Supplement to Commerce reports

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Title:
Supplement to Commerce reports daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce
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Commerce reports
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Supplements to Commerce reports : review of industrial and trade conditions in foreign countries in ... by American consular officers
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Daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce
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6 v. : ; 24-26 cm.
Language:
English
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United States -- Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce
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Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Dept. of Commerce
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Washington, D.C
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Commerce -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Foreign economic relations -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
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serial   ( sobekcm )
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periodical   ( marcgt )

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Additional Physical Form:
Also available in electronic format.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with issue for Jan. 8, 1915?; ceased with issue for Dec. 31, 1920?
Numbering Peculiarities:
Each issue covers an individual country and bears a number corresponding to that country. Reports from the various consular districts in a country are distiguished by the addition of a letter (66a, 66b, 66c, etc.), in the order in which they are issued.
Numbering Peculiarities:
Issue no.52f, 1919, contains misprint, November 41.
General Note:
Title from caption.
General Note:
"Annual series."

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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 004822593
oclc - 16390134
sobekcm - AA00005307_00001
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AA00005307:00001

Related Items

Preceded by:
Daily consular and trade reports (Washington, D.C. : 1910)
Succeeded by:
Trade and economic review for ..

Full Text





SUPPLEMENT T '

COMMERCE R (
DAILY CONSULAR AND TRADE REPORTS
ISSUED BY THE BUREAU OF FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC C
DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE, WASHINGTON, D. C.


Annual Series No. 4a July 31, 1919

DENMARK.
By Consul Baylor L. Agerton, Copenhagen, April 28, 1919.
The course of industry and commerce in Denmark during 1918
was, in the main, a continuation of the conditions of the preceding
year. The influence of the war was evident in all lines. The block-
ade became more effective during the year and influenced to a greater
extent than before the industrial and economic life of the country.
Exports and imports dwindled, and such surplus stocks as existed
were drawn upon for home consumption. The signing of the Dan-
ish-American agreement in September and of the armistice in No-
vember brought about little actual change, except a slightly increased
import of manufactured goods and foodstuffs during December.
The year closed, however, with brighter prospects for the immediate
future and with high hopes on the part of Danish commerce for
an increased participation in the world trade after the war.
Effect of War on Economic Conditions.
Although the economic life of Denmark has suffered under the re-
strictions created by the war, restrictions in part imposed by the bel-
ligerents and in part self-imposed in order to conserve Danish re-
sources, the nation as a whole has not suffered in the same degree
the hardships that have been the lot of other small neutral countries
similarly situated. Denmark's basic industry is agricultural; before
the war its principal exports were the products of its farms and
dairies. There are other industries, of course, but they do not form
so large a part of Danish economic existence that a temporary .ut-
ting off of their market and raw materials would cause a breakdown
of industrial organization in the nation or a dangerous percentage
of unemployment.
The country has been essentially self-sustaining so far as food is
concerned and, though inconvenienced by the lack of certain articles
of food, it has always been able to afford a liberal ration and to keep
prices sufficiently low to avoid widespread suffering. Coffee, tea,
and other tropical products were for a time not to be had, but Danish
agriculture produced a sufficient supply of wheat, rye, potatoes, veg-
etables, meat, milk, butter, and other essentials to satisfy the require-
ments for domestic consumption and to afford a small surplus for ex-
port. A system of rationing, well planned and strictly adhered to,
secured a fair distribution of these articles of food, and a scheme of
maximal prices kept them within the reach of all classes of the popu-
lation. Unemployment relief, paid by the State. took care of those
thrown out of work and enabled them *o tide over in a fairly comfort-
able way the period of industrial depression.
129787-19--1




.. .~. ..~... 1. : *.,...*. "- n r .-t'"


SSSSSSca










2 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

Foreign Trade Restricted.
War restriction of foreign trade was.the outstanding feature dur-
ing 1918. Only small quantities of goods passed the Allied block-
ade, and the peoples of the centralpowers were too closely engaged
in the war to-devote very much energy to supplying the Danish
demands. Imports from German and Austrian sources steadily
decreased during the year and during the last two months were
negligible.
From unofficial sources it appears that Danish foreign trade in-
creased enormously during 1914, 1915, and 1916; for example, the
value of exports of Danish products, that is, goods of Danish origin,
during these three years is reported to be $22,800,000, $44,500,000,
and $50,116,000, respectively. During.these years it is evident that
the amount of foreign goods imported and reexported greatly in-
creased in both- volume and value. Beginning with 1917, however,
blockade restrictions were tightened, and, with the entry of the
United States into the war, exports from that country and the Allies
to Denmark were virtually prohibited. The Allied blockade and
the German submarine warfare also virtually stopped imports from
neutral sources, except from the other Scandinavian countries. In
this manner the profitable transit trade previously carried on by Den-
mark was brought to a close. Furthermore, the shutting off of for-
eign supplies of foodstuffs forced the country to rely more and more
upon the products of its own fields and dairies, and the exportable
surplus became correspondingly smaller.
Danish Imports and Exports.

Official statistics showing the volume of imports and exports for
the years 1917 and 1918 are given below; for the purposes of com-
parison statistics for 1913 are also given:


Imports.


Articles.


Agricultural implements ...... 100 kilosa.. 108,361
Animals. live:
Cat t le ......................... head.. 10,856
Horses-..........----- ............ do.... 18,054
Bicycles ..................... 10. kiloa".. 2,26.5
Bicycle parts .. ... ....... .... do.... 532
Boots and shoes. ................... do.... 2,950
Breadstuffs:
Barley.......................do .... 427,409
Corfi m al.el tc............... do .... 91,882
Flour-
Rvye......................... do .. 2111.520
W hc\; ... ... ..... .............. do... P.;O. 3t0
Maize .... ...................do. ... 4, f04, 750
(Oats....... ........ ........ do.... GI,0l 54
Rice andrice products .........do ... 11.3.706
10 ... .. .............. do.. 2, h9, 36.J
W lhe t... .. ...... ............. do. do 1, 244 .1
Cement. Portland............... torns..' 214,,13
Coca ...... ............... 10u kilos'J.. 27,30.1
Co lTe.. .............................do.... 20', '5i
Cord:',tr and twine..................do 25, 045,
Cot I rn ..............................do.... 61.(096
Co i nr manufactures ............... do.... .6,31 36
r'volite..... ... ............... tons.. s4,661
Dairy products:
Hut l'r .............. 100 kilosa.. 141, 199
Cheese .. .... ................. d..... 790
Milk and cream.................do. 58,2S5


Exports.


1917 1918 1913 1917


5S, 082
44
160
2,865
10, 32
7S2
101, 38.5
14,335

75, 160
2,408, 227
9, 757
52, .63
112,921
347,36f0
12,320
3:', 679
161.356
17,1174
2$, 719
7'1, .99
5,966
2
180


44,872
28
2, 151
1,667
8, 402
244
2,667
1,100
2
5A5, SbO
26,632
9
40,715
10,521
5,346
9,950
10,694
27,918
1,509
450
17, 524
8,272
1
1


13,124
152,969
27,913
450
172
782,822
14, 118
47,711
22,793
15,729
33,090
13,021
13,227
117,913
2,395, 539
1,182
43,524
598
163
6,053

1,023,120
3,097
304,234


300,343
34,285



1,287
79
81,801
11,781
20
254
. .. i...
1,210n
13.347
1,408"


. .........


613,993 145,723
65,566 I 3,988


* 100 kilos= 220.46 pounds.


1918


113,840
29,201



77,739
70
52,715
2,643
51
75


328
363


..........












DEN MARK.


Imports. Exports.

Articles.
1913 1917 1918 1913 1917 1918


Earthen and china ware:
Brick-
Building............. thousand_..
Fire ..................100 kilo .
China and porcelain ...........do ...
Crockery and sanitary equipment,
100 kilos a ............................
Pipes and tubes.......... 100 kilos a..
Tiles ...................thousands..
Eggs............................ dozen..
Fish ........................... 100 kilosa..
Flint pebbles.......................tons-..
Glass, plate ...................100 kilos a..
Glassware........................ do....
Hay..............................do-....
Hemp.............................. do....
Hides and skins.................... do....
Iron and steel manufactures n. c. s.:
Beams and bar. iron...........do ....
Chains and cables............... do.....
Hoop iron...................... do....
N ails........................... do....
Pig iron...................... do ....
Pipes and lubes..................do....
P late ........................... d a ....
Rails, railroad..................do....
Scrap iron ......................do ....
Screws, bolts, and nuts......... do....
Wire ..........................do....
Kaolin ............................. tons. .
Leather .......................100 kilos ..
Linoleum..........................do ....
Machines ewimg ................ do ....
M alt, hl1rey....................... do ....
Margarine..........................do....
M atches ............................ do.
Meat and meat products:
Bacon and pork................ do....
Beer, fresh..................... do ....
Casings, etc.....................do....
Lard ...........................do....
Mutton, etc.................. do....
Stearin .......... ........... tgo....
T allow ........... ..............do....
Metals and manufactures n. e. s.:
Brass manufactures ............do....
Copper and brass..............do....
Copper manufactures...........do....
Lead............................do....
Lead plates.....................do....
Metal waste.................... do....
Tin.............................do....
Zinc............................do....
Zinc plates.....................do....
Naval stores:
Rosin......................... do ....
Tar............................ do.....
Turpentine .....................do....
Oil cake............................. do....
Oils:
Fish............................do....
Mineral-
Gasoline....................do....
Other.......................do....
Vegetable-
Cottonseed..................do....
Soya-bean..................do....
Other......................do....
Pyrites..............................tons..
Rubber:
Raw...................... 100 kilos a..
Manufactures.................do..
Salt................................. ons..
Seed:
Beet ....................... 100 kilos a..
Grass.......................... do....
Silk goods... .....................do....
Straw...............................do....
Sugar.............................. do....
Tea......................... ....... do....


