Supplement to Commerce reports

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Title:
Supplement to Commerce reports daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce
Uniform Title:
Commerce reports
Volume title page for -<1920>:
Supplements to Commerce reports : review of industrial and trade conditions in foreign countries in ... by American consular officers
Portion of title:
Daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce
Physical Description:
6 v. : ; 24-26 cm.
Language:
English
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United States -- Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce
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Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Dept. of Commerce
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
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Commerce -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Foreign economic relations -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
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federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
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Additional Physical Form:
Also available in electronic format.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with issue for Jan. 8, 1915?; ceased with issue for Dec. 31, 1920?
Numbering Peculiarities:
Each issue covers an individual country and bears a number corresponding to that country. Reports from the various consular districts in a country are distiguished by the addition of a letter (66a, 66b, 66c, etc.), in the order in which they are issued.
Numbering Peculiarities:
Issue no.52f, 1919, contains misprint, November 41.
General Note:
Title from caption.
General Note:
"Annual series."

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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 004822593
oclc - 16390134
sobekcm - AA00005307_00003
Classification:
lcc - HC1 .R1981
System ID:
AA00005307:00003

Related Items

Preceded by:
Daily consular and trade reports (Washington, D.C. : 1910)
Succeeded by:
Trade and economic review for ..

Full Text




SUPPLEMENT


COMMERCE RER
DAILY CONSULAR AND TRADE P.EPORTS
ISSUED BY THE BUREAU OF FOREIGN AND DOMPi.sTIC COMMERCE
DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE, \iASHINGTON, D. C.

Annual Series No. 5b June 28, 1918

FRANCE.
HAVE.
By Consul John Ball Osborne. TMarch 25.
The commercial 1and industrial activities during 1917 of the con-
sular district of Havre-which covers an area of about 12_,010 .(-lua're
miles and has a total population of about *2.( l0,0Ui--sio',.veil tlie in-
creasing restrictive effect- of the war. In genraIl, trade conditions
were let's favorable and the volume of buin,*-s less than in 1911.
The handling of American (- ,itton has lohngi been the principal
branch of international coIninerve at Havre, and fur several years
prior to the outbreak of war tlhe annual imports of tlils staple
exceeded 1,000.000) bales. The cotton imports in the year en'ling
July 31, 1917. amounted to only l3.173 bale-, against 7-,0OO baile
in the preceding year, a decrea-e of 72,s35 Iales. The next im-
portant branch of commerce pertains to collfee. The total imports of
this article in 1'17 were only 1.440,000 I ais, ao-ainst '2,_'-S'iU,000 bags
in 191(,, a decree e of 1.86,(6i,000 hag or nearly 50i per cent. ()On the
other hand, the importer of cocoa beans rose from 17i.2." Ii) bag's in 1i16
to 202.044 bags in 1917.
The total imports for consumption in 1917 were 3,471.774 tons,
against 3.693.064 tons in 1916, or a decrease of 221,2!_.'- ton's.
Far less was imported for the civilian population in 1917 than in
any previous year since the outbreak of war, and, by reason of the.
great curtailment in the activities of the domestic manufactures,
the stocks of the retail shops were depleted more than ever. On ac-
count of the great transportation difficulties and governmental re-
strictions, this situation will nat rally continue until the close of the
war, when tlie replenishmenlt of stocks will a afford extraordinary
trade opportunities to American manufacturers in a great diversity
of lines.
Success of Third National Loan-Increased Savings Bank Deposits.
The year 1917 witnessed the third national loan and the response
to this was remarkable in the IHav:e district, as well as everywilre in
France. Although the aim of this loan was to raise 10,000.000,000
francs, it was actually oversubscribed to the extent of about
300,000,000 francs. The peasants of Normandy and the bl.sines
men and war workers of Havre and the other industrial centers in
this consular district contributed alike to this result. which deiion-
strated once more the patriotic confidence and solid thrift of the
French people.
622S20-18-5b-1







SUPPLEMENT TO C'OilIMERCE REPORTS.


A mo,-t interesting sidelight on the sound financial conditions in
the Havre district wa afforded by the transactions of the Caisse
d'Epargne, or National Savings Bank, of Havre in 1917. Notwith-
standing the increase, in the cost of living by at least 100 per cent
over general living expenses in 1913, the deposits in this institution in
1917 exceeded those of 1916 by 5,34 per cent., and, although heavy
withdrawals were made by depositors in order to participate in the
third national loan, the total balance due to the depositors increased
during the year by 13 per cent, the largest increase since the open-
ing of the in.-titioni in V1;.S-",. In fact. the deposito.- of tle HaIre
Savings Bank, who are mostly working people, deposited in 1917
the suin of 5.113.798 francs ($98.,9(63). as against. only 2,375,626
francs ($4-58,496) in 1916. Nothing could better illustrate the ex-
traordinary thrift of the French nation than this triumph of economy
in the face of unparalleled difficulties. The same qualities are pos-
sessed by the French people in all ranks of society, hence the great
financial strength of the country.
Havre Cotton Market-Transportation Difficulties.
In the annual report from this consulate for the year 1916 it. was
-tated that the Havre cotton trade in the season of 1!15-16 showed
considerable development over the volume of the previous year,
although the imports from the United States had encountered nu-
merous obstacles on account of transportation and other difficulties.
In the cotton season of 1916-17 these difficulties increased greatly,
because, of the serious inroads made in the merchant fleets of the
Allies, as well as of neutral countries, and also because of the con-
siderable tonnage requisitioned by the Allied Governments for war
purpose-. Moreover, freight rates, which normally were from 30 to
40 points from Galveston to Havre and which during the season
1915-16 rose to 350 points, reached 700) points at the end of '1916-17,
each increa,,e of 100 points in freight. being equivalent to an in-
crease of 7 francs per 50 kilos ($1.35 per 110 pounds) in the cost of
importation. A further handicap was the increase in the war-risk
insiiraince rates, which rose by leaps and bounds after the German
dec'liration of unrestricted submarine warfare. Thus the premiums,
which had formerly been maintained at 2 per cent, rose quite sud-
denly to 5 per cent and reached 10 per cent during the course of the
last half of the season.
Decrease in Exchange.
On the other hand,' the exchange with the United States, while re-
rnaining very high in comparison with the ordinary exchange of
3.Sr francs to the dollar, showed aaw easier tendency than in 1916,
when it exceeded 6 francs. Thus the exchange was 5.90 francs during
the entire month of July, 1916, and successively 5.90 in August., 5.86
in September, 5.85 in Octoher, and 5.84 in November. It remained
stationary at thii- rate until March. 1917, and in April fell suddenly
to 5.70, remaining unchanged until the end of July, 1917.
This decrease in the exchange, however, was too small to counter-
balance the other factors which arose to burden the cost of the impor-
tation of the merchandise. The result was an increase in the value
of cotton at Havre in coml)arison with the prices prevailing in the
United States. Hence the differences existing between futures in the









FRANC,--HAVRE. 3

Have market. and the prices quoted at New York, which normally
are from 70 to 80 points, were 7T0 points at the beginning of the -en-
son and reached 2,5i2 points bIetvween July New York and July Havre
on June 21, 1917, the date when the French Government decided. to
intervene by closing the future market of Havre, as was done at the
same time at Liverpool.
Port of Harve Congested-Handling Charges.
Imports also encountered obl-tacle, on their arrival in France by
reason of the congestion of the port of Havre. Vessels were obligedl
to remain some time at Cherbourg before being authorizedl to proceed
to Havre.
There was an increase in the charges for handlin- cotton, which
have risen from 28 to 4'2 centimes per 100 kilo- ( frini ,.02_'5 to $i.07
per 100 pounds), and in the insurance rates, which have risen from 25
to 3', centimes per 1,000 franc-s (from $0.048 to $'-i.0's for each $193
of insurance). Shipments of cotton for the spinners have been made.
with the greatest difficulty. Beginning with the end of December,
1916, the Havre cotton trade had to face an acnilt transportation
crisis. which la-ted until May, 1917. The conm'est ion of the railways
caused by military transportation and the shortage in rolling stock
delayed certain shipments for three months and even longer. Hence
there were supplementary charges for stowage, for warehousing, and
for insurance.
However, notwith-tanding all the-e (lificulties that the Havre im-
porters have had to overcome, they succeeded, during the season ended
July 31, 1917, in importing 683,173 b1ale-. a{gain.t 756,008 b1les in the
previous season, thereby meeting all the demands of the French spin-
ners.
Cotton Receipts, Deliveries, and Stocks on Hand.
The following table shows the arrivaL. of cotton at Havre in each
month of the two cotton seasons ended July 31, 1916 and 1917, the
deliveries from Havre for each month, and the stocks on hand at the
end of each month:

Arrival. De'ioer:-<. Stok-;.
Month.
19.191,-16 1,,-!7 1 91," It; 1 10i 1-17 191 I G 19Il;-17

BaR ls. IBola Bales. Bates. B.tca Bak.
August .................................... *7 t.,9 ti;, it4 09, 729 1 4,731 M14.40S 170,! '!
Septem ber .............................. .. 2,~ t i.279 2 ,32fi t, 0.,i7 15', J 1i';( 1'
October........ ....... ................. 94, 5-7 %71'.. 7 5'5. S95 7 7 197. L.'3 1?27, V.
N ovem ler................ ................ li1.1171 II7 l, r l ,, S50.9 4 2i.31 X I Il :1 1.Ioi, li)
* Deeem ter............................... .,7,11i54 79,.- ') 45, fii0 ,12 *'9 25'),l r1' 2'27. T)
January................ .............. .... ~i ,?. 1i. 1 7.~ 4, 1 :..0 9,' 24 2 ',2 1 27', 7i3.
February................................. 31,5-10 1. ,716 .3. % ,"( 410.511 2"'. 9,7 2u7, 94.
M arch ..................................... ,91)0 65,7':1 i,2S ,i 2 .,1 ,7 1 291, ,. .11 .9I .i
April ............................... .... 69, F.5 ti, 201 9i 413 1 1-1,77 2, .1, ., 211 .50.
M ay ......................... ........ ..... .. 0 .3-13 11.1 ',00 105 S,-i 57, ;:2 26.', 20, 1i7, ',',2
June...................................... 41, .76; 44,1 21 ,.,12 :17 7'q 229. ,72 17; .311.,
July. ..................................... 47, 64 2), 11) 77%369 53, .,7i 19%, 1i,; 1 '.9l7
Total .......................... 73',01.0.' bx3, 17; 7 6, it1 722, -21 .......... ...

