... 4,185 1. 4G0
Plums and prunes..................... 1,682 1,074
Iron and steel manufactures: [
B ars or rails ........................... ......... ............ .
Cast iron or steel....................... .......... .............
H ollow w are........................... ............ ........ .
Machine tools................... ............ .... ......
M machine parts ......................... ......... ... 12')
W ire iron .......................... ........... .. .. .....
Lead and zinc ........ .................. ............. ... .
M etal goods, n. s................... ....... ............ 15
Oils, m ineral, (kerowen ) .................. I............37 I


Quental.
20. .111
"7, 024

603,722

.. ... ... .


.39
43,094
3,.0
330


09
1,141
1. 715
458
57


linl .




5", 41)7
42s, 670



,99S
. .. .. .. .



237
1,093

54, 260
925'

273

2, 869
85


12'

35.,31
261,337
1, 03q., 4;,1
6, .l91
,l(1.7



1,061')
28_, 174
11,489
220, 090
1,617

1, 37S
1,31S
37,742
160,107
5,852
1,861
4, 388
8, 38S
1,816t
15,9111
4, 70i


U-


S ,N,--, T


_









12 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

A r icle.;. 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917

SpiriLs, win.-, t.. Quil/al. Quintals. Quintals. Quinials. Quintals.
rrr .. ............................................................. a 17 ...........
APo'iu l, fi: '.................. .. ......... ....................... 027,917 o2a 0
\ mr ....................... ..................... ........ ..... 112
Sucar .... ...... .. ..................... ............ ............ 176,438 433,097 201,868
Tuba o, Ia(....... ... .. ...... .... ...... ...... ... .. ........ ... ........... 5,928
Lumber.............................. ............ 462 1,203 45 75
Timrlb.-r. .......................... ............ 42, 30 ............ 38,020 43,110
All othacr arti. I. .......... .......... ..... 503 226 1,458 1,826 4,228
r Hectoliters.

ST. ETIENNE.
Bly Consul 'Willam P. llu-uut.
No commercial statistics of any value have been published in this
district bine.- 1913; consequently, little more than a general review
of conditions during the year 1918 is possible.
Coal Production.
The combined output of the coal mines in the Loire Basin in 1918
is estimated at 4,918,116 metric tons, an increase of 380,276 tons as
comillIred with the preceding year. The work of recuperation in
connection with coke ovens gave the mining companies a market for
by-Iproducts hitherto imported.
A great scarcity of fuel marked the beginning of. the year 1918.
Ma.in factories, had to close down for this reason. The shipment
of considerable quantities of coal to Italy and the congested state
of the railroad tratlic also contributed to the crisis. The events at
the sc;it of war called for an increased production, and the output
of '(,rtain mines increased 15 per cent. There was great rivalry
A;iong the mining companies, and secondary concessions hitherto
alR il'.tlold we\(re put into openition once more.
At tHie beginning of August the coal production seemed to have
r.;icl1,ld its niiiiniu. and all differences between miners and mine
o\nor .- were iuijothlied over by a rise in wages, which was compen-
?s:tied by an iinrt'a>e in the price of coal and in the cost of living.
Difficulties in Metal-Working Industries-Allocation of Raw Metal.
Durinii, t2i:. first there i months of 1918 the iron and steel industries
w'i' p'- l.tl\ ,:mliiicappld, owina to a scarcity of raw material aris-
ii',, fI','ii tI', tti ,Snportation crisis. A deficiency of electric motive
p),,vti frills tlir, to shut down one or two days per week, and
thle -t'.i .1 i workr- (di'mianded and obtained from the Minister of
A. i:iuints a '1ri.I prviling that during every period of unem-
pli,\ iiyt'l tliy I' 1i0ii 1i 'r a minimum of 110 hours per fortnight.
A a lre:n'ly \-t,,,. l larg-e number of small factories had to close,
aim'l ti1. Miii-tir (itf Arilnin.r-nts told their representatives who went r
to I';ris tli:ht it wvi- bltiely impossible to furnish the necessary
]I-et-il. a iin t:hat thc proportion' of available war material greatly sur-
pls-,d tlhe arK n.1l f;'1l'.
Du)irinm tlhe 'v;ir thi ( 'omnpagnie Electro-Metallurgique de Froges
built a mill iat Lu ('haminbln-Feiierolles, near St. Etienne, for the
prod, tion of electric -t'-e. Tli. I olt industry centered in Le Cham-
bon-Feogerollcs wa, short of rolled iron, and bolts had to be im-





.':.




