The Fats and oils situation

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Material Information

Title:
The Fats and oils situation
Physical Description:
301 v. : ill. ; 26-28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Agricultural Economics
United States -- Agricultural Marketing Service
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture. -- Economic Research Service
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture. -- Economics, Statistics, and Cooperatives Service
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture. -- Economics and Statistics Service
United States -- World Food and Agricultural Outlook and Situation Board
Publisher:
The Bureau
Place of Publication:
Washington
Publication Date:
Frequency:
frequency varies

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Oil industries -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Oils and fats, Edible -- Economic aspects -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Agricultural Economics.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
FOS-1 (Mar. 1937) - FOS-301 (Oct. 1980).
Issuing Body:
Issued by: Agricultural Marketing Service, 1954-Mar. 1961; Economic Research Service, May 1961-<Oct. 1977>; Economics, Statistics, and Cooperatives Service, <May 1978>-July 1980; Economics and Statistics Service, Oct. 1980.
General Note:
"Approved by the World Food and Agricultural Outlook and Situation Board," Oct. 1977-Oct. 1980.
General Note:
Title from caption.
General Note:
Item 21-D.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 000502965
oclc - 01588232
notis - ACS2699
lccn - 46039840 //r82
issn - 0014-8865
sobekcm - AA00005305_00073
Classification:
lcc - HD9490.U5 A33
ddc - 380.1/41385/0973
System ID:
AA00005305:00076

Related Items

Succeeded by:
Fats and oils outlook & situation

Full Text














FOS-42


usT 1940


JN THIS ISSUE:-
UTILIZATION OF FATS IN THE SOAP INDUSTRY.
INEDrBLE TALLOW AND GREASES: REVISIDNS
.F DATA, 1912-39


DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED FATS AND OILS USED IN THE
MA N UFACTU RE O F SOA P, U N IT ED S TAT ES, B IE NN IA L
1912-16 AND 1917-19.ANNUAL 1921-39


.. ,


POUNDS
MILLIONSS )


1.600



1.200




800 -!)


400




1912 1914 1917 1919 1921
BESIC DATA 1912-50. US T ARIFF C
U.S.DEPARTMENTDFAGRICULTURE


1924 1927 1930 1933 1936 1939
MISSION : BEGINNING 1931. BiRrEAU OF THE CENSUS

NEG 36529 BUAEAU OF IAGICULTURAL ECONOMICS


:OHM


FATS AND OILS USED IN SOAP ACCOUNTED FOR NEARLY ONE-FIFTH OF THE
TOTAL UTILIZATION OF FATS IN THE UNITED STATES IN 1939. DURING THE PAST
10 YEARS. FATS AND OILS OF FOREIGN ORIGIN HAVE DECLINED IN IMPORTANCE AS
S'OAP MATdRIALS, LARGELY llECAUSE OF DUTIES AND TAXES' LEVIED ON IMPORTS AND
PROCESSING... *HE IMPORtTED-'ILAURIC-ACID'I OILS (COCONUT, PALM-KERNEL, AND .
BABASSU), HilliEVER, CONTINUE TO MAKE UP 20 To 22 PERcrur or THE TOTAL FATS
USED.IN SOAP, CHIEFLY BECAUSE OF THEIR UNIQUE QUICK--LATHERING PROPERTIES.


I THE~-dr- -. STUATION


BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

.Aucr






Table 1.- Price poer pound of specified fats and oils, and oil-bearing
mat erials, Julyr 19) nd 19)}, and May-July 1940
: ul : 194
Its : ~1938: 1939:U~az :June :Jly1


FOS-42


-2 -


Fats and oils: :Cents
Butter, 92-score, Chicago ........................: 25.4
01eomargarine, dom. veg., Chicago ................: 16.2
Compounds (aninal and vegn.cookinG fat~s),Chicago ..: 10.3
La~rd., prime stee~n, tierces, Chicago ..............: 8.9
Lard, refined, tubs, Chicag~o .....................: 9.7
01eo oil, e::tra, tierces, Chicago ............... 9.2
01eostearine, bbls., H. Y. .......................: 7.4
Corn oil, crude, tanks, f.o.b. mills ..,..........? 7.7
Corn oil, refined, bbls., N. Y. ..................: 9.9
Cottonseed oil, cr-ude, ta k~s, f.o.b. S. E. mills..: 7.3
Cottonseed oil, p.s.y., tank cars, B. Y. .........: 8.6
Peerait oil, crude, tanks, f.o.b. mills ....,.......: 7.5
Peanut oil, dom. refined, bbls., N. Y. ...........: 10.2
Soybean oil, crude, tank cars, nidurestern mills ..: 5.9
Soybean oil, refined, drums, B. Y. ...............: 6.5


Cent s Cants
23.2 2W6DE
14.5 15.0
8.8 9.5
5-7 5.6
6.6 6.4
7.2 7.0
5.7 6.0
5.3 5.9
8.6 s.5
5.0 5.7
6.1 6.4
5.2 T.9
8.9 c1.2
4.3 5*3
7.2 6.0


Cents
W2. j
15.0
9.2
5.5
6.2
7.0

5.5
9.4
5.1

5.7
8.9
4.7
7.3

5.9
5.5
7.0


7.5
5.5
15.0

12.5

3.8

4.7
5.4
9.5


15,o
9.2
5.8

710

5.4:

5.t
6.0
5.8
8.9
4.7
7.1


5.5
7.5
30.7
9.0
7.4
5.4
15.0
16.0
12.5

3.8
4.7
5.0
9.5


Babassa oil, tlcaks, UJ. Y. ........................: 6.5 6.0
Coconut oil, crude, tilks,f.o.b. P-ciiic Coast 3/.: 6.1 5.7
Coconut oil, edible, tanks, 3. Y. ................: S.2 7.$
Olive oil, edible, drums, N. Y. ..................: 25.1 25-1
01ive-oil foots, prime, drums, N. Y. .............: 8.0 6.9
Palm oil, Niler, crude, drums, IU. Y. 1/ ..........: 7.0 6.7
Palm oil, Sumatra, bulk, N. Y. 1/ ................: 6.0 5.7
Rlap e oil, refin ed, bbl~s., U'. Y. .................. :k)CL4108
Sesame oil, refined, drums, N. Ts. .......,.........: 10.4 9.2
Teaseed oil, crude, drums, N. Y. .................: 8.0 9.5


G.1
5.8
7.0
25.9
s.5
7.5
5.5
14.5
16.0
12.5

4.2
4.2
4.6
5.6
9.5


4.4
4.5

3.6
4/G.0


Tallow, inedible, Chicago ........................:
Grease, A white, Chicago ...................*****:
M~enhaden oil, crude, tanks, f.o.b. Ba~ltinore .....:
Sardine oil, crude, tanks, Pacific Coast .,.......:
Whale oil, refined, bleached winter, drumis,N. Y. .5


5.3
5.5
3.7
4.2
c.9


Linseed oil, ran, tank cars, Hiinneapolis .,........: 8.2 6.4 10.0 9. 3 8.7
Linseed oil, ro.vw, c;rlots, bbls., d~rums, Nr. Y. ...: 8.7 9.1 10.5 10.0 9.3
P~erilla oil, i:ru;;s, U:. Y. ........,................ ;10. 5~191.1 1- --- 1B.8
Oiticica oil, :Trums, N. Y. .......................: 10.4 15o17.5 17.5 18.0
Tunmg oil, Gun~s, iT. Y. ...........................: 1?.0 21.9 24.8 24.0 25.6
Pastor oil, dehyd~rated, drums, corlots. E* Y. ,....: --- 17.0 16.7 15.7
Castor oil, lio. 3, bble., N. Y. ..................: 9.2 8.2 12.8 12.8 12.2
Cod-liver oil,med. U.S.P.bbls.,B.Y. (dol.per bbl.).: 26.5 20.5 60,0 66. 2 67. 5
Oil-bea.rinf: ra~tlericls:
Co~pra, bacs, f.o.b. Pacific Coast .....,........... 2.0 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.
Cottonseed, Dallas (dol. per ton) .........,.......: 23.9 18.2 25.6 22.0 20.8
F1arseed, FTo. 1, ilinneapolis (per bu.) ...........:183.0 157.0 197.0 170".o 158.0
Peanuts, shelled,Srunners No.1, f.o.b. S.Enills **: 5. 2 5.0 5.2 4.8 *4.7
Soybeans,lHo. 2 YellonChicago (per bu.) ....,......: 92.0 90.0 100.0 81082.0
Compiled from Oil, Paint L7nd D~rug" Repor~ter, The Nationtal Provisioner, C1hicago Daily
Trade Bulletin, i.:inneapolis Daily hIo.rket R2ecord, nd reports of the Agricultural
MarketinZ Service Pnd Bu~reau of Labor Statistics. Prices quoted include excise
taxes and duties ?-here app3licable. I Preliminary. 2/Series discontinued.
11 T-cent trocessing tzx added to price as originally quoted. k/ Revised.






FOS-42


- 3-


THE FATS ANID ILS SITUATI 0 N


Summary

Prices of most fatal and oils showed little change in July, although

flaxseed and cottonseed prices declined as, new-orop marketing got under way.

But prices generally, with the exception of tallow and greases, were equal to

or higher than the relatively low prices that prevailed in July 1939.

A large surplus of flaxseed is available in the Wrestern Hemisphere. The

domestic flaxseed crop this year is indicated to be 44 percent larger than in

1939 and the largest since 1924. Export prospects for Argentina, which normal-

ly ships large quantities of flaxseed to the Un~ited States and Europe, are

dist inctly unf favorable. Gowrever, the demand for flaxseed products in the

United States has shown considerable strenFth in recent months, and flaxseed

prices were about the same in July this year as last.

Domestic cottonseed production for thie 1940-41 season is indicated to be

lightly smaller than that for 1939-40, and considerably below average The

price of cottonseed at Dallas in July averaged m~ore than $2.50 per ton higher

than a year earlier. A record peanut crop is in prospect. If weather condi-

tions continue favorable, a much larger quantity of peanuts is likely to be

available for crushing in the new season than in the 1939-40 marketing year.

Factory production of fats and oils was 11 percent larger in the first

6 months of 1940 than a year earlier, and apparently wJas the largest for the

first half on record. Increased output of lard, tallow, greases, and soybean

oil accounted for Inost of the increase in production. Imports of fats and oils

for the first half of 1940 were smaller, while exports were larger, than a year

earlier. Stochas of fats and oils on June 30' were unusually large.