464,045

11,683

27,235
125,332
36,373
34,734
248,029
8,944
52,606
22,867
831
32,494
98,690

813,380
19,537
64,874
:,.', 470
441,419
272,008
344,759
136, 242
15,800
26,325
133,292
94,936
14,569
21,100
5,674
8,963
46,474
883

9,489
5,211
8, 16 3
19,109
48,434
6,119
1,447

9,405
7,450
22,772
28,768
7,384
10,592
3,297
10,511
24,122

15,478
24,337
5,124
5,948,146

34,002

84,101
382,817

40,424
2
107,155
287,765

1,153
10,126
557. 251

12,044
69,9,7
2,744
14,103
155, 11
5,399


15,915
100,403
9,683

19,461
96,431
4,800
----------
52,949

60,'612"
82,980

11, 133
15,956

401,104
4,090
45,073
10,032
293,716
134,552
89,109
26,142
..........
9,462
131,444
3,160
5,623
9,541
14,010
..........
5,218
10,133

..........
..........




84

2,343
10,950
14,057
14,980
7,440
..........
2,401
8,615
8,992

6,707
4,928
1,643
1,528,792

12,972

45,426
240,450

19,193

763
34,496

1,274
5,036
82,737

2,950
34,160
2,735

20,622
2,011


9,932
73,206
6,917

12, .39
92, 86S
1,557

54,287

41,863
49,440
. .. .
1, 01)9
964

628,274
4,927
77,189
12,641
291,342
170,575
243,988
25,122

16,'417
134,827
2,372
1,824
4,987
2, S06
..........
,38
7,826


3,408
13

968
4,880
4,286
1,900
4, 910
. ..... i

15,528
7,350

3,298
21 i81
1,240
3,606

17,489

8,533
57,734



30
5,087

59
614
45,253

8,522
23, S50
2,430
..........
2,945
2,900


a 100 kilos = 220.46 pounds.


16,932
80,646
1,049

2,035
15,557
571
393,268
424,770
361,000
1,447
8,564
72,884
721
148,381

14,920
459
249
2,017
1,270
15,357
2,532
77
294,119
2,440
340
225,756
4,411
236
160
18,174
2,159
1,968

1,350,312
151,165
71,418
43,580
141,733
72
8,870

..........
2,092
..........
737
110
28,756
312
2,817
592

41
66,000
32
112,107

26,199

1,501
30,372

38, 798
65,874
3,650

.........
768
8,366


..........
..........
..........
369,650
366,006
18,691
..........
965
....... .
24,605




252,338..........
..........

..........
..........
..........
-----..---











829,047
160,437
25101,338






4,430
2,577
..........
..........
2D,2155
..........
..........
..........
3,891
..........
..........

829,047
160,417
101, '379
4,430
2:577

..........

..........
..........
..........
..........


..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........


39, 428 665


3, 125 ..........
43,711 ..........
406 ........
2,596 .5
489, 005 1,917
735 ..........


272,700
194,426
13,444
.........i
1,414

33, 118

....ii......



..........
..........












27, 714
96,78t

112
.... .. ...











182,328
11,371.---
..........









2,397




---.---.--









..........


..........
..........



..........







SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


Imports. Experts.
Artilei..
1913 1917 1918 1913 1917 1918

Tobacco:
Raw...................... 100 k 4 .. 47,655 3.3,7' 1,423 523 ....................
Manufacture' .......... ..... d .. 4,117 l,.5f; 198 1,192 ....................
Vegetables and fruits:
Potatoes ..... .................do.... 11,819 11 7 139,723 8,502 463,476
Other.................. ........ do.... 2.5, .97 103,9..5 59, 8S 7 102,428 175,271 130,188
Wines and spiritF:
Wines-
In bottles ......... heretoliters b. 2,375 1,749 898 242 ....................
In casks.............. 100 kilo .. 40, 11 41,001 19,r09 R56 .......... ..........
Spirits ...................ho e oliers .. b,i98 3,516 2,02 38 ....... ..........
Firewood ............ cubic meters e.. 64,716 25, 12' 125,669 309 .......... ..........
Staves ............ .. ... 100 kilos .. 16,.9; 10,4701 .5,1.0 9,2.36 ....................
Timber and lumber...cubic meters c.. 1, 196, OuO 7?21. 1' 50 986. 0 3 16, 450 .......... ..........
W ood pulp................100 kilos a.. 592,912 546,.-31 I.02,977 268 .......... ..........
W ool...............................do.... 25, U25 4, 125 1,459 13,131 .......... ..........
W oolen manufactures............... do.... 49,91S 2N,05,3 7,144 4,S49 .......... ..........

a 100 kilos i=220.46 pounds. b 1 hectoliter= 26.42 gallons. c 1 cubic metcr= 35.31 cubic feet.

No information has been given out as to the countries with which
trade was done. It can be said, however, that during 1918 Denmark
received from Germany the following goods in considerable pro-
portions: Gasoline, fertilizers, glass, steel, machine tools, hardware,
zinc, and salt. About 40 per cent of the total import of coal and
coke came from Germany. To Germany, Denmark exported live
cattle, fresh and canned meat, fish, butter, and seeds. Imports from
Norway were mostly fish and nitrates, and from Sweden, machinery,
pig iron, timber, and wood pulp; the exports to these countries were
meat, )butter, grain, and flour. From Switzerland some silk and
straw goods were received, and from France, wine and miscellaneous
merchandise. Imports from England were mostly coal, hardware,
and cotton and woolen goods. Danish exiprt. to England was al-
most exclusively butter and other dairy products. Considerable
timber and wood pulp were imported from Finland and a few furs
from Russia. Except the trade with the United States, the coun-
tries mentioned are the only ones with which any foreign business
of consequence was done. Trade with South Anmerica and the
Far East, which in normal times assumed colniderable proportions,
was discontinued.
Trade with the United States.
Imports from the United States into Denmark showed a remark-
able decrease in :1918. Before the war .tley averaged about $14,-
000,000 ian1n1lly3; in 1915 ltUcy were approximately $80,000,000,
the greatest inrreane being in foodstuffs, cotton,:eed cake and meal,
and oils of various kinds. In 1916 nnd 1917 the value of American
goods imported wa.s about $-5-).000,000 for each ye.ar. No exact
information is available for 1901-, but the amount is not much, if
any, in ex<-es- of $5,00O.i)00. The principal articles were agricul-
tural inm:iclinery, keros.ene, automobiles, typewriters, and cotton,
woolen, and silk goods.
Danish exports to the United States have undergone a similar
decrease. The declared exports for the year 1913 were $2,533,421,








DENMARK. 0

whereas those for 1917 and 1918 were $765,S290 and $90.0,251, re-
spectively. The principal articles in 1917 and 1918 were.:

Articles. 1917 1918 Articles. 1917 1918

Antiquities .................... .......... 100,000 Machinery and parts........... S57,203 $189,180
Books......................... $6 610 1,57s Matches....................... 1,39 .
Canned goods.................. 1,521 ......... Milk. condP n ed............... 1,401 ........
Chalk.......................... 53,075 ......... M u.siC. piinted......... ....... 1,398 486
Chemicals..................... 521 ........... P int Ing, oil............................. 65.. 00
Cotton yarn .................. 1,344 ......... P p r ....................... 39,100 .........
Diamonds ................... 63,100 ......... Porcelain and pottery......... 32, 60 9,514
Films ......................... I,175 .......... Rags .......................... 32,230 ..
Flint pebbles ................. 113.4.3.5 83,627 Rennet powder, extract, etc... 23,954 34,869
Frames, photrnraph........... 3,9. 1 16,130 Rilles .......... .................... 37,800
Glass stones and buttons.............. 152,636 Rope, old...................... 11,944 .......
Hides: Seeds........................ 92,532 198,285
Calf, dry................... 6,480 .......... W hitting ....................... 11,279 .........
Cattle,salted.............. 112,9S3 ......... All other articles .............. 29,147 6,602
Hosiery........................ 15,071 10,544
Liquors........................ 11,623 ......... Total.................... 765,829 9005,251

Exports to Porto Rico consisted of 30,119 pounds of butter, valued
at $27,597; and to the Virgin Islands, 817 pounds of butter, valued
at. $734. There were no shipments to Hawaii or the Philippine
Islands.
Agriculture and Dairying.
Denmark's highly developed agriculture and scientific methods of
dairying have for many years attracted the favorable attention of
the world and furnished the country with its principal articles of
export. This high degree of success has been largely dependent
upon the imports of feedstuff and fertilizers. These imports dimin-
ished during the last three year,, of the war and almost ceased in
1918. Owing to favorable seasons, the crop production of the pa-t
year was practically up to normal, despite the absence of fertilizers.
but the soil is in great need of being replenished if normal crops
are to be expected for the next year. The shortage of fodderstiuff
has caused a reduction in the number of domestic animals and in
the productivity of the dairies to a very marked degree. Denmark's
export of pork in 1918 is unofficially reported to have been only 2
per cent of normal and the export of butter 15 per cent of the norlii:ul
figures. The export of beef, fresh and canned, amounted to about
three-fourths of the quantity exported annually before the war.
These reduced exports are not due to a decreased production alone;
the cutting off of imported feedstuffs and the stoppage of the manu-
facture of margarine have forced a larger domestic consumption
than usual of these products and a resultant reduction of the export-
able surplus. High prices were obtained for all farm and dairy
products, with the result that farmers and dairymen are enjoying
a degree of prosperity seldom equaled in the history of the country.
Crop statistics for 1918 show the following production, measured
in metric tons: Wheat, 172,000; rye, 323,000; barley, 467,000; oats.
603,000; mixed oats and barley, 325,000; peas, 11,000; and buck-
wheat, 3,000; making a total grain yield of 1,904,000 tons. The
grain crop in 1917 was 1,560,000 metric tons; in 1916, 2,080,000 tons;
in 1915, 2,300,000 tons; and the average from 1909 to 1913, 2,284,000
tons.







SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


Below is given the yield of the various root crops during the past
two years, and a comparison with the 1909-1913 average:

Crops.19 1917 191

MvrTiciaon.. M trick ton. Metrictons.
Potatoes.................................................... ...... 140, ') 7,700 1,105,100
Carrots...................... ............... .............. 224, %00 103,900- 129, 00
'ct'I -Z.................... .. ........ ................................. 4,414,600 4,213,900 5,266,700
Kohl rabi ........................................................... 4,554,600 5,482,500 4,558,900
Turnips .......................................... ................. 2, J 00 2,750,600 2,334,600
Sugar Ibcets......................................................... 786.500 8S2,700 944,400

Live Stock-Fishing Industry.
The number of domestic animals, with the exception of hogs, was
about tlhe sanue as in the preceding year. The number of hogs varied
very much during the year; in February there were 513,000; in
April the lowest point for the whole war was reached when there
,were only 433,000; but by December, the number had increased to
727,000. Many of these will be slaughtered during the winter
months, and another low mark is expected in the approaching spring.
The reduction in live stock during the war (from July, 1914, to De-
cember, 1918) was as follows: Horses, 23,000; cattle, 340,000; sheep,
44,000; and hogs, 1,744,000.. Care has been taken in slaughtering
cattle to preserve the quality of the dairy herds. When adequate
feedstuff can again be obtained the number of all animals will soon
be restored to normal proportions through natural processes, without
importing live stock for that purpose.
In normal times fishing affords a livelihood for a considerable
part of Denmark's population and furnishes a large contribution to
the food supply both for domestic consumption and for export.
Statistics with regard to the quantity and value of fish caught have
not been given out for some time; however, the quantity was un-
doubtedly less than normal for both 1917 and 1918, but. the value was
equal at least to that of a normal catch, owing to the high prices ob-
tained. The sea fishing is usually carried on mostly in the North Sea.
The Baltic has never yielded very favorable results. The North Sea
for more than 18 months has been virtually closed by mine fields, or
at least rendered so dangerous as to make fishing therein a very
liazardous undertaking. As this fishing is carried on in vessels
using either kerosene or gasoline as motive power, the dearth of these
oil, has placed a further handicap on this pursuit. The coast fish-
ing is conducted mostly in small boats and sailing vessels and in
waters not -o badly infested with mines and has therefore been more
active and consequently very prosperous.
Industrial Conditions.
It is in the field of industrial activity that the restrictions grow-
ing out of the war have been most severely felt. Denmark is unfor-
tunately situated industrially. The country has no coal mines or
mineral resources of any kind whatever and is totally lacking in
water power. All industries are dependent, upon imports for their
fuel and raw materials. With the exception of pig iron, which can
1he obtained in considerable quantities from Sweden, the necessary
materials have come almost entirely from some one or the other of








DENMARK.


the belligerent powers. The needs that the warring nations have had
for these materials themselves, together with the shortage of tonnage
and the difficulties of navigation, have forced Dnmamrk to get along
with far less than her normal requirements. The fuel problem has
been exceedingly difficult. Great Britain and Geimany have been
the only countries supplying coal. Both of these countries have had
pressing need for all the coal that could be produced in 1918, but they
permitted a limited export to Denmark as compensation for the food-
stuffs the latter country was able to furnish. Denmark has supple-
mented this limited supply of fuel by resorting more and more to the
use of peat, considerable quantities of which are found in this
country.
Statistics of production for 1918 are not yet available, but the
situation in the several industries can be summarized briefly as fol-
lows:
The production of sugar has been about normal and affords suffi-
cient supplies for domestic needs and a small export. The tobacco
industry has operated below normal on account of there having been
no new imports of raw tobacco, but a considerable stock already on
hand at. the beginning .of the year has enabled nearly all the fac-
tories to continue operations with a reduced force. The iron indus-
tries, including machine shops, foundries, shipyards, and factories
for motors, automobiles, tools, implements, etc., operated far below
capacity on account of the shortage of materials. The cement fac-
tories ran for about six months only, owing to fuel shortage. The
margarine factories discontinued operation for almost the entire
year, on account of a lack of the necessary oils and fats. The supply
of grain for the breweries was reduced, thereby curtailing their out-
put. The cotton industries were stopped almost completely by the
exhaustion of the supply of cotton and cotton yarn. The production
of the woolen mills was more nearly normal; a small stock of wool
was supplied from domestic sources and a considerable amount was
on hand at the beginning of the year. The shoe and leather industry
utilized Danish hides and maintained practically a normal output.
State Railways Increase Rates.
The principal railways of Denmark are owned and operated by
the Government. The length of the Government roads is 2,103 kilo-
meters (1,307 miles) and that of the several private roads is 2,067
kilometers (1,284 miles). The private companies operate, for the
most part, only the short lines, whereas the Government operates the
main lines and handles the greater part of the business.
A statement has been published showing the condition of the ac-
counts of the Danish State railways for the first eight months of the
current fiscal year, which began April 1, 1918. The receipts of the
roads for this period were 60,000,000 crowns ($16,080,000) and the
expenditures 64,900,000 crowns ($17,393,200), thus leaving a deficit
of 4,900,000 crowns ($1,313,200). This eight-month period is re-
garded as the most favorable part of the year, as the winter months
-always show a deficit, and the railroad officials expect a total deficit
of about 15,000,000 crowns ($4,020,000) for the year ending March 31.
Passenger rates were increased on all classes of travel on the
Danish State railways, and freight rates were also increased, effec-






SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


tive February 3, 1919. Both increases average about 25 per cent
over the former rates. The increase on perishable goods and goods
to be handled with special speed is nearly 50 per cent. Parcel-post
rates are higher by about 20 per cent. The increase in freight rates
is the second since the beginning of the war. The first increase was
made in November, 1917, and amounted to 25 per cent of the previous
rates; thus the present rates are more than 50 per cent over the rates
before the war.
No new railroads have been built in Denmark during the war and
no new lines or extensions planned. Additional tracks are being laid
in some places, but materials are not available for very much work
of this kind. The track and roadbed of the Danish railways are in
fairly good condition, but the rolling stock is insufficient and in bad
repair. During the summer and fall, when traffic is heaviest, there
is a great shortage of rolling stock, both of cars and of locomotives.
These are normally purchased abroad, but during the war no deliv-
eries have been possible. In November the State railways ordered
700 freight cars and 9 express cars from the Danish factory Scan-
dia," of Randers, Denmark. This factory, however, is not yet in a
position to complete any of the cars, because of a lack of materials.
The railroads themselves have undertaken 'to purchase the wheels
and axles elsewhere.
Harbor Improvements.
Plans for extensive improvements in the harbor and free port of
Copenhagen have been made and partially executed. The first addi-
tion to the free port has been practically completed. This extension
consists of a basin 31.2 feet, deep, 395 feet wide, and about 2,000 feet
long, with 3,500 feet frontage of new quays and docks. It has in-
creased the land area of the free port by 31.3 acres and the water
area by 22.5 acres. The free port before this extension consisted of
about 90 acres of land and 60 acres of water surface. The new por-
tion is being supplied with sheds and warehouses and other equip-
ment. In 1913 the warehouse space in the free port alongside the
docks amounted to 855.000 square feet; there has already been com-
pleted 116,000 square feet of additional space, and in a short time,
when the buildings now under construction will be completed, there
will be a total of 1,322,000 square feet of warehouse area on the
actual water front. The warehouse area in the free port, not adjacent
to the docks, has been increased from 70,500 square feet in 1914 to
more than 148,000 square. feet at the present time. The plans pro-
vide for an extension of about four times the addition completed, but
nothing definite has yet been done toward the beginning of these
more extended improvements.
Considerable new work in the harbor proper was carried out
during the year. About $3,350.000 has been spent on harbor im-
provement during the war and about $1,600.000 of this amount was
spent in 1918. The improvements consist of the construction of new
docks, the purchase of land for warehouses, and the deepening and
dredging of the ?hip channels and basins. Many new improvements
have been undertaken at the smaller Danish ports, notably at Odense,
Aarhus, Helsingor, and Korsor.







DENMARK.


