The Fats and oils situation

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Material Information

Title:
The Fats and oils situation
Physical Description:
301 v. : ill. ; 26-28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Agricultural Economics
United States -- Agricultural Marketing Service
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture. -- Economic Research Service
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture. -- Economics, Statistics, and Cooperatives Service
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture. -- Economics and Statistics Service
United States -- World Food and Agricultural Outlook and Situation Board
Publisher:
The Bureau
Place of Publication:
Washington
Publication Date:
Frequency:
frequency varies

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Oil industries -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Oils and fats, Edible -- Economic aspects -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Agricultural Economics.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
FOS-1 (Mar. 1937) - FOS-301 (Oct. 1980).
Issuing Body:
Issued by: Agricultural Marketing Service, 1954-Mar. 1961; Economic Research Service, May 1961-<Oct. 1977>; Economics, Statistics, and Cooperatives Service, <May 1978>-July 1980; Economics and Statistics Service, Oct. 1980.
General Note:
"Approved by the World Food and Agricultural Outlook and Situation Board," Oct. 1977-Oct. 1980.
General Note:
Title from caption.
General Note:
Item 21-D.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 000502965
oclc - 01588232
notis - ACS2699
lccn - 46039840 //r82
issn - 0014-8865
sobekcm - AA00005305_00073
Classification:
lcc - HD9490.U5 A33
ddc - 380.1/41385/0973
System ID:
AA00005305:00075

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Succeeded by:
Fats and oils outlook & situation

Full Text
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UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL EconoutCa

MAnow 15, 1940



T HE F AT S A ND 0 I LS SIT LA Te




:JN THIS ISSUE: U.-gPO\TR

:RECENT TRENDS IN PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION:
: ~OF OLEOMARGARINE.


QUANTITY OF SPECIFIED FATS AND OILS USED IN THE MANUFACTURE
OF OLEOMARGARINE, UNITED STATES. 1922-39
POUNDS I.I
(YuLuLons) -Vegetable oils, foreign Vegetable oils.
200 o e i --- -

150 Animal fals _.
and oils -



50




150 Cottonseed oil


100 --- I ---- --

50 Soybean oil V


1922 1924 1926 1928 1930 1932


1934 1936 1938 1940


U.5i. EPARTMENT OF AGRICI.LTURE


rrEG j8069 BUREAU OF PGRlICULTURAL ECONOMICS


UNTIL 1925, ANIMAL FATS AND OILS WERE THE PRINCIPAL INGRE-
DIENTS OF OLEOMARGARINE. As r RESULT OF TECHNICAL DEVELOPMENTS,
IT HAS BEEN POSSIBLE IN MORE RECENT YEARS TO SUBSTITUE LESS EX-
PENSIVE VEGETABLE OILS FOR ANIMAL FATS AND OILS. FROM 1925 To
1936, THE USE OF COCONUT OIL WAS PREDOMINANT. SINCE 1936, cor-
TONSEED OIL AND SOYBEAN OIL HAVE ASSUMED A LEADING POSITION. A
FEDERAL EXCISE TAX OF 3 CENTS PER POUND ON THE FIRST DOMESTIC
PROCESSING OF COCONUT OIL, IMPOSED IN 1934, AND EXCISE TAXES
LEVIED BY SEVERAL STATES DURING THE PAST FEW YEARS ON OLEOMAR-
ARINE CONTAINING IMPORTED OILS HAVE SEEN AMONC THE FACTORS CAUS-
INC THE SHIFT FROM COCONUT TO COTTONSEED AND SOYBEAN OILS.


FOS-37











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aso-37 -3 -

THE FATS AND 0 LS SITUATIn N


Summary

Prices 'in Febrruary of nearly all fats, oils, and domestic oilseeds,

with the exception of lard and 01eo oil, were higher than a year earlier,

although little change occurred in prices from January to February this

yelr.

Increased consumer income, higher rates on neean shipments for im-

ported materials, and difficulties in securing supplies of certain foreign

oils were among the factors responsible for the increased prices of most

fats and oils in February this year compared with last. Lowrer lard prices

resulted chiefly from increased production And from weakness in the exp~ort

demand for edible fats.

The higher prices of d meetic oilseeds in February this year than

last may be attributed to several factors. Among these were the relatively

high prices for oilseed cake and meal, the moderately to sharply hig-her

prices of cottonseed, peanut, soybeanr, and linseed oils, and reduced supplies

of cottonseed and peanu~ts.

Production of oalmomargarinle'inI the Urnited Statss in 1939 waes the sma'll-

est since 1934. Production last yealr totaled 301 million pounds, 22 percent

less than in 1933. Relatively large supplies anrd low prices of butter were

among the factors resprnsible for the sharp decrease. Consumption of marga-

rine totaled 2.j pounds per capital in 1939 ccmpared with j.0 pounds a year

earlier.

Since 193), cottonseed oil and soybean oil have largely displaced

reconut oil in the manufacture of margarine. The percentagEe of cottonseed

oil of the total fats used in margarine increased from 9 percent in 1933 to






-


FOS-37


41 in 1939, and that of soybean oil from less than 1 percent to 29, Coco-

nut oil contributed 75 percent of the total fats in 1933, but made up only

16 percent of the total in 1939. New technological developments, a Federal

excise tax on coconut oil, State taxes on the sale of margarine containing

imported oils, and relatively large supplies and lew prices of domestic

edible oils hatve been the factors principally responsible for this shift

from coconut oil to cottonseed and soybean oils.

RIEVIEW OP RECENT DEVELrMENT'iS

Prices of molcst fats continue hiPh2E than
yeer earlier

Onl-r mod~erats changes occurred in fats and oils prices from January
to Februiaryl this year. Butter, 01eostearine, and coconut oil declined about
5 percent in rice in Febm19ary Perilla oil and dehydrated castor oil prices,
on the nt~her hiand, ware somewhat higher than~ a month earlier. The decline in
burtter Irices in February was largely seasonal.

Ccnmpared with a year earlier, prices of most fats and oils in February
were higher. Lard and 0190 oil prices, however, nere moderately lower, and
prices of tallow, greases, 01eostmarine, and corn oil were about the same as
in Feb rua~ry, 193j

iThe price of co~ttonseed oil was about 5 percent higher in February
this year than~r last. Prices of n~eanut oil and soybean oil were up~ about 10
Percent, butter 15 percent, and linseed, menhaden, and sardine oils 20 percent.

Gains in prices of impolrtnd nils )ver those of a year earlier ranged
from 3 4 percent for jo.zbassu and encron-ut oils to more than 100 percent for
cod oil and oiticica rmil. Prices of palm, rap~e, ~an sesame oils in February
were abou 20 --Percen~t hiS1her than a 3-ear earlier, castor and teaseed oils 40)
percent higher, and pesrilla and1 tungr crils 75 85 percent h~iger.

Increased. industrial activity and consumer incomes, higher rates on
canCtT shipments for imported materials, and difficulties in securing supplics
nf certain foreign~ oils :;ere the factors largely responsible for the price
gains in Feb1Fruay this year compared w~ith last. The lorler level of lard
prices rested chiefly frorm the marked increase in domestic lard production,
toZeth~er with weakess In the export derlzand for edible fats.

Prices of s22byer~s and flaxsped. rdeclin= in Febmanry
but rconfirtue khighgr thaln in 12

The a~verr!g price of No. 2 Yellow soybeans at C~hicago in February, at
$1.06 per bulshol, wvas 10j c nts lowe-r than in January, but was nearly JO per-
cenrt hiher cthan in February 1939g. No. 1 flax~seed at M~inneapolis, at $2.14





Fos-37


per bushel, also was lower than a months earlier but was about 11 percent
higher than a year earlier.

Prices of cottonseed and peanuts showed little change from Januazry
to February. The farm price of cottonseed in mid-Fetm-ary was about $26.65
per ton, apyproximatelyr 18 percent higher than in mid-February 1939. The
farm price of peanuts in mid-Februa~ry was ',.6 cents per pound., 6j percent
higher than a year earlier.

A number of factors were resrponsible for the higher prices of oil-
seeds in Petl~~C~ru: r thlis year than last. Amocng these were the relcativelyr high
prices for oilseed co.ke and meal, and the modierate~l to sharply h-ighler prices
of cottonseed, peanut, soybean~, and linseed oils. Reduced supplies of cotton~-
seed and peanuts this season comparl;ed with last also tended to support prices
of these oilseeds.