From the foregoing table it will be noted that the highest imports
in the last season were made firingg the months of November, 1016,
and January, 1917, while in the previous season the heaviest arrivals







SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


were in May. 1916. This reduction in imports arose from the fact
that the freight became increasingly difficult to obtain as the season
advanced. It will readily be perceived that had the May arrivals of
1916-17 been up to those of the same month of the previous season,
the iotal imports would have exceeded the total of the previous year.
In every previous season practically all of the American cotton
shipped to the French spinners came to the port. of Havre, but this
year some iml)orts were made at St. Nazaire and Bordeaux, in order
to take advantage of special freight opportunities.
It will also be noted that the deliveries declined from 7S3.,40 bales
in the season of 1915-16 to 722,721 bales in 1916-17. This decrease
arose particidarly from the reduction of the reexports to Switzer-
land and Italy, as a result of decrees prohibiting the exportation of
cotton from France without a special license. The Frenclh spinning
indu-try, on the other land. continued to operate at it, maximum
capacity during the entire season, ,-notwithi-tandinga all the difficulties
whihl it. experienced in obtaining cotton and coal.
Fluctuations in Cotton Prices.
Cotton prices at Havre in the season 1916-17 followed, in a general
way, the fluctuations in the United States. The season began with
prices which even then seemed excessively high, namely, with futures
at. 114- francs ($-22.05), with a very strong rising tendency, which
was rapidly accentuated on receipt of unfavorable crop reports.
Tlius it was that during August a rise of about. 20 francs ($3.86)
occurred. At the beginning of September a pronounced reaction set
in, on receipt of reports that the season in the Western States of the
United States was in advance; but. this reaction was brief and prices
soon rei-,vered their upward trend. During October the quotations
rose 1by- about 15 fiancs ($2.90), and this rise continued during the
month of November, futures reaching 170'- francs ($34.37) on No-
vember 27, the maximum price since the beginning of the season.
But suddenly, after a very rapid fall caused hli the efforts of the
bulling interests to realize on their holdings following the estimate of
the crop by the American Government-which estimate was higher
by 1,000,000 bales than the previous estimates-the price fell to
1491 francs ($29.72). At the beginning of January there was a
momentary recovery in prices, followed l;y a new reaction, when the
prices returned to i51S francs ($,31.46). But toward the end of the
month the tendency became better.
In February came the German declaration of unrestricted subma-
rine warfare, followed by the declaration by the United States of a
state of war with Germany, effective April 6. 1917. It. was to be
expected that the cotton imports would thenceforth become increas-
ingly difficult, as the available tonnage was drawn upon largely for
war purposes. It was also realized that the labor supply would
become less abundant on the plantations. Furthermore, the crop
reports received in May and June were not favorable. The rise in
prices continued during the latter part of the season and reached 303
francs ($5,.4S) on June 21, 1917, the day that the Havre cotton ex-
change was closed by the Frenchl Government. In July, 191T, the
Have market reopened, but with maximum prices based automati-
cally on the American quotations.








FRANCE-HAV R E.


The following table .how., the highest and lowest cotton quotations
at Havre in each month of the season., 1915-16 and 1916-17:
1915-16 1916-17 1 1915-16 1916-17
Months. --- ----- Mnth.
Higl. Low. 1igh. Low. High. Low. High. Low.
August ......... 15 -1 S i 25. 22.117 F.-hri'n r,........ $22.19 $21.04 $31.87 $29.94
Poptembni r...... 'J..1 15 :.4 2'. 49 -4..1 r i M r li ............ 22.00 21.30 36.44 31.75
OctKil--r. ...... ... 1'. it.'J 1[ .21 2' 9.1 1 .. .. .Al.ri ............. 21.48 21.09 39.83 36.00
November....... 19.4 I 19 32 '- A 7,; M ............ 22.93 21.42 46.39 39.97
December....... 2.7 1'. 2.52 2 i J......... .. 22.39 22.12 58.48 45.09
January........ '. *.-3 20.i ,7 32.11 ..i..9 Jul', ............. 22.24 21.71 54.81 51.92

Government Regulations Affecting Cotton Market.
A series of most important decrees. and orders affecting the Havre
cotton market came into force in the latter half of 1917. For some
time 1 before the intc mrvention of the French Gove-rnment there was a
press campaign in France, tending to show that the differences exist-
ing between Liverpool and Havre exceeded the difference of the cost
of importations for theso two ports. It was believed that specula-
tive interests in the Havre futlir market had been disc:ovird that
were forcing the price quotations and compelling the spinners to
pay inordinately high prices, leaving too griat, a margin of profit
for the importers on a conmni.sion ba-i.. The Government therefore
decided, on June 21, 1917, to close the IIavre t.-ott,'n i market and to
forbid all transactions until the establishment of new regulations.
These new regulations, which were drawn up with the a-si.-ia nee of
a delegation of the Havre trade, were brought to the attention of
those concerned on July 9. Business was again authorized, but cov-
ering solely a period of six months. The only operation-s permitted
for longer periods related to the liquidation of old contracts. Busi-
ness for the ciirent six month-, is also restricted. the purcha-e of new
contracts being permitted only to industries that tran.-forml the raw
cotton, that is, the spinners, in covering their sales of yarns. Only
merchants and importers may effect short sales when covering their
purchases of spot cotton, and a committee of the IIavre cotton mar-
ket shall establish each day the maximum prices. based automatically
on the variation of the future market of New Orleans, with allow-
ance for modifications in the cost of importation.
Cotton Association Formed.
Having decided to centralize the purchases of cotton, the French
Government. formed an association, composed of merchants of Havre
and French spinners and weavers, for the purpose of taking delivery
of the cotton bought in the United States by the French Govern-
ment, through the medium of a technical adviser delegated by the
association. The French Government was to be absolved from all
commercial risks in this transaction, the cotton being sold by the as-
sociation and account being taken of the urgency of the needs of all
concerned.
After a long discussion between the Ministry of Commerce and
the Havre trade and the spinners, a corporation'called the Consortium
Cotonnier Francais was definitely constituted in December, 1917,
with a capital of 10,692,000 francs ($2,063,5.)56). As soon as it was
established, the corporation began to make purchases, seeking the
fine qualities necessary for the French spinning industry. But it






SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


experienced the greatest difficulties in shipping its purchases, the
necessary vessels not. being available. Imports of the trade being
suppre..ed, the Havre stock of cotton was rapidly reduced, amount-
ing to only 810,000 bales, as compared with 298,000 bale.s the previous
year, and the situation of the Havre cotton market became more and
more uncertain..
Coffee Trade Controlled by Government.
The year 1917 witnessed a marked increase in the deliveries of
fof'ee in France, but the volume of transactions reflected, for the
first. time, the effects of the restrictive measures taken by the French
Government. in regard to importation. In fact, the cargo space re-
served for coffee was very much reduced, beginning with the first six
month', and at the end of the year the arrivals in Havre were li%-
ited to cargoes by Brazilian vessels.
Imports for 1917 amounted to only 1,110,000 bag-s of 00 kilos (132
pounds) each, against 2,820,000 bags in 1916, or a reduction of about
50 per cent. The deliveries for the year amounted to 2,336.000 bags.
This large outward movement naturally reduced greatly the ILavre
stocks by the end of the year.
The following table shows the stocks of each kind of coffee at
Havre on Deccember 31, 1916 and 1917:
Kinds. Dec. .31, 1916. Dee. 31, 1917.

Brw. Baqis.
S ................................................. ............. I 447 t946, 24i)
Other Bi ilial ........ ..............................................32.9 _122,39.,
Haitian.......................................... ................... ....:-. 42 97, 29
In iani. Malabar, Ceyl.on ................................................2. -2 1').219
Cenir.il Amnericiii, c.r .................................................. 21 1.6,10 17 .. S97
Fi(riech cuclru, i......................................................... ................ 13, 240)
T, l............................................................. 2, 21 ,717 1,66S, 2';0
Coffee in course of di.-c hnr,: .............................................. 3.5_ 6t,21f6
Grand total........ .. ..................... ............... 2. W. .21. 1, 674, 4C.

In addition to the total Havre stocks on December 31, 1917, the
stockss on the saim.e date in other French ports amounted to 393,000
bags. the coffee afloat, for France was estimated to be at. lea.t 400,000
bag-, and the stocks in the interior of the country were estimated
at from 400,000 to 500,000 bags-. Thus the normal supply of France,
including the army, is fully as-ured for the year 1918. as the total
French consumipti,,n in 1917 did not. exceed 2,500,000 bags.
Thi-, situation caused the French Government, to suspend, p)ro-
visionally, all fresh imports of coffee dating from January 1, 1918,
in order to dispose otherwise of the tonnage required for the trins-
portp.tion of coffee.
Coffee Prices Gradually Increase.
On January 1, 1917, the basis of coffee prices was 75 francs per
50 kilos ($13.J0 per 100 pomud.s). This basis continued to rise
during the year, because of the int-reasing shortage in transporta-
tion facilities and the rise in insurance rates for war and maritime
risk.
At the beginning of January, 1917, the freight from Santos to
Havre was 260 francs, plus 10 per cent, for 900 kilos, or 19 francs
per bag of 60 kilos ($3.67 per bag of 132 pounds, equivalent to nearly
$0.03 per pound). At the end of April the freight rose to 400






FRANCE-HAVRE.


francs ($77.20), plus 10 per cent. At the end of September it
reached i50 franc., ($144.75), plus 10 p.r cent, t1ti, price being main-
tained until the end of the year. This ri,.e repr,'--nts 30 francs per
50 kilos ($*..2S per 100 pounds), or 36 fr:anr,. (4,..5) per bag. The
quotations of the Havre market have thus followed this upward
movemiient of freight and miscellaneo iui maritime expe.n-,s, while, on
the contrary, the prices in Brazil remained stationary during the
year.
At the beginning of the year the quotation of 75 francs ($14.48)
was quickly exceeded and 80 francs ($14..44) was reached in
February. Under the pre-aiire of the freiighi rates a price of 90
francs ($17.37) was riealUhed in March and 95 rnnlcs ('18.34) at
the beginning of July. A quotation of 100 francs ($19.30) was
reached at the end of the month of August and then the price ron-,
gradually to 106 francs ($20.46), which quotation was maintained
at the close of the year.
Importation of cofie- from Central America and Haiti, which is
us-a.illy very active in Havre, was'extremely difficult in 1917 by rea-on
of the sihort,;ge in regular transportation facilities, so that a portion
of those crops remained in the countries of origin, thus provoking a
financial crisis.
Havre Stocks of Brazilian Coffee.
The Havre stock of Brazilian valb ized coffee has been greatly
reduced in the last two years. The Valorization Committee of Lon-
don held 1,212.000 bags of Rio and Santos coffee in Havre on Jan-
uary 1, 1916, and sold 100,000 hnig- of this stock during" that year,
thus leaving 1.112.000 bags at the end of the year. In April, 1917,
the committee sold "200,000 l.'g- of this stock and in the latter part of
February, 1918, a similar sale of 200,000 Ibgs was miaade, the average
price realized heinc. 110 francs per 50 kilos ($19.26 per 100 pounds).
Still another sale of 200,000 h-as was planned for March, 1918,
which would reduce the valorization stock at Havre to about 525,000
bags. The.-.e sales are conducted under the auspices of the French
Government and half of the coffee sold is intended for the army
and the other half for the civilian population.
All of this Brazilian coffee at Havre came from the famous
bumper crop of 1906. The coffee is, therefore. about 12 years old.
There has been con-iderable discussion in the United States as to
whether the long storage does not greatly deteriorate or even ruin
the quality of coffee. A Havre coffee expert, however, states that
the coffee withdrawn from bonded waVr,1hoL-e- for sale in February,
1918, proved to be of excellent quality, from which it might be in-
ferred that coffee, like wine, improves with age.
In view of certain agreements reached in respect to the mer-
chant marine, the French Government recently took up the ques-
tion of the acquisition of 2.000.000 bags of Sao Paulo coffee, which
is to remain .tored provisionally in the country of production. It is
stated that an agreement has been reached in regard to this matter.
The financial aid thus affiforded may sustain the prices in Brazil,
which are quite low, as well as prices in New York.
Imports, Deliveries, and Stocks of Cocoa Beans.
The cocoa-bean market at Havre, which is one of the most im-
portant in Europe, was very active in 1917, the volume of imports










SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


and dejliveries being largely in excess of the figures of 1916. The
import "into lHavre in 1017 amounted to 228.644 bags, against 173,-
900 bags in 1916, or an increase of 54,744 bags.
The following table gives the imports into Havre for each month
in 1010 and 1917, the deliveries during each month, and the stocks
on lha.d at the end of each month:


Jar i1 ir ....................................
Fe' r .iry--.................................
MA h ............. .......................
AM ,rl ............................. .........