- I


FPIRANCE-ST. ETIENNE. 13

ported from England. The continual rise in the price of bolts in-
duced the manufacturers to form a group in Paris to tditributite
among the manufacturers the necessary rolled iron allotted by the
Government to the bolt and screw industry.
Toward the end of March the outlook was moii're favorable, a:ndl raw
material reached the larger mills in normal quantities. Orders in-
creased and gave ri-se to great optimism ; they were re,,rvcd for mills
which pledged theniselves unconditionally to work for the Govern-
ment after the war. whether for the. reconstruction of the liberated
regions or, generally speaking, for the economic resurrection of the
whole country.
Progress in Post-War Transformation of Factories.
The armistice put an end to munition work, and the attention of
every manufacturer wa. concentrated on changing his plant for
post-war production. All of the industries in the neighborhood of
St. Etienne which were engaged on munitions have returned to
their pre-war work. More enterprising firms are in many cases not
only taking up their former lines, hut also others which are quite
new to them, in'al endeavor to capture trade formerly held by rival
countries. ()ne such indu-try at St. Etienne. in an attempt to meet
American competition, is organizing the mannuficture of farm
tractors and other faiminiig implements. There is a plan in pr execution to transform the Government ordnance works in St.
Etienne for the manufacturer of typewriters, numbering machines,
and shotguns. A firm of ;niroplane motor mainuf:ut'lers are turn-
ing over their prc-v ar trade of mech:lnial construction and mo-
tors for oil-burnimng vessels. A biceyle fi11r propos:.-s to 1i1m:ke motor
cycles, an d another company has added railway equipment, and ma-
terial to its pre-war p)rolgram.
The large rolling mills in the Department of the Loire intend to
increase their prod!ctiun by builling blast furnaces in this region.
These furnaces h;ad di -appearedl from the Department, others having
been ereted in ti te rich ore .eCthion- of northern and eastern France.
The problem whieli has Invier been solved is. whether it is better to be
near the coal or n-ar tlie Ore. It is proposed by soilnii that the
foundries in the North -hall treat the ore and send it down heie to
be converted into pig iron.
Economic Conditions.
Thle CAst of living increased steadily during 191S. anld. on a maxi-
mum price Ibing fixed, butter anml eggs di-app-cared fir:iii tlie market
entirely aid were sold only in ,cret'. Duilring the suti mer the trans-
port cri'-is ca(Instled scriou- foodi shortage; the bread ration was re-
duced one-half (150) gramm.in-e per head. instead of' .(10), but this
measure -wasT ,nlv toeli lprar. Another crisis occurlrcd in Sep)telmbri',
and the liprobl-m of feeding St. Etienuie l)Ir'.-tll'dtl great difficulties
throughout the aittiumn.
The ieneoii aging new\-; from thle front :iugurtied well for the war
lonn. but there was lit) no mlil'fiition in tlie general economic situation.
The epidemic of influeiiz:i in Novemi'mber created a lhorriageC of labor.
In the industrial circles which were not ready for after-war produc-
tion the news of the arwistioe caused great efforvescence. as they
were daily expecting : canceling of their orders for raw material,
They were preparing to( diismi.s their workmen, but hopes were en-




- -


.14 Sl'PPLEiMEKNT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

tertained that thi-, trrainsitory period would be short-lived and would
lead to no gr1rat loss.. ()nl tile whole, the laboring population pre-
served it, habit., of thlrii't :nd economy; and according to savings-
bank statiti- St. Etienne ranks third in all France in its savings de-
posits.
Labor Conditions-Wage Increases Fatal to Small Industries.
The ye, r l 191 began in this region with considerable labor unrest,
:and during the first weeks, the military authorities saw fit to recall
the younger military classes from the various mills and factories
where they had been mobilized, in order to relieve the congested state
of labor in this district. A decrease in Government orders also re-
sulted in the di:-missal of several thousand women workers.
There was great nervousness among the coal miners, who demanded
a higher co-t-of-living allowance than that accepted by mine workers
in other panits of France; an agreement with the mine owners gave
them entire satisfaction, and they decided to accept a supplementary
allow:ince if 3.75 francs ($0.72) per day from January 1.
The continual rie in the cost of living wa. met by a corresponding
increa-.e in wages in the war munitions industries; the last increase
impose by the Government averaged from 20 to 25 per cent over the
wage ,l,edulle of June, 1918. This wage increase, added to the un-
emplh)i llit indemnities, compelled the .smaller industries to close
tdot lln 1one Ufter another, and only the larger establishments were in a
po-ition to execute the orders for the new aviation program.
Production, Consumption, and Export of Ribbons and Piece Goods.
Stall itics issud by the St. Etienne Ribbon Manufacturers' Associa-
tion -hovw ain increased ribbon output for 1917. An unusual feature
of (li, indlutry in 1918 was the unprecedented increase in the pro-
Ilnrtion of articles made wholly of cotton and artificial silk, in which
are in mludedt many articles manufactured for war purposes.
The value of the production of silk and velvet, ribbons and silk
piece goods in 191S is estimated at 176,460.212 francs ($34,050,259, at
normal exchminge), an increase of 56,796,236 francs ($10,961,674) over
the pr-cedinli year. This increased value in the production is due
entirely to tlhe stVady rise in the cost of labor and raw materials
nec-n.:laryI to t hbe i, du.stries; the quantity of the output does not
exceed tint o normi-il yers.
T ,i valmii o0' tHin home consmiiption i-, given as 9!3,776,483 francs
($1.S,9s..'i. 1), in which i included the amount produced by manu-
fiuctiirer, oiitsiile of St. Etienne, about 11,761,600 francs ($2,969,-
!IM5) T.he direct exports of ribbons in 191S were valued at 82,649 729
fran<- ($15.9'51,39 ), an increase of 32,.346.170 francs ($6,242,811F.
TheI'i following statement how.-, the production, home consumption,
and exports of the different varieties of silk and velvet ribbons, silk
piece goods, etc., in 1918:

A I ir-ci PronJiction. Homecon- Exports.
sumplion.
,T. r Tir N'F.
Ribbons.
sillk- Francs. Francs Francs.
DiacIl;.................................................. !-,615,,747 7,202,994 7,325,763
Black. mixe ....... .................................... D;.3Q, 742 3,745,742 3,194,000
PlAin colored ... .................................. 40.391), 0.7 19,.949,474 20,546,613
'l.un coloril. 11ixel ................................ 11,662,030 s,2S5 ,773 6,376,257
Farn y................................................ 7, q77, 00 2,953, fiO 5,024,200
Fanwi y, n I\ .......................................... 8, 2,300 3,140,300 5,822,000
Ti 3, mi x I ........................................... 4 0S7 42,087 6,000









FRANCE-ST. ETIENNE. 15


Art ieds. Production. [r. Epiuric

ST. ETIENNR-Continued.
Ribbons-Continued.
Velvet- Fra ncs. Fr.iri r. Fr, cs.
Sa ilu el; ........................................... I 4I''. n(r, -; ; .7, :,
Satin l,:-, k, mi xeJ .................................... 3, I11, lI.'. "1 217 1,.7 7,.i11
T -ill'c t..'- lac'-k ......................................... I12 1. li' 7i.t l .,
T till t:i b.,'i:. n i\ ............................. ..... 4 4-1 N-10- 2, 1, '111;
Silk trim m ings ....................................... I -'3, M ." jI1 "ii I?., U'iui
H at han ds ........................................... '1 :111 3. li, I. .1,7. ,71, i
E lostic .............................................. 4. =.4 % I 1,1 l.S, 5 ",.1.. 1. Ii1ii'1
Silk piece gools .............................................. I.I... l .............. Il Il
Silk pieoe gono-i m ixed ....................................... 1 ( "i, S .... X" oiii I;, ri, ni,,iiI)
Articles wholly of cotton ..................................... '.21. 11.4,'42 10, 4.7, 42 1'2, 7. :,,1111
Articles wholly ofarti cial silk ............................ ... :.. !.'.., .ii 1, 73 R.,ltIJ 1, I ; .
Total, St. Etienne................................... ... 1 2',' .2 ,S2.014," : 0,..14 17-
ourT.iT,: QT. TIENNIE.
Elastic ti.su .f' ... ................................ ... .. 7, 1, 7 .0 S.,'7.5 O iO .-., (IiO
A ll other 3rri,:.]es ............................................ l. 1.ry .'0 2, 6, 1, )1 1, 1l11".57;0
Grind total............................................ I ,. 421 ., 212 I -3. 77N ..4 3 S'2,. 1,7L 29
Grand tot j, U1 l7 ....................................... l l'..t2.'.1, 76 w',3J'2 417 51i:,3J ,; j 33

Principal Increases in Silk Manufactures-Raw Silk Trade.
A comnpari.son of th,1 f'ori'illig statistics with corre-ponding figures
for the preledingo year uli-clises increased v. alre- in the production of
certain article-, ais follows: Black ribbons, -ilk. pure and mixed.
8,261,874 francs; plain colior.ed ribbons, .ilk, pulre and mixed, 2.,-
012,487 francs; fancy ribboi-h s, -ilk. pure and mixed, -.49- I).014 fra nes;
tafletas back pure and mixed velvet. 809, 154 francs; lihat ban lds,
1,427,:.';10 franc-; ela-tic, 1.i !)7,000 franic-; bilk piee goods, 8.,O I.ir1)
franc-. nrticles imad wholly of motion, 10,1<,F3,_9"2- fraInc.. Silk
trimmniings show ;a -1ecre:n-e of 4,10 .l611l frances.
The St. Etienitne silk ,<.'hi- litioening hl -e regis-ereed 13.445 bales, or
* 1,697,490 pounds of raw .ilk dll-in,! 1918, ;n increa-e of 3.,14-4 bal14.
or 377.8-21 p iounds, as L.onip)ari.d. with the pi)eediiniri, year. The
following stfiternent 'l.ows thie number of pound'. of silk conditionedd
and weihed in the St. Etienne con,.nitioninfg hio',ie (durin, 1l17 and
1918. rtepectively: Org'anzines. 541.314 and 7-".,.'-'0- : train. 2-)31.747
and 3.3,S2-'2 raw. 4S!Y)70.s a ndi 5 It :iU' I ;,5 ; other, -,0'iO aInd .82I;
total, 1.31).(fi69 and 1.697.4A 0.
Declared Exports to United States.
According to invoices certified at thi-, consulate in 19l;. a decrease
of $817,609 from the 1917 total is :-liown in the value of the declared
exports from St. Etienne to tlhe TlUnited States.. Thle principal articles
and their value during these tw, o years are given in the following
table:

Artlie s. 1917 191S, .\r1iic:.. I l1l7 19I.i

Antimony. sulphurated..... 52, 091 ,e;7,272 R.1ill.it skins........................... r74,907
Belting ......... ........... 16,176 I I'.,622 Riblioji"
Cheese..................... 59S, 7s.3 27.:3, 7'J Silk .................... ?'... 71 16,71S
Fruits. preserved ............ l-'S 5,71' VclI et.................. i -'.. l 117,719
Gloves...................... 6' ..3'45 t19.; 37 Rull.,or. reclaim ed ........... ".,,72' 32,457
G lue ........................ 12,361 9" \' llvet stuI ............. ... 1I21.. .49 17, '*63
Hides and skins for glove- W \Veavers' supplHe ........... .11, ,27 2.4,935
m anking.. .................. 6 142 13.9' 9 All utli r.................... .594, ';" 22,477
Lace ....................... 327,7S4 I 194,"35 I--
M mushroom s, dried ........... 19, .1 ......... Tutal................. 2,2 ,' 1 1,471,7
Paper....................... 16,161 5,0j3 i
a