RE~CE1JT TRSiND II: PRODUCTIOTTJ AND CONSUMdPTIOIT
O7F OL2E3,ldARGA;RT ITT 1/

01eonar;ar~rineprouto an~~12 ,d consumti
Oreduced in 1939

Production of oleomarg-rine in the Uhited Sta~tes in 1?39 totaled about
jLI1 million pounds compared withi 385 million Founds in 193j, and 397 million
pounds in 19j7. Relatively large s~upplies and low prices of ut~Uter ;Iere
amocng the factors re~sponsible for the sha p decrease in margar:.;.F production
in 139. he average wholesale nr~ice of 92-score butter at Chi o in 1939,
at 25.4~ cents per po~und, was about 42 pe-rcent below the 1924-L9 =-erage and
was the? lowsjt since 1934.

D~urin~g the pa~st 50: Yearsl three major Ipeaks h~ave occurred in the pro-
incticn of" magarinp In the years 1913-20, 1929, and 1337. Production in
1937 PPxceededz thait of 1Ci29 by about 40I million pounds, rznd thazt of 1919 and
15120 by about 28 million pounds. Or. a per' capital basis, however, production
from 1918 to 1920 was larger th-an in 1977.

Imp~ort-,, Exports, and changes in stocks of margarine usually, ar~e small,
and consumption tends to follow production closely, Con~ump~tion totaled 3.1
pounds per ccapita in 1937 Pcompa~~red nith; j.4 pounds in 1920. In 1439, con-
sumption totaled about 2.j pounds per cap.itai, the smallest since 193j4.

Production of oleom?.rrgrine confined to a few States

All but~ 2 percent of the 01eomargarine manufactured In this co~untry
bring the yecar beginning.P July 193t was Orodulced in 10 States. Llore ta

1./ Data presented in thisc rePort bring to date minch of the material previous-
ly published in the mineagraphed bulletin, "o1eromargarine: Statistics of
Production, Ma~7terials Usadi ir. t-nufartujr e Consumptio~n, Trad~e, and Prices",
Bureau of Agriculltura~l Economics, jAishinrgton, 1936;. Some adldition~al material
was presented in ''The Fats and rOils Situa~tion" olf December li, 193S. CIopies
of these pu~blications mayS be cbtaired oln request from the Divisionn of Ecnonoic
Information, Fulretu of Agricultural EconormicS, Washington, D. C.





- 6-


OS-17


o~ne-fou~rthl of thle total was mnanuf.?ctured in Illinoi s. Ohlir accountt ed for
19 percent Iof the.r total, Czlifor~ni 17 percent, and Indiana 12! percent.
Other irrrortlrnt ::roducing Stat~es, in order of volume, were Kansas, New
Jersey, iHichiGran, arylanrd, i-ist-ouri, and Tex~ras.

Durin,- t:?o cst T years, theC relative importance of Illinois rand New
Jerrser zas rro~ucincg States~ has declined,whil.e that of: Indciana, Ohlio, IMichigan,
Kansas. ?ynd T-._::c h~lS incres-~ed.

170 rl~ronaction has been re~nor~ted for liassachlusetts anld N~etracsk since
19j7, for p~rhode~ Is~rnl. since 1935r, or for Colora~do since ly??j. On! the other
handl, eml~nl quan:titiies of margarine v.'ere prod~uCES foT the first time in Al.?r
ba~a in 1'7.7 ?nd in !!0~rth C2rolirna andl Georgia, in 1938E. (Table 4.)

Wife Variation in consumption1 by Startes

P::,-eFt _'Or Calif~orn~i., no ?.-tz are ava~ila~ble as to the~ consumptiono of
01eomareT-:1ine by- Stlates. 2/ Thle Bureau~ of Internal Revenuea, :o::cver, reports
t~he nurlber of r?taril. dlelers licensed toJ sell 0100m~~rgarilne each yons, a-d
from those figulrs an~d St.-.te population estimtats it is rpossible to obt:Lin a
fair ides~ of tile 07:tenlt toj whiich :a:-rgazrine is used in vrarious~ parrts of thle
coutr~.t

Orne retal r:.i.el~er wa~s licensed to sell mecrg:.rine for every 300 persons
residrnt in F1~~loridalcring the fiscr.1 Year 193r5-33. La li other S:tates, in-
cluding :-.10.ine, lI.view Hamshire,, i~fla1nd., "est Vir~ginia~, Oh~io, Ind.iauna Il~linois,
H~ich~i~: l ;n, Demuri, N'ebrackz, Kanrsas, Colorado, Arizonra, Oregoni, and Cali-
fornia, thesre was one dealer for everyr 4 0-500C persons. On1 the other ha7nd,
onlyr oneF `clr r wa;s licensed? for -everry 2 ,00C persons in South Daktotar, one
for more~ thm:u ;. OO.:r~ pers-onls In i~orth D .::0tr. (the entire Stazte), "nd none at
1.11 in Wliscontin, Idaho,, ;Lnd n.-hington. (Ta-ole 5.)

Apn:ro>:i.-ts1 ly one~-h-alf of ."11 t.:e States h-,ve le-vied e::cise taxes on
the s- 10 of argrrirne since 192r;. The.~se ta::es rane f'ron :I to 15 cents per
po~und on thel unrCOl.oere pro C-:.Act, nd~i II~..- teen la.rZely responsible for thle
lon level of a"r~,17rine con~s'umption in r:'.:.; St:;tes~. In sOme, St ITre, c"cise
taEI:S havr.e beern Levied on nl.1 marg-rilne; In others, onily. on ur .l'~rine con-
tainingE imporrtal. :.e:~teria-ls, or ~n :narZ-.r~ine not containing -aniilrl fr~ts in
speoc ifie m3rin i:*r-: pronortion s. DSealers' license fees also are imposed in
evsre.1 States. 1/

Par canite consul-netion oZ oclocurlr rine: and butter
Iearl, const~!r-alt since 1-122

Since ?r -2, th're combincld ?er Lc'pite ~.disappearl3r n~ce, or consumption, of
01somarG1.rine r_ d butter in the United~ St.-tes he.s "oeon n-nrly constant, vary-
in.5 f'rom; 1-?.r to 213.4 pcndrs e.nnelll. .17,nd overag5ir~g 19.9 POUndS. .ag'rn
consumpr~tion Ila-ring t.:e yo".rs 1327,-~' i raged from~ 1.t; to 3.1 poun~is per capnita.

2/ I~ The uronu of D-iry~'3 Control of thez California Depa~rtue~nt of Agriculture
rep~orts the~ vorlume of m:arga:-rine sold ini th~at State.
f/ Cf. Set .,:d.Federal Legislation and Deci sions Relati:?g to 01eomargarine",
ilureaLu of Agl~riculturatl EconomDics, Un~shing~ton, 119'_39






708-j7 7

Butter consumption ranged from li.$ to 18.3 pounds per capital. La general,
margarine conslu.ation was large when butter consumption was, s,-.all, and marga-
rine consumption was small wrhen butter consumption was large. Variations
in the production and con~sumpxtion of margarine appear to depend chiefly on
changes in the production and consumption of butter.

Table 1.- 01eon~argarine and butter: Per capoita proiduction and
disappearance in the Unrited States, 1923-39

: Per capital prodot ion : Per cap3ita dison:~:`~'~c~earnc
Year : 0eo- : ute oal : 0eo- : utr Total
: mar,7arine:: :_ margarine: :~_~_
:Pounds Poun~ds Poundls Pounds Pounlis Pounds

1923 : 2.0 17.8 10.i 2.0 17.9 14.9
1924 : 2.0 18.4 20.4 2.0 18.1 2.
1925 : 2.0 17.6 1962.0 1,.1 19.(
1926 : 2.1 17.4 19. 2. 1.1.
1927 2.3 1.1. 2.31. 1.
1928 : .617.2 1972.5 721.
1929 : 2.0 17.E 20.7 2.9 17.4 20.3
1930 : 2.6 17.2 19.5 2.6 17313.9
1?31 1.9 17.& 13.7 1.9 13.1 20.0
1932 : .61.3 19.9 1.6 1.3 139.
1933 : 2.0 18.7 20.7 1.q 17.9 5.
1934 : 2.1 17.8 19.9 2.1 15.j 231.4
1935 : 3.0 17.1 2013.0 1r.3 20.3
1936 : 3.1 16.8; 19.9 3.0 16S.6 13.3
1337 : 3.1 1;.5 1963.1 1:.719.
1338 : 3.0 7. 20.6 3.0 16, 1.8
1939 1/ : 2.5 2/72 5 2.3 2/17.7 20.0

Average:
1923-33 : 2.4 17.6 200 .4 17.5 1? .

