Supplement to Commerce reports

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Title:
Supplement to Commerce reports daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce
Uniform Title:
Commerce reports
Volume title page for -<1920>:
Supplements to Commerce reports : review of industrial and trade conditions in foreign countries in ... by American consular officers
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Daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce
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6 v. : ; 24-26 cm.
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English
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United States -- Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce
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Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Dept. of Commerce
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Washington, D.C
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Commerce -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
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federal government publication   ( marcgt )
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Additional Physical Form:
Also available in electronic format.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with issue for Jan. 8, 1915?; ceased with issue for Dec. 31, 1920?
Numbering Peculiarities:
Each issue covers an individual country and bears a number corresponding to that country. Reports from the various consular districts in a country are distiguished by the addition of a letter (66a, 66b, 66c, etc.), in the order in which they are issued.
Numbering Peculiarities:
Issue no.52f, 1919, contains misprint, November 41.
General Note:
Title from caption.
General Note:
"Annual series."

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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 004822593
oclc - 16390134
sobekcm - AA00005307_00004
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System ID:
AA00005307:00004

Related Items

Preceded by:
Daily consular and trade reports (Washington, D.C. : 1910)
Succeeded by:
Trade and economic review for ..

Full Text




SUPPLEMENT TO 22 0

COMMERCE RE RTSf
)f DAILY CONSULAR AND TRADE REPORTS
ISSUED BY THE BUREAU OF FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COME
DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE, WASHINGTON, D. C.

Annual Series No. 5b November 25, 1919

FRANCE.
LYON.
By Consul Clarence Carrigan.
The alternating periods of indecision and firmness, uneasiness
and confidence, which marked the general events of the year 1918,
were reflected in the industrial conditions of the Lyon district,
where months of calm were followed by others of sustained activity,
according to the turn of military operations. The following sum-
mary of local reports made on the year's work outlines the course
of the silk trade, which is the most important branch of industry
in this district.
Review of the Silk Trade-Cocoon Crop.
On the whole the consumption of silk does not seem to have been
appreciably modified. The raw-material market retained its vi-
tality even under the influence of war conditions. During the first
quarter of the year the demand, while not particularly active, was
regular, with rising prices that were justified by scarcity of supply
and transportation difficultie.-. The German offensive in the late
spring had an adverse influence, but this was offset by the promise
of an abundant cocoon crop. The crop was gathered, in fact, under
very satisfactory conditions both in France and in Italy.
In France the cocoon crop reached 6,444,110 pounds, as against
5,566,671 pounds in 1917; that is, an increase of 877,439 pounds. The
prices in the different, regions ran from 7.25 francs ($1.39) to S.50
francs ($1.64), and in exceptional cases they even went as high as
8.70 and 8.90 francs ($1.68 and $1.72) in certain markets. Statistics
published by the Italian Ministry of Agriculture placed the crop in
that country at 65,763,887 pounds. This figure, however, does not
indicate the exact importance of the Italian crop when couipared
with that of 1917, which was announced as 67,96S,.507 pounds. It
must be remembered that the 1918 figures do not include regions oc-
cupied by the enemy. Results in Piedmont were especially satis-
factory. Prices reached as high as 12 and 16 lire ($2.32 and $3.09).
Conditions for the silk-worm growers were therefore very good.
Mill owners and speculators bought without taking into account the
enormous Japanese output estimated at 300,000 bales, and irrespec-
tive, too, of the danger that might result in such troubled times from
starting a campaign with new silk whose high level already left no
margin over quotations.
Good Demand for Silk Textiles-Rise in Prices.
As regards silk textiles there was an encouraging demand during
the year, even while business was hampered by war risks, lack of
1459850-19---5b--1








2 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

labor and fuel, difficulties in dyeing, and delays in transportation and
correspondence. Silk industrials have been heavily affected by Gov-
ernment import and export restrictions and by control over capital.
Yet the consumption in the United States, as well as in France and
Italy, held its own very well. There was a failing market in Swit-
zerland, and in Russia the industry was paralyzed by the political
conditions. The Central Powers had to depend on a precarious sup-
ply chiefly from the Levant. The Japanese silk industry, on the
other hand, made astonishing advances.
The world production of silk showed slight progress in 1918. It
increas-ed in Italy and Japan, but decreased in China. Prices rose
up to the month of October excepting for Canton silks, the consump-
tion of which from April on was limited by difficulties surrounding
their use. Aside from tussahs, which advanced about 300 per cent
along with ordinary textiles of cotton and wool, the highest advance
over pre-war prices reached 140 to 150 per cent.
Prices of cocoons in Italy in 1918 were from 50 to 70 per cent
higher than during the preceding year. The high exchange, 160
lire for 100 francs, which existed at the time of these purchases, later
fell to 120 lire following arrangements made for the stabilization of
exchange. The Italian Government then undertook to relieve the
market by the establishment of a Purchasing Office for Italian Silks,
which after the harvest were hours de. combat. This Purchasing Office
operated at prices perceptibly higher than the "safety rate" pre-
viously established by the analogous interallied office for the eventual
purchase of thrown silk. The Italian Government likewise took
steps to compensate the loss of exchange suffered in exportation.
The stocks built up in Italy by State purchases certainly presented
a difficult problem. but it was confidently expected that an easy outlet
would be found when international markets were again free.
Competition of Asiatic Silks-Depression Following Armistice.
European silks met a serious competition from the white silks of
China woven a l"Europeene," and from the yellow silks of Japan,
the quality of which is strongly guaranteed.
After the month of October, contrary to what might have been ex-
pected in the approach of peace, there was a lull in demand, al-
most without precedent, and a consequent lowering of prices. One
reason for this was the world-wide epidemic of grippe, but the
principal cause seems to have been the feeling that war prices would
not last, and a great many buyers consequently postponed their
purchases for a later date. This, in any case, created a useful re-
serve.
Depreciated Exchange as a Cause of High Prices.
Upon analyzing the price of silks, it appears that the rise during
1918 was due not so much to the play of supply and demand, as to
secondary causes which were as important as they were complex.
The French franc, which, last July, on the eve of the French
offensive, lost nearly a third of its value in exchange for the Swiss
franc, later approached par value again. The rise in Chinese ex-
change, with its preponderant influence on the whole coast, justified
in itself a rise of 125 per cent for Shanghai and Canton silks. The
tael, which at the beginning of 1914 was worth slightly more than 3
francs, rose as high as 7.60 francs.