May ......................................
Junr ........... ..........................
.... ................... .... ............ ............
Au t ........................ ............... .......
p pierlr l -r ................................
O =. l lir-1 ...................................
N iI\ ,'1iln r................................
D e.,m li.r .. ............ .... ..... ........


Imports.l

191. 191'

Bay.. Boo,.
14,'.n17 11. i.^
17, 7'.'1 I 9O 7
14, 27.1 21, ,
2i, 7 I, 111i,.
21,71 4 11 4 E


7. ,25
,. fri7.A
19, 1-1"

n, "12
13.-2'j
l.J3iT20


t1 L 1............................... 173,90


1 i. 1 ,7
2., fl -)
.1 2 .. "1
31, 0'i
S2 ".064
"*,3, ,I


De!i 1"


1916"


12, 70(0
,',.77",
i. ')9.5
1".. 115
IL'. %j'1
12,.19
7,-'n
S. 'tmI
9.'212
13. r.74
17, 0.3'


erie,. I ocks.

1917 191'. 1917

Ba g. Bags. Baqs.
11. ,031 41.407 72,095
11.127 5.3, 14 71,931
22.3.'4 57.7.2 CP6.366
31,."4,0 2.4.170 5.1,04.t
2.', .. .,7, 3 33.624
1.3,:u 52, .-12 10,475
i,- .*,i r, *i ,c. 1 11 C.


7,3 .3
7,715
21, 0o
14, 1'41
12,0714


14i,. fu2 191. 41


.3, 40
74, 111
i50.2 24
75, 342
71, I,,,


.9, -70
9.3,917
110). 16
124, l...i
S16;, !l1


At the end of Decemrtber, 1916, the I:ivre stocks of cocoa beans
amounted to 71.4S. bag-, The-, stock-, rote slowly until the end of
iFeb'liriir'. 11117, when heavy deliveries reduced them considerably.
In June they began to rise and reached the maximum figure of
124.0l.'1 bIagus at the end of November. closing the year with 116,401


Prices of Cocoa Beans.
The following table howsws the prices of cocoa beans of various
kind-, in franiis (1 franc=-0().19) per 50 kilos (110 pounds) at
Hl,'re at the end of each month in 1917. These prices are for cocoa
hearts in bonded warehouse, tare ? per cent and discount 21 per cent.:


J.n .i ary


l'I i 1 :. r' n i d...........................
TTil,1 l.. .. ......... ........................
Vtrnlzuel ............ ............. .......
C8rrn.i,li mnil -i Lu(iI ...................
Pn i.-it hnid nu\n ,' n. ............. ..........
Gi itll.A ll. ................................
St. 'T homT nI', ri'r .......... ..........
lliu rto i'lt s. ama1 .., :,ncl S n,:he.. .......
-H u iT i ..... .. .. .. ... .. ........ ..
D.[artin h i e, o.ll ile o u prim ile.g.......... ..
cuadl eluupe, el'.1iiial I!ri ip'mi, .............
Akkra nrid cimilar.... .. .............


Kinis.



Bathi-L, ierili~tcd........................
'frinil:, I................................. .
Venriu eli .................................
Glipnada and Sl. L .i .....................
Pl ra anid A i 'r .... ......................
C; Lay 4uil ................................
St. Thim j,, 3urpori,Ir .... .............
Pi'l i i. l'lat.i S -:nnii; a. anii Sanchez ......
H-. ...... .............. .............
Mari .1iiluo. I, Im' i.' l I ivil e ..............
i.u11:vI l.,ip, col'' ni:! p' rivilege .............
Aki;ra :nd .'sim i!hr .... ............ ........


France.
9 1i-0
112-120
(17-1 I
11.',--121
10,3-1 1
,1.5- I4 12


.F I-II I
13*-1
on- o1


Fri ncr.
112- 12S
1 2.12.
123-175`
11'-12:..
124-127-
121-121

115- 122
11f-122
17i-17')
115-115


i-Feb.r I


Fi ne .
11r2- 10
116-122
1 -170


04- 103
911-1'S
113.-120

0f--105
.,7-lo'

152-15u
I'.-l.i-


122-124
124-12'4
125-175
11 -- 125
121-127
124-12q
120-124-
11-%122
114-120
170-179
171.-110
115--11.


M.lich. .\1ril. .May.


Fr,~n'i Frome.. Franc..F
110--120 112-120 11.;-i2
120-l 1- 1 '- 131) 1'25-110
121--175 122-17; 12.5-175
11- 12 115-125 114-12'7
120--12.5 .......... ..........
12U-110 125-130 127-1 0

"1i ii "112--120 11'ii. 122
100-112 110-I-T, 115-120
I 'W- 172 172-176 176-179
170-175 175-178 17S--n1
10'--l11) 106-112 112-11'I


Septem-
ber.


Frarnc'..
122-128
124-12S
125-175
11lV125
124-127
124- 128
12L0-124
11-122
111-120
176--179
1 ISU
115-11S


Octr,,Acr.


Frenes..
12fl- !2t
124-128
12'-175
115-123
121-127
124-12S
120-121
S1'-122
114-120
176- 179
17r-180
115-11S


Novrein-
1,er.

Fro ntics.
122-127
125-127
125- 175
118-12.
121-127
124-120
120--124
118-122
114-120
176-179
179-180
115-11S


I & __ __ __ __ I _


Junp.


Francs.
I lI- 125
127-126
125-175
11 S- 125
122-127
121-127
11S-121
115--122
11.5-120
173-179
173-1s')
112-113


Derecm-
er.


Francs.
122-127
125-125
125-175
115-12.1
121-127
124-120
120-121
110-122
114-120
1711-179
17&-180
113-116


L_


i i


-----~


-- -; --


I


.luly. Aul -.i -







FRANCE--AVYE.


- Havre Pepper Market pDeclines. ,
Prior to the war Hlavre was.the principal pepper market of Europe.
The local stock- oniDecember 31, 1912, amounted to no less than 231,-
877 bags. At the time of the outbreak of hostilities there were 135,-
800 bags in stock. I As late as the end of the year 1914, of the total
European stock of '171.9000 bag-. no less than 109,2)10 bags were -tored
in Havre. Since that period there has been a steady decrease in the
pepper trade of Havre, both a- regards imports and exports, particu-
larly since October 14, 1915, when the decrease declaring pepper con-
traband of war went into force.
During 1917 the pepper imports into Havre amounted to only 13,-
407 bags, against, 16,096 bags in 1916 and 26,242 bag-; in 1915. The
deliveries in 1917 totaled only 19.99S bags, against 35,970 lbags in
1916 and 99,052 bags in 1915. The stocks on December 31, 1917, were
extremely reduced, being only 12,397 bags, again-t 18,988 bags on De-
cember 31, 1916, and 36,308 bags on December 31, 1915. The expor-
tationq of pepper from France continued to be strictly forbidden
throughout the year.
Imports of Pepper-Stocks and Prices.
The following comparative table shows the imports of pepper of
different kinds into Havre in the years 1915, 1916, and 1917; also de-
liveries for the same periods:

Imports. Deliveries.
Kinds.
1915 1916 1917 1915 1916 1917

Bags. Bags. Bags. Bags. Bags. DiJs.
Java...................................... .......... 50 646 203 50 315
Sinm ipor ................................ 47 1,407 18 208 505 868
Indi i TelliiherriB ....................... 4,685 7!6 1,843 42,500 867 1,075
Saii )n, r-rdinalr ........................... 4."95 970 2,312 21,154 3,252 636
Saigon, colony il privilege .................. 17. )15. 12,953 8. ." 34,937 31,296 17,104
Total............................... 26..6 12 16,095 13,407 99,052 3j 9711 19,998

The following table shows the stocks of pepper at Havre on De-
cember 31, 1916 and 1917, also the prices (given in francs of $0.103)
for the different kinds at the close of the yeais 1915, 1916, and 1117:

Si,',cks. Prices.
Kind;.
Dec. 3!. Dec. 31, D.,. .11. Dee. 31, Dec. 31,
1916. 1917. 191-". 1916. 1917.

Biu?. Bags. Francs. Francs. Francs.
Aleppi and Tellicherri (India ............. 1.2. Z 2,001 84 140 230
Tava.......................... ............ 10 3 1 ............ .136 227.
Sing.ipore ........................ 1,711 861 ...........1,7 13 2111
Saigon, i hiie.............................. .191 170 217 .19
Saigon, black.............................. .19 1:. n2
Total .................... ... ....... .9 S 12, : ',7 ............ ......... ............

Copper Market Low.
The copper market of Havre. which dates from 1912, developed
rapidly in the two years preceding the outbreak of war. Naturally,
it has been affected greatly by the war. Toward the end of 1l16
622820-18-5b- 2






SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


theru was practically no busihoss done by reas..on of the lack of
jmierchandise. a-; a basi., for the future, market ivhile the stock of
copper in Havre at the end of that year amoidhted to only 1,406
ton-i. There was still le-.s business done in I 17. 'Imports of copper
into France w-ere regulated by the French Gouernment, and the
quantities received by the trade were instifficient. tonneet the demands
of the future market.
Prices, which were purely nominal, remained fixed throughout
the year at 370 francs per 100 kilos ($32.39 per 100 pounds).
Imports of copper at Havre amounted in 1917 to 2,583 tons, and
the exports were 3,681 tons. The. trade stocks at Havre on Decem-
ber 31, 1091, were 1.401( tons and on December 31, 1917, only 308
tons., the lowest figure in the history of this market.
Other Industries of Havre District.
The Contpagniie Francaise des Extraits Tinctoriaux et Tannants
of Havre, manufacturing dyeing and tanning extracts from wood,
imported for its plant in 1917 about. 20,000 tons of dyeing a! ,tai-
ning material agains-t, about 58,000 tons in 1916. This great de-
crease was due entirely to the. restrictive effects. of the war. The
difficulties, of transportation, the danger, from submarine warfare,
and the excessive freight rates have all naturally affected the im-
ports of the raw material into Fr:niie. These ditticulties have pre-
vented the company from resuming its former prosperous trade
relations with the VInited State*. The raw material has, as in
recent year.,,, leen obtained priin-lipally from Argentina, Central
America, Mexico, and the West Indies.
The Di.-tillerie de la Bidnedici inc. of Fecamp, Seine Infericure,
reports that, notwlthstaiading the increasingly difficult -.ituation
created for its business by the war, its sales in 1917 amounted to
1,012,344 liters (425,933 gallons), of which France consumed
1,062,494 liters (280,79 gallons) and the United States 114,066
liters (30,132 gallon-). The total production of the establishment
in 1917 represents 4,353 tons, against 5,225 tons in 1916 and 5,129
tons in 1915.
The prohibition of the importation into the United States of al-
coholic liquors applied to this liqueur, and hence 30 days following
the 1promulga.tion of the. food bill of August. 11, 1917, the importa-
tion of benedictine liqueur into the United States came to an end.
The siippres.-ion of this branch of its export trade has naturally
affected the activity of the establishment. Exports of benedictine to
the United States declared at the Havre consulate in 1917 were valued
at $149,824, against 4209,095 in 1916.
Exporters of flint pebbles state that the demand for this article in
the United States was somewhat greater in 1917 than in the preceding
year, but that the difficulties experienced in gathering and loading
prevented the development, of the export. trade. The value of the.
declared exports of flint pebbles to the United States in 1917 was
$67,401, against, $89,.18 in 1916.
Declared Exports to United States.
The declared exports t.o the United States from the consular dis-
trict of Havre in 1917 showed the greatest falling off registered in
any year since the beginning of the war. The total value of these