Sased.on July 1 population and data on produ.Lction and diestpea_~cranc~e as
-fallows:

Produ*icti1on-
01eomargarline, ftromn annual reverts of theF COmmisc~ione(r. of In~ternal?1
Revenu~e.
Butter, fron Agricultural HanrkeFting Service.
DisaTppearanc3--
01eomarge~rinre, "Withd~rawn for consunp~ztionr", front a2nunul re~orts of theF
Commaissionerr of Internal Revenu~e. Figu~jres ;a re o- qurantlty. withdraww n
for general use, tax paid (Fedserl tax; of 10 cents peIr po~und on color-
ed and 1/iC-cent on uncolor~ed), plus thlat withdrawn free from tax for
use of the United States in prrisons anid other ?c~deral institutions.
Butter, COmpiuted from data on p;r3omotion and ~toc!ks !(Aprierltural Hanrket-
ing Service)r, and foreign trs.l.e- (Fereign Col-erce a.nd ITavig~tion of
the United States).

1/ Preliminarys.
2}Partly es~timalted.






- 5-


B70537


Per capital conslumation of .lsrgarinP gea~eter in
northern Eurove tha~n in the United.States

Although there are various restrictions on thle production and sale
of margarine in many countries of Eur~ope, such res~trictions generally are
less severe t'han in the Ch~ited States. In remaPrk an~d iorray;, the consumption
of margarine in 1937 amounted to more than 40 pounds per capital compared with
slightlyr over j pouri~s per czIpita in the Uhited States. Consum~ption in Sweden
totaled over 207 7punds, in LelCium~ and Iretherlands about li pJoundsi, in Germany
12 pounds, Tni in the United Kingdom 6.5 pounds per ca~pita in 1737.

Thle cons!umption of margarine in Denmark, NetherlaLnds, and Swedenr usually
is g-reater than that. of butter, alth~ouh these countries trioace a surplus of
butter for export. N;orwaey also consumes more margarine than butter. (Table 7.)

Then combined ccnsumtion, of narqarinie and butter', on a per capita basis,
is con~siderabt" l.-rger in most northern EuropDea countries the~.n in the Uhited
States. One rieaso~n for this a~pearen~tlt is that marga-rines and butter are used
more extrnsivelyr as cooking; fats in nczthern Europe than in th.is country, w-here
lord, compoundsI~.S anrd vegetable cookinge fats are extensivel.: armployed. In
south~ern Eurqpean~ countries, olive oil is widely used for both table and cook-



in-?ren-ed since 121

In 1?116, zbout )-5 pprc~nt of the total fats and oils area in thle manu-
facture of oleomargirinie in- thle Unrited Sta~tes consisted n:: 0190 oil, 20 por-
cen~t neutral lardi, and 5 pJercent 01e3ostearinr end butter. Since 1914, there
has been a p~ersistent drcrease in, the? use of animaln f3.t.s and oils in me~rgarin e.
In 1933, 01eo oil, mrle'~ up oly- aboutL 5 percent ofC the tota-l :'at, rund oils used,
a~nd neutral lard and~ other anrima.l frats r.bou~t = n.:rcent of t~he total. Newr
meth'od~s of manu~facture haJe made it possible in recent years to substitute
less expjensivre v:-getable oils for anlian1 fats and oils.

Cottonsced oil also wa~s an inputanlt ingredienrt of marga~rine in 1914,
making upF cboult 20 neFrcenrt of the to~tal fats alnd oils usied.. But during the
Wocrldl War of 1914-8l tlhe prie of cotton~Fsd e oil rose to xn~usually high levels,
and togi~nn~ing. In 1917 cocojnut oil was imrported in fairly large volume from the
Philipp~ines folr use in merfetrine. After the war, the co:.1peratively low-Lpriced
~rcoconut oil conrtinuer! to disnlace: cojtton--led oil as well as the animal fo-ts anrd
oils. The contribution of cotitonnseed~ oil as redu;crd to ablout 10~ percent of
thle t-ota~l fats used in margari~ne in 19207, at which level it r-emained through
1933. Cjconut oil, which mad3e up dbotlL 13 percent of t~he t.00-1 in 1917, account-
ed for about 75 percent of thD total i- 1?;.3.

T'he vrlumle of coconut. oil u-,ed in the mnu~fzcture of ma-rr--rine increased
from 150 million ~o~unds in 1933 to 171; million pou~nds in 193~5, but the percent-
arie nr~l'iiutlon of coconult 3il elerCrsed shanrply after 1933. In 151jg, coconut
oil nade:"l up oly 16; pr~crnt. of the totzl fatS a~nd. rilr, use~d. Th development
of newr methods for :ano~,rnuaturi~ng marG,7rine from domestic vege~table oils whereby
the original f'lavor of the Iprodct. is reta~inedl in storagee has boon one factor







TOS-37


7


accounting for thle shaprp decrease in thle use of coconut oil ini ;ecent ye?.rs.
Perhraps of' greate-r importance, however, hnve been thep tax mea;sures enacted
against certain foreign oils since 1933.

A FFeTera ercise tzx of 3 cen;ts Pe' poun213 on th-e first douest~ic process-
ing of co-,on-ut oil originating inl the Phiippinea s wa~s levied in 197~. ( Co conut
oil orig~in.ating in countries other than thle Philip:.ines wa-s nod1~ subc~jct to a
tax of 5 ccnts ier pound..) In the 3 years 19913-'5, mor'eo;-r, n nu:.liter ol States
imposed; ex:cisr t-.~::Es Of 10~ to 12 cents per' !'ound on~ olioomarg.rin~e conltalinin
imported oils. 4/ Th)ese measures have had thie effect of in~cre s~ing~ thie PLrice
of coconut oil in reloation to pr~ices of demostic~ oils, rrnd of she 917~l; reducing
the mark-et for ml.3rgarin cocntaining coconut anrd other imported ails.

In 15;3j, -ot~on~sced oil ~ade urIp g percent of the total f~r.ts and oils
used in arr:1g7.; inc. This propertion wals increased to 5'5 perc--nt in 1937, when
Domestic supprli-es of cott~on~s-c oil werei~ unusual~iy large. AlthloughL the perc-
conta7ge contribution o~f cotton~scud oil hrls decreased since 1937 as total
sup~plies; of tl;t: oil have? been~ reduced, cotton;see~:d roil in. 1'~j 9 ando: up 41 por-
cent of thlc total frots used. Only; negligible quantititie of so;-boon~ oil ;7ere
used in m-!rgrine~ In 1?_73, bu-t in 1933 soyber~Jn oil ma~de up 2il percent of thec
total ftat and oils used. (rables 8 ;tr.d 9.)

W~Thalo oil n:I.4 coconut oil iono;;-rtnt mm'rgyine


Wh~lil oil -:id coconut oil hav-e becrn Yhe mocst imnortnn.rt ing-redients
used in merger:ine i: IleadinT margzrine-produociiing countri.:s of Eu~rope in recent
years. About. 23j percent of the- itotal fat (e:;cl.adirg milk)! uLsed ir:n rgarine
in Gernrmy in 1917 consisted of whl.10 oil, 23j rllrcent coconu;t flil. 15 percent
pazlm-k1rnal oil, 10 pa:centt sayber.~ oil, -nd prcentf:i pCe nut. jil. H:dr--
genrated vegetable oils (unlsrclified) ma:~de u:, meet o' 'the ren_.lindr.


used i:. :ners:.ri:ic iY ;1977, p ;-. .t oil 1: percent, coconut oil 17 onrcent,
cottonafsee oi-1 9 pecet 'nd In-.rne oil 6 plr~cent. LiDn..k coconut
oil cade uI: 36s !j'iCrcet of1 the t -tli fot -ased, hale~ Oil 20j pcY2CEll SuO:ytcO~l
oil 15 per2cilt, and. r?:lm~1~-ker al il and~ sesarsc Oil o-.ch 5 p'_'=rcet.