FRANCE-LYON. 3

Other Factors Affecting Silk Prices.
For the majority of Asiatic silks, whose production to-day is
six times that of European silks, 30 to 35 per cent of the riSe il price,
over those of 1914 is ascribed to increased freight rates and insurance.
This expense, it is true, fell off after the armistice: On the other
hand, for the European silks, the rise in the cost of weaving and
finishing due to high salaries and increased cost of fuel, and war
taxes, are in themselves responsible for an advance of 35 per cent.
over pre-war figures. The cost of silkworm raising has also in-
creased. In general, for all classes of silks, upset market conditions
and losses due t.o transportation delays, calculated at the new prices,
may be said to answer for 60 per cent of the total figure. These
reasons are largely sufficient to explain prevailing prices without.
any abnormal inflation; and the prices will probably be maintained
until the causes themselves disappear.
High and Low Quotations for 1918, at Lyon.
The following table gives the prices per kilo that prevailed in the.
Lyon market during the year 1918 for silks of various grades and
origins:

Prices-
Origin and grade. Prices-
High. Low.

Raw Cevennes first quality, 10,12, 12/i1 ......................................... .... ';" S 20.65
Raw Piedm ,nt first qualitI 9/11, 11/13.... ........................................ ,.25 20 65
Raw Italy extra first quality, 9/ll, 11/13.............................................. 2,1 21.04
Raw Italy ftirt quality, 9/11, 11113.................................................... 2
Raw Japan filature, 9/11 .......................................................... I 23 55 20 27
Raw Japan feature, 13/15....................................................... 2'0 4 17 37
Raw Chine.e feature 1, 10/12, 11/13.................................................. 21.32 20. 6
Raw Cant.on filatrure best 1, 11113, 13'15............................................... 'U. 07 16. 60
Ra"w Canton fi nature No. 1, 11113. 13 ,15.... ..... ..... ................................ I 1 1 21
Organine Cevennes, first quality, 22/24, 24 2........................................ 27. 6 22 2U
Organzine, Italy, first quality, 1,'21, 22/2rj............................................ 27.79 "2. 00

The end of the year left the one serious question as to whether
stocks on hand would be readily absorbed as the weaving industry
became reorganized. The vitality of the silk industry and the re-
opening of international markets suggest a satisfactory answer to
this question.
The Lyonese are justly proud of the fart that they have passed
through the most difficult of all years with harmony among all those
connected with the industry. Buyers, sellers, producers, and inanu-
facturers experienced troubles of every kind during tIhn year, but.
these were all smoothed out under mutual agreement and disap-
peared in a manner that is remarkable in so large a trade 'enter.
Value of the Silk Trade of France for Three Years.
The following table gives the values of imports of foreign silk
into France for the years 1916, 1917, 1918:

Description. 1916 1917 19IS

Pongee, eorah and tussah................... ...................... $2, .3S,.529 55, 780, 929 Si, 626," 71
Fabrics of silk or of waste silk, pure, plain, fancy, or brocaded:
In thegray.................................................... 13,896 41,969 195,.50L
Colored.................................... ............... .. l, 93-2, 1, 101, 153 435,601
Black .......................................................... 3. 3,275 1 05,I 57 41, 69
Fabrics of silk or of wastesilk, mixed, plain, fancy, or brocaded. 243, ISO 3M1,263 .108,907
Gauze and silk crepos, pure or mixed.............................. 1,392, 19 I '. ll, Fr 1,3390,iI.3











SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


Description. 1916 1917 1918

Tulles.............................................................. 889,745 $70,059 $128,731
Velvets and plushes:
Ofpure ilk ........ .... ................................. 1,351 4,825 3,667
Ofpur'ilk---------------- --- ------------------- --------1,5 ,2 ,6
Of mixed silk .................................................. 260,164 296,834 477,482
Ribbons of pure silk ............................................ 1,384,968 836,076 304,361
Ribbons ofmixed silk ............ .. ........................... 12,352 17,370 32,038
Fabrics fall knds in artificial ilk ............................... 203, 08 269,235 218,283
Other articles, passementerie,eImbroidery, etc..................... 457,603 491,571 487,325
Total......................................................... 8,854,261 11,247,847 8,700,054


French silks were exported to the value of $159,644,003 in 1916,
$168,482,131 in 1917, and $145,726,580 in 1918. The detailed sta-
tistics of silk exports from France for these three years are given in
the following table:

Articles. 1916 1917 1918


Fabrics of 5ilk or nf w'i te silk, pure, plain, fancy, or brocaded:
Ponece, corah, tussah ............... ........... ... ... 114,063 $662,183 $18,5,859
Othcr ........ ... .... .. ..... ....... ............ 43, 691, 568 47,233,469 30,256,031
Fabricsof sil: or of waste Iilk, mi.xd, plain, fancy, or brocaded. 12, 593,2.-0 5,0S4,778 13,48.5,682
Gauzes and er- ies..... ..................................... 3,437,330 4,70-2, o.;S 4,906,832
Tullesand .ic ............................................ 8,194,394 6, .5S9,599 3,663,333
Velvets and pilujt-,s:
Of pure silk................................. ............. 1, 13, 21 1,471.S1s 1,465,835
Of silk, mixed.......................................... 2, S43, .35 2, S26,099 1,845,273
Passemcnit-ri-:
Of gold or silvecr....................................... 321,924 70 -71S 7_80,492
Of pure silk ........................................ .... 4' 32t; t.,, 2. 1 1,119,593
Of iixeJ silk. r.: e, ".. 1,21,: 707 891,081
R Of nixd cilk........................................... 9.,3S ,2h,07 891,081
Ribbon_ of pure silk:
Velvet ............................................... ... 1,44n,359 361.8-5 243,C89
Others.................. ............... .............. 5,097,746 7,230,3-9 9,856,896
Ribbons of silk, mixed:
Velvet................................................ 3,870,493 2,202,709 491,378
O others .......... ....................................... S.547,391 R. 1,13 1 7,353,300
Mousselines, grenadmrns, etc.............................. 2, 346,494 2,211,7.Si 1,262,413
Fabrics of artiifcial ilk....................................... 8. 7 91 ,7H1 .O-s, 52 903,819
Other articles.......................... .................. 1,97 6.36 14, 59.. 116 4,873,250
Total..................... ............................. 9.14-,. Ws,7 10. 17-. -9 83,586,756
Shipments by parcel post...................................... I, 4'%, It t., h..52 6 C2, 139, 824
Grand totjl............................................ 1359,644,003 168, S 2,c:11 145,726,580


Imports and Exports of Silk by Quantities.
The quantities (in pounds) of cocoons, and of raw, thrown,
waste, and artificial silks imported into and exported from France
during the years 1916, 1917, and 191S are shown below:

1916 1917 1918
Articles.
Pounds. Pounds. Pounds.


