The Fats and oils situation

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Title:
The Fats and oils situation
Physical Description:
301 v. : ill. ; 26-28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Agricultural Economics
United States -- Agricultural Marketing Service
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture. -- Economic Research Service
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture. -- Economics, Statistics, and Cooperatives Service
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture. -- Economics and Statistics Service
United States -- World Food and Agricultural Outlook and Situation Board
Publisher:
The Bureau
Place of Publication:
Washington
Publication Date:
Frequency:
frequency varies

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Oil industries -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Oils and fats, Edible -- Economic aspects -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Agricultural Economics.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
FOS-1 (Mar. 1937) - FOS-301 (Oct. 1980).
Issuing Body:
Issued by: Agricultural Marketing Service, 1954-Mar. 1961; Economic Research Service, May 1961-<Oct. 1977>; Economics, Statistics, and Cooperatives Service, <May 1978>-July 1980; Economics and Statistics Service, Oct. 1980.
General Note:
"Approved by the World Food and Agricultural Outlook and Situation Board," Oct. 1977-Oct. 1980.
General Note:
Title from caption.
General Note:
Item 21-D.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 000502965
oclc - 01588232
notis - ACS2699
lccn - 46039840 //r82
issn - 0014-8865
sobekcm - AA00005305_00047
Classification:
lcc - HD9490.U5 A33
ddc - 380.1/41385/0973
System ID:
AA00005305:00047

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Succeeded by:
Fats and oils outlook & situation

Full Text










BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL ECO N -
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

F0S-52
m ,


JUNE 1941


IN THIS ISSUE:
UTILIZATION OF FATS, OILS, AND ROSIN
IN SOAP


DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED FATS AND OILS, AND ROSIN,
USED IN SOAP. UNITED STATES. 1922-40
POUNDS
SWILLIONS)
2.000 Total


1.600



1.200



800


400
Rosia (domesticG)*
o I i I I I I I I I i

1922 1924 1926 1928 1930 1932 1934 1936 1938 1940 1942
FATS AND OILS-BASIC DATA 1922-10. U. S. TARIFF COMMISSION: BEGINNING 1981. BUREAU OF THE CENSUS
ROSIN-DATA FROM BUREAU OF CHEMISTRY AND ENGINEERING *YEAR BEGINNING APRIL


U. L DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


MEG. 13951 BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL.ECONOMICS


APPROXIMATELY 1,948 MILLION POUNDS OF FATS, OILS, AND ROSIN
WERE USED IN SOAP MANUFACTURE IN 1940, A NEW HIGH RECORD. ROSI ,
USED LARGELY IN YELLOW LAUNDRY SOAPS, ACCOUNTED FOR ABOUT 5 PER-
CENT OF THI TOTAL. THE USE OF FATS AND OILS OF FOREIGN ORIGIN
WAS REDUCED, WHILE THE USE OF DOMESTIC FATS AND OILS, WITH ABUNDANT
SUPPLIES AND LOW PRICES PREVAILING, WAS INCREASED. IN 1940 DOMESTIC
FATS AND OILS ACCOUNTED FOR ABOUT TWO-THIRDS OF THE TOTAL SAPONIFI-
ABLE MATERiALS USED. SOAP PRODUCTION DURING THE PAST 20 YEARS HAS
EXPANDED MORE RAPIDLY THAN POPULATION, AND HAS VARIED TO SOME EXTENT
WITH CHANGES 1I NATIONAL INCOME.


'. oo


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JUNE 1941 2 -

Table 1.- Price per pound of specified fats and oils,
May 1939 and 1940, March-May 1941
Item Ma 1941
:tem1939 :1940 :Mar. :Apr. ;
:Cents Cents Cents Cents Cents
Butter, 92-score, Chicago ......................... 22.8 26.4 30.8 32.5 34.7
Butter, 92-score, New York ........................ 23.6 27.6 31.6 33.2 35.5
Oleomargarine, dom. veg., Chicago .................: 14.5 15.0 14.5 14.5 14.5
Compounds (animal and veg. cooking fats), Chicago .: 9.2 9.5 11.1 12.4 13.0
Lord, prime steam, tierces, Chicago ...............: 6.5 5.6 7.0 8.6 9.5
Lard, refined, cartons, Chicago J/ ................: 7.5 6.4 7.3 9.0 9.8
Oleo oil, extra, tiorcjs, Chicago ................: 7.5 7.0 7.2 8.9 9.8
Oleostocrine, bbl., Y. .......................... : 5.9 6.0 6.8, 8.4 9.6
Tallow, edible, Chicago ............................: 52 4.7 6.0 7.6 8.2