- 4-


FOS-42


Improvement in industrial. activity in the United States in 1940-41, re-

sulting in part from increased defense expenditures, will be a factor te4aaicg.

to strengthen the demand and prices for datestic fats and oils. On the othop

hand, large supplies of most fats are available in the United States and oth1FC~I

primary producing countries. And prices are not likely to show any major

unless continental European markets are reopened to world trade.

REVIEW~ OF RECENT DEVE~LOPNENIITS

Prices of fats and oils show
little change from June

Prices of most; fats and oils underwent little charge from June to JuJPl.'
Lard, cottonseed oil, coconut oil, tung oil, and oiticion oil wrere moderately
higher; while linseed oil, sardine oil, castor oil, and oleostearine were 10mBa~

Except for inedible tallow and greases, prices of domestic fatal and oil~
in July were equal to or slightly higher than in July 1939. Butter prices
showed the most pronounced gain over a year earlier, with an increase of abomb-
14 percent.

Nearly all imported fats were higher in July this year than last, wi'6h
fish-liver oils showing a gain of more than 200 percent. Sesamne oil was up 74
percent, perilla oil 69 percent, while increases for other items ranged from 201
to 50 percent. Prices of babassu, coconut, and palm oils, however, were li~ttlei
changed from a year earlier. Supplies of these oils in primary producing
countries are plentiful and r~eadily available to the United States. Shipments
of most of the other imported items, on the other hand, have been greatly
impeded by wrars in Europe and China, and byr low~ yields for perilla seed in
Manchuria in 1939.

Plaxseed and cottonseed prices decline
as new-crop marketing begin

The average price of No. 1 flaxseed at Vinneapolis, at $1.58 per bushel~~,
wnas 20 cents lower in July than in June, but was about the same as in July 3IB$$)
Flaxseed prices reached a peakr of $b2.18 in January this year. Since then hthey1
have declined, partly because of the prospective large increase in the dame~tSb
crop, and partly because of the unfavorable export outlook for Argentine flati
seed.

The Price of cottonseed at D~allas, which in January averaged slightly
over $930 per ton, averaged slightly less than $21 in July. But ait this level,
cottonseed was more than $2.50 higher than a year earlier,






FOS -42


- 5-


Prices of soybeans and peanuts showed little change from June to July,
but prices for both commodities in July were somewhat lower than a year earlier.
Present indications point to an increased output for these oormodities this
year, although weather conditions during the next 2 months will have ant im-
portant influence on the final outeame for these crops.

Indicated production of cottonseed slightly smaller
than last year and beloi--w Average; record~~ peanut crop in prospect

Production of cottonseed in the 1940141 season, as indicated by the
Angust 1 official forecast for this year's cotton orop, may total about
5,087,000 tons, which would be 3 percent less than in 1939-40 and 16 percent
below the average for the preceding 10 years.

The reduced output of cottonseed, together with a generally improved
dtonestic demand situation, will be strengthening factors for prices of cotton-
seed and cottonseed products in the 1940-41 marketing season. The influence
of these factors on prices, however, may be offset in part at least by in-
oreased domestic production of soybeans and peanuts, and by the continued
restriction of export markets for oileeeds, oils, and oil cake in Europe.

The condition of the soybean crop on August 1 was reported to be below
that of a year earlier, bub wa~s above the 10j-year average for that date. WAith
a larger acreage, soybean production is likely to be somewhat greater this year
than las~t.

A record peanut erop is in prospect for the current year. If growers'
reported intentions as to the acreage to be harvested are borne out, and if
weather conditions continue to be favorable, the quantity of peanuts picked
and threshed is expected to total somewhere in the neighborhood of 1,522
million pounds, 29 percent more than the 1,180 million pounds picked and
threshed in 1939. WJith a crop of this size, a considerably larger quantity of
peanuts would be available for crushing in the 1940-41 marketing season than
in 1939-40.

Factory output of fats and oils up
sharply in first 6 months implorts reduced

Factory production of fats and oils during the first 6 months of 1940
totaled approximately 4,157,000,000 pounds, on? the basis of recent reports of
the Burea~u of the Census and the Agricultural MFarketing Service. At this
level, production was 11 percent greater than in the first 6 months of 1939,
and probably was the largest for the period on record. Production from do-
nestic materials amounted to about 3,726,000,000 pounds, 12 percent greater
than a year earlier and 90 percent of the factory total.

The most pronounced gains in output -- for the domestic items -- oc-
curred in lard, 217 million pounds; inedible tallow and grease, 188 million
pounds; linseed oil (from domestic flaxseed), 67 million pounds; and soybean
oil, 51 million pounds. Partly offsetting these gains w~ere reductions in out-
put of cottonseed oil, 56 million pounds; peanut oil, 39 million pounds; and







FOS -42


- 6-


fish oils, 15 million pounds Gains and losses for other item were cmauge '
tively amal1. Although the production of linseed oil from domestic flazaead~?
showed a marked increase, the tobal output of that oil was only about 15
million pounds greater than a year earlier, with a marked decrease occurrthgi~
in the use of imported flaxseed.

As was to be expected in view of the marked expansion in domestic ow
put, imports of fate and oils were considerably smaller in the firrb lu~i'' 'lt o
1940 than a year earlier. Such imports totaled 459 million pounds, which lai
95 million pounds (17 percent) less than in the first half of 1989. Imrparts
of oil-bearing materials, however, totaling 456 million pounds in terms .ot"Q
were 42 million pounds (10 percent) larger than a year earlier. SigniffaicatW
increases in imports occurred in copra, tung oil, castor beans, and: whale QA~
whereas significant decreases occurred in flazaeed, palm oil, flah-liver oth)
cottonseed oil, perilla oil, and coconut oil.