Cocoons:
Im ports.......................................................
E xports...................................................... .
Surplus of imports............................................
Raw silk:
Imports from-
Italy .......................................................
China ........................................................
Japin .............. .......................................
Other countries.............................................
Total.....................................................
E exports ........................................................
Surplus of imports............................................


403, SSf
3'g, 3610

365,526


1,359,149
5,068, "Gs
2,711,772
623,247
9,766,036
3,S06,281
5,959,755


38, S95
50,4 6
335. 409


1,35%,269
6,379,957
3,15,459
540.573
11,464,256
3,470,736
7,993,520


359, 471
7,716
350,755


1, 153,679
3, 807, 824
4,730,017
2,244,966
11,936,486
2,895,330
9,041,156


i2
4I


1 1 ------










FI AN CE --LYON. 0


19160 1917 1918
Articles. --
Pounds. Pounds. l'uunlds.

Thrown cilkl::
Im orts ........................................................ 7,937 127,64S 379,415
Export: ....................................... .............. 7'..i, :7 1,578,0R9 1,208,353
Waste silk:
la bulk-
Im porL. .................................................... 18, 1. 14, 573,S73 17,477,143
xpo t .................................................... 1 0,761 97ri,648
Siir plhi 'is (P inports........................................... .1,u: i I 12, 69.1, 112 10,500,495
Combed-
Im porlt;....................... ............................ ... 1, 11I 813, 1'9 1,1i'49,27.
E xp r-i .......................... ............ .... ........ I i J00 3.'6 2,1 7,507
Spun--
Imports ..................... ..............................I I' 7.-P 720..912 1,S32,702
E xporl ...................... ....................... m ...... j.?',, 4-)3 | 5 1,3 1l '1,, -3l
Surplus of imports................................................ 155,427 1,703,511
Smnll ,.i ihor -
Imilnrts.................................................. 462,750 903,455 581,800
Fr or .................................................... 661 1,984 441
Surplus of imports...................................... 402,089 901,471 581,359
Artitlh rl -ill'.
Import s....................................................... 2,425 882 54,234
Export: ...................................................... 7i;, 752 325, 402 354, 944

Declared Exports to United States.
The c.xlmri from the Lyoii collslar district to the United States,
as declared :at the Ameri'iin consulate, showed a decline in value
froni $1.4-7:>3.8S in 1917 tho J.7:7.126 in 1091 The v;lue.e. of the
principal (l elah ed exports ti' tlhe'.e two year-. welr as follows:

Articles. 1917 1918

Bead' a nd I .,l .1 oru. i t................................................. ..... I .12 $9,695
Chin h ornim nt; .... .................................................. ... .. 1', .'T5 14,652
Tartrate of lin .... ....................................................I 26,938 ...........
Argols ... ....... ............... .......................... 271,630 104,279
Church ves i .. .. ...... .. ................................................. 73,644 55,307
Cotton mianufa lur. r .. .......................................................... 91,557 35,396
Linen lace, haui l ..l. .. ................ .................................. 14,085 12,940
Glue......... ...... ... ........................................ ............ 11,091
Gold and silver rnuniifactures., ni:tal rirrmmuing4, tin,:-l gudc"-, etc................. 1,461,622 690,740
Ilatters' pli;h ......... ................... .......................... 168,699 12,792
Hides and 5ski! ........................ ............................... .... 36,247 35,845
M a- hinery for )ving.i .... ................................. ............. .. 39,998 62,412
Essential o01 ..- .. .... ....................... .... ............... ..... 7,529 13,237
Paper, and manufactures of..................................................... 8, 025 10, 90;
Photograph' goods............................................................. 10, 30 9, 194
Pipes... ..............................-... -----...-.......................... ......... ... 12,7f,7
Precious andi nemiipreciolui t-ones................................................ 546,034 379,5R0
Seeds ... .. .............. ............................................... 79,792 41,010
Silks, and manufactures of:
iaw......................................................................... 83,490 173,320
pun ....................................................................... 3,92,93 2,196,703
Thrown................................................................ 52, 6.4; 213,019
Plushes and velvets .................................................... 593,8 3 10,30SO
Fabries, woven chiefly of silk......................................... .. 2,811,914 442,950
All otier ............................... .................................. 54,831 4,591
Hair nets.................................................................... 213, 60 618,692
Veils and veilings................................... .......................... 8I1 ,974 1,031,665
Ribbons, silk ........................... ........ .............................. 3I, 795 30,31-'
Al 1 other goods ................................ ............ .................... 517, 716 425,381
Total................................................................... 12,473,898 6,757,126

It is difficult to judge the foregoing statistics consistently without
comparing them in some of the principal items with the declared
exports of the same items for the years 1913 and 1914.








SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


Reasons for Decline in Exports of Church Ornaments.
In 1913, shipments of church ornaments from this district to the
United States amounted to $105,353 in value; in 1914 this figure
dropped to $68,063; in 1917 the amount was $18,575; and in 1918,
$14,652. The decrease is consistently regular and is to be explained
entirely by war conditions. The skilled labor necessary to create
these goods has been very difficult-in many cases impossible-to
obtain. Moreover, the rise in the cost of raw materials and the trans-
portation difficulties brought the finished articles to prices beyond
the reach of the usual buyers, who are particularly sensitive to the
question of price in this special class of goods. It is the opinion
of local manufacturers that-, as the difficulties cited above are lessened,
the demand for church ornaments will resume the importance it had
before the war.
Increased Sale of Tinsel Goods to United States.
The value of shipments of metallic trimmings and tinsel goods
to the United States in 1913 was $218,105; 1914, $387,222; 1917,
$1,461,622; and 1918, $690,740. This industry probably represents
the principal ause in which exports to the United States were notably
larger during the war than they were before. The actual quantities
shipped have not been a,, large as the values might suggest, as there
was such a decided rise in prices. The mean advance over pre-war
prices may be counted as 100 per cent.
In 1917, American fashions created a special demand for beaded
and tinseled goods. Upon the entry of the United States into the
war, the demand fell off, as is reflected in the comparative export
figures from this districts for 1917 and 1918. Moreover, American
manufacturers have not been slow to take advantage of the con-
tinued popularity of this class of dress goods, and they have made
every effort to meet the French production with attractive goods at
a lower price. French houses have been steadily busy in the weav-
ing of fancy brocades with tinsel effects for thle American market,
and it is expected that shipments to the United States, in spite of
American competition, will again reach the valie of those of 1917.
It is to be noted that the demand for Army and Navy braids has
had a negligible influence on this industry; the increased values
are to be ascribed solely to the popularity of these textiles for dress-
making purposes.
Cotton Textile Trade Limited.
Shipments of cotton goods to the United States amounted to
$250,970 in 1913, $227,171 in 1914, $91,557 in 1917, and $35,396 in
1918-a steady decrease, as in the case of church ornaments. Lyon
is not a special center for the manufacture of cotton goods, and it
is considered doubtful whether this industry will reach any great
importance in this district; certainly it. will not for some years to
come. Goods woven here for the American market have been cot-
ton voiles and fancy goods of special designs, all of fine texture. At
prevailing prices of raw materials, freight, and insurance, the
French articles can not compete with American-made goods, and a
favorable turn in the figures is not to be expected.
During the year 1918 a number of inquiries were made at this
office relative to the possibility of importing raw cotton into the








FRANCE-LYON.