In -l three~ c-un~trios the-~ re ws a n--.rked i~acrease~ fron 1928? to 19J37
inl the~ quontity of abo.le oil usedi in n:~~-~. I~rge:.in.IGrn:, te ecta o
w~hale oil irncreasedc flrom 16 to 'S during tlis pecriond, ini tlle UrTj.id Kin,-;dom
from 17 to bl, -and ir. Dem.v~rl:nr fromi 11 to 2$. On Bn11qr.tisofnil
fats and oils other then~- jh .10) Oil halve oran use in roneG.'ine~ proo\uc~tion in
Europe during, ther pa.cst 12 Ilears-. (TD."tle 10?.)


4/ Sta7te and~ Federal LogiSj!lation,~ etc. n~. li






FOS-37 10 -

Tab'Lle 2.- 0leolnargarine: Production, withd~rawn for export, and
withdraw~n for consumptbin,, United States, 1930-j3


:i withdrawn : ithri~rawn fnr consuan7tion
Calendar year : Production : for :
exnortTo tal 1/ Pe~r car'ita 2/
: ,l0CC p ounds 1,C000 pound s 1,000 Foundis Pounds

193;' ..........: 325,6E60 1, 89 ^23,262 2.6
1931 ----------: CT- 9,927 1,8.47 229r 7195 1.
192 ......: 0323 162 2"1,688 1.
1933 ......... 245,472 1,499 242,8781.
1934 ..........: 266,L1 159 263,237 2.1
1935 ..........: 381,633 1.*29 379,920 3*0
196.......... 3,9 .7309?3*
1957 ---------*= 3.37 .380 334 397 .3'?1 3.1
19 8 ..........: 38),2j4 151 386,166 .
13'3 2/ ......: 300c', 859 262 ?"1 ~ ,66 2*3



Compiled from annuaicl remo~rts of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue. Data for
earlier yrcsr b~eginn~ing- 18;7 are fiven in the Decembe:r 1938 issue of the
Fats and ?ils Situation, p. 7.

1/ Figures are fo~r am otityr withrdr--wr folr ;eneral use, taxr p~idl (Federa~l tax,
10 cents rper pound on colored :-nd one-fourth: cent on Iuncolor~d) plu1s quanltity
withdrawn free fromr tol for ual nf the Unrited~ Staltas in Iris.,ns rand other Federal
institutions.

2/ E3sed on -Julyl 1 orul*,tion e-stimaites.


~/ P rel1i 1imTi ary.'














~


I


r 11 -


Table 3.- 01eomargarine: Production in the United States as reported
by the Agricultural Mdarketing Service and the Bureau of Int ernal
Revenue, 1930-33


: Agricultural
: Uncolored :
.Calendar : Vege- :Combfined: :
year : table : animal
:arnd nu~t :and vegP! Trotal :a
:oil : table ::
: 1,C;C 1,000 ,00
: ogzn s Doulnds pnun~d s


1 l ar~ketinE Service


::Bureau orf
: Internal
:RPevenrue,
:total un-


Yege-
table


Colored
:Com~ined:


: Total
:uncolr31-
:ed 7nd


Lnd nu~t :an~d veges
il : tatble :
L OC'C. 1 ,0CG
porundc 22884&


colored and
colored
1, 0001
pounds

525,660
229 927
203,222
245,472
264,410
381,633
393,29j
397.380o
3851234
300,859


Total : color-
:ed
1,003C0 1,00 ic~
R~unds oLpds


21r,507
134,278
239,72;
259.979
375.a51
30,1227
389,797
37s,567
299,970


1930
1931
1932
193193 I

1935
1936
1937
1938
1939 1]


211.1750
162,951
155 ,57'
199,00 Is
2017,468
329 764
3401137
349,077
340,300
265, 75


87,0121

38",600

52,511
46,087


38,257
34,492


4, 7!9
2,150
371

792

1,252
955 5
1,0326
1,345


S,859

2,67
1,801
2,129
1,890
1,419
708
500
392


13 ,608
6,146 ~
3,438
2,504
2,921
2,826


1,526
1,437


311,755
221,9,3
197,716
242,231



3911500
380,093 ~
301i,417


as follows:

Agricultural Mlark~eting Servici reports nf manuifactuirers.
Bureu ofIntrnalReveuereports of the Co-u.Tission~er.
Dazta fo7r sa~rlier yeFars breginning 191E are given~ in "O~leor-
margarineP: Statistics of Pr~oduction, Manterials Usedl in
Ilanmufacture, Consumpticn, Trade, and Prices",1 E~ureau of
Agricultural Economaics, Ai-ugust 1936, p. 2.

Prodluction reports t7 then ureau of Intern~al Revenue are
required by: law and are, t:?erefors, conrsidered to be oreOr
a~ccu~ratP thanr reports tol thei Afgririlt~ural Hlarketing Service
wh~ic~h are vonluntaryr; but thD latter are useful because they
arF brokentr downr into spcial classificztirer.s.


Preliminary.






Table 4.- 01eomargarine: Production by States, 1932?-38

YF~~eair bgiin ng Julyl
ett : 1.332 _: 1Slj : 19r34 : 1935 : 1936 : 1937 :. 1938
Total crolored :1(3000 lb.1,000 lb.l T'? lb 1 O*120 It.1 0030 1b 1,'CLO lb.1,000 lb.
and un~colored :
Ilass.: 1,53G 1,414 ---------
R. I. : 2 524 126 29 ---
N. J. :C 1,155 19.~575 28,0242 26,11.6 24,219 29,657 20.587
(hic : 36,S 39,230 61.,852 s4,0914 86,285 79 733 6 4,543
Ind. : E,q966 12,~4th 2,67 30,0031 36,549 42,22) 40,916
Ill. : r-7,092 95,078 143 ,301 129 ,993 129 ,531 133 ,924 gj ,699
Mlich. : 10, L53 12,3;7 13,623 13,119 14,626 19,572 .18,768
iMinn. :963 810 731 1, 129 1,215 1,287 761
Mo : 3,0 57 4 ,319 538 43 5 11 ,145 11 ,229 8.Zoo
HebSr. : 10 1,148 -
Ka~ns. : 1,l70 12,400 25,454 23,845 25,148 27,830 22,948
Md.: 5,6;13 5,3C5 5,775 6,655 7,940 10.70s 9,899
rr. c. :--- --- --- --- --- --- 30
Ga. :--- --- --- --- --- --- 1,599
Ala. : --- --- --- --- --- 150 521
Texa. :5 2,62212 i:23,072 5,0207 5,55E7 6,~98 7,252
Colo. ~~~ ~ i : 5 51 126 1,02 1, 199 398 --
Ores. : 89 1,029 1,114 1,460! 1,809 2,386 1,427
Calif. : 81}30,6J17 38l5Lc0 39,798 43,981 +9 ,126 41,702
U. s. 1] : 219,043 243,187 353,F21 371,738 !89 ,264 415,404 )}2,973


1 1 1 2 2
11 11 11 12 13
1_ 1 3 1 2


__ __ _


- 12 -


FOS-37


R. I.
1U. J.
Ohio
In~d.
Ill.
Mo.
I>br.
Kans.
Mid.
rca.
Tex.
Cole.
U. s. 1/



Ohi J
Ind.
Ill.


Kans.


Calif.
Other
Total
Compiled~ fro
d~at a are r
1/Totals a f


6
1,1'2

48

2?3
5
267 j
t73 f


559
102
j43
295
---
2;;'
510


33



495
285
3
193
2937


1,107
11
so


316


217
4
57
5564
247


209


55
475
Ms

270
243


193
29
23
493
102

353
126
55


:5 1 23 10 30 29 a
: --- 3 1 32 18 5 -
: 21 Jp9 2,ggy_ 2,_11_ 227 1,3 1,381
: ntsl colorF-d mid~ uncoloreld percentages of~ United
: States rtroduction in specified Ststes
P sIEEt .Percent Percent Percent FPrcent Percent Percent

:17 16 17 23 22 19 19
: 5 6 8 9 10 12
: 60 41 41 35 33 32 28
:5 5 4 3 4 5 6
:2 2 3 3 3 2
: 6 5 7 6; 6 7 7
:3 2 2 2 2 2 3


:1 1
:13~ 13
: _1 2
:100r 100 I


100


100


100


,n ann~rual reports of theP Comniissioner of Internal Repvenue. ThesP
not available on a calendar year basis. Data for earlier years
18 0r are given in 01e mar marine"~, 0. it, p 5-9.
lurkbunded numbers. 2 Less ha OOpounds.