FRANCE-TIAVRE. JLI

exports, exclusive of, those to Porto Rico and the Philippines, was
$,s':.,759, against $LO04,190 in 1916, being a decrease of $967,431, or
about 53 per cent. (This decrease was due exclusively to the rit ri, ti ve
effects of the war.on French industries and commerce.
If the declared portss to Porto Rico and to the Philippines are
included, the grand total jpf, te der-lared exports for 1917 was
$841,735, against $1.S, 05,01 in 1916. The value of returned American
gooods in 1917 was $23,886, as compared with $216,079 in the preced-
illog Vear.
The following table shows the value of the principal articles de-
clared for export to the United States in 1916 and 1917:

Articles. 1916 1917 Articles. 1916 1917

Books ...................... $776 .......... Oil, colza ................. $81,875 $14,767
Brushes ............. .... ........... ?,',an Paintings .................... 588 ........
Camphor .................... 7,276 3,. ..7 P r fil,-rin ................................... 1,737
Cement..................... 2,771 5,470 let,hl.., lint ............. 89,18 6 7,401
Chbee e: '.gp -.r ...................... 95,677 ........
C4nmnert .............. 19,527 3,399 Pharmaceutical products.... 4,719 836
'rr .a ... .. ................. 58 I'ot l1 1h. prussiateof......... 30,044 ..........
Conr)r ine' t. .:..'..,.. 43,035 30,328 RubI I er
nr. old ............ ..... 6,200 3,491 Crude .................. 82,108 2,397
Corset material.............. 28,048 19,429 Scrap............................. 4. ,2
Drugs .................. 347 975 Sand .................... ... ......... '-', 1"1
Fertilizers, bone ............. 19,885 ......... Seed:
1l optical ................ 9,703 5,55. Clover ................. 194.3.1. 20,511
C: .. ......... ....... .... ..... .. 15,807 All other ................. 2, .1 4,120
Hides: Filk. artificial ................ 719 ..........
Raw .................... 13,510 il', v-r....................... 1,521 .........
Sa!ted... ................ 440,801 226,707 Skins:
Hops .......... ............ 12,567 10,077 Goat ................... 10,808 .........
Horses ............... ...... 8,109 4,828 Rabbit ................. 65,497 14,' .0
Household guoo .. .................. 7,221 Willow .................... 11,143 31, i1
Jam..................... 4,'678 3,429 Wine, champagne........... 226,590 110,946
Jute, waste .... ................... 27,878 Wood:
Laces ........................ 1,011 .......... Ebony.................. *28,311 7,720
Lead ....... ............... .5, n3 .......... Mahogany ............... 36,724 ..........
Liqueir, benedictine ........ 2C ,i ui9: 149,824 Rose... .......................... 3,991
Machinery.................. 1,176 1,176 All other articles ............. 7,084 7,607
Musical instruments...... 956 ..........956
Mustard.... ................ 1,065 470 Total.................. 1,804,190 836,759
Nursery stock-.............. 9,230 6,024

American Trade Extension.
Conditions for the introduction and sale of American goods for
the French retail trade in this district were by no means favorable
in 1917. In the first place, the limitation of the available tonnage
for the transportation of troops, war supplies, cotton, and food and
the extremely high freight, rates necessarily restricted the importa-
tion of American products in general. Then there was the restri-tive
effect of a series of governmental war miea-.nres in regulation of the
export trade on the part of the Unitedl States and the import trade
on the part of France. The French decree of April 14, 1917, prac-
tically eliminated from the field of commerce every article of luxury,
so that import permits were confined virtually to indispensable prod-
ucts. The same restrictive measure were, of course, enforced in regu-
lation of the French import trade from the United Kingdom.
The consequence of the above-mentioned condition is that, in de-
fault of domestic supplies, the stocks of the retail -hops in Havre and
in other cities of the district are, as a rule, more depleted than at
any time since the war bgan. In every branch of trade French
merchants, both wholesalers and retailers, except to obtain fresh utip-
plies from the United States when hostilities end. Necessarily, the








12 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.,

trade prolmoition activities of this consiulte have been confined largely
to furri-hing infoi motion in preparation for the introduction and
sale of American goods wlen peace shall be restored. Many in-
,ljiiii,' to this end have been received from local business interests,
a well as from American exporters. All concerned recognize that
the time is not propitious for the introduction of such foreign goods
as are not indispensable for either the successful prosecution of the
war or the subsistence of the French people.
Official Commercial Statistics of Imports.

eklow are given the .Itatistics of the imi)poirt trade of Havre with
the world in 1917, and the corresponding figures for 1916. These
s.tati.-ti.- were compiled by the customs authorities of the port ex-
pressly for this consulate. Both the total imports and the imports
for consumption are shown, the quantities in this table and others
throiughlinti the report being stated in metric tons of 2,1204.6 pounds.

T.-.t:tl irmort-:. Impn o s for Lonstia)ll ion.
Articles. &..
1",!,, 19 -17 '1 P; 1917

Tons. Tons. Tni. Trin.
11l0 .... ............................ ..... ".3-'!.r.i M rlT n 29' h 1 ; firj g..3
lBr nr:J .ii.I uirits.............................. ".1;. il 4 1 1. 1 48,997.9 12.'91il 5
ti h"u1' 11 ni-lducts........... ........... ......4. ',4 7 74, ?' 1 '4, 2 7 ,..
(o .i .: '. it ii I briquets....................... 1,011,603.0 933.397.0 7ti'. 7,. ii 7'4'. -'7.0
( 'o,- I, ................................. I 1I. 7. 3 2 ).056.7 4.1 i I 9 ,* 739.*
Coffee.... .................................. 121 I.1 4 11 1680.2 .1.7 1 n .7,' ,3i.6
Copl .-r ........... .............................. 121 7"12 '. ,655.1 1?2.-.:, 4 *ji. 5!'2.7
S.).."r, ;. ts, coconut shells, etc................. 2..j. 1 2,728.3 2,21 2 147 (6
( ii j ................................ 2..:11t 1 : 1,420.6 2, .47 ? I ,. ?
',. .,ii ........ ......................... .. ".In 1-' ,597.2 l i ;77. 1".' '".
Dve'- 'in tfilnin ............................... 643.1 185.7 633.1 160.3
TD:.'-iiil-. i'red'.r........................... 171.. 3,153.1 "?21 S I 19. 0
E1 I 'ri-. ''.' : .. ......................... ...... 4'- 1 9 i.'< .; 112.7
F.- .:-. iJ' l ................... ................. '. 1'1 i; 19, :171.8 9.s', 1 2,'. I 7
F, .., llkind- ..... ................... ... ; ;;i .39.1 3, r.7,9 4,2 1.4
Il tr -, i li l'. ... .......................... ... .2 9 1. 1 -: 8,632.1 '. .t)l 3
r'l,..- i;,. :nmil ~voodwork....................... 1,062.6 1,099.1 1,015.2 1, 03. 1
Grainand flour................................ 857,192.6 625,627.1 7l 964.2 C.2', ,*.1.0
Hides and skins................................ 14,323.1 20,551.8 1' C'", ". 2 -'1.1
Horns, hoofs, and bones....... 1,721.8 I 2.0 1.7! 0 1 4..0
Iron id s4ie l .................................. 672,418.8 ".",'. ".7 1'.7 12 i, 5, .1.,7'. I
i 1it d'ods, etc .......... ..................... nr 2 .2 7 7 'J l. .J ........................................... I ...4.' i l '< l, t, .'1 714.,
Lobsters...................................... 2..'.iii.7 1 ..3J 0 2, '.'3.r 1,1.3.2
M,lfbich erv...................... ..... .......... 4,., 1,.) II 51 1 1 .6, 1 .' .1.n'S3.4
M.rlts:
i'r.'shi and frozen........................... 11I", i-7.7 132. 71 4 1;1,171.4 1.32,7.30 0
Pr .-orved, ineliiding vame................. .'.247. ', "."'. 2 ti 15'4.. 7.965.5
S., I 1,. q ..... ... ................... ... 14, 7,j. 2 18,904.7 14,,49. 1 19, 749.9
cM e I,'iir i 1,r-, ,rl 11 o.'s ......................... 1, <.) l 9 7.' 11 7 2. lS 1. 3
N i c'Irl .......... ..... .......... ... ............ 2. .9 b .7 ?,3 -'i 9 6', .ii
i r .' c i a i m alts......................... .... I5 S 1.11.7 -;**,.1 131.7
"it -
I and i r -.m rsir.............. 78,067.1 ..31,2 2 .1 70. 4.7' ,. 4 40,707.2
n l, n ril r :in r,"inI ................. 71-. 1 .* 7 9,? .. 99, 523 5
i e : ta lbl i tL ........ ................ ......... '. 2 I S .., 94 0) I, '7. f
1'1 i. .ii *i I 1 ,,'r1 fr 'ri il ....................... 0i, 1 l i,11, 21o, l 3 1lj,2i53. 1
irr: r.f l.il kinrid ........ ...... ... .. ......... 1. 1. .. .. .)n. 3 12, 771. 1 3,756.0
1,! i .. i l-* iwin.r'. irc. ....................... t. I..,'l. Q 2' 40.0 1i.0 ..N ,124.9
I'PI,.i ini i i-,nl) .. ...).. ............ 1 2 11 7 41 7 52i1. 1
I'1 u r,. u i ................................ -, 4. 1 29.0 4.024.0 4,.439 .3
1 c.i *'o -. *I .lto r v ol i I,- ............... 742.1 43, .-07 .3 9,. 'i 1 43,ii41. 4
T' .... ................ ........................ 32, 12 .2 51,:s93.3 32, 19 18 4 39S.3
1:i!0' nr. -'il,, ind1 reclaimed. ................ :. 2.51.0 2.-414. 1 3,493.3 2,79S.0
R11 i i :. i.,Pl ......... .... ..... ........ 1, 74 7 91 ..0 5,61' 5F 2, 49. 9
, '- n' l niii l'. C ..... .......... ............... I,iK-% 4 2,72.., ,5,00';.8 2,91 1
.'..-r, tTu l. n r >l .nd n ....................... 17',, .-1 ^ 1, 111.464.7 177,i99.6 145,466.9
Su,'6ared pre!-araiiinis ................. ........ 2,i 4.3 1, P,1i. 6 2,1S7.3 1,313.5
T. ii.nc and i:cul-l< .. ...................... 2, 1i-1.7 5, 0?22.4 2,2139.0 14, ,8S.7
7:3r, bitum-.n, and aih:ilt ..................... 7, 127 0 10.744.0 7.3%. 0 10,744.0
r ..... ... ....... ....... ............ :.11.6 2.M1.7 40MA 6 333 4
Tm ..... ........... ....................... 1.',3T.7 1,311.2 1,933.7 1,341.2
Tohb,(co, lal dand i, iniifa.i.lured ................ lot, i. 6 14,1.55.4 10,064.8 11,099.2
Tools .and m:'tel vorks ......................... GS,7 '7.5 109,S69.9 C7,632.8 10S,691.2