Lyon district from the United States. The investigations led to no
particular result, which was to be expected inasmuch as this is not
a cotton-weaving center. The temporary importance of Lyon as a
cotton manufacturing center has been due to the war conditions
which brought many of the northern weavers to Lyon. It is, how-
ever, not improbable that these weavers, when they return to the
northern Departments, will retain small branch establishments here.
IncreAsed Shipments of Precious Stones-Glue Trade Restricted.
Exports of precious and semiprecious stones to the United States
have been as follows: 1913, $63,812; 1914, $38,099; 1917, $546,034;
1918, $379,580. The principal center for cutting fine stones in this
region is Septmoncel, Department of Jura. Scientific stones are
cut at Mijoux, Department of Ain. The principal cause of the in-
crease of exportation from this district and of the rise in values is
the fact that France has been practically the only country pro-
ducing these stones during the past four years. The difference in
the figures for 1917 and 191S is due to lack of personnel. Exporta-
tion was also affected by high prices.
Declared exports of glue to the United States fell from $37,534
in 1913 to $14,155 in 1914. There were no exports in 1917, but in
1918 again appears a value of $11,091. The complete cessation of
shipments in 1917 was due to French prohibitions, which were also
operative in 1918, when there was only one shipment of glue made
through this office. This shipment went through with a special li-
cense because tile glue was needed for Governmnent use in the making
of aeroplanes.
Most Hides and Skins Sold Through Paris.
Local shippers declare that trade in hides and skins is more im-
portant than the published statistics would suggest. In 1913 the
exports to the United States declared at this office amounted to
$126.565; in 1914, to $81,049; in 1917, to $36,247, and in 1918, to
$35,845. The hides and skins from the Lyon district are not well
known in the United States. These goods, which are said to be
among the best in the French market, are usually sold to America
by the Paris brokers. Local dealers say that they are mixed, before
shipment, with inferior produce from the Paris district and from
the north of France. One may conclude from this statement that
the figures showing exports to the United States from this region
are considerably below actual values. The difference between 1914
and 1917 is declared to be due to French Government restrictions.
In 1917 and 1918 business done with the United State-, consisted in
light lambskins and pickled sheepskins. During this period it is
said that no calfskins and no steer or cow hides were exported to
the United States.
Lyon Dealers Desire Direct American Connections.
Usual exports to America are heavy steer and cow hides plump,
for belt purposes; steer and cow hides, spread, for automobile use;
calfskins for box calf and colors; sheep and lamb skins for gloves.
With the return of normal conditions American transactions should
be more important than before, as Lyon dealers are endeavoring to
obtain a larger share of this business than they have so far enjoyed.
In view of the fact that the skins from Lyon district are considered


S








SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


of superior quality and can not be rightly appreciated when sold
through Paris with lower grades, some of the local dealers wish to
establish direct connections with American tanners and dealers. It
is felt that this direct connection would operate to the advantage
of both parties.
Hair Nets and Veilings.
In spite of additional trade restrictions, the exportation of velings
to the United States from this district was considerably larger in
1918 than in 1917. The increased demand in these goods, as in cer-
tain other textiles, is attributed entirely to fashion. The principal
kinds of veilings exported were staple goods with chenille, filets on
hexagonal ground, and embroideries with large mesh. All of these
were sold by the yard. There were also made-up veils, averaging a
yard square, which were sold by the piece.
Shipments of hair nets to the United States were as follows:
1913, $492.365;_ 1914, $441,692; 1917, $213,560; 1918, $618,692.
The largely increased value for 1918 over 1917 is to be explained
in the same manner as the figures for metallic trimmings and tinsel
goods; that. is, the quantities did not increase as much as the figures
would indicate, it was.the prices that advanced. It should also be
added that in the 1918 exports appeared a new veil, much larger
than the ordinary hair net, though it is listed as such. It has an
elastic band around the edge and is of special use for automobiling.
The materials used in hair nets are principally of silk and therefore
easily obtained in this market.
Weaving Machinery and Parts.
Statistics show that weaving machinery to the value of $54,200 was
exported from this district to the United States in 1913, and to the
value of $37,805 in 1914; in 1917 the figure advanced to $39,998, anid
in 1918 it ro-e further to $62,452.
These exports are said to consist mostly of spare parts or supplies
of that nature, such as the little metal eyelet called a maillon,"
which is used with the Jacquard machine. Shuttles are also manu-
factured here for the American market. Other exports of this char-
acter are reeling machinery and supplies for the same, and harness
for the Jacquard machines. The manufacture of all these products
for shipment to America seems to be explained by the fact that hand
labor enters largely into their making, and this labor is so cheap
here as to make the export business profitable.
Banking Operations-Prospect of Continued High Cost of Living.
It is impossible to give more than a general idea of the economic
situation at. Lyon during the past year. The Lyon branch of the
Bank of France reports an enormous increase in its gross operations
for 1918 over those of 1917, the figures in the past year being in ex-
cess of 23,000,000,000 francs ($4,439,000,000 at par) while those for
1917 were some 12.000,000,000 francs ($2,316,000.000). Government
loans and kindred war transactions, however, enter largely into these
figures, and they are consequently not useful in reflecting the general
business condition of the community.
The cost of living has increased steadily and, in spite of pub-
lished predictions to the contrary, people here do not appear to ex-
pect any early relief from high prices. Property owners claim that







FRANCE--REN' IBLE.