In contrast to the trend in imports, exports of fats and oiled inr~th
first half of 1940, including re-exports of items imported free of tax or d
totaled 215 million pounds, which was considerably larger than the total farE
the corresponding period a year earlier. Exports of oil-bearing mat~eriala,
amounb~i:4g to 25 million pounds in terms of oil, also wnere larger than a year!
earlier. liajor increases in exports occurred in soybeans and soybean oil, -
coconut oil (mostly processed), palm oil, and cottonseed oil. Exports of IMB
and oleo oil were reduced, reflecting the loss of continental European m~arknd2i
and restrictions on imports by the United Kingdom. '

Stocks of fats and oils
at hi h levels

Factory and warehouse stocks of fate and oils on June 50 totaled aboub
2,567 million pounds compared with 2,459 million pounds a year earlier and
2,274 million pounds 2 years earlier. Most of the increase in stocks during
the past year occurred in lard, inedible tallow, and greases. Stocks of
cottonseed oil, butter, peanut oil, and coconut oil showed fairly sharp re-
duct ions.

UTILIZATION OF FATS IN TH'E SOAP INDUSTRY I

Consumption of fasi soap a
record level in 1959 ;

Approximately 1,810 million pounds of fate and oiled were used in h
mnaufactur~e of soap in the United States in 1939. This quantity was B ere
larger than a year earlier, and was the largest on records it exceeded the
previous peak in 1929 by 7 percent, and was more than double the quantity useiii~
in 1914. Consumption of fats in soap in 1939 accounted for nearly 20 percent
of the total domestic utilization of fatal for all purposes.

The sharpest advance in soap manufacture during the past 30 years oo-
curred in the period 1921-29, with thes quantity of.fate used increasing from
991 million pounds in 1921 to 1,689 million pounds in 1929. During thatpei






FOS-42


- 7-


fats and oils of foreign or-;in ia gned rapidly in importance as soap materials,
writh the proportion represented byv imported items increasing front 27 percent of
the total fats used in soap in 1921 to 45 percent in 1929. Since 19329, the
imported items have declined in importance as soap materials; in 1939 imported
fats accounted for only 31 percent o" the total used in soap. Relatively low
prices for domestic fats in the early 193i0's, the impos;.tioni of excise taxes
on the imports or processing of many foreign oils beginnings; in 1934, and in-
creased production and low prices for domestic fats during the past 2 years
have been the factors chiefly responsible for the decline in the proportion of
imported fats used in soap,

"Lauric-acid" oils acco~unt 'or nearly
one-fourth of thle total fats in soap

Despite the fact that imported fats as a whole have declined in impo0rt-
ance as soap m~aterials, the "lauric-acid" oils -- coconut, palm-kxernel, and
babassu -- have continued to make up 22-24 percent of the total fats and oils
in soap. The relative decline in th:e use of" foreign fats since 1929 has oc-
curred chiefly in palm oil and imported fish oils, for which~ domestic tallow
and fish oils have been substituted to a considerable extent.

Coconut, palm-!rernel, and babassu oils possess similar properties, and
way be used inrterchangeablyr for most purposes. Their chief value in the United
States is to impart quick-lathering properties and hardness to soap, although
they are also used for food purposes. The quick-lathering characteristics of
these oils is due to the high proportion of short-chain-carbon acids, chiefly
leario and m~yristic, which they contain. Similar acids are not found in do-
rnestic fats and oils that are otherwise suitable for soan. A number of other
tropical palms, such as the cohune found in Southern !!exico and Central America,
yield nuts containing quick-lathering oils, but those oils are not at present
available in large quantities.

Babassu oil in 1939 virtually replaced palm-kernel oil in soap. Babassu
oil is obtained f'rom the nut of the babassu tree found in groat profusion in
the tropical jungles of Ifortheastern B7razil. Only a fraction of the innonse
resources represented byj this tree has as yet been exploited, largely because
of inadequate transportation facilities, and because of capital and labor
shortages. The competition offered by low~-cost plantation copra in the
Philippines and the East Indies also hlas been a deterrent factor.

Although the "lauric-acid" oils are important in the manufacture of
high-quality soap~s, they do not bulk so large as th-e domestic fats which they
complement. Inedible tallow and greases, whale and fish oils, and vegetable-
oil foots made up more than two-thirds of the total fats in soap in 1939. In-
edible tallow alone accounted for 43 percent of the total.