FRANCE-TIAVRE. 18


Total imports. ITimt 1- for consumption.
Articles.
1916 1917 1916 1917

Vehicles, including auliomolbil i, lirydcls, nnld T7.n Tons. Tons. Tons.
motor cyles ................................ 15,134.4 35,945.4 15,124.0 20,352.8
Wax, vegetable, and rc inous i.roiucts......... 1,001 .f 766.9 959.7 729.2
W ine ......................................... 2,170. 3,210.2 1,796.9 2, 0 1...
Woods:
Common................ ................ 29,337.4 19.f A5 1 28,799.3 13.1 11.6
Calinet and dyeing........................ 56.226 5 29,,'iQ.o 55 3R 2 2<, 720. 1
W ool.................. ..................... 12, 771.1 1 91 9 12.7 '2 1 !3,.1l 9
Yarns ind thread .............................. 4543.9 4, 16 7 .1, L 4 4,588.1
All other articles............. .................... 51,802.6 83,910.7 104,535.4 79,952.4
Total............. .................... 4,075,640.6 3,726,504.0 3,693,084.1 3,471,774.1

Exports from Havre to All Countries.

The general comilIerce exports from Havre to the world in 1917
amounted to 'h5.5 5.4 metric tons, against 440,701.8 tons in 1916, or
a deuease of 1.3),149.4 tons. The special commerce export,--that is,
doInvUtic goods-from Havre to the world in 1917 amounted to
81,833.7 metric tons, against -14. tons in 1916, or a decrease of
met ....... qnis 148"9orS
(-7,004.6 ton ;.
The following table -dlows 1,oth the ()tal (.exports (general com-
mnerce) .mnd the exports of domestic products (special co!ninerce)
from HIvre to the world in 1916 and 1917:

General commerce. S ie;.'Vl commerce.
Articles.
1916 I'17 1916 1017

A.Nli 1 1.S \ ND .NIM.1L PR ,'r ,p *"-'S.
Metri,. Metric tons. Metric tons. Metric tons.
Arum Iii ; ..... .. ........................... ... 235.., 44.3 118.6 15.1
Fealh .ri-. rjrm iu ,.t. Al ... ........... ... ....... ...... 2.1 11.1 32. 1 11.1
Fih,,ll lia i .................................... t.1?1.4 83.4 398.9 66.4
Fiir ..ii I. .ri.p I !.. ...... ..... ...... .............. 1 2-' .4 123.2 474.7 123.0
Glue, fish ir I.d ... .. ..... ... .. ... .... ......... .. 11.5 65.9 105.6 65.8
l..;i, anim l .. ........ ..................... ....... 173. 7. 393.4 469.4 393.0
Ilih.s a:nd zlLins;
i\:n v ... ........... ................ ........ 6,613.7 8,572.4 5,7'.4.4 8, 1 0
.Pr -. .. .... ................................. 114.5 201.8 111.1 i111.
h r : .. .. ............ ........ ...... ... a363 l. ill a363 a l,5 21
Meit an'l 'irne. r re .r\.'.!......................... 11:... b..., 45.6 24. o
M ilk;, iuiitr, cheese ............. .............. .... 769.1 13.'. 2 851.0 )M .8
Silk nil llo.-,, r.I ... ..... .. ............. ............ 6.1 16.4 1. 1 5.4
Wool, raw. ............................. .......... .(3.5 8.0 r. .0
V F..E T.A .L Pr.li'DUr Tr.
(orozo I ti 3 ;, c' L'.oinut r-he lc etc... ...... ..... .... ...... 38.6 222. 2'. 137. 1
Cotton, r.w. ..... ... .. ........................... 23<. 2 1S7. 8 173. 2 1.1.5
E r.nart., \vrk., bask.e ....................... .. o I 11 .0 141.0 76. 4
Fruitt, t il,...... .. ............................... 268.4 7-'1.6 156.2 58.0
';rain innl il.- r............. ..... ..... .............. 246.2 77.3 118.5 62.7
Indi.a rnil.b r and .'itti-perch;i. ,:',!ie ................... 261.0 818.7 215.2 818.5
Liqutru ..... .... ..... ............................ 822.8 417.1 820.9 496.1
O il';, V l- tile.. .. ........... ......................... 120.7 93.4 109 5 84.4
Sirup-;, pre.s-r es, tc ........... .... .............. ..... *.7.7 215.3 105.1 96.9
Seeds. ........ ......... ................... 7,475.6 2,147.8 7,475.6 2,147.fl
Sii.:ar, I.w an! lined ... ... .................. ... ... 232.3 .0 43.4 1.7
Tobacco, I-af und inn lIf.t llred......................... 633.7 .43.7 22.6 10.5
Vcget')lr' .......... ... ... .. .................. ,139. 1,280.8 1, 10. 1.6 445.4
Wa&, vegetable, iand resinous products................. '.-2 3 98.2 251.9 97.2
W ine ................. ..... ...... .. ................... 4, 1U7. I1 2,06i11 2 3,642.8 1.S_7.5
W ood................ ..... ........................... 6, 2(S 0 4' 2.0) 5,29'2.0 467.0
MlNER.%L?.
Ahminum .............................................. 5. .3 5.8 .3
Antimony............................................. 2 61. .12 61.4
Ooal and coke.......................................... 2.52,211.s 0 1r4. %8l.o 1,'fl TI 2,118.0
Copper.................................................. 20 1) 161.3 1167.1 i.5 .
a Number.









. 14 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


General commerce. Special commerce.
Articles.
1916 1917 1916 1917

MINERALS-continued.
Metrictons. Metrictoru .1f.ricirk .n. .Uffricionq.
Iron and steel .......................................... 23,601.0 112.9 2.1,377.7 92.4
Min ral waters......... : ............................... 3,347.2 3,287.1 3, 2!.. G 3,262.9
Nickel ................................................. 54.3 9.4 "4.3 0.4
Ores, other.......................................... 3, 086.8 161.5 714. I 127.2
Oils, heavy ............................................. 611.6 136.5 5,0.9 121.0
Stones and earth....................................... 12,727.8 9,156.5 12,727.2 9,153.8
Tin..................................................... 27.1 11.0 27. I1 11.0
MANUFACTURES.
Arms and ammunition ................................. 36.9 7.6 .32.9 7.6
Articles for collections....:.............................. 31.5 14.5 31.4 13.4
lnt.., mall.......................................... 3,702.0 168.0 3,701.0 163.0
B13,,uiliin material.................................... 19,697.0 4,292.0 19,6.b7 0 4,267.0
i hl-mn .1 products..................................... 1,675.6 977.6 1, 1l9 7 692 9
Clocks, watches........................................ 66.5 36.9 .,1.7 27.x
Clothing ............................................... 202.9 159.8 135.2 147.1
Cottong ods........................................... 2,704.6 942.5 2.121.S; 7,7.0
Dyes, prepared.......................................... 2,344.9 3,231.4 2,109.4 1,209. 1
Flowers, artficial...................................... 80.7 23.6 ,0 7 2.3.6
Furniture, woodwork.................................. 1,484.9 757.6 1,412 6 743 .3
Grindstones............................................ 994.0 758.0 99.3 9 758. 0
India rubber and gutta-percha manufactures ........... 296.9 116.9 291) 4 112.3
Musical instruments ................................... 204.9 2'.7. ii 179. 4 14t. 6
Scientific instruments .................................. 112.6 91.5 1'r.. 9 3. 2
Jute good. an-d fabrics.................................. 424.0 376.8 90 2 49 0
Lerarntr, ,nd manufactures of ............................ 136.6 143.4 129.1 74..1
J.inr-n. heml', and ramie goods.......................... 92.1 68.9 S4. I 4 3.0
MaIliniyv.............................................. 1,778.4 2,269.5 817.5 296.8
Medical compounds..................................... 3,575.9 4,020.3 3.557.1 4,009.8
Mother-of-pearl shells .................................. 51.9 15.2 47. I 1 7
1aiuts, inks, pencils.................................... 1,112.0 809.6 1,096. 790 5
Paper and manufactures of............................ 3,399.4 2,673.3 3,-.i1.3 2, .7. 3
Rags for paper minufa-tures............................ 2. ,5.7 6,896.7 2, S3.7 fi, 96 7
Perfumery and soap.................................... 2, 301.1 1,175.0 2, hOs. 1, 169 4
P'ittery, glass, and crystal. ........................... 1,279.0 4,398.9 2i.03.0 4, 3.31 0
Silk and silk floss, manufactures of...................... 745.7 251.7 6.3.3.4 187.7
Small wares............................................. 1,438.3 1,197.9 1,421.9 1, 18s.7
Tools and metal works................................. 10,003.1 16,879.9 1,9.6 1, 223. 9
Vehicles, all kinds ...................................... 220.7 165. 2 212.6 68. 1
Woolen goods.......................................... 292 N 1631.2 251 5 13M. 9
Yarn and thread........................................ 325. 9 2.i .1 1, 470. 0 780. 4
All other articles....................................... 47, 147.9 29,278.3 23,567.9 17,363.9
Total............................................ 440,701.8 285,552.4 14_,92R. 3 81,S33.7

Trade Between Havre and the United States in 1917-Imports.

The following tables of imports and exports, by articles and
quantities, in the trade between Havre and the United States. were
compiled by the consulate from statistics furnished by the customs
officers of the port of Havre.
The first table *-howys both the general and the special commerce
imports into Havre from the United States in 1916 and 1917:

General couainerce. Special comnerrce.