FOsS-j7 13 -
Ta~ble 5.-Num~ber of retail dealers licensed to sell unoo'lored 01eomargarfne,
by StitesT yer inning July 1935-38 ____
State : Retail dealers 1.J_ : PoCElration per. dealer 2
~:' 19'15 :1986 1997 :1_938 : 1915 :I1934 : 193_7 : 1938
: Nmbe Nmber Numbern N~umber Thous. Thous; Thous. Thous.
Pla. ........i 3,366 3.870 4,102 5, 160 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.3
Me. .........: 1,4kh8 1,966 2,067 2,165 .6 .4 .4 .4
Ohio ..1......: 16, 118 16, 677 16, 613 16, 136 .4 .4 .4 *R
Ina. ........: 9,432 9,708~ 9,939 9,536 .4 .4 .3 .4
Mich. .......: 11,343 11,838 12,505 11,797 .4 .4 .4.4
Kanisr .......: 5,04o 5,516 5,464 5.310 .4 .3 *3 .4
w. Va, ....'..: 4,076 6,2i33 4, 875 4, 562 .4 *3 .4 .4
Colo. .......: ,1 2, 315 2, 551 2. 431 *5 *5 .4 .4
Alris. .......: 794 726 9553 1,31 *5i .6 .h .4
ereg. ,.......: 2,172 2,493 2,693 2,735 .5 .4 .4 .8
N. H. .......: 794c 1,014 1,24j 931 .6 -5 4 *B
Ill. ........: 15 609 16, 116 16, 642 15, 535 -5 *5 -5 -5
Mo. .........: 8,122 8,451 9,092 8,750 .5 .5 -4 *5
Nebr. .......: 2,610 2,549 2,959 2,986 .5 *B *B *5
Md. .........: 3,180 3,271 3,519 3,282 .5 *S 5
Calif. ...,...: 9,138 11.353 12,276 12,348 .7 .5 *S *S
Del. ........: 1109 ko 437 425 .6 .6; .6 .6,
D. c. .......: 889 929 978 983 .7 .7 .6 *6
Va. .........: 3, 23 5 4,o68 4,141 4,012 .g .7 .6 .7
Ky. ........'.: 3, 70 3 3 ,759 4, 304 4, 367 .8 .8 *7 7
Texas .......: 6,010 ,1 9,150 8,735 1.0 .8 7 .7
Wyo. *.... 317 346 337 351 7 *7 .6 .7
N. Mex. .....: 443 539 671 628 1.0 .e .6 .7
Nev. .......,: 96 111 16= 140 1.0 .9 .6 .
R. I, .......: 954 974 1,057 885 .7*7 .8
La.. .........: 2,125 2,631 3,006 2,831 .8 .7 .8
Vt. .........: 9 352 h51 423 1.3 1.1 .8 .9
N. J. .......: 5,02P8 4,769 4,90 4, 756 .8 .9 .9 .9
Ga. .........: 2,892 3,257 1,491 3,139 1.1 .9 .9 .9
Ark. ........: 1,56) 2,163 2,362 2,159 1.7 .9 .9 .9
Mass. .......: L,i15 h,56j 5,011 4,192 .9 1.0 .9 1.1
N. Y. .......-: 13,828~ 1T,255 13 952 1;',272 .9 1.0 .9 1.1
iowa ........: 3.517 399 3.3 i935 s,300 .7 .6 .6 1.1
S. C. .......: 1,430 1,569 1,925 1,751 1.3 1.1 1.0 1.1
Ala. ........: 21149 2,$0 2428 2, 615 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.1
N. C. .......: 2,449 2,8 1,146 2,84$ 1.4 1.2 1.1 1.2
Minn. .......: 2,134 2,l ,2 ,81b 1.2 12 1.2 1.5
Conn. .......:n. 1, 2F4 1,313 1, 812 1.41 .3 1.2 2.1
Utah ........ 2,341 28b7e on 252 2:1 l*8 1* 2*1
Pau ......: 4,36 4,78 4,22 4,3!2 2.j 2. 2. 2.3
M~iss. .......: 509 6 66 bb6 3.9 3.2 .0 3.0
Gkla. .......: 201 3 1F 716 40' 12.5 7.4 3. 63
Tenn. .......: 275 329 375 317 103 9-9 7-7 -
Mont. .......: 21 2b 2S 32 2. 20.b 19.1 1.
S. Dak. .....: 31 48 51 27 22.3 14.4 11.6 25b
N. Dak. .... 4 1 5"6I] 9Ti 176. 7015.0
PSis *... 5 36 50 -- 8. 7.58.4 3
idaho .......: J 7 6.9 81.5 69.9 }
Vh.Sh .......: 7 11 _J -- _234.1 150.1 55i.j_ _ji
Total .....: 1Diss,2 1__114505_ 183.901 _17j, 4 _b
IfCompiled from annual reports of the GCommissioner of InteFrnal RevenuA.
j ased on estimated po pul nation, by States, January 1, 19J6~ and 193J. Topula-
tion estimates by States for subsequent years not available.
I/ N~o licensed dealers.













































1/ Pased rn July 1 population estimates.
2/ rcomutcd from data cn production anld stocks (Agricultural MJarketing Service)
and frreigar trade (Foreign Commerce and Havigation of thne Unrited Sta~tes)Exports
o. f butter include shipments tcl nrncentiguo~us territonries.
3/ Figures are flrr oquantity withdrawal fnr generPl use, tax paid. (Federal tax,
10 cents per pound on colored. andr one-fourth cernt on uncol1ored) plus with-
'Irawnm free frnm tax for use of the United? States in prisons and other Federal
institutinnP (Arnnecrl reports of thec Comm~issioner of' Internarl Recvenuc.)
4/ Preliminary.
/ Pezrly estimated.


- I IL-~e


~ __iL_ ~_~~_


:


ros-37 -l

Table 6.- Totrl and per cnpita. disappepzra~ce of
Uni ted St at8 s, -1912-33


butter and 01eomaniarine,


Per capita
disappearance 1I/
Futt~er 01e
: margarine
Poundljs P?22841


STotal dise

:Putter



: 1,584,464

: 1,685,1536
: 1,731,n98
: 1,766,500
: 1,633.221
: 1,43j,238
: 1,60s;,021
: 1,577,422
: 1,,757,670

: 1,995.276
:2,053,103
: 2,0=8,728
:2,0,44,392
: 2, o~~, 693
: 2,063 30 5
: 2,117,193

: 2, 2 '-,1 516
:2,25;1,252


:2,1'07,100

:li/ 2,325,205 g


a~ ear an e


: margarine ]}
1.000C) pounds t


G~alendar
year


138,7 51
138,88)
138,805
183.387
283.717
j46,s51
353 ,sis
353.7<6
214,b18
183.5712
22E;.287

232,1?2
240,h1?1
275,728
31'1, o9
352.9;9
323,26:
229,995

2427,978
379.9 23

33n,156
;301,685


16.7

17.2
17.4
16.0
13.9
15.3
14.8
1.2
17*1
17.9
18.1
17.7
17.5
17.5
17.2
17.4



17.9
18.3
17*3
15.6


5/ 17.7


1.:56
1.6
1.4


1.0

2.8

2.0
?1*
2.0

2.0
i.0

2.6
2.9
2.6


31.
3.0

2*3


1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922

192'


1926
1927
1928
19j2
193n
1931
1932
193)

1937
1938
19339 Ef





" 5 w


FOS-37


Table 7.- Magarine and butter: Production, total and
per capital disappearance, specified
countries, 1937


.rdcto Total Per capital
Disappearance : di sappear ance
MrargarincEButter M~largarine Eutter MalrgariniEuButter Total

: Million MilIlion M~illion h~llion
: pounds pounds pounds pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds


Country


431
139
404
1,138
226
27
160
103
2,132


25
122
171
806
128
119
136
307
397


248
144
67
1,329
107
27
108
1,144
2,156


3.6
141.6
45.6
11.9
14.8
40.9
21.t
6.5
3,1


36.1
17.2
17.9
19.6
12.4
9.3
17.2
16.?