Over 3 billion pounds of soap produced
annually in th;e UnJ~ited S~tates

No complete series of soap-production figures is available. According
to the Biennial Census of Mfanufactures, however, the quantity of soap mad







FOS-42 8-.

products containing soap produced in the United States in recent years ha~s ..
totaled wrell over 3 billion pounds annually, with a value at the plant of 200O
300 million dollars.. (Table 5.) Mlost of the soap produced in the Ulnkithd i
States is domestically consumed, writh not exports usually represenrtinig le~e i
than 1 percent of production. -

Glycerine, used for a great many industrial purposes, in explosives,
and in.food products, is an important byproduct of soap manufacture. Prodi- al
tion of crude glycerine (80 percent basis) increased from 64 million pounds
in 1921 to a record level of 184 million pounds in 1939. The United Stato.,
ordinarily imports somes glycerine in addition to that domestically produdbed~:
but in recent months glycerine has been .on an export basis. G-lycerin~e rrlUg be./i
obtained from sources other than fats, for example, by fermentation of sugar a
or by synthesis from petroleum products. Ordinarily, however, the soap fatal i
provide the cheapest source of supply. Eitroglycerilne today is not widely '
used in smokreles~s gunpowder as was the case in the wrar of 1914-18, since .r
nitrocellulose and other explosive agents have been found to be better su~ited~i
to this purpose. Although the demand for glycerine has been relatively stronp~
during the Past 2 years, world supplies have been plentiful and the price of
glycerine has been maintained at a relatively lowm level.

Consumption of soap affected by
business cyale and population trend

Judging from changes that have taken place in the quantity of fatal andli
oils used in the manufacture of soap, it is apparent that soap production and i
consumption during the past 30 years have varied with the business cycle, and'
have increased so~mew~hat more rapidly than population growth. If the past
tendencies are continued, some further increase in the consumption of soap.ne~
be expected in the next few years as industrial activity expands and the
population continues to grow. But the increase in soap consumption may be
temporarily reduced in subsequent years with say repetition of the downward
swing in the business cycle.

THEDIBLE TAZLLOWJ AFD GREAISES: REVISION~ OF P~RODIUCTION
AND DISAPP~EiARANCE ESTIFA~TES, 1912-39

Revised estimates of production and disappearance of inedible tallow
and greases in the United States for the years 1919-39, and revised pr~odnotio~
estimates for 1912, 1914, and 1916-18 are published herewith. The revised
estimates and those previously published by the Department of Agriculture are~
based on the same primary data, namely, factory production, consumption, and '
stocks as reported by manufacturers and dealers to the Bureau of the Coneus
data on foreign trade compiled by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Comnerceii
and for years prior to 1919 production data collected by the United Stehe~,
Food Administration 2/'. The methods far computing apparent total prodnotion l'
andcosumtinhowrever, have been changed considerably. ;

1/Animal and VegetableT Fats and Oils. Annual bulletin.
2/ Supplement to Bulletin N~o. 76911The Production and Conservation of Fata
Oils in the United States. United States Department of Agriculture, 1919.






FOS-42


- 9-


In making tre orieinlal estimna~e~s fo- the years from 1919 to 1939, it was
assumed that the rFcyorted fa~Cto.iry pre:ncILtion of treases represented total pro-
duction of Crenases, .nld -..ho-t; +.:e remarjed a*,Coiry consuryTltiL~on of inedible
tallo~rrrepr:.-nl-,? ce too~-.' r.J: .:-.r';c:io oJ. sue~ tallcl. iro -.1.*~.0:.nce was made for
produch~on in tTe.11, 10pl re,.l..:5n pnt in; .* abich are ne h co~vessed by the
Balreau o f the Ge'ntev, at "I-r p..:oduction on1 far'ms and 1.ra.r?3s. or wa~s allowr-
ance made for those ?ur~ntities of greases reported b~y producers as greases and
by consumrers as inedible tallow-.

The combined factory consumption of inedible tallow and greases (ex-
cludingE wool S;ease) averaged about 53 million pounds more annually during the
period 1919-09 than the combined factory production, after allow-ing for imports,
expo;-ts, a!4 changes in stocks each year. It seems probable that th~e total
factory~ conlsumption as reported is approximately correct, although the reported
consumption of inedible tallowr apparently is too large, and the reported con-
sumption of groases apparently is too small, for the reason indicated above.

The revised production estimates beginning l1919 are based primarily on
the combined factory consumption figures, Exports and increases in factory
and warehouse stocks (if any) urere added each year to the combined factory con-
sumption, while imports and rod~uetions in stocks (if any) were deducted, to
obtain the production figures. N~o separation between~ tallow and grease pro-
duction w~as made, since there is n~o reliable basis for estimating how much of
the unreported production is tallow and her. much is grease. The basic data are
shown in table 7, together Aith the revised produrction estimates.

For years prior to 1919, revised production estimates for inedible
tallowr were made by deducting from the all-tallow figures reported in Supple-
ment to Bulletin 769 production estimates for edi~ble tallowr previously made b
the Department of Agric~l-ture and published in E'atistical Bulletin N~o. 593/
For greases, revised production estimates wyere ma~de by deducting; from the bodne,
garbage, wool-and-recovered, and miscellaneous rrreases, as reported in Supple-
ment to Bulletin 769, the production estimates previously made for w~ool grease
EEtatistical Bulletin H!o. 59).

Comparison of revised and urnrevised data

The revised production estimates (on the combined basis) are shown in
table 8 in comparison w'-th the original estimates made by the Departmenrt of
Agriculture, and with factory production and consumption as reported by the
Bureau of thle Census. The revised estimates are nearly 62 million pounds lowr-
er, on the average, than the original estimates of th~is Department, but are
approximately 53 million pounds higher, on the average, than the reported
factory production figures. The differences are due mainly to two factors:

3/ ;Fa;its, O~;~ilsan 01ainous j Ra Ha~tor ials Pr oduct ion, Fr ices, Trade,
Disappearance in the United States 1912-35, and Available Data for Earlier
Years. 1937.