they have lost. heavily beci'a -c of tihe advantage tVnanit- have tI MkII
of tile mioratoriumi, and tlherv appears to have been a '*ounct'rit'll io ve-
mient among the property owners to cover thewr.,elv'c.s for thet-c Ih- se-.
The general advance in rents is given as 30 per cent. and this prob-
ably represents the average rise. Little building has been donie dlii'r-
ing the year. The population is .-till |quoted at a round million people,
and Lyon has been badly overcrowded. Many of the temporal y resi-
dents will later return to their former homes in northern Fraince.
It becomes more and more evident, however, that. the rehabilitation
of the northern Departments will take a long time. In the, mican-
while, the growing importance of thi-i industrial center will have
brought other and larger interests here, and there is no chance that
conditions of living will ,oon reve't to old standards or anything ap-
proaching them. The general recognition of thids fact i, already
well illustrated by the inc r'ea-ing demands of the lahorin ,,ltn-- I'or
higher pay and 1(lorter hor .
GRENOBLE.
By Consul Thomas D. Davis.
Re triction., ilpoiIed by the Allied Government uplnk imp' ,i't.-,
and exports. limited transportation facilities, the w.L-arvity of labor
:nd of raw materials, and continued demands on the part of labor
for increased wages tiufhfiient 10 meet the rising cost of living, were
the principal depressing influences upon commerce and industry in
lie Grenoble consular diitri't during 1918. Busine-s aind manufac-
turing establishments not a"nproducing for the army were ,tag .a nlt.
Prices were high and money was fairly plentiful, but m'rc4hanili-,1 in
most c'a.-. ouild not be f01und 11 xcept in limited quaitief. and mu11111ch
of this was of doubtful quality. -
Plans for Large-Scale Production.
On the other Ihand i ilaitII' bi.-c. :a I l- t.t'pl i .i -t cii&.,.i ,' in
furnishling military -lipplie-. and equipment, although at-'fiitl1 by
the scarcity of labor, realized good profits and expanded nI niidcr-
ably. From the beginning of 1915 Grenoble occupied a fa vord posi-
tion in this respect. The intensified production made po--ilble by
the abundance of water power. chiefly in those industries prod..-ing
munitions, metallurgical pro(lducts and chemicals, gave excepti,,aally
remunerative employment to all available labor of both sexes. In
November, 191w. all these plants had reached a high point of de-
velopment. From a nucleus of these factories and from the capital
amassed from their operation during the war it is hoped to make of
the Grenoble district, one of the most important. industrial regions
of France.
Formerly there was a fixed di.spo.ition on the part of manufac-
turers to attain a certain success, and then, with a comfortable in-
come assured, to withdraw from business. Now there is a mucuah more
ambitious sentinient manifest and large-.cale output, is the prevail-
ing idea. American system- of quantity production continue to be
studied with great interest. The transformation of war industries
for the manufacture of economic" comnunodities is proceeding rapidly.
Manufacturers from other part- of France aIre buying -ites and -eek-
ing motive power.
1459.50-1 -51i---2








SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


Farmers Prosper-Fertilizer Situation.
The farming community. profiting by the market afforded by the
well-paid working population, reaped larger rewards than ever before.
In the plains those fortunate enough to be unaffected by the scarcity
of labor realized profits in many cases reaching an annual value
equal to that of the land cultivated, and even those who were forced
to allow a part of their ground to lie idle found that the increased
prices more than compensated this loss. The peasants have paid
their debts, satisfied the mortgages on their lands, laid by important
sums in savings banks, and bought war bonds.
The agriculturists of the higher altitudes were yet more favored.
Wood, more largely sold than ever before, doubled in price, reaching
as high as 6 francs ($1.16) per 100 kilos (about one-half cent per
pound). The herds were practically undiminished in spite of the
early requisitions for the army, as the increase soon replaced those
taken. The plains were less fortunate. in this regard, since they nor-
rmally obtain the principal part of their cattle from the mountain
fa r1 is.
The demobilization of the older classes of farm laborers brought
a much needed relief to agriculture, which had found the employ-
ment of prisoners of war and of laborers from military instruction
'c)mps rather unsatisfactory.
There is a good market for American fertilizers, but it is probable
that this region will soon produce enough to supply the local de-
mand. as some of the electrochemical plants are being transformed
into fertilizer factories.
Increase in Coal-Mining Operations.
Under tit' pressure of war nece..sity and stimulated by high
price.-, eval nmining lhas extended and a number of new mines have
-been placed in operation. The difficulty of finding abundant labor
has created the desire to employ more modern machinery. Following
dlisc:us ,ionN- of this subject at the consulate, one of the leading mining
companies of the district sent two of its engineers to the United
State-, for the purpose of studying American methods.
Decreased Value of Declared Exports.
Trade with the United States was much affected 'luring the year
by restrictions imposed by the t wo Governments. .\ greater interest
than ever before was shown in American goods of all kinds, but very
litti, importing was lone. The quantities and valrics of goods de-
-Inhred at tii-i, ,on-,uilate fmij export to the United States during the
year, liI17 andl l1 18 wei r ;i. follow,. francs having been converted
to dollar, at it' li Ino all. rate U f tvx'hange

1917 191S

i Quantity. Value. Quantily. Value.

.................. .. .... .. 1.2 i 961 1,i 03 $15,388
Mulliil dr..................... ............. ... :N.,459 12, 76 2,181 14.290
i:1iH iti '., .lip............ ................ !ro ...r 7 4Y)2 2.'SQ 13 2s
I. i,' -;, lathei -
\Vun iath -
S ilc 11 1 in1uth :.................. d*) i .1 :.. 1i, 40.5 *9. 1.7, 47S 19 .1 073 2,553,813
i\i r II in :h( .. .....................( 1o ... 1,327 i 21,251 673 13,458
M n'................................. .. Io.... 2.301 22.291 RS 12,012









FRANCE-GRENOBLE.


19
Articles.
Quanutily.

Hats, felt.....................................dozens.. 3 .S96
raper, photographic..........................pounds.. 2,009, '.27
Skis:
Calf, salted ........ ...................... do.... 4S, 501
Dressed lamb and kid........................ do .. 20,,iit
Horse, green, salted......................... do.... 110,433
Mole, dried............................... numcr. 33,331
Rabbit. raw. ..................................................
Sheep and Limb, pickled................. pounds.. 10;,t. 5
Slats ...................... ..... ........... o. ... 31.37S
O ther...................................... .... ............
Soda. fornmiate of..............................puurnib.. ............
Tinsel, copper..................................do. 77,212
Verm uth ...................................... qu. rn s.. 15,33.'
Walnuts:
In shell...................................pounds. :171,07'3
Shelled .............. ................ ..... do.... 1, 70 502
Warp, metallic....................... .. numn'r.. 3, 139,000
Wine:
Sparkling....................... ......... qill r \r 5i., 3.
Still .................................... dId .... 2. 9; )
All other articles ....................................... ...........
Tro tal ........ ................................. ............