39.7
31,8
63.5
91.5
27.2
50.2
38.8
30.7i


Australia .........:
Belgium ...........:
Denmrark ...........:
Germany ...........:
Netherlands r......:
Norway ............:
Sweden ............:
United %ingdom ...,:
United States .....:


2,5
121
171
806
146
118
136
412
397


Compiled fromr official sources and reports of the Internationaal Intitute
of Agriculture.






- 16 -


FOS-37


Table F.- 01eomar~arine: M~ater-ials used in manufacture,
United States, 1932-39


Item 1932 1 1933 I 1934 I 1935 1 1936 1937 I 1938 1939

:1,C000 1,000 1 1,01,0 1,( 00 1,0003 1,00]0 1,000
: rounds peunc's, pounds pounds pounds pounds p ounds pounds

01eo oil ...........: 1',453 15,0'5 21,872 15,227 1C,330 12,273 13,411 11,866
01eostearine .......: 3,684 3,120 3,47S 2,612 5,55n 3,575 3,282 3,087
Lard,neutral .......: ,1 8,"59 7,4P6 3,005 219 1,748 1,464 1,3555
01eo stoc'z .........: 47C 829 1,454 2,390r 1,9j0 1,318 1,532 1,042
Beef fat ...........: --- --- --- --- --- --- --- 69
Butter .............: 32 7 11 1 -- -- --

Total animal ..: 26,061 28,010 34,301 20,225 26,009 18,719 13,689 17,399
Cottonsee-d oil. .....: 15,018 17,9"7 54,778 9',504 1r0,106 173,C17 .142,585 98,656
Soybean oil ........: 3 7 241 1,7101426 31,791 39,885 70,822
Peanut oil .........: 2,511 2,835 2,744 4,:69 4,14C 2,880 3,593 2,445
Corn oil ...........: 54 3a1 4 32 1,238 1,796 566 489
Cottonseed stcarine : -- -- --- --- --- --- 12
Soybean. stearine ...: -- -- --- --- --- 18 ---
Vleg-t able stearinea 1-: --- -- --- -
Other 1/ ......... r;: --r --- 1 40 --- --- --- ---
Total domestic:
vegetab~lE ....: 17, Grf6 20, 980 57,551 105,,685 127,745 210,084 186,929 172,424
Cocor~ut cil ........- 125,219 150,000F 1i32372 170,315 150,465 79,806 89,520 38,519
Babassu oil ......... --- 1,838 16,114l 1 4:,807 11,54!7 13, 942
Palmn-krn~el oil ....: --- --- --- 4:25 2417, 0-16 4,746i 47
Palm oil ...........: 261 544 6F6 .r 1,4nl 1,rlt3 --- 1
SessLne oil .........: --- --- --- 77 E8 1 --- ---
Sunflower oil ......: --- --- --- 100C ,5 --- --- ---
Ourcui ol ..... -- -- -- --- 44!2 --- --- ---
Rape oil ..........,: --- --- --- --- -- -- --
Rice oil ...... --- --- --- 69 ---
Trotal foreign:
vegetable ....: 123,400r 150,64n 125,744 17c~,753 170~,e9-: 97,423 105,882 52,935
Total fats arnd
oils .........: 107,207; 1P0~,630 215,596 308E,67f! Z21,6:8 326,2,'6 912,500 242,758~
V~ilk ............... (900 5::,4117 61903,3017 76,ZSAi 72,8;6 73, 189 58,e55~
Salt and other mis-
cellaneou; ........: 12,95~1 1, 306 15,619 20,520 21,386 19,C'73 18,235 13,855
Tortal .........: 62,C5 7,2 7e,522 1:15,827 C'7,772 91,919 91,40'1 72,51(
Grand total ...: 22';,24;2 272,888 201,118 4;1,5nE -:f2,:20' '18,115 403,904~ 315,26

~rJanual tetalsg on a calendar-year basis a~re not pubSlishedi b; th~e Bureau of Internal
ReveFnue bult arc collputed by:. tle Bureau of Agriculturail Ecoln;eics from monthly data
pIublishP d in the semi-annual aunulations of the. Inlternal Revenrue~ Fuillet~in. Pa~ta for
earlier years bsginingir 1E13 are given in O1eomrargariin~, op. cit., pp. 14-17.

Ty' Assumd to be of dorl.sstic origin.













_ _I~~~


Per- Per- Por- Per- Per-
ce~nt cent cent cen~t cent


39.4 rqig EE) 11.0


pos-3(7 -1

Table 9.- OT eomargarine: PerTcentag~e contributed by principal items
to the weight of fats and oils used in man~ufacture, Uhnited States,


Item : 1932 : 1953

:Per- Per-
:cent cent


: 1934

Pnr-
cpnt

10i.1
1.6
3.5
S.7


1935 :


1936 :


1937 :


198 :


1939r


01eo 3il ...........:
01eostearine .......:
Lard, neutral ......:
01eo stock .........:


1.1

.6


4.!
1.1
.5
.E,


7.1
4.5
.4


Total animal .....:156


14.0 1.9


s5. 8.0 5.7 __6.4_ .2


Cottonseed oil .....: 9.0! q.0 25.4
Soybean oil ........: 1/ 1/ 1/
Peanut oil .........: 1.5 1.3 1.3
Corn oil ...........: 1/ .2 1/
Total domestic:
v~Egetable ......: 10.5 10.5_ 2 J_


45.7
12.8
1.1
.2


20.6
1.0
.2


j2.2
.6
1.4


34.2


33.3

1.3


53.2
g.8
-9
.6


Coconut oil ........: 73-7 75.2 57.4 56.5 46.4
Babassu oil ........: --- --- --- .6 5.0
Palm-kerrnel oil ....: --- --- --- .1 .7
Palm oil ...........: .2 _.) 1/ ,h
Total foreign
vegetable ......: 7).g JS. 57. --. 2.6 -


22.6

.5


25.6 1.
3.7 5.7
1.5 .2
--- _1/


2j. S j_.S 2.


Total fats and:
oils ...........: 100.0 100C.3 100~.0 100.0 ICO 0. 100j.0 100.0C


Based on figire~s ini table U. Totals include 0\.5 percent or less of
beef fat, butter, cottonseed steanrine, sayrbeen stearine, vegetable stear~inp,
"othFer"7sepeable oils, and sesams o~il, sunflower oil, ouricuri oil, rape oil,
and rics oil in- certake years. D.t~a for earlier years beGinning5 1913 aret
given in 01:onrrgarine~, op. cit., p. 13.

IfLess thlan ;J.05 percen~t.











_ I _1 ___I____


_C_


Item


FOS-3J7


- 10 -


Tsble 10.- Fats and oils used in the manurfacture of margarine in
Denmark, Germany, and the United Kingdom, specified years


De nrnark : Go rmany : Ulnited Kingdon
:1C28: 1937: 1989~:-~ : 1529 :- 1936 : 1937 ': 1928: 1936: f 7j~

: l. l. b. 'Ib. 16 l. lb3. lb. lb.