Corn oil, crude, tanks, f.o.b. mills ..............: 5.9 5-9 6.6 8.3 9*9
Corn oil, refined, bbl., N. Y. .....................: 8.9 8.8 9.1 10.8 12.6
Cottonseed oil, crude, tanks, f.o.b. S.E. mills ...: 5.6 5.7 6.h 7.9 9.2
Cottonseed oil, p.s.y., tank cars, N. Y. ..........: 6.6 6.4 7.1 8.6 10.5
Peanut oil, crude, tanks, f.o.b. mills ............: 5.6 5.9 6.2 7.9 9.5
Peanut oil, dom. refined, bbl., N. Y. .............: 8.9 9.2 8.8 10.6 12.5
Soybean oil, crude, tank cars, midwestern mills ...: 4.9 5.3 6.0 7.6 8.7
Soybean oil, dom., crude, drums, N. Y. ............: 6.7 7.1 7.9 9.2 10.4
Soybean oil, refined, drums, N. Y. ................: 7.5 8.0 8.6 10.0 11.1

Babassu oil, tanks, f.o.b, mills, Pacific Coast ...: -- -- 6.8 7.8 9.2
Coconut oil, crude, tanJ:s, f.o.b. Pacific Coast 2/ : 6.0 5.8 6.8 8.1 9.4
Coconut oil, edible, drums, I. Y. .................: .2 7.7 8.8 10.4 12.3
Olive. oil, edible, drums, 11. Y. ...................: 25.1 25.9 46.9 53.3 63-7
Olive-oil foots, prime, drums, N. Y ..............: 7.1 .5 11.5 13.2 14.8
Olive oil, inedible, drums, 1. Y .................: 11.2 15.0 30.8 35.3 47-5
Palm oil, Niger, crude, drums, N. Y. 2/ ..........: 6.8 7.5 7.7 8.3 9.0
Palm oil, Sumatra, bulk, T. Y. 2/ .................: 5.7 5.5 6.6 7.8 8.6
Rape oil, rDfir.:'., denatured, drums, IT. Y. ........: 10.8 14.6 12.7 12.1 12.2
Rape oil, blown, bbl., IT. Y. ......................: 14.2 17.4 17.5 17.5 17.0
Teascod oil, crudo, drums, IT. Y. ...................: 9.5 12.5 17.4 18.1 18.6


Tallow, inedible, Chicrgo ........................:
Grease, A white, Chicago ..........................:
Menhandn oil, crude, tanks, f.o.b. Baltimore ......:
Sardine oil, crude, tanks, Pacific Coast ..........:
Whale oil, refined, blonched winter, drums, N. Y. .:


5.0
5.2
4.3
4.3
8.2


4.2
4.2
4.6
5.6
9.5


5.4
5.5
5.4
6.9
9.5


6.8
6.9
6.0
7.3
9.8


7.5
7.6
6.7
7.3
9.9


Linseed oil, raw, tank c.rs, Minnennolis ..........: 8.7 10.0 9.0 9.6 9.9
Linsec:d oil, raw, drums, c-rlots, II. Y. ...........: 9.0 10.6 10.0 10.8 10.9
Perillo oil, drums, N. Y. ........................: 9.7 18.5 18.2 18.2 18.6
Oiticica oil, drums, r. Y. ........................: 11.8 17.5 17.2 17.1 19.2
Tung oil, drums, .1. Y. ..........................: 17.8 24.8 28.6 30.0 31.0

Castor oil, dehydrated, drums, carlots, N. Y. .....: --- 17.0 13.? 13.7 15,0
Castor oil, No. 3 bbl., IT. Y. .....................: 8.2 12.8 9.8 9.9 11.0
Cod-liver oil, m.d. U.S.P. bbl.,N.Y.(dol. per bbl.): 20.8 60.0 71.0 79.4 82.5
Cod oil, Newfoundlnnd, bbl., N. Y. ................: 4.3 --- 9.0 9.8 10.0
Compiled from CLi, Paint and Drug Reporter, The TN.tional Provisioner, and reports
of the Agricultural Marketing Service and Bureau of Labnr Statistics. Prices
quoted include excise taxes and duties where aoplicablc. I/ Reported in tubs
prior to July 1940. 2/ Three-cent processing txh added to rice as originally
quoted.






OS52 3 -


THE FAT S A D O I LS SI TUAT I O N
-----------------------------. ----.----

Summary

Present indications point to a smaller reduction in the output of

i. lard and greases in the United States this year than had been anticipated

'... earlier. With production of butter, cottonseed oil, linseed oil, and

S peanut oil currently above last year's levels, total production of fats and

Soils from domestic materials may be slightly larger in 1941 than the record

output in 1940, Much will depend, however, on the outturn of field crops

this yep.r. Crop conditions are reported to be gencrnlly favorable at present

except in the Southeast, whdre 'here is a shortage of I.-i '.u:.-.

Prices of fats ind oils in May averaged 10 percent higher than in

r April. The wholesale price index for 27 fats and oils in May, at 87 percent

of the 1924-29 level, wts 30 percent higher than in Jnunrry and 40 percent

above the May 1940 index. As exceptions to the rather general advances,

prices of linseed oil rnd perilla oil in May were about the same as a ye r

earlier, while prices of cpstor oil and r,.pe oil were low'rer. Prices for

these oils were relatively high last ye.r.

Factors supporting the recent price advances have included growing

strength in domestic demand, together with a moderate reduction in imports

of oilseeds and oils as a result of tightness in the ocean shipping situa-

tion, particularly on the Philippine-United States route. Imports normally

account for 10 to 15 percent of the total supply of fats available for do-

mestic use, with coconut oil and copra from the Philippines constituting

about one-third of total imports. Rising shipping costs for imported

materials generally, and Government purchases of Inrd and dairy products,

also have been supporting factors.