17

Value.

$91,972
3911. 5.j
24, 141
29,191
21, 333
3, 151

i1 I ',7 ,
7,30
. ..'
70J,122
5,42.5
531,723
561, 522
1, 139

,7, 9S

4,90gW, 3v


19

Quantit .

3,3011
72'J 075



.........

....... 1
2'22
7.217
.1.2 I
174,bt 1
1 174. 7.9

14I .1 I
I. i l I
. .. .. I


Value.

$121.i,201
1 GA, 226
. ........ ...
356
. .... ....
2,065
(.3,754



9,7102
2,521
29.306
."4 .,525

12, 78.
1. 01.O
I .221)


No shipments were made to the insular possessions of the United
States, and no American goods were returned to the IUnit,'d States.
Fluctuations in Glove Trade-Scarcity of Good Skins.
The exportation (of gloves to the United State- for i'11 \\a-- nearly
11.01.00 dozen pairs .short of that of 1917, which year a.- fatr above
the normal pre-war year l)th in quantities and i ville-. In 1913
265,558 dozen pair,- of gloveslweredeclared for export in lit United
States at a vilne iaveraginiig $(.73 per dozen palir.- :11d totaling
$1,787,521. In 1916 the quantity was 222.01!0 dozen pair'-.. :lIled at
$1,821,423, or li a average of $8.19 per dozen pairs. Thi, aI%\ria;i_,, i(I-,e,
to $11.09 in 1917. the total exportation hbiiing 314.t03); 1'eeil pairs,
worth .t484.02L1;. In 1918 the quantity dropped to 19'0..14 dozenn
pairs and the value to F2,57'i,283, although the average, va;ii:tio1)I
per dozen pairs rose to $13.21. The increase in average lpri'e during'
the war period does not repre-ent thie full advance limad(e by p-;ticuilar
grades. The constantly growing difficulty of procringl -,nitable
skins led to the manufantture of larger quit iti'. of glo- J of in-
ferior quality. ;ind a greater proportion of' ih1-. .lthcr _rTi'NIde-. was
included in the exports.
The skin market. both in France and adjoining ciiitrie- lhas
been pretty thoroughly combed to supply the need- of the manlifae-
tuirers, who have been facing a serious stiltationll ;' ;i Tliin!t tof tile
unprecedentedly high price. The eiibrpgoi placed Iupon tht i-xporta-
tion of kid -kin-. by the Italhiii ( iovernment renderied lli .e -itiilt.ion
still more acute.
It has been iiipotsiible to obtain statitic-, showing li it 1t1lal mini-
ber of gloves manufactured during 1918. The. normal valilt of the
annual production is about, '31.000,000 franes ($6.,000,001i), of which
nearly half is exported to America, chiefly to tile United States. In
1917 the value of the total output was estimated at 57,6(00.000u francs
($11,116,800). It is probable that the production in 191$. wa-, about
400,000 dozen pairs of an a :ppro)xinmlate viialule of -8...O francs







12 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

($5,U00,500). Thit,, estimate is based upon the supposition that the
production was about one-half that of a normal pre-war year and
that the average price was nearly 10 francs ($13.32).
Exports of Walnuts.
Walnuts have been much more affected by restrictions than is
shown by the export return. During the season 1917-18 a much
larger proportion of the crop was shipped after the first of January
than usual. The shelled walnuts of the fall of 1917, shipped in 1918.
amounted to 1,131,420 pounds of an invoiced value of 2,881,263 francs
($.5(;,084). All of these were shipped before the end of July, 1918.
In October of the same year 43,339 pounds belonging to the 1918
crop were shipped, after which no more were exported during the
year on account of the embargo. Walnuts in the shell could not be
exported after February, so that the total of 174,604 pounds declared
for export was shipped during the first two months of the year.
Decreased Manufacture of Hats.
The difficulty with which hare and rabbit fur could be obtained
:all.sed a diminution in the production of felt hats, but owing to
the high prices paid, exportations to the United States were only
5)5 dozen short of those for 1917. The average price per dozen
in 1918 was $39.14 as against $24.38 for 1917. Raw material is now
-,oinewhat easier to obtain, and exportation to the United States of
this article of merchandise promises at present to show a considerable
increase for 1919.
Scarcity of Wood Pulp-Diminished Output of Paper.
The paper industry was unable to procure s-,uflicient wo'd pulp.
The direct cause of this shortage was the imposibility of findin2-
wood suitable for the making of pulp. It is quite possible that
this condition will continue, and that wood pull) will be perma-
inently in demand for supplying the paper mills of the district.
which have a total daily capacity of about 500 tons.
PhDotographic paper, the only kind exported to the United State.-
from this district, shows a most remarkable decrease. This is not
rlv;dily explained, as rags, the chief raw material employed for
making this grade of paper, have been comparatively plentiful,
though high in price. It is probable that the high price demanded
caused a decline in orders received. Restrictions and the difficultA
of getting shipments accepted by the railroads no doubt also af-
fected business. The manufacture of every kind of paper in the
district has been very much reduced. None of the mills has been
running to capacity, and the majority of them have been working
very little over half time.
Market for American Goods.
Tiiterest in Amnerican-made goods of every description continue..
to increase. Importers are eager to form business relations with
American manufacturers. American advertising matter in Frenchb
will be of particular value at this time; but attention must be called
to the necessity of giving weights, dimensions, and capacities in
terms- of the metric system.








FRANCE-LIMOGES.


