The Fats and oils situation

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Material Information

Title:
The Fats and oils situation
Physical Description:
301 v. : ill. ; 26-28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Agricultural Economics
United States -- Agricultural Marketing Service
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture. -- Economic Research Service
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture. -- Economics, Statistics, and Cooperatives Service
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture. -- Economics and Statistics Service
United States -- World Food and Agricultural Outlook and Situation Board
Publisher:
The Bureau
Place of Publication:
Washington
Publication Date:
Frequency:
frequency varies

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Oil industries -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Oils and fats, Edible -- Economic aspects -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Agricultural Economics.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
FOS-1 (Mar. 1937) - FOS-301 (Oct. 1980).
Issuing Body:
Issued by: Agricultural Marketing Service, 1954-Mar. 1961; Economic Research Service, May 1961-<Oct. 1977>; Economics, Statistics, and Cooperatives Service, <May 1978>-July 1980; Economics and Statistics Service, Oct. 1980.
General Note:
"Approved by the World Food and Agricultural Outlook and Situation Board," Oct. 1977-Oct. 1980.
General Note:
Title from caption.
General Note:
Item 21-D.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 000502965
oclc - 01588232
notis - ACS2699
lccn - 46039840 //r82
issn - 0014-8865
sobekcm - AA00005305_00073
Classification:
lcc - HD9490.U5 A33
ddc - 380.1/41385/0973
System ID:
AA00005305:00077

Related Items

Succeeded by:
Fats and oils outlook & situation

Full Text














crueER 1940]


FOS-45


IN THIS ISSUE:
PRICES OF FATS AND OILS: INDEX NUMBERS 194b
MARINE ANIMAL OILS: REVISED DATA, 1912-39


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PRICES O~ EIGHT DOM ESTIC FATS AND On~
UNITED STATES, 1910-40*
INDEX NUMBERS (1910-14=100)


PERCENT


220



180



140



100



60


1910 1915 1920 1925 1930 1935 1940
*BUTTER, LARD, GOTTONSEED OIL. TALLOW (INEDIBLE), LINVSEED OIL. GREASE, OLED OIL. ANVD TALLOW (EDIBLE)


u. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


NEG. 35999 BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS


PRICES OF DOMESTIC FATS AND OILS WERE UNUSUALLY LOW IN
1939 AND 1940, MAINLY BECAUSE OF A RECORD LARGE OUTPUT OF
DOMESTIC FATS AND THE LOSS OF IMPORTANT EXPORT MARKETS. SOME
ADVANCE IN PRICES IS EXPECTED TO TAKE PLACE IN 1941 AS A RE-
SULT OF IMPROVEMENT IN DOMESTIC DEMAND AND REDUCED LARD AND
GREASE OUTPUT.


"c-IE~S '


T UAT ION


BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

gRE D0s












F'ats and oils:
Butter, 92-score, Cf
..(bomargarine, doml. ~
Com~pounds (a~niml an
Lard, prime steau, t
Lard, refined, tubs,
01eo oil, extra, tie
01eosteerirne bble.,
Corn oil, crude, tan
Corn oil, refined, b
Cottonseed 013, emi~
Cottonseed oil, p.s.
Peanut oil, crude, t
Peanut oil, dom. ref
Soyb3ean oil, crlde,
Soybean oil, refined


FOS-46


- 2 -


Table 1.- Price per pound of specified fats and oils, and oil-bearing materials,
November 1938 Cad3 19Z9, andc benltambe3r-Novembebr 1940


: No3vember : 1940
Item
a : 198.8 : 13L9 :Snt3.: Oct.: Nov,
: Cents Cents Cents Cents Centa
hicago ........................: 26.5 z9.0 27,6 29.6 32.4i
Veg,, Chicago .................: 15. 1 15,0O 14~.5 1 14;.5
~d veg. cooking fets), Chicago.: 9.8 9.5 8.8 8.4 8.2
;ierces, Chicago ..............: 7.1 6.1 4.8 4.74.
(cartons) Chiicago 2/ ........: 8.3 7.2 6.5 6.2 6.4
:rces, Chicago ................: 8.7 8.5 7.0 7.0 7.0
I!. Y. ...............,,......: 6.9 7.'J 5.7 2
Iks, f.c.b, mills .............: 645.8 5.2 5.1 'j.3
urs., i;. Y. ..................: 9.6 8.6 7.8 7.7 7.8
re, tanks, f.c.b. S. E. mills .: 6.5 B.6 4.8 4.4 4.6
y., tank cars, N[. 'Y. ........,: 7.4 655.6 5.4 5.7
entsE, f.o.b. mills ...........: 6.6 6.7 5.2 4.5 4.9
'ined, bble., IJ. Y1. ...........: 10.1 10j.6 8.4 8.6 7.5
tank~ cars, midwestern mills ..: 5.0 4.A 4.1. 3.3 4.3
., drum~s, N. Y. ......:.........: 7.'3 8.0 6.3 6.9 7.3


Thrbassu oil, tanks, JT. Y. ...1.................:.
Coconut oil, crude, tanks, f.o.b. Faecific Coast 3/:
Coconut oil, edible, tanks, 1. Y. ..............
Olive oil, ediblle, drums, N. Y. ..................:
OlivTe-oil foots, prime, drums, II. Y. .............:
Paln oil, Hjiger, crude, drums, I:. Y. 32/ ..........:
Palm oil, Siumatra, tulk, 1.. Y. g/ ................:
Rape oil, refined, tbls. 1'. Y. ....-.............. :~
Seseame oil, refined, drLLns, I Y~. ................:
Teaseed oil, crude, drumas, iI. Y. .................:

Tallow, inedible, Chicag~o .......................:
Grease, a white, Chicagj .........................:
Menhaden oil, crude, tanks, f.o.b. Baltim~oret .....:
Sardine oil, crude, taneKS acliic Coast .........:
Whale oil, refined, bleached rYint-r, driuce, 11. 'Y..:


C.1
5.A
7.4
25.1

d.6


10.5
7.5


F.7
6.5


8.7



5.5
8.G

4/1.5


5, .5


F.8
.'s



6.5
B.2
15.0

12.8


3.6


9.5


5.8 5.9
tl.4l 5.5
u.8b 6.8
s8.s 41.3
9.5 10.3
6.5 6.6
5.8 5.0
14.8 15.6

15.6 16.9

3.6 4.3
3.7 4.3
--- 5/ 3.8
--- 5/ 6.1
9.5 9.5


fi.4
4.0
8.2


Linseed oil, raw, tank cars, ;in~necpolis .........: 9.4 7.7 7.5 7.7
Linseed oil, raw, drums, carlots, Ij. Y. ..........: 8.4; 3.9 8.5 8.4 8.7
Per~illa oil, drea~s, i!. `-. ................... .....:17 5.0 &/1-1." 17.6 18.1 18.0
iriticica oil, druns, Pi. YI. .......................: 11.5 2u.6 19.0 19.0 19.0
Tung oil, drums, II. Y. ...........................: 1.rJ 2.`..2 "5.3 88.9 26.9
Castor oil, dehydrated, druims, ca;.10ts, II. i'. ....: --- 1_ 1.6 13.1 13.1
Castor oil, H]o, 3, bbls., :1. 7. ..................: 9,E 11.1 10.8 9.8 9.8
Cod-liver oil, med~.U.S.P. bbls., N[.Y1. (do~l.JEr bb$): 23.5 39.8 73.5 72.5 78.5
11l-bsaring materials:
;opr~a, bags, f.o.b. Facific Coast ...............: 1.8 8.1 1.4 1.4 1.4
Cottonseed, Delles ldol.. per ton) ...............: 87. 2.5 22.2 84.1 2'7 .
Flaxseed, tNo. 1, lirineapolis (pcr bu.) ..........: 1194.0 184.0 148.0 147.0 159.0
peanuts, shelled, Runners !'o. 1, f~o.b. S.E.n7ill.s: 4J.9 5.2 4.9 4.7 4.9
Soybeans, 110. 2 Yel~low, Chicago (per bu.) .......: ?4.0 98.0 81.0 83.0 35.0)
compiled from Oil, Paint a~nd Drug Reporter, Thle I'tional Provisioner haoDil
..rade Bulletin, Ahnneapolis Daily Miarket Hecord, andl rePorts of the Agrhiculc Dral ty
reting Service and lEureau of Labor Statist~ics. Prices quoted include excise taxes
ma duties where applicable. 1/ Prel1imi na ry. 2/ Leginnine July 1940 reported in
1 -.Pund cartons 3 Three-cent processing tax added to price as originally quoted.
/ evised. 5/Tutres





sos 146


-3-


THE] FAT 8 AND 0 I L 8 SI T UA TI 0 N


Summary

Prices of fats anid oils were steady to higher in November, with the

Snewly-constructed index for 27 items advancing 5 points from the previous

month to 68 percent of the 1924-29 average. At this level, the price index

was 1 point higher than in November 1939.

Among domestic fate, only sardine oil and butter were higher priced

in November this year than last. Prices for other domestic fats and oiled

were 10-30 percent below last year's levels, chiefly because of increased

output, reduced export outlets for lard and other animal fats, and the

pressure of large supplies of competing vegetable oils in surplus-producing

countries now cut off from important European markets. Imported oils

readily available for shipment to the United States were lower priced in

November this year than last, but prices of items usually obtained from

Europe and China. were higher.

Except for soybeans, farm prices for domestic oilseeds in mid-November

also were lower than a year earlier. Supplies of cottonseed, peanuts, and

flaxseed for the current marketing: season are estimated to b3 6-53 percent

larger than in the 1939-40 season, with a near-record supply of flaxseed

and a record supply of peanuts. The supply of soybeans, on the other hand,

is smaller this year than last. But exports of soybeans to continental

Europe, which totaled more than 10 million bushels in 1939-40, probably will

be negligible this year; hence, the quantity of soybeans available for

crushing in the current season is likely to equal or exceed that of a year

earlier.







e a


Peanut purchases by grower cooperatives to early December, as re-

ported by the Surplus Marketing Admin~istration, amounted to approximately

40 percent of the 1940 peanut crop. A substantial proportion of the

purchases already has been diverted to crushing mills.

Harvesting of new-crop flaxseed in South America is now under way.

Prospects for exports to the United States and continental Burope are not

promising, and a large surplus is expected. The Grain Board in Argentina

recently was authorized to purchase flaxseed at a stated minimum price, with

purchases presumably to be held for sale at some future date.

December 14, 1940.

R~EVIEWr OF RECENT DEVELOPMENTS

Prices of fats and oils stead- to
higher in November

Prices of nearly all fats and oils remained unchanged, or advanced
moderately, In N~ovember. Pronounced gains occurred in prices of tallow
and greases, which averaged 15-20 percent higher in rlovember than a month
earlier.