1916 1917 1916 1917

ANIMAL PRODUCTS. 3tri l eMtrir nns. Metnc tnns. MhicktnQ.
Frg volls .............................................. .S 33.8 5.0 1.3
Fats, animal........................................... 4,1C62. 1 5,S.'2.9 1,480.3 5,274.3
Fe.theri.. .......................................... 5.4 .9 5.1
Ft-rilliz i.i ....... .......... .............................. ..... ... 16.3 ............ 16.3 .
Fish:
Cod.... ....... ..... ...... ................... ...6 ........... .7
Sardinies... ............................. .... .............. 13.5 ............ 10 5
Canned....................................... 7.9 3,SI.l1 7.9 2,773 0
Lobsters............................. .............. 113.5 478.7 111.7 476.9
Hide s.. ............................................. b1.4 668.0 801.4 663.0









FRANCE-HAVRE. 15


General commerce. S1:.l t commerce.
Articles.
1916 1917 1916 1917


ANIMAL r RROniCTS-coni iL'ed. Metric tons. Metric tons. Metric tons. Metrictons.
Tone7 ................................................. 19.9 145.3 9.5 146.8
I or .-and shls ........................................ 217.2 198.0 217.2 198.0

Frh .............................................. 19,337.9 7,025.7 19,316 1 7. WO. 7
S ltd.............................................. 12,332.0 17,e93.1 12,315.4 20, 111.1
C:inu.1l, aLISa .................... ................ '63.4 644.5 '7.2 457.8
Mil-k, conif;ed ......................................... 1,173.0 6,723.7 1, '72.3 6,214.3
,*1k-m ar L irile ...................................... ... 184.4 74.3 282.2 113.2
"Pi.-in bn;L! .... ..... ........ ......... ................. 37.5 28.1 37.5 .-
Silk................................................................ 3.0 ............ 0

VEGETA.BE PV.ODUCTS.
1~Frs1 re .................... ............................ 8.1 10.1 4.2 7.9
BaL,.i. ................. ............ ....... 61 6.9 6.1 6.9
C r. ....... .......................... .......... ....... 11.0 ............ 11.0
(Choc...l i .. ............................ ........... .1 16.4 .1 6.9
Cocoa beans............................................ 106.3 1,341.2 134.5 613.6
Coonn.l t 1'.r; ..... ................................... ?, S13.n 999.1 2. i ;. u 999.1
Co|iT(' i 1 h ilv A. 2i ........................................ l,. l. 5.. 2.-27. 1 7r..5 1,707.
Cotton............................................. 182,668.5 1W'., *,.',. 182,667.3 1-., ..',
Cottonseed oil .......................................... 2,163.3 1,515 5 1,935.3 1.'.'.5.
Flax.................................................. 376.0 30.8 360.6 .6i
Frait:
Apples ............................................. 641.6 1,233.3 636.6 1,215.5
S ,..: r.,t ............ ............................. 1,571.5 1,.7.') 1,484.2 1,797.1
PrI't. r .. ......... .... ........... .... ... .. "\ -L 3 103.1 9. 9.7
I'lIIn ........ .. 4,% 3.0 5,100.5 4,785.3 5,005.2
.'t ............................. 6.9 26.4 6.9 26.4
,h ............................................. 1,697.0 1,815.8 1,449.7 1,814.0
Grain:
Wheat............................................. 98, 758.6 I0A."'. 98,749.6 150,083.5
Corn............................................... 10,Q 12 .1'1 ]if.. 12,194.6
F!nr, "'ita. ....................................... '. .. ,' ', 34,411.0(
M> 1i!. )rn ................... ................................ 1,83 .6 ............ 1,89.6
M., ............................................... ............ .. .......... 62.2
G;r,,l ............................................... .1 ..,3] .1 761.5
,ii. .................................................. 766 6 ..........--- 765.2
Firr ................................................ 67.4 5.002 4 44.2 .- i.
PuL-e ............................................... 123.9 522. 119.8 5
Par' .iad milet ..................................... .2 42.1 .1 42.1
1opi ................................... ................ 15.3 22.3 15.3 20.1
L -.mon arid craugc pI. I ..... ........................... 21.2 18.3 21.2 1,. '
LimnseeI ,,I ............................................. 27.2 62.6. 27.2 1,3.0
M ola c -- ... ................ ............................... ............. 11.1 ............ 11. 1
Oil0 ake.............................................. .... ..4.4 111.7 374.4 111.7
( it htr (oi! ............................................... .3.7 10.7 3.7 8.7
Prrlu.mc... ........................... ............... ........5. 7.5 ............ 7.5
Pr:-vrvt; ............................................... 998.4 570.7 897.9 .,370.7
R as ............................................... .... 9.1 29.3 0. 1 2" 3
Rte.: j1 ................ ................................. 22.6 7.3 22. t 7.3
Roots n',] herbs ........................................ 75.2 14.1 75.2 14.1
Rubbtr .nd gutta-percha .............................. 343.6 4.0 343.6 94.0
Seeds, oil............................................... 2.8 2.5 2.8 2.5
Suds l'or -'o.. i,......................................... 68.9 25.7 68.9 25.7
Sugar.
Cane ................................................ 4.2 .3 94 6.4 4,285.3 946.4
Refinted............................................ (U. 13.4 CO,0, OS.3 90,175.4 59. 0103.3
Tobacco, lI:af .......................................... 14,705.9 11,i.a (1 8,971.6 11,039.2
Turnwi;............................................................ 10.0 ............ .. ..
V'egcitahl, dried...................................... .. .' 3 1,160.6 367.2 1,177.5
Wood:
Dcyev.-foid ........................................ 1,?6.3 5.:7 0 1,836.3 537.9
S3wed ........ ............................................. ...3 8,992.0 1,884.8 10,103.1
Savcs, Ipos. etc...................................... 1,6142 3,722.4 1,751.9 3,720.0
Tropical............................................ 61.5 238.6 541.6 238.6
Beverwecs:
W ine.:.............................................. ...... 57.1 ............ .9
Be r... ............................................. 8.2 9.5 8.7 9.5
Distilled piLrit .................................... 10,92.3 6,664.1 10,68271 P6,G2.7
MNNERAL SUBSTANCES, I
Bitumens, Aphalts..................................... 928.0 252.0 928.0 252.0
Cadmium................................................ 324.7 17.8 24.7 17.8
Coal................................................................ 5,326.0 ............ 4,971.0
Coke............................................................... 913.0 ............ 913.0
Copwr:
Ore................................................ 103,529.4 55,504.6 103,529.4 665,352.@
Bais, wine, scrap .................................... 15,5Ji.L 12,750.9 1, 550. 2 12,728.3










16 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


General commerce. S-ecial commerce.
Articles.
1916 1917 1916 1917


MINERAL SUBSTANCES-continued.
Metrictons. Metric tons. jiftrh/ron.. .Wtricions.
Einmery wheels........................................... 162.8 568.7 162. 36SN. 7
Graphite ............................................... 12.0 66.0 12.0 b6.0
Iron and steel:
Pig ...............................................:.. 10,534.5 21,6il1.5 10, 531.5 21,641.5
W rou ht........................................... ......... 2, 1. 4 ..... .. 2, 134.4
Rolled in bars ..................................... 407,440.0 277,538.0 373, A71.. 24, 406.9
Toolsteel.......................................... 31.710.7 9,897.0 31,9)2.7 9,o14.2
Sl,.er. hoops, banis................................. 4,079.4 3,405.2 x.15.8. 3,370.7
Tin plate............................................. 1,662.3 1,602.3 1.664.3 l,n o.3
Wire and bars...................................... 45,248.6 2i5. 54.0 3. i,77. 2 26,101.5
Rails.................. ............................. 17,947.0 'N.617.4 17,947.0 8,617.4
W heels............................................. 252.9 1,244 6 252 u 1.244.6
Other............................................... 273.0 1,351.5 272.9 1.310.9
Lead.................................................... 1, 47. J 711.9 1,317. 1 711.9
T.i:nit, wax, lr.ir.iTm. ................................. 1,544.1 1.,323.7 1,601.0 1,278.8
N -kcIl................................................... 1,718.3 252.6 1,718.3 232.6
Mineral oils:
Refined............................................. 51.419.3 32,226.2 43.1S1.3 35,705.5
Essenceof .......................................... 41,227.7 67,361 9 ,45-1.4 51,44i6.7
Heavy............................................. 76,879.6 32, 017. 9 70, 10;. 5 3', 595. 1
Other ores .............................................. 5.3 179. 1 5 3 179.4
Slate................................................... 328.2 ..35. 9 32S. 2 535.9
Sulphur.................................................. .......... 70.0 ............ 70.0
Tin.................................................... 2.8 7.2 2. 7.2
Vaseline................................................ 254.7 27.2 273. 4 3. .9
Z .w........................... ......................... 38,477.6 29,754.2 35,477.6 29,754.2
MANUFACTURES.
Chemi-,al products:
Acetone............................................. 172,0 P5.6 172.0 95.6
Acids............................................... 62.9 133.4 55.4 142 1
Alcohol........................................ 678.5 C04.5 67;.5 901 5
Ammonium salt................................... 478.4 824.2 47; 4 824.2
Borax................................................ 4,266.6 1,395.0 4,266.6 1,395.0
Calcium carbide.................................... ............ 4.9 ............ 4.9
Carbonates......................................... 685.9 187.0 684.7 186 9
Carbons............................................ 15.6 10.7 15 6 10.7
Of coal............................................. 3,769,3 11,643.9 3,775.2 11,643 9
Chlorides........................................... 649.8 254.7 649. S 251.7
Chlorides of tin ..................................... ............. 7 5 ............ 7.5
Chlorine liquid.................................... 1,106,9 .140 2 1,106.9 340.2
Chromanr........................................... 158.7 232.4 15S.7 221.5
Extracts of quebracho........................................... 51.7 ............ 51 7
Formaldehyde..................................... 141.5 332 2 131.7 5.32.2
Lead acetates...................................... 87.6 1P3 6 $6.7 163 6
I it i ,r one ....................................... 106.3 103.3 41 I 0 173. 7
Potash............................................. 91.4 6.8 '1.4 f.8
Prussiate of potassium.......................................... 48.5 ............ 4.5
Pyrolignite.......................................... 199.4 579.6 199.4 579 6
Rock salt ......................................... 1,150.2 2,145.8 1, 1.S5r 2 2, 145 .
Salts of lead........................................ .b7.9 21.9 S7.9 21.9
Sodiumsalt ........................................ 2.5 197.6 2.2 197.6
So4a ................................................ 1,995.7 8,472.q l,9Q.5 7 8,472.9
Zin- ovid .......................................... 702.7 847.3 702.7 847.2
Other chemicals.................................... 29'5 5 331.4 271.2 317 9
Automobiles ............................................ 1.3,. l 1 1t7 9 13,79.3.4 14,465 0
Bass, cloth............................................. 53 5 425 b 536.2 425 8
Bricks .................................................. 1,f 55 4 1., 915.2 1,055 4 1,915 2
Cardboard............................................. 1,12..4 1, 1'4.5 1,123.4 1, 1P3.5
Cartridges............................................. 8.5 2,23.l 5 2.29S.1
Celluloid.............................................. 239.4 274.J 244 7 245.4
Cutlery ................................................ 1.8 2.3 1.7 2.2
Dextrin................................................ 8.8 297.6 S.S 186.2
Drawing instruments.....--.............................. 2.6 3,9 2.7 3.9
Dyez .... .......................................... 59.3 921.' 47.5 894.3
Fafl.,ice, cotton......................................... 176.2 57.9 112.2 57.5
Fabrics, other.......................................... 4 19. 0 53. J 49.1. 5 50.7
Flih glue ........................ :....................... 5.4 4.7 5.4 4.7
Furniture.............................................. 19.7 37.9 19.6 3Q.5
Gia .................................................... 39 .9 135..S 398.8 135.5
Gi Is bottles........................................... 154.9 60.2 119.0 60.2
Ilide ................................................... 5.,5.3 14S.S 534.S 147.0
India rubber and gutta-percha.......................... 6i.2.5 'j 2.1 677.S 587.5
Jute and jute bags ...................................... 1.131.7 1,03U.6 1,l4.1.0 1,321.1
I-anipblackk......... ................................... 5.9 7 501 1 50S.7 494.3
I.eil her prodF......................................... 150. 6 19.4 159.4 16.5
Machinery:
Siem engine ...................................... 866.7 1,105.4 790.1 1,154.3
11ydraulic engines, pumps .......................... 1,266.8 371.9 1,190.0 373.3











FRANCE-HAVRE.