16 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

There were no exports declared to the insular possessions of the
United States (Itduring 1917 and 1918.
A coimpariion of the total exports from the St. Etienne consular
district to the United States for the past four years is as follows:
1915. 1.46(1 invoices, value $3,073.114; 1916, 1,319 invoices, value $3,
159.321: 1917, ,07 invoices, value $2.289.361, 1918, 427 invoices value
$1.471,75"2.
Import Trade with the United States.
The drastic import restrictions greatly handicapped the efforts
to extend American trade in this consular district during 1918, and
the regulations, decrees, and consortium so complicated the situa-
tion that prospective, willing, and even anxious buyers of Ameri-
can goods do not know where they stand. In spite of these hind-
rances.the outlook is bright. During the year 1918 American goods
valI1ed at 220,770 francs ($42,609 at normal exchange) were imported
direct from American manufacturers as follows: Vulcanized fiber,
for the cutlery industry at Thiers, 170,000 francs ($32,810) ; belting
leather, 42.,000 francs ($8,106); shoes, 8,770 francs ($1,693). Ef-
forts were made to place additional orders for 50.000 francs' ($9,650)
worth of shoes, but the American manufacturer failed to reply to
the offer.
If American firms wish to capture the French business formerly
controlled by Germany they should endeavor to grant reasonable
credit terms and agree to shipments c. i. f. French ports, with pay-
ments against sight drafts, instead of requiring a deposit of cash in
a New York bank before the shipment is made.

DIEPPE AGENCY.
By Consular Agent Frederick Fnirblinks.
General trade in Dieppe region during 1918 was good. the pres-
e1(ne of Allied troops in large numbers being instrumental in main-
taining tih prosperity of the preceding year.
Good Year for Fisheries-Shipping and Commerce.
The financial returns of thli fishing industry surpassed all records
in the history of the port. The total value of the year's catch was
10,70-,755 francs ($2,065,632). of which herring alone were valued
at 4,177,172 francs ($806,194). A factor that contributed largely
to this result was the presence of a number of boats (principally
Belgian) that, were foreign to the port. These boats brought in
fish to the value of 3,667,957 francs ($707,916).
Port statistics show that, 2,598 vessels of 1,098,875 tons net, carry-
ing 26,640 metric tons of merchandise, cleared from the port of
Dieppe in 1918, as against 2,213 vessels of 1,077,547 net tonnage,
carrying 30,439 metric tons of freight, during 1917. The entrances
comprised 2,580 vessels of a net tonnage of 1,100,903, bringing 1,632,-
05N metric tons of merchandise, as against 2,198 vessels of 1,073,783
tons, carrying 1,64-,289 metric tons of merchandise, in 1917. No
further statistics are available as detailed tables are no longer pub-
lished. The foregoing figures include the imports for military
purposes.


------ --- ---;--------- "'~~









FRANCE-ST. ETIENNE. 17

Declared Exports to the United States-Market Prices.
No exports to the United States were declared at this agency
during 1918, nor were any invoices certified for shipments to Porto
lRico, Hawaii, or the Philippines.
The year's crops were fairly good. The prices of market produce
rose during the year, the most noticeable differences being as fol-
lows: Rabbits began the year at 7 to 12 francs and finished at 15
to 20 francs apiece; cabbages began at 5 francs and finished at
15 to 18 francs per dozen: carrots began at 20 francs and finished
at 25 to 30 francs per 100 kilograms. The following table gives the
highest, lowest, and average prices fur the year 191S, a.s computed
from the weekly returns:

Market prkies during 191s.
Comuraolndirv.
!iilh Low. Average.

Franc Fr .. Francs..
Cheeses, per 100 .................. .................................. 75. U 30.0) 53. 70
Chickens. es.h ........ .......... ... .... .. ............. .... ...... .. 00 7.01 13. 0'0.
Rabbits, each.................... ...................................... '.01' 7.i u 14. ";'
Pigeons, pair....................... .................................. 7. o1 6F.0 I. 52
Potatoes, per 100 kilo3- .................................................... ,0. fi 40.00 51. .1
Butter, per kilo ..................................... ..................... 11.,0 7.on 9. _2
Eggs, per 100.................................................. ....... 51.,1 "3.1.0 34-.41
Cabbages, dno en.............. ......................................... 1 1 N 5.fi 1. I N
Du ks. ea h ................................. ............................ l i :. 7. i l In _
GCpee, each ................................... ....................... 25. .10 12. 11 17. .0
Turkevs. each ........................................................... .. I i 1 221..0
Carrots. per i] n kilos ............................... ..... .... ........ 1i1 6.'14
Leeks. per bun -h ....................................................... 75 .7%
T urnips. per 100 ......................................................... 2.:. (.' :0 On :;. 5
Dried beans, liter ...................... .................................. 2. 2.0)