Ths average price of prime steam lard at Chicago in November, at 4.74
cents per pound, was slightly higher than in October, but was nearly 25
percent below the average for November 1939.

Prices of other domestic fats and oils, except sardine oil and butter,
were 10-30 percent lower in No~vember this year than last, with peanut oil,
production of which has increased sharply in the past 2 months, showing the
greatest relative decline. Prices of such imported oils as coconut, palm,
babassu, -castor, and oitieica also were lower in November this year than last
On the other hand, prices of oils usually obtained from Europe and China,
including cod-liver, olive, teaseed, and tung, advanced during the past
year. The price of perilla oil also advanced, largely because supplies
of idanch~urian perilla seed have been unusually small.

The price of sardine oil at San Francisco in Nlovember this year was
more than 20O percent higher than in November 1939. The supply of this oil
for immediate delivery during most of the fall was limited as a result of
a delayed start in the sardine fishery. And with reduced supplies of
cod-liver oil available, the demand for other vitamin-containing oiled, in-
cluding sardine oil, largely, for use in the preparation of mixed poultry
feeds, has strengthened considerably in recent months. Butter prices were
aEbout 10 percent higher in November this year than last, chiefly because of
improvement in the domestic demand for food products.







Zlard purchases resumed


-The Sur~plus Ida.r'keting Administration in Novemober- awarded contracts for
4,670,000 pounds of lard and 10,680,00)0 pounds of cottonseed. oil shortening.
In the fiscal year ended June 30, 1940, a total of 130,740,000 pounds of
lard was purchased for distribution to eligible lowK income families. IJo
cottonseed oil was purchased in the 1.940 fiscal year.

.Prices of domestic oilseeds advanced
..in November. but remained below those
of a year earlier

Prices received by farmers for cottonseed, flaxrseed, pynd soybeans
advanced 7-25 per~cenlt from mid-October to mid-Naovember, partly as a result
of the improvement in prices of fats and oils. Peanut prices showed little
change for the month.

Despite the advances, the farm price of cot-tonseed in mid-November,
Sat $23.12 per ton, was about 5 percent below tha~t of mid-N~ovember 1439,
Peanut prices averaged about 5 percent lower thPJZ a year earlier, while
flauseeed pr'i'3e were down about 15- percent. On the other hand, the average
. price received by farmers for soyberans, at 84 c3!nts per bushel, was about
-2 percent higher in mrid-November thris ysear than last.

'iBE~lies of cottonseed, coan~u~te, gd
flaxcseed incre.sedJ sobeans reduced

As indicated in table 2, production and total supplies of cottonseed,
peanuts, and flaxceed for the 1940-191 moarketing year are considerably larger
tharn in 1939-40, with increases in total supplies of 6, 57, and 53 percent
respectively. Because of poor yields, the 1940-41 supply of soybeans is
indicated to be 10 percent smaller than that of a .year earlier.

Despite a larger cotton crop, marketing of cottonseed through
November wo.-e smaller this year than in 1939, AccordinP to reports of the
Bureau of t!oe Census, the quairtity of' cottonseed received at r..ills from
August 1 to October 31 totaled only 2,110,il00 tons compared :-ith 2,552,000
tone a year ago.

Purchases of peanuts by grower cooneratives to carlyr December, as
reported by the Sur-plus Maurketing Afrinistration, amolinted to 638 million
pounds, or about 40 percent of the 1940 crop. Of this quantity, 246 million
pounds had already been diverted to enachnit mills, with the remainder being
held by the cooperatives for future sale to crush~ers or to thie ediblee-
pearnt trade,

Although the total supply of soybean~s is smaller this season than
last, the quantity available for crushing is expected to O~equa or exceed
that of a year earlier. in the 1939-40 markeriting season, 10,949,153 bushels
of soybeans were exported, with 67 percent of the total going to the
Netherlands, and 30 percent to Scandinavian countries. Canada, the United
Kingdom, and other countries took only 3 percent of the total. WiLth most







P08-46


-6 -


of continental Europe now cut off fr~om American trade, it seems likely
that soybean exports in the current marketing year will be negligible.
Only 30,000 bushels of soybeans were exported in October (chiefly to Canada)
compared with exports of 2,526,000 bushels in October 1939.

With the second largest c;oa on record, domestic output of flazeeed
in 1940 was nearly equal to thle LLtoal 1939-40 disappearance, which included
1-2 million bushels used for seed anid 30 million bushels crushed. Crushing
requirements in the current season probably will be greater than in 1939-40r
principally because of the rising trend in paint and varnish consumption
resulting from improvement in industrial and building activity. But with
the large domestic supply, imports of fla::seed will be curtailed materially
in the current season.

Suloplies of flax~seed in Argentina and Urluagua available to the
United States are expected to be exceptionally large, at least for the
remainder of the domestic marketing year. Harvest of the new crop in those
countries is now getting under way, with little immediate prospect for
sales to continental Burope, normally one of the most important outlets
for this commodity. However, the price of Argentine flarcseed apparently
will be held at a relatively stable level, since the Government in Argentina
recently authorized the Grain Board in that country, beginning December 1,
to purchase flaxseed at 9.25 pesos per quintal, delivered at Buenos Aires.
The Grain Board also was authorized to secure the promise from growers not to
increase acreage next year, and, if requested, to reduce acreage not more tha4p
10 percent.