;able-
onut oil .........: 63 50 55 190 181 175 126 85 81
oncseed oil ......: 10 2 3 5 --- -- 58 31 31
-!ernel o~il .....: 8 7 8 1/ 90 214 11.9 31 20 22
u:t: oil ..........: 8 1 2 94 63 5 40 25 70
ar-.c oil ..........: 8 7 7 3 ---- -- --
ean .oil .........: 9 21 22 97 57 77 25 11 2/
lowr il.....: 3 2 1 ---- --- --- 18 -- --
r~ ...............: 7 8 10 3/ 245 3/ 93 3/ 114 5 7 9
Total, vegetable : 116 101~ -2R)1E- Will~- 608 511r -27i8 ~ 170F --193f


Cott
Fa~n
PennI1
Sesz
Soybl
Sunf
Other


Alnima
Butt
Lard
01eo
01eo
Stea
Wh~al
O~the


l1-


I


ecr ..............: --- --- --- --- 2 2/ 2
1, neutrel .......: 1 1 1 100 2/ L/ 7 2 2
oil ............: 2 ---- --- 19 --- --- 15 7 2
stock~ ..........: 6 5 4 237 l: 9 5 5 5
Lrine ............: 2/' 2// --- --- --- --- 4 9 9
e oil ...........: 15 36 84 145 2F4 211 65 143 148
Lr ...............: --- --- --- 2 -
Total, animal ...: 24 2 59 1.2i, 26r 220f 96 166 168
G~randl total .....: 140I 1 0 77 23 82 71 37 34 36

SPerce-ntgee co~ntr'ibuti~n of important items
: e-Fr-, 'er- no- Pe r- Fer Per- Per- Per-
: cent cent ccnt ent cent ce-nt cent cernt cent


C3colnut oil ..i.......:
Cottjy sesd oil ..,....:
Falm-uEernel oil .....,:
Pear.:t oil ...........:
S~r r~.m oil ............:
SO:, esn*:' oil .........:


4.5
7
6
6
6
6


21 21 2;? 34 25
1 -- -- 101 9
10~ 2.5 1j 8 6
10 7 7 11 7
4/ --- -
'1 7 103 7 3


01ee oil .............: 1 -- -- 2 -- -- 3 2 1
01eo stock ...........: 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1
Stearine, animal ,....:4 4/ -- -- -- -- 1 3 2
Ilhale oil ............: 11 26 23 !6 23 2R 17 41 41
Tobal, Iregetable : P 0 73 76 70 71 74 52 53
Total, animal ...: 17 30 27 22 50 2" 26i 48 47

Grand total .....: 100 100r~ 1C0 100I 100l Ire? 100( 100 100

compiled from official sources.
1/ Includes 11 million~ roundr ofr p-.lm oil. 2/1 Lesr. than 5001,r00 pounds.
3/ Include~s hyd~icrcg~onatedri vegtable oils. 4/ ~LSSs tht:n n.,5 percent.






FOS-37 *1

Table 11.- 01eomargarine: Salt and other mniscellaneo~us r~aterials used
in manufacture, Un~ited States, 1930~-39


: : Soda :Vitamin :
:Le Cit hi : (bon- : con- :T total
: :zoate of):centrate:

pounds pounds pounds pounds

6 103 --- 27,64C
C 76 --- 17,549t
5 69 --- 12,381
2 ?? --- 1J,5C!6
5 96 --- 1,1
22 17 --- 22,52(
22 7 --- 21,386
4Z1 16=5 1./ 15,:172
92 1 17 15,235
80,1 122 14 15,85E


Calendar: Salt :Coloring: Sugar : tiTI:Drve of
year : : ::glcerin
: 1,0CO 1,000;( 1,00-0 1, 000
: pounds pounds pounds pounds

1930 : 27,365 16 --- 151
1931 : 17,260 7 --- 191
1932 : 12,6r9 3 --- 3n7
1933 : 14,1:95 3 85 522
1934 : 15,725 3 156 634
1935 : 21,C76 3 --- 1,222
1936 : 20,C44 2 --- 1,148
1937 : 17,631 1 --- 1,235
1938 : 16,916 2 --- 1,0~59
1939 : 12,889 1 --- 79


Compiled from Internal Revenu~e Bulletis. Data for earlier years beginning 1913
are given in rleomargarine, op. cit., p. 18.

1/ Less than 50Ci pounds.

Tabjle 12.- Cleomarga~r ine : Imports, exports, net imports olr et exposr~ts
United States, 195i-J?

(Dlet exports are indicated b:I rrdnus sign:)
Im1r.orts : : et
Calendar :From :From : imrlorts
Exports
year : Philippine : ther :Total 1, oc not
:Islands, f're-e: s ource s : : : ex cort s
1,' 0 ,0 ,' 10 010
pou1nds pounds- poundss pouI~n d!s po ~u n ds


19J30


1973


1954


1939


2
2

1
8




2,295
2,608


622
547
474
288
31r0
128
ICS
163
235
264


- 690~



- 568
-45;
616
2',299
2,060~r
2, 344


---
---




2,312
2,227
2,50_2


Compiled from! Foreign. Commen~rce andl l.-:igat~ionl~f of-te united~ Sttes. -Imports,
by counitries, not published prior to Jiune 1935.

1// 1935-39, imported rlostlyl into Puerto Piclj andj the Virginl Islands, pre-
sumably for consumption in. those territories.










































:2,273

i,350

1,930


22 400

5,337

1,301


23,g13


1,137


C~orniled f~rom Burreau of Intcrnazl Reve~nue records andl Internazl Revenue Bulletin.

1/ Prcliminary.
Z/ To~tsl of unroundedsc numbers.


705-37 20 -

Table 13.- 01eomargarine: Preduction and materials used in manufacture,
United States, January 1938 and 1939, November January, 1939- O


: Jan. :1$39-40 1/
Item : 1938 1Fi39 Nov Dc : Jan.

: 1.000 1,0CO 1,000 1.000 1,000


,I_


_ ,_ _I _


_~


~ _


~


_~_


2h, 242 15 l,033 18,011 16 .602 19,000
-4 390 7,2!15 2,154 1.972 2,051
2,138 712 1,057 659 692
413 122 --- --- ---

_7 ,47 8 r79 3,211 2,631 2,743


pounds

148
25.439
2'i,587


:pounds


pounds


pounds


pourls


PrcduErion::
Colored ..............:
Uncolored ............:
Total 2/ ...........:


14)
27,74f
272 386


151
40,229
40 .'80


120
30,295
03 141F


150
29201C


Materials used::
01eo oil .............:
01eo;stearine~ .........:
Lard, reutral ........:
01eo rtock ...........:
Total animal .......:
Cottonseed cil .......:
So;bean oil ..........:
Peanut oil ...........:
Corn oil ............:
Cottonseed stearine ..: __
Total d~omestic:
vegetable .......:
Coconut oil ..........:
Babassu oil ..........:
Palm-kernael oil ......:
Total foreign
vegetable ........:
Total fats and:
oils .............:

Milk ...............:
Salt and other:
miscellaneous ...


794
284
149

1,29
19,580
4,217
21_6


655
241
120
1,770
10,077
8,973
166
S4


232
107




219
119


745
228
120
jf-1
1,178
9,701
e.074


1


t376
236


1,397
8,779
7,575
194
54


24,769

51856

1,3sr


20,630







FOS-37


Nut 2


21 -

Table 14.- 01eomargarin e: Average p ice per pound, Chicago, 1930C-40


White, animal fat 1/
MayJae July ,Au, ,Sept.,


Year


1930



1,934
II1935 94

1937
1938
L1939


Ct. Ot. Ct.


Oct.,


Nov.,
Ct.

18-5

11.0

11.5

15.5

14.9
12.8


Dec. .Av.
Ct. Ct.


,Jan. :Teb. ;Mar. ,Ap3r. .


Ct. Ct.- Ct.


: Ot.

: 19.5
: 17.5
: 14.2



: 16.0
: 16.4
: 15.0
: 14.0


Ct. Ct. 01.