FOS-42


- 10 -


(1) The original estimates of the Department of Agriculture wore too high, be~;'
ing based primarily on the reported factory production of greases and on theg
reported factory consumpqtionn of inedible tallowr, the latter of which appareak;
ly includes a considerable quantity of greases. (2) The reported factory
production for both inedible tallow and greases apparently is too low, since
small, local rendering plants, as vrell as farms and ranches producing tallow
and greases for commercial disposition, are not canvassed bry the Bureau of th~ r
Census. r
SIF
For 1922 and 1935 the revised production estimates as first calculated.
were lower rather than higher than the reported factory production, in co-ntra
diction to whaat is believed to be the fact. An examination of the data r~eved~i;i
ed that thle reported factory and warehouse stocks of inedible tallow and 'B
greases for Djecember 31, 1922 were unusually low, while those for Decemiber 31E:J
1934 were unusually high. The large year-end stocks reported for 1934 are hbe
lived to reflect the abnormal imports of inedible tallow in 1935. A~pparentti
some of these imports were on order- in late 1934, and were reported by im-
porters as stocks on hand. No adequate explanation of the low level of years
end stocks reported for 1922 is available. However, the stocks figures for
1922 w~ere adjusted upward by 2rl million pounds, while those for 1934 were ad-
justed downward by 20 million pounds. These more-or-less arbitrary adjust-
nents had the effect of increasing the calculated production figures for 1922
and 1935 by 20 million pounds, and of decreasing those for 1923 and 1934 by .
corresponding amounts.













Year .


1912 :
1914 :
1917 :
1919 :
1921 :
1922 :
1923 :
1924 :
1925 :
1926 :
1927 :
1928 :
1929 :
1930 :
1931 :
1932 :
1933 :
1934 :
1935 :
1936 :
1937 :
1958 :
1939 :


FOS-42


- 11 -


Table 2.- Estimated quantity of domestic and imported fats used in
soap, and percentage imported fats are of the
total, United States, 1912-39


:Imorted as per-
Domrestic If Imported 2/ Total 3/ :centage of total
Fillon ouns fllin pund Il1ion pounds Percent -'


741
819
1,059
1,202
938
991
1,119
1,196
1,321
1,415
1,486
1,626
1,635
1,689
1,560
1,542
1,527
1,456
1,615
1,504
1,578
1,659
1,677
1,810


19.7
20.5
22,8
32.2
34.0
27.4
30.2
38.3
32.6
39.9
38.9
39.0
42.0
45.3
41.9
44.0
39.6
40.4
34.9
27.3
30.0
35.1
30.4
31.4


595
651
818
814
619
718
782
737
891
851
908
992
949
924
907
863
923
869
1,052
1,092
1,103
1,076
1,168
1,240


146
168
241
387
319
272
338
458
450
564
578
634
686
765
653
678
605
588
563
411
474
582
509
569


Compiled as follows:
1912-30, United States Tariff Comm~ission. Report Iio. 41, pp. 127, 130-32.
1931-39, Bureau of the Census, Animal and Vegetable Fats and Oils, except
cottonseed oil foots and other foots, wh~ichl are estimates of the Bureau
of Agr-icultural Economics.
2./ Includes all tallow, greases, stearine, lard, 01eo oil, neatsfoot oil, red
oil, cottonseed and other foots, cottonseed oil, corn oil, peanut oil, and,
beginning 1930, soybean oil; also proportionate part of whfale and fish oils
represented by domestio~production of those oils, and one-half the linseed oil,
other" oils, and miscellaneous soap stock used in soap.
2/ Includes all babassu oil, coconut oil, palm-kernel oil, palm oil, olive
oil, castor oil, rape oil, sesame oil, sunflower oil, vegetable tallow, and,
prior to 1930, soybean oil; also proportionate part of whale and fish oils
represented by imports of those oils, and one-half the linseed oil, "other"
oils, and miscellaneous soap stock used in soap.
/ Total of unrounded numbers.


























252,241
111,514
14,308
378,063


342,982
29,498
8,289
380,769


1,000

785.10t 4
166i4d:8

100,8$I
102,1 '
42


I


i -u ---


I_


_I_


Soft oils:.
Cottonseed oil foots and:
other foots 2/ r........: 191,000 183,000 183,000 208,000 156,000
Olive oil, foots and:
inedible ..............: 33,197 25,599 18,874 16,312 20,507 -
Soybean oil ............: 2,549 5,023 10,274 10,897 11,177
Cottonseed oil .........: 1,857 1,278 8,414 2,883 1,061
Corn oil ...............: 2,828 2,527 2,392 2,514 4,441
Castor oil .............: 1,056 1,623 2,123 1,810 946
Linseed oil ............: 1,196 1,482 1,359 1,455 1,780
Peanut oil .............: 754 1,734 820 545 805
Sesame oil .............: 749 1,869 2,944 302 14
01eo oil ...............: 93 57 74 119 87
Rape oil ...............: 8,001 7,771 981 55 2:
Olive oil edible **.....: 33 53 21 31 56.
Neatsfaoot oil ..........: 33 41 16 20 11
Perilla oil ............: 16 8 2 --- 1
Tung oil ............... 2 -- ---
Sunflower oil ..........: 103 -------
Other 3/ ...............: 4,6 ,28 1,82 1,01 73
Total ...............: 248,227 236,335 242,106 258,974 204,280''"

Rosin 4/ .....~..1.........: 1935 1856 136,410 1,6 1,0
Total saconifiable:
materials ..........: 1,643,065 1,726,074 1,785,166 1,793,999 1,927,211 T

Compiled as follows: Fats and o~-i~ls, Bureau of--c the ons~us~, An~iAni and Vegetab~le
Fats and Oils; Rosin, P~aval Stores Tesearch Division, Eureau of Agricultural
Chemistry and Engineering, Ulni~ted Sta~tes Departmenrt of Agriculture.
Includes wYhale, herring, sardine, menhaden, and other fish oils.
Estimated.
Reported as "other vegetable oils".
ar lcdi h aedrya nPhcmsThe rosin season extends from April of one year through P~arch of the next yeak*

5/ Preliminary.