FOSi-46 7

Table 2.- Supply, net trade, and crushings of domestic oilseeds,
United States, 1936-40
(NetJ9 exports are indicated by a minus sign)


Cottonseed 1/


: 22 5,511 5,533 --
: 42 8,426 8,468 --
: 337 5,310 5,647 --
:/ 121 5,260 5,381 --
2/ : 39 5,638 5,677
: Peanuts 3/
: Mil lb. il.. lb. IFil. lb. Mil1. lb.


__


__


Crushings as
percentage
of
production
Percent


:
Crop :]et imports: a
year :Carry-over Production Total supply. or Crushings:
:net exports: a


: 1,000 tons 1,000 tons 1,000 tons 1,000 tons


1,000 tons


4,498
E,326
4,471
4,148


81.6
75.1
84~.2
78.9


Mil. lb. Percent


S4/ 1,253 4/
: T/ 1,224 3/
:41 1,306 ~1,347
S27 1,180 1,206
:75 1,574 1,650
: Soy~beans 5[/


1936
1937
1938
1939
1940



1938
1937
1938
1939
1940


1936
1937
1938
1939


13.2

19.9
6.2


I, 000 bu.

-2
-1,365
-4,398
-l10,947


1,000 bu.

20,6:18
30,3i10
44,648
57,072


Percent

68.8
67.0
71.2
65.3


:
:
:
:
2/ :
:


361
293
340
965
393


29,983
45,272
62,729
87,409
79,198


30,344
45,565
63,069
88,374
79,5[;11
Flaxseed C/


3,331
3,339
2,1'99
2,296


5,273
7,089
8,152
20,330


8,604
10r,428
10,351
22,6~28


26,00 C I
17,861
1 F,744
13,212


5. ;,4'70
r .5,C S9
3 i,0 78


575.4
364.9
313.7
147.9


1940 2/ : 3,911 30,629 34,E40

Compiled as follo;ws:Carr-~o~ver Ct~ton-rsee n s -ns ueu ft ess
peanuts and flaxseed, Agricultursl 1 arke~ing- Service.. Production Agricultural
Marketing Service. FNet trade Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce.
iCrushings Bureau of the Census, except peanults Agricultural i4Prketing Service.
./' Year beginning August. Carry-over consists of mill stocks only. 2/ Preliminary.
Production indicated Decemrber 1 for cottonseed, I'ovember 1 for other items.
3Farmers' stock. Carry-over Septemb~er 1; net imports year beginning Jul~y; crush-
insyear beginning October. /Ptaalbe /Ya einn coe.Cry
:over consists of factory stock~sonly. /YrbeninJl.






FOS-46- -

WJHOLESALE P]RICiS OF FA.T3 A:ID OILS: INDK NJUMIBERS, 19k0

F~rica index numbers given7 in tsbles 3-5 of this report bring to date
the index numrbers prresen~ted in T~c;hnical r~ullrtin Noe. 737, recently issued
by the Djepartme;nt of A:ricullture. I/ The index numbers fall into 3 groups:
(1) A s,ri ~s of i~dePx nUmbers of prices5 of 8 dome'stic fats and oils, begin-
ning: 1910; (2) i7nd:-x nludae~rs of prices of .-:11 fats and oils (27 items),
grouped according to similarity of origin, bleginning 1922; and (3) index
numbers of prices of all f=.ts andl oils, groulped according to similarity of
us,, elso begirnning 19:2.

Thu_ g .ner-l treFnd in: piices of fats andc oils wa~s dowrnwa~rd from January
throgh Agus thi yel. Bt pricess of monst fats advanced during the follow-
ing 3 mo~nths~, nd in N~.ovlember the index. of prices of All fats and oils, at
68 pre.:nL.lt of the. 1924-29 avarage, was 1 mcint higher- than in November 1939.
The index for ni~ntml falts In iNovember was 2 points h:igherZ~ than a yuar earlier
The: -.indx numbeSIrs fo" marines animsl oils 2ndl foreign vegetable oils, however,"
we~re eac~h 1 point lower, wh~ilu. thi. Index. for domestic vagotable oils was 8
points bello ~i-tht of Novem'o,r last :rour.

ED\R'E AI!!A CIL: REIS3 D IDATA, 1912-39

Rilvisold rrodulction nd cornsunc~tion statistics for marirna animal oils
for the- :,?-.rs 19-12-39 are pr sented in t.C.isC report Th: ori,7inal figures
were given in St-:tisticall 11 e~t~in. !!. CS. (/'

In compilir.g thi n-:. s ris;, :-roductior, reporclts of the. Fish and Wild-
lif- Service_ blginning~ 1921 w re use:d. Da~t. ior earli~r years werer not
cha~nged, e-xcept inl thl_ c-asa of wh(-1. oil, fozr lihich a m~o-) comprehensive series
thrin that o~riginaclly. foil~lowed wa~fs obt~:inud lt~h--r' cheque,- beginning with
1921, incluao~ th- addi~tionl cf liv.r oiled osthlr than~ cod aind cod-liver to the
fish-livler-oil group~, and thl i-diti...n of some- minor itains to the fish-oil
group.