General commerce. Special commerce.
Articlel'
1916 1917 1916 1917


MANUFACTURES-continued.

Machinery-Continued. Metric tons. Metric tons. Metric tons. Metric tons
Electric dynamos ................................... 580.0 321.6 579.9 324.6
Agricultural....................................... 5,690.3 "., 1. 1 5,721.1 3,892.4
Machine tool;....................................... 17,462.3 17, .~ ",. 17,060.0 17,821.0
,,ol................................................. 398.1 *..i 333.8 600.0
ti? hr machinery ................................... 13,608.3 16,786.1 13, ... i 16,934.3
Manufactures of iron or steel:
Structural........................................... 3,131.4 22,951.7 3,131.4 ??,Q51.7
Anchors, cables, chains............................. 46,383.6 39,552.1 46,395.2 .3'i, V.; 2
1\\ ir: nails........................................... 1,238.2 2,625.8 1,238.2 2,619.4
Tubes .............................................. 3,217.0 2,822.7 3,2 61 0 2,826.2
Household articles.. .............................. 353.8 17, 8414.5 7',.7 17,723.3
Other manufactures................................. 2,160.4 6,873.0 1,658.5 6,781.1
Manufactures of wood.................................. 789.0 152.1 798. 1 147.1
Matches and wood for same ............................ 348.8 145.6 349. 8 145.6
Paper................................................... 223.7 246.0 223.7 143.4
Pencils............................................... 2.4 16.0 2.4 16.0
Ship ................................................... 345.8 47,070.9 345. 8 47,070.9
Soap................................................. 1,284.7 264.0 1,260.5 265.6
Starch.................................................. 1,425.2 1,278.9 1,352.7 946.9
Ta a...... ... ........................................ .... ..... 1,2 5.8 ............ 1, 6
Timl.r .. .............................................. 385.8 679.6 388.2 6.11. 7
'ani .hi s.............................................. 144.7 84.0 108.1 113.8
Wapoio? ................................................. 214.3 5,278.2 214.3 5,278.2
Yarn; .................................................. 2,781.0 1,826.2 2,781.0 1,814.9


Exports to United States.

The following table shows both the general and the .special com-
merce exports from Havre to the United States in 1916 and 1917:


Articles.


ANTI.AL9 AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS.
I1or se. ... ................................................
Hides, rar., green, or dry:
L1ei ...........................................
Calikin. ............................................
Hnbbit sh kiiL.........................................
Other hides ........................................
Animal lir ..............................................
BonFllack ...............................................
Feather; ................................................
Fiqh ....................................................
Olue stock..............................................
Milk, condensed.........................................

VEGETABLE PRODUCTS.


General commerce.


Metric
tons.
a 43

1,044.6
3,094.7
1,039.3
62.6
328.6
182.9
6.4
38.5
60.8
.5


Alfalfa seed .............................................. 6,456.8
Beet seed.............................................. 12.5
Other ,rids ............................................ 246.3
Balsams................................... ............
Beverages:
Champ- igu ....................................... 6254,194.0
Distilled spirits ...................................... b 6i,327.
Liqueur ............................................ b 2., 6.52.0
Mineral waters ..................................... b 355.921. 5
Bonbons, sirups......................................... .7
Chocolate.............................................. 17.1
Cocoa................................................. ..............
Coffee........... ................................... 4.9
Coleseed oil............................................ 322 0
fHerbs................................................... ..
Hops................................................. 21.r1
rndia rubber and gutta-percha....................... 145.
Lichens................................................ 110. 5
Linseed oil.......................................
Osiers... ....................................... 1.6
Paper pulp............................................. 2,,6!. 1 1


1917


Metric
tons.
a 220

3,789.7
1,.OL1 .)
1. ,
274.9
61.8
4.9
37.3
68.7
.3


1,788.6
52.9
81.2
11.7

b 52, k14. 5

b 364, 693.0
22.1
12.1
5.4
1.9
40.6
1I-2.9
,15.0
808.7
118.6
2.1
375. S
6,27. 4


i. t- i i commerce.


1916 1917


Metric Metric
tons. tons.
a 43 a 220

1,044.6 3,726.4
2,..3,'. > 2,327.5
1,0..9. 1,941.
40.3 3.0
324.5 274.2
182.9 61.8
6.4 4.9
38.5 28.4
60.8 68.7
.5 ...........


6,456.8
12.5
246.3

i' 2 4,1'4.1)
b 96, ii..6.0
b 2 ). bt 2. 1
b 353, 921. "5

............

22.0

11.4

............
481.6
2.646.1


1,788.6
.:2 9
81.2
11.7
b li,, 1S.0
b 52,655.5
b 3), 3 16.0
S364,693.0
22.1
...........

;i. 6
102. y
17.7
808.7
118.6

37.' .S
ti,27N..4


a Number. b Gallons.











SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


Articles.


General commerce..


1916 1917


VEGETABLE PRODUCTS-continucd. Metric
tons.
Preserves.............................................. 21.5
.- ., ii t. dried....................................... 618.8
V in.-,' ................................................ & ',(.ji,. II
1V.I l ilr n l.............................................. 8.2
Wood, tropical......................................... 437.0

MINERAL SUBSTANCES.

Building material........................................ 1..1. 1
Heavy oil.............................................. 1.8
M arble..................................... ........... 71.* 1
Pebbles to make porcelain............................. ?. '35.2
Sand for making glass................................... J...'.
Stone........................ 375.3
Zinc ...............................................................

MANUFACTURES.

(C'emin il I.ro''lucts:
t'.l,, .... ........................................- 6.3
D f ............................................. 246.3
Indio ...................................................
Lead oxide.......................................... 2.9
Salts of sodium ...................................... 35.8
Other chemicals.................................... 115.0
Arm s.................................. .... ............ 1.0
Automobites........................................... 15.7
Brushes................................................ 45.2
Buttons................................................ 51.1
i'ni]i 'in" ............................................. ... 15.7
i riit 11re .............................................. 31.4
Furs. .................................................. C2.6
.i ,Ii r, silk ........................................... 10.2
Fabrics, other.......................................... 924.5
Gelat h ................................................. 16.2
Glass o l e- ............................................. 2,:,. 7
Glass and crystal......................................... -.6
Glue................................................... 3S.2
Ilides, prepared........................................ 28.8
India rubber and gutta-percha articles .................. 22.9
Jewelry................................................. c 139
Machinery:
P inningn g machines ................................. 14.7
M ..lii. tools ...................................... 111.9
Other machinery.................................... 113. 2
Manufactures of wood .................................. 33.0
Medicinal compounds................................... 173. 2
Metal articles ................................... .. .:. 79.17
Musical instruments:
Violins.............................................. a 799
Oboes, clarionets, etc .............................. a 1, 539
rPhoni -raih. ....................................... 13. 5
4 thein-r in runent ................................. a 743
I'al r manufactures:
Paper............... .......................... 459.3
Cardboard ... .................................... 135.0
Other manufactures................................. ', I..
Perfumes.............................................. 221. 4
P..rcel:un ............................................... .31.
Scientific instruments.................................. 15. 5
Shell, amber, etc ...................................... c 346
Soaps.................................................. 22".3
Spices, prepared........... ....................... 1'. 6
Srlich .................................................. ;.. ;
T., .vs ............................................... ..... 77.4
Y elocirpedl C. ................................ .......... .7
W atches.............................................. .. ..........
W r ker a e .. ...... .. ................... ............. 25.2
Y arns. ................. .... .. ................... 11. 7


a Number.


Mrctrx
tons.
12.6
322.,9
b5, 989.0
26.8
129.0


106.0
13.8
a 960


Special commerce.


.1


14.6
5,914.9
204.6
1,320 6
1U. 1 ....




9.2
1 .114 1
204.4 ...
16.1
14.1
22.6
1.1
1.8
33.6
13.1
53.5
28.8
156.2
992.7
16.1
23.3
1,00." 2

28.5
10.5
10. S
c k55

8.9
7.2
79.2
35.3
81.7
82. 0

a 15-
a 889
48.8 ...
a56

891.3
111.5
33. 5
114.0
G7. 7
11.7
e488
IJLI. 5
6.3
2-2. I
23.4
a S19. ....
4.7
37. 1

K jl3s.


blfric

20. 9

.' U-,O. 0

33jJ. U


l"3. 1

a 12.74"
;1.6
-','.'i; 2



U 1.



115.

2.'J
.4

2

4% 2

I~
jI. 4
,2. t.
7 2
I ;4.4
1,; 2
2. 04 4
.4 4
2. 5
21. i
,-2 9
> 11 1

5.5 .
1.2
>*]. 4
-I. 0
79.6
n 799
a 1, 3.39
a 713

3'i. 3
1 13. 0t
:IIL .I
221. 4
t31.9


222. 3
10.6
2t6,,. 7
76. 5
4.7

22.U
5.6


--------~ ------- i--------I~I~----





1917


jr, tric
lr.e .
12.6
322.9
b5,9'.i.0
21".
111.0


106.0


11.6
5,914.'J
204.6
1, 329.6
10.1



0.2
16.1

16.1
1.7
.4
1.1
1.2
33 6


156 2
207.7
4f,. 3
22.1
1,0 ,17.
.2.. 5
2'. .5
10 5
10.S
S194

......... ..
.4
23. 5
35.3
3.7. 3
76.9
21.3

a 15
a 3S9
.I
021

';9.0
111.4
33. 2
114.0
67.7
11.7
( 488
130. 5
6.3
2S2.1
22.7
6.5
6.5
19.2


b Galin.







FRANCE-LYON.