LIMOGES.
By Vice Consul Reginald H. Williams.
Most of the industries of Limoges consular district requiring coal
as fuel suffered considerably during 1918, both from the high prices
of this commodity and from the difficulty and uncertainty of getting
shipments through by rail-the only means of communication open
to the industrial centers of this district-owing to the necessity of
the Government using the railway rolling stock for the trans.
portation of soldiers and war supplies. The signing of the armistice
brought no immediate improvement, the difficulties even appearing
to be increased by the demobilization process and the longer hauls
required for provisioning the army of occupation in Germany.
China Industry Limited to. Domestic Demand.
Production in the china industry was the lowest since the begin-
ning of the war, both in quantity and in total value. The decrease
in output can be attributed to the higher cost of raw materials and
labor, and to the practical exclusion of the goods from foreign markets,
due to shipping difficulties. As a result, some of the china factories
undertook the manufacture. of electrical supplies and dolls' heads.
which were formerly imported principally from Germany. These
articles were sold almost entirely to the domestic trade, and from
present indications they will become a permanent part of the. output
of the Limoges china factories.
Shoe Factories Busy-Increased Production of Gloves.
The shoe industry, which wa.- already well established before the
war, and which prospered greatly owing to war orders, was kept
busy toward the close of the year, supplying the needs of the general
public, for whom the output had been restricted to meet the require-
ments of the army and by reason of the Government control of
leather. The -hoe factories are modern, equipped with up-to-date
machinery. and have thus far practically supplied all local demand,
but still depend to a considerable extent on importation for the
leather used. There is almost no exportation of shoes, and very
little importation, as the French factories are able to supply the do-
mestic needs, and this industry is protected by a high tariff.
In normal times considerable quantities of sheepskins were ex-
ported to the United States, but owing to Government re-trictions
the export was practically suspended during 1918. This action led to
a greater production of gloves in the town of St. Junien, about 15
miles from Limoges. where the industry is centered. The exports of
gloves from this district to the United States were considerable, but
it is difficult to obtain exact figures, as the goods are shipped through
houses located in Paris.
Increased Acreage, Decreased Yield, of Field Crops.
Although larger areas of field crops were planted in 1918 than in
the preceding year, yet the decrease in production amounted to about
10 per cent, according to the figures of the Limoges Chamber of Com-
merce. This was due mainly to the lack of experienced and efficient
farm labor, which had not been released from military service during









14 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

the spring and summer of 1918, owing to the military necessities on
the western front. Another contributing factor was the absence of
sufficient and suitable fertilizers, the lack of which during four years
of war has reduced the productivity of the soil to a low standard.
The greatest deficit has been in wheat, and France is now more than
ever dependent on imported flour. Rye, oats, and potatoes also
showed serious decreases, which were reflected by largely increased
prices of tlmhoe commodities. Thus, according to the Limoges Cham-
ber of Commerce, the prices for the years 1914, 1917, and 1918 com-
pare as follows:

Prices per 100 kilos.
Product.
1914 1917 1918

Francs. Francs. Franca.
W le d ................................................................. 27 50 75
OnI ................... ................................................. 22 42 42
Hlay. .................................................................. 9 11 40
Be n ..................... ............................................... 45 140 170
Powloes................................................................ 10 25 39

Wages and Labor Conditions.
It is estimated that, taking an average of industry, commerce, and
agriculture, wages were increased by 40 to 80 per cent during the
war, showing a constant. rise from 1914 to the end of 1918. A very
large number of employees received not only a notable increase in
salary, but also what is called "une gratification," or lump-sum bonus,
at different intervals, as compensation for the increase in the cost of
living. The factories which were working on Government contracts
paid for a;n 8-hour day in some instances three times the amount of
pre-war wages for a day of 10 hours. This resulted in many of the
workers leaving their usual trades to engage in war industries.
China and other factories, not engaged in war work, were conse-
quently compelled not only to make considerable increases in their
scale of wages in order to retain their trained personnel, but also to
pay them an indemnity, ranging from 1 to 3 francs per day, to meet
the increased cost of living. A long time will probably elapse before
an appreciable reduction in wages can be effected. In some in-
dustrial circles there has been talk of importing foreign labor-
Italians, Spanish, Arabs, and Negroes; but such a matter, if under-
taken, would probably be under Government supervision and con-
ducted with a view to avoiding any irritation among the French
working classes.
Declared Exports to the United States.
A comparison of the most important items invoiced at this con-
sulate for export to the United States for the years 1917 and 1918
shows clearly the effect of the conditions mentioned above upon the
industries in this consular district.

Articles. 1917 1918

Book ......................................................................... $2.039 $1,263
Chini.......................................................................... 698,136 621,134
DollI' heads................................................................. 411 752
Hatcrsfur................. .................................................... 113.24:5 149,766


_ ~_~___ __ _~ ~I








FRANCE-LA ROCHELLE.


Articles. 1917 1918

C loves.......................................................................... $4,750 ............
Lambskins and sheepskins...................................................... 252,743 $17,416
Machinery ..................................................................... ...... 101
M mushroom s ......................... .... ....................................... 2.19 .........
Filtering paper............................................ .................... 5,717 6,765
Pat6 de foie gras ...................... ................................... 1,334 ............
Preserves ........................ .......................................... 666 ............
Soldering iron powder.......... .. .. ..... ............................... ............ 750
Soldering plates ...................... .. .... ........................... ... 1,393 ..........
Truffles ......................................................................... 1,932 974
Upholstry .......... ........ ............... ........... ............ 2,408 827
Walnuts............ .... ......................................... 201,772 60,871
Allother............................................................... ......... .. 36
Total ..................................................................... 1, 2S9,165 8(60,655

The exportation of walnuts to the United State- was subject to
Government lii ense during 191S, which accounts for tlie decrease as
compared with 1917.
Market for American Goods-Agencies Desired.
Although many imported articles are sld here by retailers, there,
have been practically no, direct illportations from the United States
into this district in any line of business. The retailers receive their
supplies from importing firlIs! or agencies loh ted at. Pari-, or in
other large commercial < enters. This consular dist ri t comprises a
large number of people interested in agriculture and contains a large
section of tlie a,.ri.ultuirl area of France, with conseIquient need andri
use of agricultural ,machinery and implements. Woodworking ma-
chinery, vegetable oil,. canned foods, and many other articles are in
demand, and there wC4lld be an opening for American gooduls if they
could be obtained under conditions conforming to the trade methods
practiced hele, namely, delivery on short notice and extension of
credit. These methods accounllted for Germlany s siuces., ill thll, ia r-
ket before the war, and they are now being more or less followed by
the British.
There is quite a delnand at this consulate for agencies by persons
of good standing, wvho could give banking and other guaranties for
any merchandise which might he intrusted to them, but who do not,
care to buy outright. A number of dealers in various kinds of
merchandise mnialifest a wlliingness to receive and, exam ine American
propositions, with a view to imnportation'n, if credit terms are
extended.
LA ROCHELLE.
By Consul Williaml 1W. Brunsivick.
Owing to the great number of ves-els arriving with war material,
structural steel, car frames, foodstuffs. etc., all the port of this
district experienced great activity in 1918. At Talmont, near the
mouth of the Gironde River, in the Department of the Charente-
Inferieure, the Alnerican Engineers were constructing a new port,
which would dock the largest -hips afloat. This project was given
up and work stopped with the coming of the armistice.
Shipping-Port Facilities and Improvements.
In the La Rochelle district there are five ports, namely, La Pallice,
La- Rochelle, Rochefort, Tonnay-sur-Charente, and Marans. The








SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


number of vessels docked at these ports- during the year 1918 was
1.843, of which 344 were A-mel'tean. The total tonnage of cargo han-
dled by Amelrici ln ve'sels wais: Rochefort (including Tonnay-sur-
Charente), 517.069 ton,; La Pallice, La rochelle, and Marans,
774,554 tons.
La Pallice is the most important port for large cargo steamers,
owing to the fine fa ilities for handling all kinds of freight. The
cranes at the disposition of vessels and owned by the city include 13
of 1,500 kilos, 3 of 1,500 to 2,000 kilos, 8 of 2,000 kilos, 2 of 3.000
kilos, and 1 of 40 tons. Cranes owned and operated by others include
2 of 10 tons owned by the French Line; 5 of 3 tons. 3 of which are
owned by the State Railway and 2 by the French Government; and
4 electric cranes of 5 tons, also owned by the Government.
Several tracks have been constructed leading directly to various
factories, thus obviating the truck haul to freight stations. Inside
of the breakwater the ground has been dredged so that now large
oil steamers can enter the port and discharge their cargo regardless
of tide conditions. The authorities considered the deepening of this
section of the breakwater as an important port improvement.
Construction Work of United States Army Engineers.
No report on this consular district would be complete without
mentioning the Thirty-fifth United States Engineers. This division
will go down in the history of the war as furnishing an unexampled
illustration of American efficiency. It became so famous in France
for its marvelous skill in the rapid construction of railway freight
cars that Premier Clemenceau wrote a personal letter to the com-
manding officer, commenting on its work in contributing to the
victory of the war.
The new railway station, which was being completed when the war
came and which covers about 20 acres, includling buildings and tracks,
was occupied during 1918 by the American troops, consisting of an
average of 75 officers and 3,000 privates. Not only were cars con-
structed, but owing to the nature of the soil surrounding the station
gravel roads were built in order to stand the heavy traffic. The fol-
lowing buildings were also erected by the Engineers:
I medical infirmary. 1 oil and waste shed.
5 officers' quarters. I pneumatic tool house.
1 septic tank. 1 blacksmith shop.
1 storehouse. 1 wood-car tool room.
1 paint storehouse. 1 brass house.
2 wash houses. I 35-ton coal bin.
1 guard house. 1 general storehouse.
1 lpropliylactic station. 1 electric and pipe shop.
1 shoe shop. 1 oil storehouse.
1 kitchen. 1 90-ton coal bin.
1 motor-car repair shop. 1 administration building.
2 tool houses. 1 motor-truck shed.
1 wood-planing mill.
In August it was planned to turn out 2.000 cars per month, and
the end of September showed a production of 2,370 cars. On a
record day 150 cars were constructed." The Engineers built about
20,000 cars during 1918.








FRANCE-LA ROCHELLE.


American Car Shops at La Rochelle.
An American company has taken over the shops left by the Thirty-
fifth United States Engineers and has contracted with the French
Government to construct 25,000railway freight cars. It is planned to
employ 2,500 French civilian workmen and a staff of 50 Americans
as foremen anid heads of departments.. The working force will be
gradually increased so that the plant can eventually turn out about
60 cars per day. Steamers from New York will bring to La Pallice
the frames, wheels, and other necessary parts.
Cultivation of Tobacco Begun in the Charente-Inf6rieure.
By decision of the Mini-ter of Finance under date of January 27,
1919, the District of Jonzae wa.s admitted to the benefit of the culti-
vation of tobacco from 1919. A surface of 50 hectares (approxi-
mately 125 acres) has been assigned to the Department. The num-
ber of feet of the variety known as Paraguiay to be planted will be
35,0010 to 40,000 per hectare. It is the function of the DireCtor Gen-
eral of Government Mannufactures to designate, the c'jininunes in
which the cultivation can take police. The surface planted by each
commune must be at lea.it 1 hectare.
Situation in the Cognac Industry.
The vine*yard.s of Charante are in excellent condition, although they
suffered somewhat from the dry season in 1918. .The greatest diffi-
cultsy of the growers was to obtain fertilizers and the plants had to
be closely watched to keep them stronij! and productive.
Distillers were hampered by the lack of coal and -to'iks were gen-
erally low. Prices were very high. The abnormal conditions affected
the trade, lit it was expected that in spite of these conditions the
production of cognac for 1918 would show a slight excess over that
of 10917.
Decreased Chamois-Skin Production.
Thlie enter of tlie c iii )i---kin indu.-try is the city of Niort, in
the Departiment of the Deux-Sevres. Although there ciinme1l to be
an incre:i-ing denimand for chamois skins the cri-i, in tr:in-portation
facilities, bI.-came ancute from March, 1918, so that, on account of
shortage of raw min:;teri:ls, production was reduced from 60,000
dozen in 1917 to 55.000 dozen for 1918.
In spite of increased wages paid to workers and the high prices
of raw kingss not :;ll orders could be filled.
The cit of Niort absorbed for the glove industry three-fourths of
the total production of chamois skins. The remainder was used in
the manufacture of orthopedic instruments for those wounded in war,
for polishing and1 cleaning purposes for automobiles and the house-
hold, and for filtration of oils ii.-ed in aviation and military trans-
port. The exports were a negligible, quantity both by reason of the
restrictions and transport difficulties and of the high prices offered
in the dome.-tic market. Inten-ive production will be required to
keel up with all demands and restore this industry to its pre-war
conditions.











18 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

Declared Exports from La Rochelle to United States.

The following table gives the quantities and values of goods de-
clared at this consulate for export to the United States during the
years 1917 andi 191S:


. r: icils.


Bran ly........................................ proof ECallrns..
Bone Ast ..I ......................................... potun Is..
C'ham ois,crust .......................................dozen..
Gloves leather........................................ .. do....
Paper-machLne \wire.................................poun is..
Paper machinery parts (repaired andl returned) ........ do...
W ire cloth............................................ do....
W alnuts............................................... do. .
Total...................................................


Quantity.

473,711
8, M5
2,331
1,577
..........


Value.


$1,460,124
............
3S,659
7, 8577
5,867
............


1918

Quantity. Value.

2,220 S3,349
83,972 15,436
293 5,688
352 3,292
2,612 11,830
61 668
143 1,456
94,500 47,491


- I I-


1,512,507 ...........


89,210


There were no declared exports to Porto Rico in 1918, as com-
pared with exports of a declared value of $16,557 in 1917-all of
which was brandy. In 1917, 2,110 proof gallons of brandy valued
at $11,224 were declared for export to the Philippines; this fell to
942 gallons valued at $5,584 in 1918.











































W
WAUlIINCTON: GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFrICE.: 191,





























































V.~'




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
S 1i 262 08485llllllllllll 1988llllll
3 1262 08485 1988


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