Accord~ingr to t~h: revijsli d figuiris, dom;stic: production of eall marine
an~iml cils, iniclud:ingF fish-li'..l r, fiSh, anrd .:12cine mammaln oils, increased
from npprox~imaltel- L3 mnillion poiunt~s in 19312 to =70 million pounds in 1939.
Apparca~t disanner~r~?ancl-, or consulpytion,, duriing thei sama period increased from
abcuit 55 .rilicn tol 370j million pounias. Ilut imports, chie-fly of the liver
oils, also kncreased.

Lap~orts --nd conOnltion of f~is1-iver
oiled eventl" rn-ucrd in 13$60

Dlomestic clnsu.rilptio:; of fish.-liv~ r oils, used m:.i-nlyr in h~uman .nd
poul~tryr nutrition for 'heir vitratin A ?nd~ D content, increased from about 12
million pounds in 1920l to n-:rl;.' 697 -illion ?ounds in 1939. Primafy .

1/ t.'hol~ced Pr~ico~s of' Frate an.: Dils in th.. Unit -d St".tcs: Index Numbers,
1910-39!. C~opiJs of th!is bull tin mayl be obt-ained from th; Superintendent of
Docum.nts, .Iashin-tonl, D. C. Fric 5. crts.
2/ Fats, OilS, nd- 010aginous RI 21lt-ri-ls production, Prices, Trdad, Dis-
ePpulrrance in thl. United St-tus 1912-35 nnd Avarilable Dst7. for Ca.rlier Yen~rs.
Unite-d States Deportmen: t of Ag-riculture-, 17-shington, D. C., 1937.





Fos-46 -9 -

disappearance in 19k0, however, may total about 50 percent loss than in 1939.
Difficulties in obtaining imports of ihe livzr oils from- Europe; have been
chiefly responsible for the sh-rl decline- in consump.ti-n this ye-ar.

Until recently, the relativ31y small production of liv~r oils by United
States fisheries consisted 1:-.rgelyr of cod--liver ?nai cod oils, the latter b~ing
derived from low grade cod: livers anrd being us.d xclusive~ly for industrial
pupoes But production of shark, halibut, ~nd other livar oils has gained
rapidly in iuportance in the~ past few years, and In. 1933 sulch pIroduction ex-
ceeded that of cod and cod-liver oils. Total or>.alction of fish-live~r oils
in 1939, however, amoun~ted only to 5.2 million pounds, w~he-reas impacts of fish-
liver oils amounted to more than 6j6 million rpounds.

Fish-liver oils, in the past, have bee~n imrporte~d m~ainl;. frcoral IHorway.;,
Iceland, German, the Unite~d Kingdor, Newlfoulndland, Cenada, 1.nd- J.pan. Bec-.:usZ
of hostilities in the North Seaz area, imoorts fron Norw?)y, Ge~r.:n,, sad thu~-
United Kingdon virtuallya coaced shortly afiter the- opening of the p~resent w-cr.
Andr surplus productonin;~LI Bri Dtish Emoire- arms w~s re3served 1 .rgely for
British account. Imports of cod Eand cod-liv.:r oils durinJ, th first 'r months
of 1940 totaled less thzn 1, rrilion pounds comparled v~i-h 53 .1111ion pounds in1
the corresponding period of 1939.

Certin of the fish-body oils, particularly sardinel --.n .r-I~.ant..den
contain vitamin D, although not in th.: concentr-.tsa fcr in I?. :".ii.c. tl.s v~itamin
usually occurs in fish live-rs. Fish oils 7re beil?2 usad to ;;n incr;csing
extent to supnloment- fish-liver oils in th- -anufuettur r-: o cmixc: pou~ltr: y feds.

Output of fish oils incr1?7sedC
considerably in cst 20 y asw

The total domnestic outrt of rish raiC ir~r.c-9-sed fron~ about 38 million
pounds in 1920 to~ .1 nmak of 266 :li':110r. pclnd~s in 1936, 'nd 'Imounted to 237
million pounds in 193Ti. Prjoducrtion. i7 194l.: is likely, to total l;ss tha~n in
1939, chiefly because cf ?;i-:r1l yed sart in th; C7.ifcrni7. sardine fish-ry
this faill.

The- greater part of the~ on.1ari-rd 'ishi-01 o:.tput since- -.320 has been
accounted for bj incrensed prod~uction cf s-.rdine-, or pitcha~rd, ci! l on the
West Coasti, paricularly after 1932?. Feuto fhri15olR hw
fairly subtsrtantil increase since 1F0; :-ribi le od .r~tC ._I ;' .15In 3utput of'
salmonn o~il and tuna oil also have roccu.rr.-c. Ms ft fish~ r;nle ~reuc-d
:'n th2is country are used domecstically in th, ECo-P, dl;i~,.i---oils, nd f'ood-
prni: 9t irndustriies in competition r-iti-ch thr frts -adr iils. .Thori has bee3n
a tr.T~ell baillance of exports of fish cils In; tL:~ rast f*l ,DarE.

Domestic whaling activity y nt low lovel in 1960O

Donestic production of whze.1 oil Irom 1911 to 1??5 w-s confined to
operations of shore stations on the '.iost Czomet end in A17sk~.. Dirinl th!e
summer seasons, 1936-3P, a f chory ship ?ccom~Panied bry r~llor boatss operated
in Austrslia~n waters. Anr; during t~he w~intcr seasons,~~ 19?36-37 to 1933743,
another floating, expedition operated in t he Antarctic. Production 7,f wha.10






FOS-L6


- 10 -


oil was increased to 71 million pounds in the calendar year 1937, but fell
to 27 million pounds in ?1939. Noe 10a~ting dvIexpeitions have been undertaken
this .year, w.ith the result that the domestic outpuit of wrhale~ oil has been
further reduced. The principal domestic Fhaling activrity at present centers
about a single shore station in California.