LYON.
By Consul J. E. Jones, March 27.
The first half of the year 1917 gave greatly promi-'e of a successful
year for the Lyon consular district. While there i.as a decreased
produce ion of novelty silk-for which Lyon is famiou-, and which
forms the principal article of export-due to the scarcity of raw lma-
terial and labor, nevertheless the prices obtained we-re large eno,,ghl
to compensate for the decreased exportation.
The entrance of the United States into the world war changed con-
ditions immediately. The demand for novelty silks became appreci-
ably less during April and M;ay, and by the 1st of June there was
practically no American market. This condition continued. and
when the books were Lalanced at the end of December it was found
that the year had been a poor one-the poorest in fact :since the war
began. *
Review of the Silk Market.
Both 1915 and 1916 were marked by slight incrvea-c over the pre-
viou.s years, but in 1917 the price was rais-d by circumstances, which
carried it to a figure hitherto, unknown for 40 years. In many re-
spects the year was a difficult one to analyze. When not a question
of transports, the various measures of restrictions and regulations in-
fluenced the law of supply and demand, rendering some markets
active, others dull. The continual questions of freight, risks, inse-
curity of delivery, difficulties of po-tal colii-!,iin ',itzion and travel
bafflerd the predictions of the market.
The high prico-, prevailing for European silks at the com,,inice-
ment of 1917 could not be imzint.ained, it was thought. because the
first qu-arter's business was markedly by an important decrea;.e in the
demand. Silks from Asia were more favored by hbverl bo:,iu-e of
the cheaper insurance rates. The Italian ]ira fell, and Switzerland
prohibited the export of silks to the Central Empire,. However, the
general consumption continued greater than the supply, and the need
for silks stimulated by some con,.es-ionfs obtained revived business.
But thle abnormal prices prevailing for other commodities alo ;af-
feeted the silk market. and the scarcity of skilled workmen. the high
prices of coal .nnd dry ncouons produced an appreciable increas-e in
the cost of silk production.
For a while the low prices prevailing for Italian silkh attracted the
attention of the Americ:n market. In Europe the scarcity of the
Asiatic silks was commencing to be felt, due to the 1.ck of maritim,
transports, and an active campaign by the submarines resulted in an
abnormal increase in the rate of ins rane against the risks of war.
From the month of April a revived activity took place, followed by
a. violent rise on the market, carrying prices to a great hei.ht.
Stocks. already low, were rendered more acute by the lateness of the
cocoon crop, which had been delayed by the intense cold.
Switzerland during April started again to take an important part
in business, and the price paid for worked silk and silk in the gum
was accordingly considerable. Again, the outlook of the cocoon
crop was by no mean., reassuring; for it was reduced about 20 per
cent in Europe, a complete failure in the Levant and Central Asia,







SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS,


and in the extreme Orient little better than in 1916. In Italy the
increase was 100 per cent over 1916. In addition, spinning was sub-
jected to heavy war taxes.
The rise in silks continued until September, when the market was
at last exhausted, those of the enemy countries had disappeared,
those. of Ru-sia were closed, and the American demand had aban-
doned European silks for those of Asia. finding the latter more ad-
vantag'eous due to the economy of insurance. The fluctuating move-
ments of all the rate., of exchange have rendered difficult a compari-
ion of prices, but one can not fail to be impressed by the similarity
existing between the changing prices of various silks and the fluctua-
tions of the exchange in China.
The market has been rendered more complex by the reduction of
the crop in Italy and the invasion of Provinces in the northeast. In
order to prevent a lowering of the price of orgtanzines in Italy, the
Allied Governments have established a purchasing bureau to steady
the market.
ThIK activity in the production of classic ilks ha- shown a tendencv
to increase in spite of all the difficulties encountered. Losing more
than ever their chl.racter of tissues of luxury, they have become an
article of large consumption owing to the still higher increase in the
price of other cloths. Silk will piny a bigger part than spun silk,
wool, and cotton, the latter absorbed by the needs of war and so
unable to enter into the mixture of other ti.--ues as formerly.
Demand for Metal Threads Large.
Notwithstanding war conditions and the material restrictions to
trade incident thereto, the Lyon district generally reported a most
favorable year in other r commodities. This was due in large measure
to the enlargomient of important factories engaged in the manufac-
ture of munitions, the big corporations preferring to put their in-
creased capital into improvements. Several of these plants under-
took on a greater scale the manufacture of metal threads, for which
an enormous demand came from the United States, due in large
measure to the fad of fa-hion which decreed that it should be the
style, influenced perhaps by the desire to imitate officers' uniforms.
There was an increased export in this particular line of over
$'230,0u0, and these figures could easily be doubled if the goods fab-
ricated with this material were taken into account.
Owing to the scarcity of labor, raw materials, and restricted legis-
lation, many other important industries suffered, and the year closed
with a net loss in this consular district of nearly $4,000,000 in ex-
ports, as compared with 1916.
The Lyon Sample Fair.
The second Lyon Sample Fair was held early in March. 1917, and
its results well merited the confidence of its projectors-to create a
fair to rival the Leipzig Fair of Germany. There was a total of
2,320 stands and 2,563 exhibitors. Twenty-four American firms
exhibited, although several thousands were represented by catalogues
which were collected, and marked, and made a part of the American
consular catalogue exhibit.
Appreciating the difficulty attending American exhibits, an exhibi-
tion of American catalogues was organized and occupied two booths







FRANCE-LT MOGFS.


in an important section of the fair. This exhibit was open to the
buying public generally, and each visitor to the fair was invited to
make out a trade opportunity, in order to intere-t Amricaiin manu-
facturers. Every facility was offered to put the foreign hbUer in
touch with the American producer, and the result wva.I highly satis-
factory. The idea of an exhibition of Ameri,:in / oatalories.'s under
the jurisdiction of the consulate wa- an innovItiun. and tli. re-:Ilts
obtained more than justified the expense. Over ',(0 tr;idle oppirii ii-
ties were forwarded, the estimated value of which exceeded $50,-
000,000.
LIMOGES.
By Consul Eugene L. lielisle.
The, volume of wholesale and retail business tran-,a-tcd in Limoges
during 1917 compare very favorably with the years preceding the
.vwar, and the profits realized were larger than tfie average. Tie
manufacturing industries engaged in war work aL-o had a profitable
year. Unfortunately, this was inot true of Imany indu4trires engaged
in supplyvin'- the wants of-the civilian population. Several of these
suffered mni.re from war conditions during the pa't year than they
did in 1915-16.
Output of Army Shoes.
The shoe industry of this city, one of the mc,'t iiipmurltint in the
district before the war, has now taken first place among the malnu-
fa.turing inditries of this part of the ci.'untry. Maniy new fak(riei
have been started and older one enlarged, so that the output is at
present more than twice that of the ye"ris 1913-14. A large propor-
tion of the shoes now manuifactired here are for the army, and there
is every reason to believe tlh.it when this class of footwear is no
longer in as great demand as at present, the industry will decrease
to some extent. As Limoges :-hoe, had a couniry-wide reputation
before the war, there would ,iemn to be no good, reason \why this
industry, with its well-equipped pl:-ints. -hould inot hold a larger
share of the shoe trade of the country than it had b:efire 1914.
China Industry Decreased.
Pottery production, the most important industry of all in Limoges,
has been the greatest sufferer from tie war. Owing to the shortage
of labor and the many diffcultiis, in getting the nes-iuy nrv materials,
the output has greatly declined. The china manufacturers have
suffered from these drawbacks in their export as well as in their
domestic trade. They have been unable. to fill their orders an and are
particularly concerned regarding their foreign trade. 'vlhiich they fear
may suffer permanently from their inability to supply the wants of
their foreign client-:. Owing to the difficulties in olita;ining co:il and
wood, there is little probability that the output tf thi faitiries will
be any greater in 1918 than in the year 1917.
Sheepskins Held for Glove Manufacture.
The exports of sheepskins to the United States decreased consider-
ably in 1917, the figures being $252,00) against $3SU1400 in 1916.
This decrease was due to restrictions adopted by the French Govern-
ment by which permits to export were difficult to obtain. Under
date of December 13, 1917, the Government notified the exporters
9







SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


that from January 1, 1918, the Ministry of Commerce would advise
ag;ins-t any and all export;' of sheepskini. This action was taken to
unable the donmes.tic glove. industry to get the supplies needed to
ke.p the glove factories in operation. Efforts are being made by
the interested parties to have the order prohibiting exports repealed
or at least. modified. Exports of sheep.kins will, in the meantime, be
entirely suspended.
The glove industry of Saint-Junien, in this Departemnt, is im-
portant, and a considerable portion of the output of the factories is
exported to the United States, although few invoices, of gloves are
certified at this office. Purchases of gloves are made lby Paris agents
of American importers and the -.hipments declared at the consulate
general at Paris. The year 1917 was fairly satisfactory to those
enig:ig'd in this industry despite the difficulties in getting skins. The
action of the Government. in prohibiting exportation of sheepskins
will result in giving the manufit ,rers a -,iilcient, supply to provide
for their export trade and will also tend to keep the price of gloves
down to the pre-ent figures, which are already double those prevail-
ing before the war.
Field Crops Increase in Value-Exports of Walnuts.
Reports obtained from the various Departments of this district
relative to the field crops in 1917 give the following information:
Below the average-Wheat, 20 per cent; oats, 10 per cerint; hay, 15
per cent. Above the average-Potatoe-, 15 per cent; and beans, 20
per cent.
The increase in the case of pot toes and beans was due to the efforts
of the governmental authorities to induce the farmers to increase the
product of these food article.. The certainty that the prices would
be particularly remunerative also had an influence in the increase
noted. The decreases in wheat, oats, and hay are accounted for by
the weather conditions and lack of labor.
The following figures show the current, prices as compared with
those of 1914: Wheat, 27 francs in 1914 and 50 francs in 1917; oats,
22 francs in 1914 and 42 francs in 1917; hay, 9 francs in 1914 and 11
francs, in 1917; beans, 45 francs in 1914 and 140 francs in-1917;
potatoes, 10 francs in 1914 and 25 francs in 1917. The fluctuations
in the value of the franc from 1914 to 1917 should be taken into
account in Comparing these figures.
On December 4, 1917, the French Government. issued a decree pro-
hibiting the exportation of walnuts, which. accounts in part for the
decrease of $93,000 in the value of the exports to the United States
during the past year. As a reiilt of efforts made by the exporters,
the Government has decided to issue licenses to export walnuts.
Wage Increases-Exports to the United States.
A large increase in wages of the various classes of workers has
taken place here, the greatest being in industries engaged in war
work, although those employed in work for the civilian population
have also been given very substantial increases. In some of the in-
dustries engaged directly on war work the increase has been as high
as 60 per cent over the wages paid in 1914. The increase in other
trades varies from 20 to 35 per cent.








FRANCE-LIMOGES. 23

The increase in the co.t, of the neccs-.itie- of life is due to the
decreased production following the drafting of a haire nilliier of the
able-bodied workers on the fuLii-. The rai-ing of cattle, heep, and
hog-, has suffered from this condition of affairs, as well as the gr&,in
and vegetable, crops.
The value of the most important items invoiced at the .\!A,:lT.rlan
consulate at Limoges for export to the United Slat-- in 1916 and 1917
is as follows:

Articles. 1916 1917 Articles. 1915 1917

Books..................... $1,618 s 2.0?9 t i- p-r'kii'. .s................I 0 .l 795 .'?22.743
Chijna ..................... 1,010,433 i.9, 1'I. W alhiut..................I -: 431 ,1.772
II ..................... 4,321 4,750 All other articles.......... 468,228 89,763
Hatt-r' fur................ 31,646 113,245
Paper, filtering ............ 3,678 5,717 Total ............... 1, I: 1. 11 1, 2-., I .'-


WASHINGTON : GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1918




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
II 1 2l 0llIIIIIIB5 II7 Ill IIIIIn IIIIIII
3 1262 08485 0758


~y~1TO""Y
-V.--