Municipal Retailing-Community Health, Vital Statistics.
The miaxinuniiu retail prices of meals having been fixed by the
municipality, the butlchers itI thle town claimed that it iwai, impol -siblle
to make any profit at Itliwe price:-. h'l'reipon the minunicipality de-
cided to run a butcher h.Iop of iti oiIwn to ascertain if ulich was tilhe
case. The undertaking was '-ui'li a success that a municipal grocery
store was opened for the sale of certain products. The result w\as
a net profit from the two concerns of about 2:5,001) francs ($4.825)
during the year.
With the exception (if the epildeiuiic of influenza which Dieppe
suffered, with the rest of the world, the health of tile town w:is ex-
cellent. The number of births regi:steredi was 57S, as a ains-t 531
during 1917. The total of deaths was 1,04S4. as against 711 in 19)17,
the increase being prestu mably due to the inflimenza. As in former
reports, tlie de-is incllue ti.:-W .I;tII'li.r- in lhopital :111nd those of
persons brought to the town hospital from tlhe surrounding country.
Ferry Service Inaugurated-First Arrival of American Vessel.
On February 02. 191., a cross--channcle ferryboat service was in-.
augurated. Although installed Ly the British authorities for mili-
tary purposes. the project of such a ferr-, hlad been under considera-
tion for many years. .*coniipnlly ws formoled fill tile object of cx-
ploiting this ferry after tlie war for tlhe rapid tr;iiisporta:tion of
merchandise, especially of 0 pi ri 'bld e 0 iodl Tle ferryboat can
steam 18 knots and has a carrying capacity of 1,000 tons.








18 SUPPL-.MlENT TO COMMEPRE REPORTS.

The American ste:iiilship Lassell, of New York, P. A. Jorgensen,
master, arrived on Septeimber 2S. This was the first American steam-
ship to enter the port of Dieppe. The captain and the chief engineer
were received by the local authorities at the Town Hall and were
presented with souvenir medals of the event.

BREST.
By Consul Sam ple B. Forbus.
The con-.ular district of Brest, France, comprises the three De-
partinents of Finistere, Cotes du Nord, and Morbihan, having an
area of 13,363 square miles and a population of 1,551,000. Brest,
with an estimated population of 110,000, is the largest city and the
only port of importance in the district. Lorient, a small port in the
Department of Morbihan, is next in size, with a population of 45,000.
Agricultural Products-Fish Canneries.
The Brest district is essentially an agricultural section, the chief
crops being potatoes, fresh vegetables, and fruits. Barley, wheat,
and hay crops are grown, but only in quantities sufficient for local
consumption. During normal times potatoes and fresh produce,
such as strawberries, cauliflower, onions, and artichokes, are exported
to England. But in 1918, as well as other years of the war, exports
of food stuffs were prohibited and the surplus products were requisi-
tioned by the Government.
Fishing, for canning purposes., and for selling fresh, forms the
second largest occupation in this section. The only manufacturing
industry of any importance is the canning of sardines and other fish.
The following table shows the comparative production of the dif-
ferent varieties of canned fish in this district for 1917 and 1918:

1917 1919

Quantity. Value. Quauity. I Value.

Pouads. France. Pounds. Francs.
Sardines............... ...... ..... (;078.455 6,470.10-2 3,?03,296 4,353,959
Splats ................................................. 41,090 19, 5 ) 16,720 15,200
M ackerel............................................. 130,724 11F-, F 9 577,613 533,582
Tunny. ........................................ .. .. ,44.3 13?, 199. 345,728 925,451

During 1918, a; well as in other war years, the canning industry
was hampered by a shortage of tin and of labor and by a short catch
due to the continued withdrawal of fishermen into the military serv-
ice. The exportation of canned fish. along with other edibles, was
prohibited.
Throughout 1918 the district enjoyed unusual prosperity. This
was largely due to the exceptional demand of the American Army
camp.-, in this part of France for all manner of fresh vegetables and
farm products. Prices of eggs, milk, poultry, butter, and fresh vege-
tables more than doubled during 1918, and the supply of these arti-
cles was entirely inadequate to meet the deiuand even at the exorbi-
tant rate, prevailing.
Movement of Shipping.
Until the beginning of 1916 the port of Brest was important only
as a coastwise harbor, and the chief part of its shipping was; cornm-










FRANCE-BREST. 19

posed of local and co-)atinz trallie. In thle latter part of 1915. tilt
Russian Goverlnlntl. iJaii Bret a forwardnij i ha-i f'or- w:tr ini'te-
rials. With the beginniiil" of 191; tlie -liij'ri:: al.io-t IIldoubled alnlll
Brest became a trans-Atlantic port of th- iihi.t inIlil'prt:InI>C. 'h, 1 i-
sian shipments cel,-ed with the fall of th-- Ca(rs ('Go -innint, but
Brest retained it- po 'iti-n becatI-ue of the e-tal.li-hmont of imlportatif.
Anmerican Army andl Nav v Ir-t :tit (lii pjort iIl th1k' litttTr part 11f
1917. Brc.-.t w'as thl c-hif (o'hn rkati', n pilt and, after tli, a:rnlistice,
the cli ef elbarkat o1011 port in Fr:illec fr A i t'rivlanl tro')o -, and (1 ;-t
quantities of United States Ar y Nay an Navy ppliets were shippe V
through Brest. In addition to thi-, traffic. whavy iniportation \were
made in 1918 through Bre-t from the United States, and thit're wa-,
considerable shipping from other cointrie-, a- well.
The following table ,hows the niovenment in the port of Brest for
the three pre-war year; of 1911, 191"2, and 1913, as compared with
the three war years of 191G, 1!17, and 1918:
I, Tnnau ofrgo.
Tonnage oI "arg,. Trnnae of argo.
Year. ---------- I Year.
Enteire.I. Cleared. Tnotal. En-red. Cleared. Total.