Jhale oil in the United States is used princip~ally in soap manufacture
although in Europe it is widely used~ ir. food products as v;ell as in sono.
Considerable quantities of whale oil hsve been importedl by the Uni~ted States
during the past ?10 ;.ers, mostly from C;orw~ay. E~ut sin-ce 1936~, wheon a 3-cent
excise taxu was levied on im~norts, Imports have tended to decline, and totaled
only 20 million pounds in 1939 compared with a 10-year (1924-33) average of
53 million pounds.






Table 3.- Prices of eight domestic fats and oils, November 1939-
Nfoveriber 1940 (In~dex rarubers: Average for'base period a 100)

: 1939 : 1940c
N*;-ov. :Dec. Jan.: Peb.: ar~~.: Apr.: May: June,':July L_~i: AD *.:Sep. :0ct. : Nov.
Ease peiod: 1410>-14
88 89 91 57 Sk Sk 81 78 79 77 79 82 88
E~;; ase nleriod:12-2
i~. 62 63 65 62 60 59 50" 56 56 155 56 58 62

Table 4.- Prices of all fats 3lad oils and of fats and oils grouped
according to origin, N~ovemrber 1939g-rovember 1940
(Indez numbers: 1921-29 s 100)
Year :: All fats :: Animial : Marine : Vegetable oils~5
i'..and month :: _cndoils :: fats :animal oils :Lmsi oeg

Nov*. :67 64 87 67 92
.Dec. :68 64 86 70 91

jan. :69 6;5 91 71 93
Feb. : 67 62 90 70 91
Mar. 65 60 e9 70 90
Aplr. : G 59 89 71 89
.aaa : 62 57 90 67 cs
SJune 61 56 90 64 s7
July : 61 57 sp8 62 58
Aug. : 60 56 87 gs 85
Sept. :61 57 86 gr 86
Oct. 63 60 86 53 6s
NTov. : 6 66 86 59 91


Table 5-- Prices of fats an~d oils ,IroupedJ according~ to use,
Nro-ember l'1'19-Boymoor~ 1940
( Index nunt ers: 1924-29 = 100j)
:o utter ::Fe od fat s:::
Year ::::other :Soap : DryJing :!icl
and :UCnadjust-:Adjustetd : Lard :th~an but-: fatS : oils : laneous
month : ed : f : ter and : :: oils
: : : : Inrd :::

Nov. :67 62 46 69 72 95 95
Dec. 67 61 48 70 71 99 93

Jan. :70 69 4669 To 10l3 102
Feb. : 66 64 47 69 65 1 102
Mar. : 4 Gk2 45 67 65 1 100
Ibpr. : 62 65 4y 67 65 102 100
Mag 60 66 43 65 62 93 101
June 60 65 42 63 50 5 101
Juily :60 65 44 64 59 91 98
Aug. :~ 62 64 38 61 52: s7 92
Sept. 63 62 37 62 56 SG91
... Oct. :67 65 35 62 57 s6 86
No. 4 68 36 65 62 86 4
AAQusted for typical seasonal variation,
iii;";"--""










______ ~_


FOS-46


.. 12 -


Table 6.- Marine animal oils, crude: Production, trade, stocks
December 31, and arpparent disappearance, 1912-39


:Pro-
:duction,
Calendar : .
year :and


: Import s *
: for *
:consum-?tims


Apparent
dis-
rp~pearan ce


Stocks' *
Dec. 31 l :


Epo rt s


imports


:Alaskca ::::
:1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000
c : pounds youn~ds pounds rounds


1,000
pounds




--- 5
60--





48,151
60,5310


147,551
148,311
142,150
190,563

2157,092

184,4450


245,150


1,000
po0unds

54.568

48,882

68,261
70.935
49,693
48,212

98,736
121,444
145,576
135,864
175,533
165,684
190,848
2r37,817
222,775
182,474
216,872
190,o66
221,919
227,167
320,24)
370,422
3881756
305.500
369,611


43,236

27,819

351742

24,466
37.271
0,E576
r60,0~79
80r,784
s7,159
70,097
101;1,3
37,647
3;2,639
92,071
116,170
111, 90
64,7115
9,2~22
1j3 ,910
22 I,-58
,240,498
301,2?0
270,2C)
26;5, o6
270,104


1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1911

1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928

1930
1931
19~32
1933
1936

1937
1938
1939 ]j


20,707
17,321
22,80)
20,220
533578
39,85e
29,697
19,092
16,989


56,369


9-3,166
125,011
139,226
127,1?1
1L43,605

95 s71

78.592
43,CO c~
122,748
84',775
37,491


9,375
b8,905
1,i40
1,210
1,059

4,;;70
3,551
3.292
S51
5,738

1-72


582
1,120
1,079
1,598

5,E49



2,154

2,279


11,312
8,415
2'1,46)
19,010
32.519
38,902
25,227
10,941
13,697
22,746
45,554
67.797

92,337
132,738
124,129
138,106
126,112
142,ool
93,1-59
90,122
5j,082
75,316
91,653
120,799
62,098
85,212


Marine animal1. oils include


fi sh-liver


oils, fish


oils, and marine


mammal oils. For sources see following tables.