19.5 19.5 19..5
15.9 14.0 13.8
11.2 11.0 11.0
9.5 9.2 9.6
8.8 9.5 g.8
14.0 15.5 155
16016.0 15.8
16.5 16.5 16.5
14.5 14.5 14.5
14.0 14.0 14.0
12.0


1f.5
14.1
11.0



15.0
15 .o
12.0


19.0
14.0
11.2
10.2
9-8
15-1
15-3
15.6
14.6
13.3


19.5
12.8
11.0

8.5
15-5
14.5
16.4
13.8


19-5

11.0
11.0
9-2
15-5
14.0
15.4
13.4
13.5


18-7
12.1
10.6
11.0
9-5
1-5.t
14.0
15.0
14.5
13.5


18.5
12.0
10.8
11.0
9.5
14.5
14.9
15.0
15-7
13.5


18.5
113.6
11.0
10.5
14.5
15-3
1E;.0
15.5


17-7
14.9
11.0

119 .
16.0 1
15.6
15.0

12,0


17.0

s.9
j.2
s.5
1:.5



8.5


16.07 16.9
12.6 12.7
S.o 8.8
i.5 8.2
10?.8 9.1
12.1 12.6
13.a 12.3
---4/13.'i
9.07 ---
9.1 8.q


1930
1931
1932
1933
1954
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940


17.0

11.8
S.o
7.5
11.6
11.5
15.0

8.5
8.6


17.0

9.2


12.5
11.5
15.0

6.5
65.4


17.0
13.8
8.5
7.5
S.1
13.5



s.5


17.0

8,5
8.7

13.5
11.1
13.9


17.0
12.0
9.3
9.0
9.5
13.5
11.0
12.9

c1.0


17.0
10.2
g.4
9.5
12.4
11.2
12.5


17.0
10.5
g.3
9.0
9.5
12.o

12.2

8.5


17.0
11.2
8.2
9.0
9.9

1L".5
11.8

10.1


17.0
12.0
an
a.8
10.0

13.0

--- S


17.0
12.0
S.o
7.6

12.1



9.9


Domestic, vegetable


164 5.
15.5 15.8
14.a 15.5
15.0 14.7


1936
1937
1938
1939
1940


16.5
16.5
15,.5
1L5


14.0
16.4
14.5
14.5


15.0
10.2
1;.5


14.9
1 5.5
16.i
14.5


16.0
15.1
15.4
13.0


13.0
15.4
15~.4
14.5


15.3
10j.2
16.0
14.9


15.8
15.0


16.5
15.5
14.5
15.0


1-4.5
15.C


16.6
15J.1
10.5


Compiled from


The INational Provisioner. Average of weeklyr quotations.


Quoted in 1-po~uid cartons, rolls, or prints, Jar.uary 19i0 Mlay 1:, 1939.
Quoted in 1--pounl'd cartonrs, January 1930r Sepltember 22, 1937.
Prices not availabjls, october 193i N~ovember 1938.
9-month avierag~e.
Not reported prior to week ended Ap~ril 18, 1936.




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

PoS-3, 22 |||I lllIIIIIIIIllllll i Illl IIIIlilllllllili II i
3 1262 08905 1220
Table 15.- Trice per round of specified fats and oils, and oil-bearinge matera4
Peor'uary 1938 and 15139, and Decembe February. ~19,940
5 Feb. 19-0
It em ______ : 1978_ 191_ Doq ec. : Jan. :Feb.}/~
Fat s an~d ,il: : Cent s Cent s Cent s Cent s OeDS a
Butter, r)?-scre, Chi-rago ......................: 30.1 2~5.5 29.E. 30.8 2
-01eomargarince- dom. vea., Cri cago ......... ..u : 15i.0 15.0 15.o is1p
Lard, prire sto~ne-, C:i-Cago; .............L........: E:.j 6.6 6.2 6.0 .
La--d, rfined1, tub~s, Chicag~o ............1...,...: 1".1 r.Fi 7.1 6'. 6 6.7qj
Compou~nd:s(Anil..1 and~ veg.cooking fats),Chicago .: 1059.2 9.5 9 -,5 9,5
'01eo oil. P-:tra, tierces, Chicago ..............,:: 5.8 7.5 7.4 74 7L2
01eostearina, bilCs., TT. Y. ...................: 7.4 6.5 7.0 6.-8 6.4

Corn oil, cirude, tanks, f.o.b. mills ...........: 7.4 6.n 5.9 Glo 6.1
Corn oil, refi:?e, Sbbls., l..Y. ..,.............: 9.7 6.9 8T.6 86 8.
Cottonseed nil, cr~ude, tankso, f.n~b. 5.E. mills.: 6.7 5.6 6.9 5* 6o
Co t ton spcdcil ?. s.y.. F. Y. ..................: 7.9 6.7 6. 69 6.,9
Peantit oil, crud thanks, f~nt. mills .........: 6.9 5. .6 6.7 6.9
Peanut ril, dor.. finede, btls., U., Y. .........: 10.1 .3.2 101.1 g;6 914;i
Soybean oil, crudc, tankr car~s, midwe~stern mills.: 6.1 4.8 5.1 3 .
SoybeenY cil, rlfined, dlrumS, N. Y. .............: 9.1 7.5 S.0~ 8,2 8.3

Patassu ?il, tankl~s, Ur. Y. ......................: 6.2 6. .S 6.3
Co~conuLt cil.crud.,tanks, f.a.b..Pacific Coast 2/ .: 6.6 5.1 6.4-- -
Coco~nut coil, edit.1e, tanks;, NJ. Y. _2/ ..........,: 9.1 7.2 7.9 7.~ J.4
Olive oil., Feditle. 0115. JI. Y. ................: 27.9 25127.7 -26.-9 2.7
rClive-3il (costs, rrisc, drus, NJ. Y. ...........: 9.2 7.1 8.7 8.4 .8.3
Palm oIl, crude, casksr, N~. Y. 2/ ...,............: 7.2 6.7 C. .4 6 .2
RaFPe cil, refinea. Eth~., U. Y. ;/ ...,..........: 1;J-. r 13.3 8. 18.2 18.2
Sssame ril, refined, Idrums, iI. Yr. ..............: 107.4 3, 5 12.0 11.8 11.6
TeasCed~ oil, CrUin, d~.rums, l!. Y. ...............: 8.5 9.0C 12.5 12.5 12.5

Tallow, inedible, G' ic -so .....................,: 5-3 5.0 5.3 5.1 5.0
Gr aSP, A white, Ch~i-ag .......................: 5,.5 5-1 5.4 .1~ B5.1g
Mlerhaden oil, crude, thanks, f.rn.b. Beltincrel' ...: 5.0n 4.0I 4.3 ,
Soardine oil. ridlz, tanks, Pacific Ccist .......: 6.r 3.9 -'4.2 5.0 1
WhalF 011,refine.1,c.1Fsahel wi~telr,dlrums, N.Y. rE/.: 9.9 .2 12.5 12l. 12.5

Linsped- oil, row~, tan~k carlcts, M~inneapolis ....: 9.8 8.3 9.9 10.4 1.
Lin~seed oil, re~w, csrlnts, Bbl3., Na. Y'. ........: 10.1 10.3 10.8 -: 10.4
Perlla oil, trns, Nj. Y. 3/' .......,............: 154 14.1 17 '2,2.7 2 .r5
01ticice. 7il, drumen, 7:. Y. .....................: 12.4 9.8 20.4 '20.5 2.
Tmung nil, demius, 1. Y. .........................: 15315.0I 26.5 '27-4 2745
Castcr oil, W.hydirated, dram~a, carlots, N. Y. ..: --- --- 160 170 1.1
Caster oil.:r 3c. 3, 113., ii~FY, ......-.....-....: 9.2 7.2 1;.0 12.8 12.8
Ocdlieril md. .SP.,2Y.('o~pr -1.).:27.9 25.5 33.5 ~335 33-5
Codrl r.il, Hewf7.iunl~dlad tbbls., I. Y. ............: 6.9 4.0I S9. 9.6 9.6.

ycp~ra., as,,, f.r.Y. Pacific Cosxt ..............: 2.2 1.7 2.0 2.0 1.g
PSTtternSF_1d, 3qallaS (del. IPer t n) ..............: 22.4 20.6 2T.6 30(2' 29.7
Fla-rseeld. Njr. 1, A'inr.-1a.Polis (par bu~.) .........: 2134.0! 192.0 207.0 218.0 214.0!
J-y~Eyans, Ilc. 2 Yellow,~? Ch7icago (pCer bu~.) ......: 104.(0 52.0 11C.0) 116.0 106,0
70mplled from Dil, P-ai!t. r.nd Drug Renorter, The Njational Provisioner, Chic~ao DaiSy
Trade 3ulletin. Mdi~nneapolis Daily Mdarke~t Rcord, and reports of' the Agricullturai
5:arketin;: Servir-, ad Eureau of" Labonr Statis~tics. If Preliminzry. 2/ Includes
cexciss tax~ rf j ner.ts- tEir.ning MlayI l, 1gj4. 1/ Includps excise toz of 4.5 cents
;4Finning~ August. 21, 1936. 4/ In~clJudes PXCisq tax of 3 cents beginning July 1,
1339,