1911 ..... ... ...... 474,37 \1,997 ti ., 1 1916 ........ .. :4,2"0 309, 81s 1,133,no0t
1912................ ,)j9,. 9 ISI, .7 1 1, 1 r,' 1917 ...... ......... 9111, 176 24: ,422 1, 15 _,- .q,19
1913................ 19.3,550 193,175 t,' ,725 1918 ................ I, ''iti,7. 9 14, ,2'5 1,191,994

Import Statistics.
The chief imports through the port of Brest in 1918 were from the
United States and consisted largely of oils and foodstuffs, chiefly
bulk grain. The following table -how., the tonnage of different arti-
cles imported from various uouiitltie-, through the port of Brest in
1918, as compared with 1917 and with the pre-war year 1913:

Articles and countries, of o!ig:n. 191 1917 1918

T,r.:s. Tor-. Tons.
Meat.,, cold -toragc .................................................... .......... 1,511 2,017
A rgen'ina ....... ........... ..................... .......... 1 7 ..........
united KIingdom ...................... ... .... ... .................. ....... .. 1,314 1, 10L
U nu ie'd S tate; ................... .................................... .......... ..........
Salt pork ................. ...................................... .......... 431 1, 4-0
Canada. ...... ........ ................. .... ........ .......... 90 1 10
U united State, ................... .................................. ... .... 341 3, .10
Lard, United States........... ................................ .......... 54 I, ISt
Milk, con,.e'n Jel, United State;.... ...... .................. ......... 3,774 M)
Fish pre; r-ved in oil.................................. I .. ....... .......... 455
Canada ............ ... ... ....................................... ..... ....... .......... 417
Poi rugal............................................... ... ......... ........ 3.
Grain':
W heat ...... .. ....... ............... .. ............. ',977 7, 9 67, 123
A roontinvi-and .\nstralia .......................................... 1 1-' IS 432 15, 1b.?
C an alda .. ............................... .......... .. .... ... ... .........
United Kingdo ................................................17 ......... 1,817 ..
U cited t S ............ ......... .. ........... .. ... .. ....... 1, 4. 9 17.400 51, 461
Oats ......... ..... ................. ...... ..... ....... ........ -11 21,5I1
CA lg ria .n. T uni i .................... ..................... ........ ..... ,71
1Uni tei States. ............ ... ............ ...... ........ 11 1, -':3
Barley ........ ... ........ ............ .... ......... .................. 7, ,
Fiench Africa...................... .7 .. i 3,282
C an ad tea ............. .... ...... .... .. ... .... ......... ...... 5, 332
U ni tic State s... .. .... ..... .............. .. .. .. .. .... ........ 9,931
R Fe, U n h citedd Sta .................................................... ..... .......... 3,322
Corn, Unied States. ..... ........... ....... .. ....... ................. 13,092
Flour and meal.
W heat.... .. .................. ....... ................. .......7, 7 72, 13
Canada. .... ............. .. .. ... .. ... 710
..Uni.e. Sta.es. 7.7.... G.,
Oat, United States............. .... .......... ..... ... ... ...... ....... 219
Rye, United SlI.es................ ................ ... ....... ... ..... ..... .. 1,475
Corn meal, Un .-A States.. .............. ..................... ......... .......... 526