Includes, reexports of cod and cod-liv~er oils, 1914-21.
2/ Eclud~es stocks of wrhale anrd sperm-w-hale oil in bonded warehouses,
1926-36; such stocks not reported since 1936.
3/Preliminary.








908-46


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FOS-16





-15 -


Table 8.-Fish oils, crude: Production, trade, stocks Deceaber 31,
an~d apparent diLsanpearancee 1912-39
(Net exrporcts are indicated by e minuxs sign)


:Projduc-::
,Calender: tion, a Imports ::
year :United : for con- : Exports :
:States and: sumpntion ::


imports : Stocks
cr : Dec. 31
nlet :


Apparent

pearance

1,000 lb.

30.~582

20,577

37,157
35,391
2j,070
13,C,15
32,911
70, 70




75,'490
9;,274
135,270
109j,4403
76,488
119,335
q2,21)
127,7532
151,372
231,775
269 ,149
249,838
16c,632


: AlaskLa:
: 1 003_1b. 102


1130g lb.


-5,316
-k,be~o
1,467
1,756
13,152
12,336

-4,076


-2,2-'h

5,5ae
14,57'4
39,221

37,386



.4,144
-2,,os

-706


1 300 lb .
---




--- 5






530.53

37,832 7

310,43



14?,1 -
ir7, 3o


4,059

2,031
2,637
14,106
12,930
13 ,2;3
4,066

1,278
2,414
5,376
5,633
5,196
15,3 33
39,913
40,749

31,030


5,;T2
2,2.;0
ESS
1,2;7
1,243
528
960


1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939


35,898

19,110

24,005
23,355
14,098
22,591
38,378
55,730
63,300
74,729
59,949
90,930
71,759
68,956
79,061
102,678
99,277
64,o23
85,372
129,013
215,982
227,996
266,382
19E,064
202,479
237,324


9,375
8,906
1,164
941
954
894
4,251
8,142
3,212

4,h93
750

614


282
1,120


1,4;77

5,364

2,154
1,9&9
2,677 I


Compiled as follows:
Production-
1912, 1914, 1916-18, Supolement to U~nited States Decartment of Agri-
culture Bulletin No. 769.
1319 and 1320, Bureau of thle Census, Animal and V'erstable Fats and Oils.
1921-39, from reports of the Fish and Wildlife Serv~ice (Buirea~ of
Fisheries for years prior to 1933): Canned Fishery Products and
Byproducts of the Uni'Yed States an~'d Alaskae, and Mdanufa~ctured Fishery
Products of the United States and Alaska. Reported in gallons;
converted to pounds using 7,74 pounds per gallon for Atlantic and
Gulf Coasts and 7.50 for Pacific Coast.
Continued -


708-46







FOS-46 16 .

Table g.-Fish oils, crude: Produ~ction, trade, stocks December 31,
and apparent disapvearance, 1912-J9 Continued


Imoreg rd-mots, 1912-17, Qucrterl;- Report of Imported Sderchandise Entered for .
Consumption in the Unitsd SAtates and Dutijes Col~lected Thereon; 1918-J9,.
Foreign Commerce and laieig;ation of tile UnitcJ States.
EXports, 1C12-17, D~ehe?bepr ises of Monrh~ly Sur~mmr of Foreign Commmerc
of the United States; 1'315E-j9, Foreign Commerce and ~a~vigation of the
United States.
Reported in gallons: converted to pounds using 7.5 pounds per gallon.
Stocks Bureau of th;e Cenous, Animal_ and VegSetable Fa~ts and Oile. Data
not. available for yeare prior to 1919. Incl-udes fish-liver oils
other than cod and cod-liver.
Apoar~ent disappearance connuted from data, on production, trade and stocks.

1/ Preliminary.




































I _


2- 17 -

'Table 9.- Production of specified f'ish oils, crude basis,
United States and Alaskra, 1921-39



darAlewife*:Herring:Mlackerel :Menhaden:Pilcard ~p)Salm~on- TLna ,1aeolla-j~ Total

: 1,000 1,000~ 1,00 C 00 1,030 1,00 1,000 1,000 1,000
il nds pounds i3oundy pounds pgungn s plr. Iour~ds po~unds coun~ds pc unds

.91 --- 853 --- 48,456 1,282 536 --- 4,603 55,730
1122 : --- 3,384 54,975 3,216 195 646 926 63,340
1923 : -- 7, 103 --- 57,751 7,20 ?9 34 1,703 74,729
494 : --- 9,962 -- 33,371 17,=40 1,272 26 538 59,91*9
1925 : -- 18341 -- 6,619 23,400 1,62i L3L 152 i0,930
1924 --- 23,613 30,517 15, 848 1,hbo1 186; SL66 71, 759
;'1927: --- 17,249 -- 30,62r' 18,e53 1,541 247 L32 68,956
'.928 : -- 20,621 -- 27,752 28,693 1,287 171 537 79,061
19e9 149 26,366 235 26,557 l,8,206; 2,103 L36 626 102,678S
1930 : 261 27,755 21,730 43,524 1,755 126 856 99,277
1931 : 137 16 ,8 r0 --- 1 5 33 2 9, 3731 1,E2 12 22 64i,023
1932 : 175 19,016 -- 31' l6,L67 1,155 213 131 85,372
.1933 : 239 23,823 62" 25,885 s6,97? 1,407 --- 51 1293,013
1934 :1033 2E:,306 1,182 27,960 15.6,339 1,518 --- 576 215,982
1935 : b6 28,?39 2,00l5 31,1;72 16,11 ,1 57 5L7 227,996
1936 :51 28, L89' 1,43,0 37,~778 15,99 1o9 1,2.16. 259! 266,342
S1937 : 96 42,186 606 30,152 117!,569 1,=54 1 I6i5 756 196 ,064,
1'3988 = JA5 34,360 649322 11,? 1,24 1,64 667 202,479
1939 2/* 10? 36,37;5 832 L/j, Le 1L9,973 21/1,365 1,598 62 237,324