FOS-42


- 12 -


Table 3.- Soap: Fats, oils, and rosin used in
manufacture, United States, 1935-39


item 1935 1936 .
Hard oils (tallowv class): : 1,000 lb. 1,000 lb. 1
Slow lathering -
Tallow, inedible .......: 663,002 660,020
Whale and fish oils 1/ .: 138,410 16;.,647
Grease .................: 98,086 98,714
Palm oil ...............: 87,311 78,453
Tallow, edible .........: 1,431 228
01eostearine ...........: 338 320
Lard ..............,.....: 1 9
Total ...............: 988,579 998,391 1,
Quick lathering -:
Coconut oil ............: 229,711 307,376
Palm-kernel oil ........: 37,173 26,443
Babassu oil ............: --- 8,993
Total ...............: 266,884 -342,812


1937 1958 .
,000 lb. 1,000 lb.

613,509 702,267
189,009 145,954
94,247 .96,356
141,358 91,642
143 332
321 240


388,93
5,:$$ '
57,65
450,248




























19.1
1.6
.5
21.2


20.2
.2
2.0
22.4


80ft oiled :
Cottonseed oil
foots and other:
foots ..........:
Olive oil, foot :
and inedible ...5
Soybean oil .......:
Cottonseed oil ....:
Other .............:
Total .........:


g.1 8.0 11.6 10.6


6.2


3.0


13.6


10211.6


g.1 9.2


2-5
.2
.1
1.1
13.0


2.0
.)


1.8
.1
.2
1.2
11.3


1.5
.3
.1
1.4
13.9


.9

.2
1.3
14.6


2.1
.3
.4
1.1
13.0


2.0
.2
.1
1.1
15.0


1.1

.5
1.0
13.4


Total fats and
oils .......: 93.4


92.8 92.1 91.7 91.9


91.5 91.4 92.4 95.5 95.9


Rosin ..............: 6.6


8.5 8.6 7.6 6.5 6.1


7.2


7.9 8.3 : 8r.1


Total saponi- I
fiable


!100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0


If Lesa them .05 percent.


Table 1C.-Soa~p: Fata, oila, and rosin as percentage of total saponrifiable
materials used in manufacture, United States, 1930-39


Item :1930 ':1931 :1932 :1933 1l934 :1935 :1936 :1937 ,1938 :1939

: Pot. Pot. Pot. Pet. Pot. Pet. Pet. Pet. Pet. Pot.


I


__


L


__~__


I


1935-39, based on data in table J; earlier years given in The Fats and Oils
Situation, August 1937.


materials .


F08-42


- 13 -


Hard oils (tallowa ?
class):
61ow lathering- :
Tallow, inedible : 26.5
Whale and fish:


31533.1 32.o 37.7 40.4 38.2 34239.1 40.7


oils .........:
Grease ..........s
Palm oil ........:
Other ...........:
Total ........-=

Quick la~thering-
Cocounrt oil .....:
Palm-kernel oil .:
Babassu oil .....:
Total .........:


6.8
14.6
11.5
.4
3-4.


18.2
1.8

20.0


7.6
7.8
10.6

5.)


20.5
1.7

22.2


6.1
7.9
11.8
5.2



20.3
.4

20.7


5.6
8.1
8.8
.1
60.JL


19.4
.9

20.)


8.4
6.o
5.3
.1
60.2


5.9
8.7
10.1
.2
5s.o


9.3
5.7
4.5
1/
57.J7


17.8
1.5
.5
19.8


10.5

.3
57.9



14.1
6.2
.8
21.1


8.1
5.re
5.1
1/
57-7


14.0
2.3


21.3
.2
---
21.5








Table 5.-Quantity and value of the varione kinda of soap produced to
the soap industry, United States, 1935 and 193J7
r 1~5 i -137- ~"11
Item a uantity V alue Quantity Value

:: 1,.000 lb. 1.000 dol. 1L,000 lb. 1.O000 4201,
Bar acap *
Toilet soap ........: 352,976 53,325 360,611 62,805
Lenndry soap-
White ...................: 420,524 19,938 488 980 28,192
Yellow ..................s 713,541 31,403 633 441 33,196
Granulated, powdered, and
sprayed soap ............. 503,118 45,284 743,195 .68,409
Soap chip and flakes .......: 458,935 36.329 390,455 38,005
WAashing powders .............: 219,048 7,746 232,411 9,104
Cleansera and scouring
powders containing soap 1/s 233,587 7,688 178,346 7,172
Bar cleansers containling soaps 9,883 472 5,447 411.