20 SUPPLENIMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


Articles and countries of origin. 1913 1917 1918

Tons. Tons. Tons.
M alt, U united S natc ........................................ ....... .. ... .. ........ 1,086
Oatmeal, United States ............................................ .......... .......... 433
R ice. U united State......... .... ... .............. ...................... .......... 5,445 814
Vegetalle.,dried, Central Empires ....................................... 30 .......... 1,377
Tolaccolearc. ..................... .................................... .......... .......... 1,978
Colom ia ................................................ ....... .......... .......... 863
United State ...................... ............................... .......... .... ...... 1,115
Tar:
Mineral, United Kingdom........................................... 5,166 4,323 3,037
Vegetable ......... ................................................ 451 80 235
R us.ia................................................................ ...... 80 235
Sweden........................................................... 454 ..................
Aluminui n, crude, United States................................................. .......... 242
Coke, United Kingdom ............................................................ .......... 3,599
Coal .................................................................... 146,475 408,758 355,179
Gr.rmanI ............... ..... ............... ......................... 3,300 ..... .. ..........
ini tel Kingdom .................................................... 14), 175 406,072 354,903
United States ....................................................... .......... 2,086 216
Lumber, building..................................................... 19,316 16,051 12,283
Canada............................ ....... .......... .... ...... .. ..... 5,027 ........
Ruf sia................................................................ 9,609 3,978 9,416
Sweden .............................................................. 6,504 .......... ..........
United States ....................................................... 3,203 7,046 2,869
Kero eneand petroleum, United States.................................. ............. 5,374
Oil. mineral, heavy...................................................... 172 15,CS2 131,070
H us in ............................................................... 106 .......... .......
United Kingdom ..................................................... 10 ......... 11,996
United States ....................................................... 56 15,682 119.074
Ferro silicon, United Kingdom........................................... .......... .......... 293
Iron ore. .............................................. ......... .. ... .. ...... .... .. 2,750
Iron aud steel products:
ars ............ ..................................................... .......... 132,632 71,436
United K ingdom ................................................. .......... 50,358 8,158
United States.................................................... s2,274 03,280
Machine i teel, United States......... ................ ........... .. .. ....... .......... 430
Sheet steel............................................................ .......... 8,375 13,442
Snitled Kingdom ................................................ .......... 7,217 5,979
United States.................................................. ......... 1.158 7,463
Galvani-ed iron, United States. ............ ......................... ... ... .... 09
Rail steel, United States. ............ ............ ............... ............... 9,493
Rails, iron, United States.......................... .................. .. 4,456
W hfeel. locom otive ................................................... .......... 576 2,371
TUnited Kingdom ............... ............................. .... ...... ... 90 901
United States............................................................. 4SG 1,470
Copper, crude, United State; ............................................. 17,035 4,783
Copper bars and sheets, United States.................................... .......... .......... 399
Zinc, crudeaud plates, United States.............................................. 1,6S7 597
N icl- l ore, New Caledonia............................................... .......... .......... 039
M angane, Fore, Spain.................................................. .. .......... .... ...... 2,492
Salt, -.a, Portugal........................................................ .......... .......... 1,016
Chemian.l fertilizers:
Suliphite of ammonia, United Kingdom .................................... .. .......... 1,348
N itrate of soda, Chile................................................. .......... 34,870 21,830
Other ............................................................... 1,947 .......... 1,527
Belgium ................. ... ................................... 1,176 .......... .........
T uniia ...... ..................................................... ... .......... 1,023
U united Kingdom ................................................. 771 .......... 504
Chemical p oil hurts not having an alcoholic base................................... .......... 3,276
U united K ingdom ........................ ..... ... ................. .......... .......... 2,211
U united Stat-es ........................................................ .......... .......... 1,065
Pieric acid, U nited States................................................ .......... ......... 875
Tapioca*
Crude, Ur ited States................................................. .......... .......... 426
Crushed, United States ............................ .................. .......... .......... 168
utomnioliles:
Assembled, United States ............................................ .......... ......... 852
Una;emr hled, United States.......................................... .......... .......... 1,773
Railway cars, United States.............................................. .......... .......... 383
M atch sticks, Ru;-ia ............. ......................................... .......... 46S 359
L obsters............................. ..................................... 8 .......... .. .......
United Kingdom ........... ...................................... 34 .....34..... ..........
All other countries ..................... .... ...... ...................... 54 .......... ..........
Potatoes, Germ any....................................................... 63 .......... ..........
Raiint, Spain....................... ..................... .............. 25 .......... .........
Olive oil, Spain and Tunis.................. ........................... 9 .......... ..........
Sardines, Portugal....................................................... 11 .......... ..........
Old rags. Germany .................... ...................................... 91 .......... ..........
Chemnicalcellulose paste .................................................. 96 232 ..........
Germany....................... ........................ ..... ........ 96 .......... ..........
United States, ................. .... ..................................... .... 232 ..........
Silphlate, natural ........................... .................... 10,186 1,433 .........
Belcium and Tunis........ ......... ....... ............. 10,186. ........... ..........
Algeria ............................................................ ........... 1,433 ..........
Pyritec. Spain ....... ................. .. ............................. 11,565 13,169 ..........




*.q.**-


FRANCE-BREST.


Articles and countries of urigin.


1913.


191


Tons. Toi
Lim e, Belgium .......................................................... 2, IS ..
Machines and metal articles ............................................. 12,
Germ anvand Sweden ................................................ 41 .....
United Kingdom ...................................................... 141 1
U united States ....................................................... .......... 1


7.



2101
,970'
,219


1918.

Tons.


In addition, the following articles were imported into Bret in
1917 which were not. represented in the imports for 1913 or 11.s:


Articles and countries of origin.


H orses...................................
U united St-trs ........ ............
All other' c until iIs. ...... .........
Canned nmelits. 'nt' .d '.] .............
E gg-, R u4il .... .... ..... ...........
Salmon, canned, Canada................
Codfish, Nevfoiudlhndl ................
Lobster, canned, Canada...............
Prunes, United .tare;...................
Lentils, Riu.ia .........................
Sugar, rcfincd and other ..........
M arl iq '! .... ..
United States........ ............ .


To ns.
I i 1 153
1I I.,.9 \')
I 'I, I|
271 '
1

91 nI -

1, -99
1,314
7.5


Art icI F and c jiLn rs 'O( origin.


T'oet -r.d, RT .ia. ......................
C., ife Bra ..........................
C u t [t )I] .. .. .. ..... ... .. .. ..... ..
United Kingldom .................. .
I'n i ted taitr .......................
! ,.:, R ,L,.ia ...........................
'cinp, R us-ia ..........................
.-Slphiur, impure, Spain ................
Mh ,,i f ,r e-aLsting ......................
I :urid Ki rgdom ....................
L nied tat ...... .. .. ........
Wire. gal' anized ir.)n, Umnitd u t .... .