Shipping and Shipbuilding.
Notwithstanding the handicap of having to import all necessary
raw materials, shipbuilding in Denmark in normal times is an imn-
portant industry. Numierous, kinds of ships are built, varying from
the smaller ves-el-.. yacht and .:l,ho'),ner.- to -1tea:nlers and motor
vessels of 12.000) tons de:ld-weight. All yard ^ in 1917 a;nd ii91S had
their work reduced andi in -om:e in-tances stopped completely be-
cause of a lack of materials. Steel. the mo-t ec.,ential material, was
obtained in uch :-mai;ill qpiantities as to permit of little more than re-
pair kvolk b.eini: done. The total ;e.v t, innage completed was
22.0010 in "117 .1.n1 1 ) in 1918. Tje Ln roger yards have nmaiy
inlporiIlnt orders for con-tructitt'm on hand, which will 1,' b':xei.'tute as
woon as -teel and l other l. teria : are av':-,il,.. .
Th?. war hlas forced Danih -hippin- ,uit of ii',,-t of its old routes.
Some of Ihe ships have l-L- idl];- i' l )anihi p,'t-, ''iii' ( ed in
the tran.spporiation of coal to Diiiikanith frilni En ,.lnid and (ienrinany,
but. most of then have been engaged in new routes cre:itid liy the
wIar. Tihe utilization of the Dini.-!h !urii.-r nt fleet W:-, provided
fur in the Danish-American age'cmnent of Scpte!,li-er, 1918, but pri.r
to that date the greater part of th,, oet was under time charter to
English and Almjerican charterers, and t1i' control of the -.lipi i .va
virtually taken out of thi,' hands of the LDniiz.i owners. Although
some ship, were destroyed by mine- and siil.Iiiiaiinrs and othvr.- ships
wVero idl-_, the y(.: w'-0 a profit alde ,n1 f;'r the ship,,wner-. M' It,
of the companies. have render,,d their annual statements for 1918.
These si'.tenmnts invariably s.-iow lar e profit which, even after
the pam1) ent of heavy tl.axs and various oth,'r increa-e.d costs of
opera tion, have peirmitte'd the payment of dividends ranging from 12
to 05 per cent.
Xo new slippingg ucoinpanies were formed in 1918; on the other
hand the capital stock of many of the existing ,-.c companies was in-
cr';e-ed1. the :,i'a rebatee increase. am untin to about 1,sIOili 1). Tlh,
stork of Danisli steam.hip co mlpa.niis sold for exceedingly high
price-. n. the Copenlhagen St.-,,-k Exchange, and there vas minre
speculation than ever before. The -ininTg -if the armistic.- brought.
about ;: fall in the price of th,-e itock,: but, even then, the shares
were quoted at much higher rates in December than at the beginning
of the year.
According to a stateientct of tfli Danish Marine War Insurance.
Coninittee, tlhe Danish merchant tle-'t lost during the war 15-i steam-
ers of .23-0.1100 tons, and -ailing 3v-.el, agLi eating 53.000 tons.
Larger Number of Unemployed-Increase in agese.
More than a normal number of laborers were idle during 1918.
This was a necessary result, of the restriCted operations of the Varionu
industries due to fuel shortage a'nd dearth of materials. Unemploy-
ment has been greatest in the building trades and among textile,
tobacco, and iron workers. The number of unemployed in December
was approximately 03,000; this was 10,000 more than at any time
of the previous year. The unemployed have been cared for by a sys-
tem of unemployment pay. The amount of this pay varies under
different circumstances but avennges about $10 or $12 per week. The
129787 -10-2







SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


payment of the allowance is hedged about with certain restrictions,
but, in effect, it ,'an be drawn by any actual laborer who is not em-
ployed. The allowv:nce is siflicient to enable its recipient to live
fairly comfortably; in fact, it is greater than the wages obtained by
many o(f t(l laliOrr' before the war.
There was a .-cdmldy increase in wages during the war; in the vari-
ous industries wv':,ics, have been increased on an average of about 53
iper cent, and wages for farm laborers have increased 50 to 70 per cent.
These inc~C ase have been accompanied by a shortening of the work-
ing-day in p)rantic:lly all the industries. The close of the year
witne:,-ed a strong deman(I on the part of all laborers for the estab-
lihment. if an eight-hour dlay. Strikes were threatened, but the
demands were sibii ted to lie negotiation of comminittees represent-
ino- tilhe emplolye a1ndl employi(1ers. and an amic:able settlement is ex-
pected, though fiinil :;tlgreement hlas not. yet been reached. An eight-
liour -lay was a iiite eim.loyee. engaged in Government. service;
this applies to aill p-,.-on in the service of the post office, telegraph
and telephones, li-tinoms. and Stlate, railviays. Similar coincessions
htaveO been gianlte(1 thie employees of the city of Copenhaligen. effective
April 1, 1010.
In tllis connect ion it mivy 1, of interest to note that the total num-
her of laljorers of all ,inds in Denmark is about 255,000. and tliat the
average \woirking-day has lieretofore. been nine and one-half hours.
The working-day, of coutlie, varied in different trades, the farm
laborers living the longest day. In 1918, 15 per cent of the laborers
had a working-day of more than 10 hours; 27.8 per cent, 10 hours;
,33.0 per cent, 91 hours; 14.5 per cent, 9 hour'."; 4.3 per cent, 6N hours;
3.6 per cent, 8 hours; and 1.2 per (ent, less than hourlls.
Banks Have Prosperous Year.
Thie annual reports of the Danish banks sho- aI prosperous condi-
tion. There liha been a decided increase in t.he volume of biisiness
and in banilk 1ila lucs. Some of the increase in vollline of lInviness
doubtle.-, represented piMr. speruliition, as general trade has he-n less
active lth.ii ii normally ani d -pcilation in -ltocks has been extremely
active. The Copenhlig'n banks closed their 19!i accounts with a
tot hal lalanc of i11,l'.(,tiit. l. -which was, an increase of $1 13J,0.000
over that of the previu. yV'.rr. All thl ieadiL. hanks paid their
usual dividends of 10 t,; \12 pIr cent, after having pl)aed consider-
able sums in their suirpls ;rilnd re-erve.
The total -to k of old 1 in Diiilsh l iinks icn Deoiber was $.51.-
ii'2 L000, which vl.. an iitnela ,-. of ilabo(t T.',00i over tliat of ihe
o.lr'e.po*..i)il'i11 month of ti i iie\Vinons ye:l. The1 present gold reserve
is abo. t, two :iid oi,-h-al f tille-- \\-. r'i"tt a'- in the period i iiilmediately
before the war. The paper liliony in circulation in De)celimber, 1918,
was about $10.tii0-,0010; this sh1;ws 0i11 iincrIlT;e overl the record of
1917 aind is aboutt three times- :i- great .as tflie note circulation before
the war.
Deposit-. in Daniiih savin 's b:tllks di -ring thle several years of the
war have been as follows: In 1914. $229,944,000; in 1915, $241,-
307,000; in 1916. $.22..27.000: in 1917, $-98,445,000; and in 1918,
$31,.259t.000. This represents an increase of about 46 per cent during
the past five years.


-. a







DENMARK.


Government Revenues and Expenditures Exceed Estimate.
For the fiscal year 1918-19 the Danish Government submitted a
preliminary budget involving e.timtated expenditulre. of about-s$0,-
844,000. The revenue to be. derived was estimated at about ,,100,-
000,000. IHowever, the revenue for the' year hll;' exce.'ded this pre-
liminary ei- tliii iatl. anironl'iing to ah: lit lO.107. -i'Iiil), ; l''ting to
official s-taitcuents of thi Minister of Finance. In June. 1913, the
Government negotiated a loan of $1- ',I-.iin.(, wvihi._h is nit. but which
should be. included in the foregoing iilirei.. Trjl. tI.'t l ,i i,,I!iititfre
for the fiscal year ending March 31, 1:.. i- not ki:'-wn accur1 tily,
but is officially stated to be about .l Ju,iii;.(i. Th.t' is thus a
deficit of about $10.1001,0100.
All depart ment.- of the Government, have hl'd ini -,1 expendi-
tures, but the gre ..tet, increase has been in tlhe Mini-try of tl. In-
terior. The Government through thi-, depiarti uteit, has paid the un-
eniploynr1111A comLpen-atiinn, w i '1-iI for the y:', r .:1 about '.: ii'."0 .
As a neian-, f 4 nc,'Oilrt'in the 10,-duL'tion of itiljk, li..r, jL1. aind
grain and of ,huapening.'the price of .f,,',._iiifr-v the plirn, ele-
ments of the population, large spims l .ve C _.-n paid. whi. h we.,,- vir-
tually subsidies, to tlie producer- of these products. Thi ;uiii ex-
pended for this pnirpt-'e is dii f tilt, to :iscerttain, b.1..,.-,, of the in-
volved and indirect im.tiodmis of 'p:ymnr'n, bitt ii hal, I :niwbat in
excess of $17.I0,K000.
During the year, however, the Gov-,n,._in-nt retiri:.1 .i--;O,000,0 of
its indebted]ne -., and tli, a:lnil uI, is included in the total of ''p...ndi-
tures .stated above. Tin1 total public debt of D(in,;::.k is now about
$178.000.1 '). B fo)re the war a I:.'..' n;un J:'. of these securities were
held in Gei'ti:,.ny, F'ran:'. and ; n1lanIai. It i; rp'rl edl that uiln
the war !:l.in,.-t all these u liogti'n1-. :.which were 1,.'id abri... l..ave
been rel-,.l.',:h'.. and rettiirn-ed lo, ID)ainish owi -l.:'i. It is said that
no Dani-i Sr-ite obligitiinn ar, n,'w owned i: it ier ;:1l.oiii or
German', ;.n'1 only a small amount in France. 1i- per .1pilt. debt
of Dentiwhrk is : '...'7. v.ltich is the -:; .11:.. .i'r V.;a ta debt UO the
three .. j l,.iii',:Viu c-iil'.itrics.
Er:iigration Show;3 J2:cr.as,-Price Movement.
Emigration decrcIa.ld teanily during the war and' r..cltl a low
level in 191S. During thlie year 950 per-ons eCilTr:,ltt from the
country. 1f whom 9012 went to the IUniteil State- and 21 to 1d.ut.
The emigran:t- in 1017 number._,d 1,01-4, all l,;1:t 25 of wh .::-. vWt, to
the United- State-.
Price-. of all article-; have advanced in Denimuirk in to"'iif r nity
with the price movement in othl:.-r part- of thw world. The Danish
Statistical De.parli.ment li;e prepared ;n.1 pi)bli-lhi u accurate figures
with regard to pr ice imovemnnmt luring the war. Atrdig to these
figures the price increase ik ;ipprnximnately 90 per cent. Similar
statistics, have been compiled, for the ittlir S..nlii..vian countries,
which reveal a niiiih greater inr ea-, nmainely, IC0 per cent for Nor-
way and 107 per cent for Sweden. An explanation of the difference
can perhaps be found in the fat t that Denmark has to a greater ex-
tent than the other countries reported to maximal prices and State
aid in keeping prices reduced on the most important articles of
household consumption, such as bread, butter, milk, meat, and flour.







SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


Prospects for Increased Trade.
No neutral country felt a greater relief or anticipated the future
with higher expectations than did Denmark when the armistice was
signed. Just as the country had made enormous profit. out of in-
ternational trade, acting as middle man or distributor, during the
fir-'t two years of the war, its business men expected to be able to
reapl another harvest when blockade restrictions .should be removed
and trade with Germany aind Russia resImed. Whether these ex-
p1rtations are to be realized in any degree remains to be seen, but.
it can be -aid that the uncertainty of events in Germany and Russia
ani the continuation of the Allied blockade have materially lessened
the h ipe ofi great and inwiilediaie profits. Nevertheless, Dennmark
expects to profit in a permanent way in thle readju-It.nlent of trade.
The future, however, is not. without its difficulties. First of all,
Denimark is confronted with an unfanoralble balance of trade. The
country is forced to buy much more than it. has to sell, and this
condition apparently will continue fur a long time yet. The coun-
try's export.-, being mostly agricultural and dairy products, it. must
restore its depleted herds and build up its somewhat impoverished
soil before the surphis for export will be of adequate proportions.
When countries which possess raw materials are setting a greater
store on them than ever before, a small nation like Denmark without
raw i,:tt-,rials must .-ee its industries confrontedd with more than the
usual handicaps. Great trading companies organized for the pur-
pose of exploiting Russian trade have been forced to remain almost
idle because of the uncertain future of Russia. On the other hand,
Denmmark advanta, g_-; are numerous. The country's industrial and
commercial organiz;iiin, is inta. ; it has a large merchant. fleet; its
banks and business houses pos-ess more capital than ever before;
the ranks of its labor have not. been depleted by the war; and there
is less labor unrest. than perhaps in any other country of Europe.
Copenhagen as a Distributing Center for American Goods.
Denmark and its capital city po),ecss a peculiar interest to American
trade at the present time. The fact that Denmiark has a population of
less thain ,:11.0,000 and Copenh'lagen, its only large, city, a population
of 700,000 is not to be taken as a proper standard of the country's
importance as a market. It is assumed that American manufac-
turers and exporters will not again willingly permit. the distribution
of their good- in Europe to fall into the hands of the merchants of
Hamburg and Breeni, as was the ca'c to siich a great extent. before
the war. There is a danger of the trade drifting back into the old
channel-., however, unless a determined iefort is made to create new
routes and new centers of distribltioun. More than 70 per cent of
Ameri1an1 good, sold in Scandinav i a b-efore the war was ,old through
German houses or in sonte other way yielded a profit to German com-
merce. I
It is taken for granted that, as a matter of mere self-interest,
American cominmerce will seek new routes and more favorable centers
of distribution. It is in this connection that. Denmark and especially
Copenhagen become of interest. Copenhagen claims advantages as
a distributing point for Scandinavia as well as for Finland and the
other regions bordering on the Baltic. The ports of the Baltic States








DENMARK-ODENSE.


are. either too shallow to accomniodato large steamers or are blocked
by ice during many months of the year. As a center for these coun-
tries and a point of transshipment, Coplnhagen lays claim to the fol-
lowing advantage-,: A central location, with short and direct water
routes to the priIncipal Scanldinavia.n and Baltic ports; a free port
with large warehouses and good harbor facilities; and hirge 1baniks
nd x1(1 XperiencedI iprtel ai.nd, comIllmission merchants who are. well
aciquailited with the several nmuarkets, to b.e served. Cpenlouhgen mer-
chants are already biUying gools for (lisi.rilition in otlier countries;
Juanly coi, 1.-.bion iierchnlint Iha.ve already built up oru;iiiizait ions
vwith the view of covering these countries with aogept: aond salesmen;
and sever:il Ainerican firms, have established lbraitnclie.- in Coplinhli:gn.
Denmark Offers Opportunity to American Trade.
Danis.h business enterpris-, in plh nning trade exten.-ion, are look-
ing almost. exclusively to the United States. The participation of
America in the war has given that country and its people a .-(anding
which was not possessed Ihefore. Ainiti ican g,)oods have iern tried :a nd
found serviceable and not too expenl-ive. Numiiero ii ii- ni-rcaitile,
hiose, have been formed in Copenhlazen with no other view than
that, of establishing American connections and handling Amiiiericni
goods in the Baltic regions.
Denmark offers an opportunity to American trade. Germany is
at present. not. a competitor, and the vacancy left by its previously
great trade can be filled by some other country. The good will now
existing in Scandinavia toward Amnerican products is an asset of
value. These considerations, however, sho'hild not caus-e the man
who expects to do business in Scandinavia to ignore the fact that
Scandinavia is not so anxious fur American goods that it can be
exploited or charged exorbitant prices and that its mnerllchants are
experienced and shrewd in international trade. Just :it present the
merchants are not making so many new purchases ; they have. large
quantities of goods in America and England already 1,ought and
paid for, and they prefer to get. delivery of these goois i, fore enter-
ing upon a new purchasing campaign. Thle lack of tonncge from
the United States- is one of the chief hindrances to the sale of Ameri-
can goods at the present time. This problem is one of vast im-
portanI:.e in the extension of Amieriman trade in Scandinavia, and its
proper solution at an early date would be of incalculable andl per-
manent benefit to Americani COlillnIrrcl.
ODENSE.
By Consul Maurice P. Duinlap. May 21, 1919.
In July. 1918, an American consulate was fir-t e-inbli.hed in
Odense, Denmiark, a district, which, bec- oe of its agri-iilttiial 1pod-
ucts and its proximity to thickly polpullated centers, .,hould play an
increasingly important part in Eiuropean trade and offer greater op-
portlunities for the development of direct 1b'usin :s connections with
the Unitetl States. Much of the busine-s formerly done by Germany
should now seek American channels, and the American wares which
have previously reached thi-, port via Hamburgi through Germian
houses should come direct. With the deepening of the various.: har-
bors larger boats can be accommodated and other American exports







SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


which now come via Copenhagen can be brought to Odense without
the additional transishipmnent. Both the United States and this dis-
trict will derive benefit from first-hand connections made possible
by the establishment of a consulate here.
Extent of Odenic Consular Distiict.
The Odeln-.,. di-ili i Cfljosi--t-, f thi- island of Fven and a few
-iiallr i-lmnd-.. with i: llppl:' ii'n oIf ~hiit 31)0,)000 and iln area equiv-
alent to a, 11-h. iir. :b.it i. mile, sqi;.ero. Although not extensive,
Fyen is '.vry rich and initeon ivlyv rutivated, alnd its products form
:n ii ipJort:int part of the total Dl)ani-lh exports' to England, Germany,
id other ri''i a.n (.Countrie,-. Altliou'.h, lying so far north, the
i-;'.nil 1i- a cAiiil i':ltiv'l y lild cliiii;at,.. The'l' is nlway-,s a (good
rainfall. :.P'I the crowp <:"-n ]'priticailly :ilvys depended upon.
There are no iiin,-;l. and iii: nif.'trin' i- ca rried on only on a
small ~],Cl;1'. Th-l.r is tihe reft' ire -te-:lvy if liinitedi, inmalirkt for raw
liateriinl-a i'dl 1i:im1lifa;ic'trd p1r dllc(,.
Til. in1111il town on t!he island is the port of Odens'. There are.
only 17,000 i!l',:1iitants, but the pince i. mnore01 important than its
population v. ild -..in to iiidic:ite, being the center of a network of
railroads ,l, a ,Inllvenient -.tipping-oft 11-'c on the n0ain line from
('opellinhagen to Gecri':ny. Od 2'cod hotels d1 :I-tiveo o n n.;1111ri;l o~,'2rinizatitns. Theli district. is
dotted with other pri.-p.cii-ias siiiall towns, 10 of which are also
cuItoin ports of entry. The stand.ird of liN ing is hiigh, both in the.
townsv and in the fornini- districts.
Banks Have Pvo.pci-ous Year.
One of the Thi..f ecorn ,iic factors in the Od,-'.-e district during
1918 was the presence of Ui.r. :', qi iniits of iInIii-,. 1i-npit:il. There
h:S ero?' been -,, illuch lact;fl iioneO here 1 -f c f i',, :1i il tfli district's
large.,t saving, lw'liik (Fyens Stiftl Spar, lca;-,e) now stains as the
se.4contl'in Ti i-in del d -it- amountinLg to 'i..8ii.000.
In the past thi '.I o -I the I de ,(. -ift- l1:ive i iC i-r lV 1 monire tIhan one-
thjir,] biing ;1.' 00,000 at the b'oini. l0g" of 1Jilli. Tih:- biznks in
L'o'nrral liha, had a ,d y-..ir, whilh ..;s on a p:i -' with the t vo pre-
VIOUS 1s pr.1 ( Iill-, oneS.
The ;iabl !i,!;i e of money in the banks li ., however. meant :in
altogether a:-..ll ..-f'rv cc',r',..iiic condition. In ordilnliy time.; this
ir'. -ed 'c:ipital v iild have 1i':n ir c..st.d in :i 'iture. in indii-'.tries,
in shipping, and in trades, but all thcse ;'I iv'iii-.s have be-en para-
ly.'i, or tillnld from their norinal -urse.i., liy tli' ononomic world
lilii't: ;ind (.l ,11. ~~-,Ii ,.'lv.1 I..;.- iot li,.'1n able to tind use for
their surplii...
Coi(ditioi~- l1- ive lnr.vrtliels oeen loss dimii'lt thlian ol-ewhere in
.Snidinll:ivi:. v '*>l'. t .ll'i a '. 1:11 i01' ill-', n111d iImUI-e la 01or unrest or
Wvliere the ,ininOiiiiii'" s liii-inls.ss life is built on a more fluctuating
basis. The mere fact that there i- so lii1iilh capital here chows a stable
final ncial caoidiioni and proinis Ci. well for the future, when new chan-
nels will be opened, fnor trade.
Industries Hampered by Lack of Raw Materials.
The lack of raw materials seriotv.ly interfered with most of
Odens'.s industries in 1918, aggravating the strained conditions of
1917. There were no failures of note, but a number of industries have








DEN IARK-ODENSE.


had to shift their activities to suit. the emerg.ncy. For example,
a certain factory, which was forced to give up margarine mainuifac-
ture because of a lack of fat stuids, began the mianiiufa.ctlre of potato
flour. After there were no more potatoes av:illible. the iwinifl'ituire
of dry milk was taken up. A shortage of nilk, how\v\eir, finally
stopped this activity.
The cotton industry was idle throughout the ye:r. The woolen
industry has had to be content with coarse wool. native or from Ice-
land, which ha, not been enough to replace the Englihll article for-
merly used. The quality of the wares has also 1,c.' n fiM f r, but this
inferiority i.. generally to be irnirked in all manufactiiur'il articl,-.
Certain machine factories have exlparldeld t have h !1 difiiciilt.y
in getting new nmac1hinery installed. Iron and mnai'liiiry have to a
degree been ol)tainable from Sw.,lc.n at a very high price. Tob.b:icco
factorie- s have been greatly haiiipered by a lack of raw ,iiaterials.
The factories have either stood quite still or work,-,l only with
poor substitutes. Te. institution ho', ever, have held their per-on-
nel, and this has Imeant an additional lo--. The gh.i-s industry was
affected by a lack of soda.
Certain Danishl concerns were able to p:,y goih divi,1'n1l-. although
they received or sold practically nothing in Denmark. This is be-
cause purcha-,es made in England or Aiieri.a' which -,t.od ready for
delivery long ago could not be brought to Odense beca:iise of the
blockade. These shipnimen'i have sonietiimes diil1,!e.l or tripl',d in
value and during the past year were resold where they were pur-
cha-ed, at a good profit. Other concerns have netted good profits on
the sale of goods that have lain a long time in sto, ge here.
Agricultural Industry of the District.
The district of Odens- is one of the rir-,.t aigri.-tii ral districts
in Dennmark. In 1918 the vi:lue of land in f'rn-iiin: sections wa\v- r'.:k-
oned at $107 per acre, the average value for all fl'air land i4 Den-
mark being `74 per acre. The taxable value of land in Oden.-c was
increas,.l considerably during 1918, in some cases from 10 to 17 per
cent. There ia- beLen inI.I'h speculation in land, and in many in-
stances Nvery liigh prices were paid for farms.
Duirinl, 1918. as during 1917, agricultural prodi (is (,u: lior.it in ,more
than ever bef,.'ic, but the difli, itie- of proli,.-'i ion have inciL.,1 'd
more than cnirrspondingly since the submarine bI,)ckile a ild neri-
- a's entry into, th, war. One of the gre:ret i-n- nvini.-c!s was a
shortage of strong fodildhr for c:tile and of fertilize r-. An increased
cultivatioin of r,,ot. crops only partially coiperii-.,te1 for the lack of
bran and oil cakcv-. Experiment, with Nowegian .alltpe('lr used in-
stead of Chiile. saltpeter proved tilhe superiority of the 1-itter as a fer-
tilizer. At lhir\iv'st tiim the lack of binding' tvwin no was mo,, serious,
and paper si-tii iute-: only pairtiailly took the pilavc of i ial rope. Oil
for machine' 'i M's lacking. Such as was obtainabl,' wias of very puor
quality but c-t more than the finest Danish butt.ir.
Unusiua l conditions during 1918 aecentuaied the tenflenc.ies of
1917 anil reflected the general economic condition the world over.
The chief features of the year were the reduction in the number of
swine, which formerly furnished this district with one of its princi-
pal exports, until there was not enough pork for home consumption;
the general interest. in horse raising, stimulated by the German de-







16 SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.

mand and the abnormal prices; the use of motor power on farms as
a substitute for the horses sold to Germany, which had become ex-
pen-.ive labor because of the high prices of fodder; the large earn-
ing- on cattle of poor quality; the increased interest in potato rais-
ing, encouraged lyv the (.iovlern .int: the appearance of home-grown
tolia.er( (in t ith, in i!akt; and the (.'Forts for cooperation on the part
of 1st1ok raigner-, ditiri.s. and seed growers., large and -ininall, in order
to iie able to cilir nv iew Cxport iliklds after peace i. declared.
Importance of Stock Raishig and Dairying.
Oden-e's mo ,,'t inlip'rant agricu lt rural interests are stock raising
anid fdfiryine,_ High priie have in a 1icaire conpellnatedI for thea
dilfli.ilti1-, ti-,L'- a.tiv cities nCenciiiterclt" in 1091s, but t!,2 sia ll crops
of 1017 ::'i.'ilii.,id the feed :-h4orta',20 Iro light abliit hv- the block-
ade. T1e following talile ]shows how ithe inniber of live -.tock has
d( lcrcl:-,',l. as well as how this district stands compared wVith all


Animals. !'.l! 1'17 I!. All :.n-
I. ,i ..:, 1'j18.

Horses .............................................. .... ci' 'ii ",ooo000
Cows........................................... ...... 2 l, I .?'.11 ,i11i 22', i,' '2, 21.1 110)
S hel .-p ................................................ .. l i i 4.; .*,i i, I I il 1)
S '.'n n2 ................................................... "i,,il i !! 2 il ii2 ll 21,1) 10
H ens .. ............................................... ,'7 "*.., t', I '..',7, i,.,i ".0"., I":0 *1,' 000

The d.crivi-.e, in the number of cattle' from i '2.W.0u0 in 1914 to
22",.'oo in 1918 doees not relr'c--ent, the actual l,,s-. (tnlcrvl':;lrihed
and young cows in the 1918 count take th. jiac- of wI-ll-nm.uri-led,
I Zaturi, ones in the 1914 count. The reductioii i t, niii iil,r oI s'vine
frmin 201,000 in 1917 to S'2,000 in 191.S tter in.:ii, '-. the extent to
which O-1,,n -.'s livo-,tn.de: in1n -1tr4 y ., ". : iln t !:-e p ,'-t year.
A feature of the year was the sale of cattle to tIe 'eintral powers.
This 1~ -. cui.ied the price, of both live aiii -.ligliltr'l animal., to be
VLCT high. At t1h. i..:-inniiai of ilit yvi: a lir-t-cl:.i.-. cow on the
O :.-'_ cattle i., lr et ]hrui.gi;.it abiut ,'1',. In the attii ninii t(he -,ame
animal brought 20 or i io.,-. At thic aend of t!:c yer li:, .' 1 very
naturally fell.
'i1T ivit i ', although uncertain, -.eei-, to promise favoral ly for the
Od-n-.e cattle industry. Thli rol,'eiiwild Pir,,inces to the -oiith, Rus-
-i;i, and C(ili I1Mi:ny all offTr HiLlds :l,,r lo-..-il 'e expan-ion, and the ilis-
trict's c.it.t-biClirvng a -.soiation i, now laying extensive plans for
ent.rip n ti..-c Ih-ldb.
Large Production of Butter.
In inuiiiial tinnie- butter i. the nmo.t important food product of the
i-land of Fyen. The average yield 'if milk per cow is higher here
than in an'v other section of Denmark. For 1914 this average was
.9,1 Lili. (..-. 11 pounds) per c(ow, but the quantity has fallen since.
'i'he average fr thi, whole country in 1914 was 2.'15 kilos (.5,765
pounds) pei t.,,w, but in 1918 it was The av cra;':-' i n1 10r of kilos of butter produced annually by the Dan-
ish milk eow wai, 10 t (240 pounds) in 1914, 100 (234 pounds) in 1916,
and 79 (174 pounds) in 1918. The total milk production for this dis-
trict fell from -134,0I00 metric tons in 1914 to 380,000 tons in 1917 and
2.,',,,100 tons in 1918.