Compiled from re orts of' the Fi~s:1 and l'.ild-life Se:.vi--e bureaul of Fsisneries for years
prior to 1939): Canned Fishery Produ~lcts and. Byproducts of the Unrited ~StrlteS an
Agaska, and MLanufactured Fischery Prod~uct~s of Lthe United~ Stat~e andS Alscia. Reported
in gallons; convertedl to pounds usinij 7.76IL pounds~ per gallon: :'or !-.~tienti and Gulf
Coasts and 7.50 for Pacific Coast,.
1/ Includes blackfish, grayfishl, rosefish!, .i.c!eral, sllek< t-en:er~, t.ulrtle, and
miscelilaneous fish oils.9
2/ Fre'liminary.
37 Includes a co~nsiderable quanti-:; of Lsal.mon oil espeially; S prepared for hulman
consumzption.





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Table 11.-Seal oil: Production, imports, and apparent
disappearance, 1912-39 I

: Production, a Imports :
Apparent
Calendar year :United States a for:
disapoJearance
:and Alaska :_ consumption
: _1000 lb. 1 000 lb. 1 000 lb.

1912 : --- 2 2
1913 : --- _877 877
1914 : --- 3,995 3,995
1315 : --- 1?8 198
1916 : --- 6,473 6,4?3
1917 : --- 1,897 1,897
1918 : --- 4,694 4,694
1919 : --- 173 173
1920 : --- 38 g8
1921 : --- ),030 3,080
1922 : --- 2,713 2,713
1923 : --- 3,806 3,8o6
1924 : --- ),6j0 3,630
1925 : --- ',737 2,737
1920 : --- 4,881 4,881
1927 : --- 4,719 4,719
1925 : --- 1,40 1,4
1929 : --- 4,731 4,731
1930 : --- 3.352 3,;52
1931 : --- 599 599
1932 : --- 453 453
1933 : --- 7?5 795
1934 : --- 257 257
1935:----- -
1936 :178 182
1937 : 220 93 313
19j8 : 2 2/ 224
1939 1/ : 210 210

Compiled as follows:
Production, from reports of the Fish an~d wildlifee Service (Bureau of
Fisheries for years prior to 1939): Canned cishery Products and
Byproducts of the United States and Alaska, and, L'anufactured
Fishery Products of the United States and Alaska.
Imports-
1912-17, Quarterly Reports of Imoorted 1.:erchandise Entered for Con-
sumption in the United States and Duties Collected Thereon.
1918-39, Foreign Commerce an~d I:avigation of the United States.
Production and imports reported in gallons; converted to pounds using
7.5 pounds per gallon.
Apparent disappearance computed from data on production and imoorts.

If Stocks or exports, if any, are not recorded.
2/ Lees than 500 pounds.
3/1 Preliminary.





:October :
S1939 1939


1940 1/
Auig. Sept. Oct.


1,122 1,2k0
283 282
313 426
98 95
--- 18

1,81t, 2,061

3,275 9,956
5,697 7,605
140 153
--- 1
1 ---
--- ---

13,913 17,715


Cottonseed oil ......: 10,380
Soybean oil .........: 3,938
Peanut oil ..........: 215
Corn oil ............: --
Cottonseed stearine .: --
Soybean stearine ....: 11
Total, domestic
vegetable .......: 1L, 5~4


_ __ I _


1,6~26 1,473

17,355 21,269


Coconut oil .........: P,420 2.16?
Babassu oil .........: 638 988
Figh-kernel oil .....: 75 --
Total, foreign:
vegetable .......: 3,133 3,15;
Total, fats and:
oils ............: 25,2?? 17,060


7065-46 21 -

Table 12.- 01eomargarine: Prod~uction and materials used in
manufacture, United States, October 1938 and 1939,
Augu~st October 19lc0


1,0j00
pounds


Item


:1,000
ERS11 3


119
30,97;2


1,000
Pounds


1,000
pounds

215
29,945


1,000
poBrE d

150
23,635


Product ion: :
Colored ............:
Uncolored ...........:


183
21,481


211
26,328


Total 2/ .........: 3101 2,8 1666 26,542 30,156


1,159
347
427
107
20

2 060

11,827
8,661,
185
19
1


20,696


L


Materials used::
01eo oil ............:
Oleostearine ....:
Lard, neutral .......:
01eo stock ..........:
Monostearine ........:


1,0i2r
344
110
122


620
236
s88
71


Total, animal ....: 1,602 1,015


8,689
5,982
197
22


15,390


1,664
138


1-602

2k 358

5,545

1,222


1,180
Gko


1,142


Milk .......
Salt and other:
miscellaneous ......:


6,2r7


4,53-4

1,110


4,179

938


5,118

1,112


Compiled from Internal Revenue records and Inter-nal Revenue Bulletin.

SPreliminary.
STotal of unrounded numbers.




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

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