Stick, powder, and cake ...: 2 6,600 2,274 2/ j,5,4k g/ ,oo
Cream .....................: 2/8,19g0 6,944 g/11,650 2 ,8
Liquid soap ...,.............: g/ 29,300 1,973 / ,50 2/3.150
Textile soaps ................ 70,052 5,350 60,7os 5,358
Hand paste .................: 14,174 792 16,931 1,062
Soop atock for sale ,........ 3,665 270 4,522 347
Other soap ..................: 2/ 56,550 4,022 g/ 64,860 5,578

Total 2/ ............: ),100,14f 223.810 3,235,647 274 ,359
Biennial Census of Manufactures, 1937, Part I.
1/ Does not include production in the Cleaning and Polishing Preparations
industry.
2/ Partly eatima~ted.

Table 6.-Glycerin, crude, 80 percent basis: Production in
the United States, 1919-39

Year Production :: Year Production
: 1,000 lb. :: a 1,000 lb.
1919 i 61,9 ::
1920 5468 :: 1930 :138,675
1921 63,947 :: 1931 : 140,002
1922 : 85,337 :: 1932 : 133,919
1923 :99,579 :: 1933 :119,812
1924 95,154 :: 1934 : 153 ,115
1925 103,407 :: 1935 : 14,185
1926 116,369 :: 1936 : 154,096
1927 i 128,209 :: 1937 : 16,039
1928 a130, 99 :: 1938 a12 120
1929 :140,080 :: 1939 : 184 476

Compiled from Bureau of the Consus, Animal and Vegetable Fata and 011a.


F08-42


- 14 -








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FOS-42


- 16 -


Table 8.- Inedible tallow and greases (excluding wool grease): Total
apparent production, factory production, and total disappearance,
United States, 1912, 1914, 1916-39

: ~Total::
Calendar : apparent production : Factory : Total disappearance
year : Original Revised : production : Factory: Original
:estimates 1/: eatinates : : consumption:estimates 1/
: ~ ~ El Mi.l.I1 b. E$1. lb. Ilil lb. N11. 15.

1912 : 412 358 2/ 2/ 2



1916 : 536 479 2 /2
1917 : 445 456 2
1918 : 537 529 }2
1919 : 547 5485 7
1920 : 666 640 603 510
1921 : 749 676 662 574
1922 :820 745 736 707 806
1923 : 881 820 786 730 776
1924 : 916 848 780 758 829
1925 : 826 805 733 715 739
1926 : 883 848 775 735 773
1927 : 930 856 776 781 859
1928 : 871 796 768 765 842
1929 : 922 845 815 736 816
1930 : 930 868 811 741 808
1931 : 951 885 857 773 844
1932 : 921 847 796 788 862
1933 : 965 933 897 767 802
1934 : 1,088 1,000 935 952 1,022
1935 : 700 667 653 914 972
1936 : 916 817 792 925 1,025
1937 : 928 855 741 886 961
1938 : 1,084 929 839 942 1,099
1939 3/ : 1,292 1,127 973 1,079 1,246

Factory production and consumption compiled from reports of the Bureau of the
Census.

.; Recovered grease not included until 1937. Series is too high because of
duplication in greases resulting from basing estimates on factory production
of greases and, factory consumption of inedible tallow, which apparently
includes sonm grease.
NTot reported.
Preliminary.








Ta~ble 9.- 01eonargarine: ProdLuction and naterials used in nonuufacture,
United St,-tes, June 1938 ~an 1939, April-June 1940


: Jun e *1940 1/
Itom : 1938; : 1939 : Ap.: ;iay : June
: 1 000 1b.1 000 lb. 1 000 lb. 1 0CO lb. 1 000 lb,


121 80 177 1;1 202
2G,025 21. 046 27,23,1 2, 1".,570
28,166r 21,126; 27.408; 24,675 1=. 852


~


~


, ,


Patlu oil .................: --
Total, foreign
ve etenble ............: 0,147

Total, fats an~d oils ..: 22,G8)

bMilkr ....................,: 5,292
Salt Lnd~i other:
miscell~-!eous ...........: 1,2j0


J ,- ,


Comp~i~led. ron Internal ?evenue r-co-ds and Internal Reveinue Builletin.

Preliminary.
Total of un~rounljed numbers.


TOS-42


- 17 -


.


Productionn:
Colored ..................:
Uncolored ........
Totc! 2/ ..............:

ICat eria~ls used: :
01eo oil .................:
01eostearine .............:
Larf., neutral ............:
01eo stool: ...............:
Beef fat .................:
01eostearinre oil .........:
Total, aninal .........:


1,205

120



2.015


1,235
714





119




13


933
;10

91








133


900
236
423
70





4,463
137
10
1


1,009
260
85
114
15



6,708
5. 70
167
21


Cottonseei oil ...........:
Soyboma~ oil ..............:
Peunut oil ...............:
Corn oil .................:
Soybean stearine .........:
Cottonseed steerine ......:
To~trlr .eo-1etic :
vegetable ............:

Coconut oil ..............:
Banbessu oil ..............:
PanL-lernel oil ..........:


S,502
2,629

4



12 521


12 366 15 474 18 377 12 000


71'c33
1+54
260


2,129


1,106


3,00"1
937
---

---~


2,4'7
962 l
---

__.4Lc


1,575
6c3

---~


17.086


21.801 19.786 15.595


4,112

959


5,2344

1,2j4


3.11i


1,071


s7e




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


3 1262 08905 1238