I Nunji..r of head.

The result of the war in increa',ing the tri',ic of the port of Brest
and in building up trade with the United States is clearly -d.emon-
strated in the foregoing statistic,. Before the war practically no
imports from the United States came through Bre.t. During the
war tlie greater part of all inlp lorts thrtvigih Bre4t eninme from the
United States. The tables above further indicate the ihai 'rp change
in the kind of goods entered at this port, from a pre-war import
largely composed of citeinicall-, ltuimer, and co:Al to the wartime neces-
sities of foodstuffs. metals, lumber, and coal. Large quantities of
wines came from Algeria in 1013 and 1917. but there were no imports
of wine in 1918. Among the 1917 imports from Algeria is also listed
a quantity of pure alcohol.
Export Trade Chiefly with United Kingdom.

The normal export trade of Brest before the war was of minor
importance. and the United Kingdolm -;-. the chief country of des-
tination. Thi. continued to be true throughout the war. The follow-
ing table drives the kinds and quantities of goods exported from Birest
to Great Britain for the years 1013. 1!17. an,!' 191.:


Articles.


I'13 1917 191'4


Arliclel.e


I'1.1 1917 I -. q


Too.i. T n .I on To rs i L, ,s.. yTo; }..
B ones .................. ..... .. 11 ... ..... ................ .. .. 21
Fruit, fresh ............. 77 ........ ........ R a ............... .... ... ... 419
Iron p. itcs ............. 7,727 "7,iV.3 J1,77., i 'iv.Co*i .......... ... ................. 4.3
Tron, scrap......... ..... 461 2,223 1i 7 t i. :. f h ...... ........ ... .

Exports from Brest. to countries other than tlie Unitel Kif ldom
and the United States for the years under disci,-sin i' coiipried 35S
tons of oak lumber shipped to Mladagae-ar in 1'13, and 150 tons of
.empty wine barrels sent to Portugal in 1917.


1917

Turns.
221
527

1.1, ",i
"i,
517
1,7927


3. 1


~~ -~- ~ ~- -


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SUPPLEMNIENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


Declared Exports to the United States.
The value of articles declared at this consulate for export to the
United States during 1918 was $22.917, as compared with $99,425
during 1917. The principal items in 1918 were: French moss,
$12.788, as colampared with $1:2.888 in 1917; gunny bagging, $7,953;
and old inanila ropes, $2,175. No shipments of the last two items oc-
curred in 1917. The larger total value of declared exports in 1917
as compared with 1918 is in part due to shipments of champagne,
glue stock, mushrooms, personal effects, etc., which are not regularly
exported from this district. Government export restrictions in 1918
prevented the usual export of sardines, which were shipped to the
United States in 1917 to the value of $28,450; and also prohibited the
shipment of old rags, an item which in the export return of 1917
amounted to $18,167.
Labor Conditions-High Prices and Scarcity of Food.
Except for a few fish-canning plants, there are no commercial in-
dustries in the Brest district. Government work,; include powder
plants, French Navy arsenal, and shipyards. The canning industry
suffered during 1918 from shortages of labor, tin, and packing oil,
and a short catch of fish due to fewer fishermen. These conditions 4
were brought about entirely by the war.
During 1918, both before and after the armistice, there were sev-
eral local strikes involving the street railway employees, stevedores,
arsenal and powder workers, and the smaller trades. The stevedores
and arsenal workers dominate the industrial labor situation in this
district, and when they went on strike the other trades usually took
similar action.
Since thle beginning of thlie war and continuing after the armistice,
the shortage of farm labor and of labor for various trades, both
skilled and unskilled, hias been acute, and it is expected that even
complete demobilization will not entirely remedy the situation.
High prices and scarcity of both manufactured articles and farm
and poultry products accompanied the labor shortage. The food
situation wasn made more acute by the presence of the American
Army, Navy, and relief organizations established in this district.
Tlhe attempt of the municipality to fix maximum sale prices for farm
products, and fish only caused the produce to disappear from the
market.
No new bank.-, manufacturing industries, nor commercial organi-
zations were established in the Brest district during 1918.
Shortage of Pure-Bred Stock.
Because of the agricultural character of the Brest district, live
stock, particularly horses and cattle, are a prime necessity. Abund-
ant pasturage throughout the district encourages cattle. raising. At
the present, time there is an excellent opportunity for the introduc-
tion of live stock here, especially pure-bred stock. During the war
the quantity of horses and cattle decreased and the quality of the A
stock deteriorated; so that there is now an urgent, need for replenish-
ing the supply. Because of the food scarcity, cows, bulls, and some
horses were slaughtered. The quantity of draft horses was steadily
reduced by periodic military requisitions. The Brest district is :

I'








FRANCE-BREST. 23

facing a serious shortage in live stock of all kinds, but particularly
milch cows and draft horses.
Stock raisers and agricultural associations in this di-trict are.
actively interested in the importation of live stock for tln' purpl:,e
of improving the size of draft animals and to securec :a good l.breed of
milk-producing cattle.


WAS IINCTON : GOVERNMENT PRINT ING OFFICE : 1019




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

i1111 II 11111n111111 lH I I Unomll 1 mN ll ll
3 1262 08485 1830|




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