DENMARK-ODENSE.


Butter prices varied greatly in 1917 and rose during the first part
of 1918. A law of November 1, 1918, made the prices on butter, milk,
cream, and cheese the same for all Denmark. The price per half
kilo (1.1 pounds) averaged 48 cents for 1917 and 65 cents for 1918,
the price fixed on November 1 being 74 cents.
Although the supply of butter was rationed throughout the year,
each person being limited to about half a pound a'week, there was
still a small amount exported from this district (over Copenhagen).
The price on this butter was still higher, but two-fifths of the surplus
price went to the Government.
The main customer for Odense butter has always been Great
Britain, of whose total butter import more than 40 per cent has
ordinarily come from Denmark. There is much local pride in the
maintenance of a superior quality recognized both at home and
abroad. However, it is not at all certain that butter will continue
to hold its position among Odense dairy products, for the new order
of things may demand a milk export and margarine may become a
stronger competitor for butter. This expectation explains the fact
that a number of cooperative dairies have already experimented
with milk in powdered or condensed form.
Reduced Production of Pork.
After butter, pork is Odense's most important. food product. in
normal times. In fact the two lines are connected, as the refuse from
the butter-skimmed milk-has been advantageously used to pro-
duce good pork. Two important factors in the pork production have
been the imports of grain for feed from the United States and the
consumption of practically the entire export of bacon by England,
where more than 50 per cent of the bacon imported in normal times
has been Danish. After the supply of American grain failed and
the swine had been slaughtered in large numbers, there was prac-
tically no Danish bacon for export. In fact, the 1918 supply was
insufficient for the needs of this district, and the supply was rAtioned
as in other parts of Denmark. Such a restriction was felt here more
than it would be in the United States, because pork is much more
generally eaten, owing to climatic conditions.
Prices on pork at the beginning of the year were comparatively
low, namely, 46 cents per kilo (2.2 pounds) for first-class animals,
slaughtered weight, but by the beginning of May this price had
risen to 62 cents and in November the price for all Denmark was
set, at 75 cents. In spite of all difficulties necessitating the reduction
of pork production, the farmers have tried to hold their best stock
for future breeding purposes in the hope that Danish pork will
eventually find its former market. It is. however, a question whether
this can be regained. The following figures of imports of pork into
England, taken from thep. English paper, The Grocer, show how
American pork has supplanted Danish in the British market:
Coun tries of rigin. 1914 1916 1918

Catl. Cwt. 'wt.
Denmark........................................................... 2,711, 00 1.641.600 21,500
United States...................................................... 523,000 4,n04,400 645.300
Canada............................................................. 342,300 1.5.14, I N) 1,7 19.300
All other countries................................................. 51,000 195, 1N) 91, 0)M
Total.................................................... 5,098., 100 7,455,900 10,477,900







SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


Here we see England's demand doubling during the war, while the
amount Denmiark supplies is reduced to less than 1 per cent of what
it was. It. is maintained here. however, that the American bacon is
less popular than the D'nislh and that the latter will regain its mar-
ket as soon as there is a surplus for export.
Cooperative Slaughterhouse Has a Good Year.
Odense's cooperative slaughterhouse had a prosperous year, owing
to the fact that the sale of by-products of the industry (sausages and
conserves), as well as the sale of slaughtered animals other than
logs, brought in more than enough to compensate for the shortage
in swine. Only 10,700 hog.-, were slaughtered in 1918, as compared
with 94,800 in 1917 and 120,100 in 1914.
The earnings of the society are generally divided among the mem-
bers according to the number of swine delivered for slaughter, but
in 1918 this division was not considered a fair basis. As most of the
swine were delivered to the factory before May, the earnings for
that part of the year were divided as usual, and each member re-
ceived a payment of about $1 for each hog delivered before that time.
The earnings for the rest of the year have been placed in the slaugh-
terhouse reserve and insurance fund.
German Purchase of Horses.
There has never been such interest in horse breeding in this dis-
trict as during 1918. The price on Danish horses during 1917 varied
from $400 to $450 each, but this amount began to increase imme-
diately after January, 1918, until an ordinary good horse in July
cost as much as $1,000, or about four times the normal price.
A commission from Germany came to the district about every two
weeks, mak i ng purchases to replace the horses lost in the conflict. Busi-
ness was very lively until the truce was signed, and a considerable sum
has been netted horse raisers here. Most of these horses were raised
for the German trade, so that the district has not suffered any con-
siderable shortage on this account. Although the truce has returned
large numbers of horses to more peaceful pursuits, it is thought that
there will still be opportunities for this export. Expressions of
satisfaction as to the quality of the Danish horses have been heard
from Germany. There is great. interest, in all branches of the animal
industry here, especially in the production of superior stock.
Crop Yield Below Normal.
The summer of 1918 was unfavorable for crops, although grain
yielded better than in 1917. After a long dry period the rain came
in time to save the crops, but the wet weather continued for so long
that harvesting was difficult. and the yield below normal.
Winter wheat gave the best yield-a little over middling. Rye
was under middling, although better than in 1917. Both spring bar-
ley and oats yielded considerably less than usual. Turnips and sugar
beets gave a yield below middling; but the potato crop was larger
than usual, because so much stress has been laid on the cultivation
of this crop, many vacant lots in the towns being used for the pur-
pose. A part of the potato crop was made into flour by a factory in
Svendborg, which in a seven-month season converted about 30,000
barrels of potatoes into meal. The dry summer reduced the grass
and hay crop to about one-half of the ordinary amounts.









DENMARK--ODENSE. 19

Prices paid for grain during 1918 do not encourage the extension
of acreage. However, if the present war measures setting a govern-
ipental maximal price on grain should be abolished, it should pay to
encourage the production of grain for fodder. The root crops played
a most important part in the nourishment, of farm animals during
the past year, and their cultivation will undoulitedly be encouraged
in the future.
The following table shows the various yields for cereal and fodder
crops in this district for 1917 and 1918 considerablyy under normal
for both years), with comparative figures for the whole of Den-
mark:

Od-ensc district. D[JiInmark.
Crops.
1917 1918 1918

CEREALS.
Metrictonr. MAetrictons. M-lrh Ion.-'.
Wheat........................... ..... .....................'. 18,700 25,000 172,300
Rye...................... .... ............. .. 26,100 39,800 323,:.00
Barley ..................... ............................... ;';9, 00 77,, 00 41.7, 400
Oats............... ...................... ................... ,000 55,800 i:0j3.001
Mixed oats and barley. ............................ ............. 49,500 5.,, )0 32 1,j00
Buckwheat .................................................. 100 100 2,700
Peas..........................................................- 700 1,200 11,400
Total ...................... ............ ..................... 221,700 23.5, Il. 1, 90.5, 4011
FODDER.
Potatoes.......... ... .... ................... ... ................ 51,700 64,700 1,105,100
Carrots....................................... .............. 4,900 6, COo 12a, 600)
Beets .. ...................... .................... .... 1.015, 100 1,048,100 5,266,700
Kobhl-rabi................... .. ... ..... ..... ......... 447,800 267,200 4, .5 '9,400
Turnips......... .. .. ................................... 34.300 156, COO 2, 333;, 500
Sugar beets ...................... .. ................... .... 153,200 151,200 944,400)
Chicory beets .... ... ...... ....... ............................. 9, s 0 10. SOO 24,400
Field hay......... ................... ...................... 69,300 36,900 31.3, 400
Meadow hay..................................................... 39,400 30,000 412, "11ii
Straw .. .......... ........................................... 197,900 279, C00 2,195,600
Total .......... ........................................... 2,223,600 2,054,700 17,315,400
Grand total.................................................. 2, I1.,.00 2,310,000 19,220,800

Interest iil Seed Production-Tobacco Growing.
As far as export is concerned. Odense's principal crop under nor-
mal conditions is seed. There are a number of ,eeod firns, of which
the best known is L. Daehnfeldt & Co., not only the largest sced
concern in Denmark, but in Scandinavia. In the past decadeit miany
farmers have been induced to t:aki up this branch of i'"icultuire,
and now it can be said that seed (grass. root, vegteta-ble, and flower)
is probably Odlen.-' r. most distini.tive agricultural product. Seed
export has, however, been pralictally prohibited during 1917 aind
1918.
Denmark's Tobacco District.
The war has encouraged the production of a new agricultural
crop, namely, tobacco<. The shortage of the imported article lbroiilught
the inferior native product into use. From 1916 to 1917 the acreage,
increased by about 60 per cent, and in 1918 it again increased con-
siderably. Other parts of the country have tried the introduction
of this plant., but. 99 .per cent of the total tobacco acreage of Denmark
(about 520 acres in 1917) lies in the Odense district. The demand for
tobacco has in the meantime increased to such an extent that the







SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


price for the 1918 crop averaged about $1.60 per kilo (2.2 pounds),
or three times the 1917 price. The 1917 crop was about 364 tons.
Dried tobacco is subject to a tax, which netted the Government $14,-
650 in 1917. Tobacco growing is not thought to have a future here,
as the imported article is again appearing on the market and the
homii grown can not compete.
Fruit Harvest-Fishery Catch Reduced.
There was a good fruit harvest, of plums, pears, and apples in the
autumn of 1918. Strawberries and raspberries, of which there are
usually so many during the. summer, were largely bought, up by the
canning factories. These factories also manufactured a great deal
of plum and apple marmalade in preparation for another war win-
ter.. Canning in private homes was much hindered by a shortage
of sugar. .
As in other parts of Denmark, the fisheries in this district supply
considerable food for home consumption and a surplus for export,
a large part of which has gone to Germany. Statistics are not avail-
able, but it may be said that since the dangers from mines have in-
ereased the annual catch has been considerably reduced. The fish-
eries here are of much less importance than agriculture and can not
be compared with similar activities along the coast of Jutland.
Increased Use of Peat.
In 1918 peat established its place as a fuel more firmly than ever.
It is used now by nearly all the industries, by the private railroads,
and in the country districts, where it is practically the only fuel.
Twelve million peat bricks were taken from Odense's marshes in
1918. Of these about one-third were used by the city and the rest
by private families. The electrical works of the town of Svend-
borg have successfully used peat gas instead of petroleum. As a
locomotive fuel it proved to have some disadvantages, requiring a
large boiler and giving off many sparks.
Peat producers have complained that the Government's maximal
price on this article has made its manufacture difficult. There has
been a lack of fuel oil for the peat machines, and other costs of pro-
duction have increased. The result has been a number of failures,
and the production will undoubtedly fall off in 1919, especially with
the increased import of coal. However, the quality of peat has been
greatly improved during the past four years, and more has been
learned of its possibilities. It will, therefore, undoubtedly figure
much more than previously as an economic factor here. Leading
peat producers say that their greatest need is for a machine which
can press the water from the peat immediately, so that the cutting
of this material can be continued during the whole year. Such a
machine would at once come into use all over Denmark.
Increase in Unemployment-Many New Public Projects.
Toward the end of the year there were about 2,000 laborers out of
work at one time in this town, which has a population of 47,000. The
total number of unemployed for the year was about 13,000, as against
14,000 in 1917. In 1916 there were very few cases of unemployment.
Prospects brightened toward the close of 1918, as a number of the
long-delayed raw stuffs were already on the way from abroad and
factories were beginning to take on their old forces.








DENMARK-ODENSE.


Very substantial relief is afforded those out of employment in Den-
mark. The official estimate of the cost to the town of Odense for the
support of this class from November, 1917, to March, 1919, is given
as $130,000.
The presence of so much unused capital has given rise to many
projects of expansion, both public and private, in spite of the actual
lack of materials and tlh high cost of labor. The various towns are
planning more imposing public buildings, schools,' parks, and road
improvements. A railroad is being seriously considered for the west-
ern part of the island. The port towns are all eager to increase or
improve their harbor facilities. Tlihoe lying toward Schleswig have
been planning for closer connections with the redeenied Danish
Provinces. Odense's canal harbor is to. be considerably deepened.
[See COMMERCE REPORTS for Mar. 19, 1919.] The falling off of trade
has greatly reduced this source of income during the past yeat'. -
The principal expenditures of the city during 1918 were for (1)
coal, (2) pensions to unemployed, and (3) wages to officers, clerks,
and employees, especially extra wages to meet the increased living
expenses. These items have als5 been figured high in estimating the
budget for 1919.
Increase in Wealth Raises Standard of Living.
The increase in general wealth has created a demand for more con-
veniences and better living facilities, and thus has emphasized the
lack of aictutal raw materials. :The telephone company reports an
increase of one-third in the number of telephone subscribers from
the agricultural districts and one-fifth from the towns. A lack of
copper wire greatly hampered the desired expansion, but this need
has been relieved since the beginning of 1919.
The lack of metals in general has been very marked in a district
where there are no mines, and all sources have been tapped. Fine
copper kettles and heirlooms have been melted down. Churches sold
their lead roofs until the Government regulated this speculation by
law in order to stop the dismantlement of these century-old places of
worship.
The pressing-need for house room must also be attributed to the
increase in general wealth and the resulting higher standards of liv-
ing. Farmers and fishermen have moved into better and more ex-
pensive quarters and the same movement has occurred all along the
line.
Although there was more building going on in 1918 than in any
year of the previous decade, in spite of the scarcity of labor and raw
material, the house supply could not keep pace with the demand. In
the town of Odense there were more than 270 new apartments erected
in the year ending August, 1918. but there were still as many as 150
families at one time quartered in barracks. Ten new barracks for
the homeless were erected in the fall of 1918 by one of the building
associations. There are three of these associations which finance
most of the house building here, the city government itself not having
undertaken such projects, as has been the case in many other Danish
towns.
The shortage of house room can not be even partially attributed
to an influx of foreigners, as is the case in Copenhagen. There are
practically no foreigners residing here except a few Polish laborers.







SUPPLEMENT TO COMMERCE REPORTS.


Odense Has Little Direct Foreign Trade.
Trade statistics have not been published since the war began, but
even if they were published for this district. they would give a very
inadequate idea of O(!vcse's foreign commerce. The reason is that
the larger part of both exports and imports come by way of Copen-
hagen. Some imports come by rail from Germany, entering Denmark
on the mainland.
There are 12 ports with customnhouses on the islands forming this
district, but the most important of them, the port of Odense, can ac-
commodate boats of only 2,000 tons dead-weight. As rail connections
make the big lines at Copenhagen easily accessible, these routes are
generally preferred.
Shipments of butter or pork to England, of live cattle and horses
to Germiany, or of garden seed to tlihe United States usually go by
way of (openhagen. There have been no direct shipments to tlhe
United States since the establishment of the consulate here, but ship-
ments of seed have been made through Copenhagen. Smaller ships,
with fertilizers from Germany, iron from Sweden, or oil cakes from
the United States, have come direct to this district. However, dur-
ing the past two years even less than usual has been entered directly
through the ports of Odense. Many wares are again transshipped by
boat. from the capital to Odense, but this water route is so little used
that there is no passenger traffic.
Suggestions to American Business Men.
What is the best manner for an American firm to reach a Dan-
ish provincial district like Odense so that its wares will find a
ready and continued sale and mutual satisfaction will be assured?
Two large American business concerns, a sewing-machine firm and a
shoe firm, have already answered this question. Both of these en-
terprises have had a warehouse with a stock of goods always ready
for delivery in Copenhagen. In addition the shoe firm has had
a provincial depot and the sewing machine a depot in all the larger
provincial cities. Both firms have carried on a successful competi-
tion with German wares when Germany was able to produce a fairly
good article for a smaller price.
A warehouse in Copenhagen, with perhaps a branch in Odense,
from which goods could be delivered without delay after the placing
of the order, would help a large institution obtain a foothold here.
An American of Scandinavian origin would seem the most suitable
agent to be in charge of such a warehouse. In connection with ma-
chines, automobiles, or bicycles, the warehouses must be well sup-
plied with parts. This of course applies only to goods that might
be sold here on a large scale. Among the American manufactures
for which it would seem that the market could be greatly increased
may be mentioned automobiles, agricultural machinery, cycles, cotton
and cotton cloth, dyestuffs, fertilizers, office supplies, shoes, silk, to-
bacco. underwear, and wool and woolen goods.
American wools will find a strong competitor in the English wools.,
which have won considerable favor because of their soft quality.
In shoes and certain other goods it may be said that a higher stand-
ard of living has now increased the chances for an article of better
quality.








DENMAR K--ODENSE. 23

Handbooks for Civil Engineers-Credit System.
Detailed American handbooks for the general use of civil engineers
would be a welcome aid in the introdii.tion of Aiilerie'aln ele -rial
installation materials and other niteclianica:l devices. One engineer
recently stated that, it was impossible to find a Inmlfiblook in Englhish
as thorough as the Geriman handbooks. This u'inginleer sought the
English or American textbook fl4rom pref-ert-i'c, but finally had to
resort to the German. These German textbooks have naturally
favored the use of German materials.
A more liberal credit. systemil would do much to help the Amnrican
commercial cause. A great deal of trade was won by Gernlman mer-
chants because they were such liberal -creditors. Three monthh'
credit or a reduction' of 22 percent for .payment within 30 day. is
the usual, arrangement here. Business' is practically entirely in the
hands of Danes, and the business morale, can be said to be. high. The
time seems opportune for an introduction of Americian gfEods. Old
markets are closed, and the general feeling toward the United States
is friendly. .



:. : ..' '*


WASHINGTON' : GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1919




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
llll 11111 il II 11111I I 2 8 li lllli III ll l
3 1262 08485 2283