JL'NE 1941


Prices of domestic oilseeds have not changed so much as prices of

domestic oils, mainly because of the comparative stability in prices of

oilcake meal. Flaxueed prices in May were slightly lower than a year

earlier, and peanut prices were about unchanged. The farm price of cotton-

seed, however, was about $1.00 per ton higher in May this year than last,

and soybean prices were up about 24 percent.

-- June 14, 1941

REVIEW OF RECENT DEVELOP!MEITS

BACKGROUND,- Following the outbreak of war in September
1939, prices of fats and oils in the United States ad-
vanced approximately 20 percent. Most of this gain was
lost during the first 8 months of 1940, when the world
demand for fats was greatly weakened by the closing of
important Europafn markets. In response to improve-
ment in domestic demand and rising shipping costs for im-
ported oilseeds End oils, prices again advanced from
August to December 1940, recovering the earlier loss.
Since January 1941, prices of fats and oils have ad-
vanced sharply; in May this :.rear the general level was
30 percent higher than in January and 40 percent above
that of a year earlier.

Prices up sharply in May

Prices of fats aind oils advanced shr.rply in May, with prices generally
averr.ging 10 percent higher then in April. The wholesale price index for
27 fats r.nd oils in Mi-y, at 87 percent of the 1924-29 average, was at the
highest level since March 1937.

Prices of all fcts and oils, irith the exception of rape oil and
sardine oil, shar'-d in the advance in MWy. Prices of linseed, tung, and
perilla oils were only 2 to 3 perccat higher than a month earlier, but prices
of animal fats averaged 8 percent higher, vegetable oils of foreign origin,
as a group, were up 12 percent, and prices of domestic vegetable oils scored
nn average gain of 17 percent for the month. The price of prime stocm lard
at Chicago in May, at 9.5 cc!ts per pound, was 10 percent higher than a month
earlier; rnaM the price of 92-score butter, nt 34.7 cents per pound, was 7
percent higher, contra-sersonnlly. (T.blo 1.)

Striking gins over prices n year ago have been recorded for most
items. The price of edible olive oil in May '.as more than double that of a
year earlier, tallow r.nd grease prices were up about 80 percent, the price
of lard was 70 percent higher, prices of cottonseed oil, coconut oil, corn
oil, soybean oil, peanut oil, palm oil, oleo oil, olcostearine, fish oils,
cod-liver oil, rnd butter were 30-60 percent higher, and the price of tung


- 4 -






S'I


-5-


oil was 25 percent higher. Prices of linseed and perilla oils in May were
bout unchanged from a year earlier, while prices for rape oil and castor
oil were lower. In contrast to the situation for most fats and oils, prices
for the last-named items, as well as for cod-liver oil and tung oil, were
high .during the spring last year.

As indicated in the April issue of this report, several factors have
Contributed to the recent advances in prices of fats and oils. These in-
clude the growing strength in domestic demand arising from increases in
'industrial production, building activity, and consumer incomes, together
Swith a reduction in the total volume of imports of oilseeds and oils result-
i ,"iig from the withdrawal of some British vessels from American service and
S' 'the diversion of other vessels to trade in "strategic" and "critical" raw
materials Rising shipping costs for imported materials and Government
7p purchases of lard and dairy products also have been price-supporting factors,

Although the total volume of imports so far this year has been re-
duced, domestic supplies of most imported items continue to be abundant.
Notable exceptions are tung oil, perilla oil, cod-liver oil, and olive oil,
imports of which have been sharply reduced as a. result of conditions in
certain foreign countries rather than because of lack of shipping space.
Castor beans, flaxseed, and babassu kernels from South America have continued
to come in in good volume, and imports of palm oil from the Netherlands Indies
Shave been considerably larger so far this year than nlst. A reduction of
r' nearly 20 percent in imports of coconut oil and copra from the Philippines
.has taken place, however. The withdrawal of British ships from American
service early in 194l apparently affected the Philippine-United States route
more than any other. Recently, conditions on that route appear to have been
improved to some extent,

Prices for domestic oilseeds show little
change, except for soybeans

In general, prices of domestic oilceeds have not changed so much in
recent months as prices of domestic fats rnd oils, mainly bccnuse prices
for domestic oilcake neal have been maintained at comparatively low levels.
Reflecting the trend in the linseed meal market (and the relative stability
in the price of linseed oil), flaxseed prices were slightly lower in May
than in April, and also were lower than in May last year. Peanut prices,
which have boon supported by the peanut-diversion program were little changed
.in May from those of a month and a year earlier. Prices of cottonseed ad-
vanced in May, however, despite weakness in prices of cottonseed meal. The
average price received by farmers for cottonseed in mid-May was estin.ted to
be.$27.67 per ton, nearly $2.00 higher than in mid-April and about $1.00
higher then in mid-May last year. The farm price of soybeans in mid-May, at
$1.19 per bushel, was 11 percent higher than a month earlier and 24 percent
higher than a year earlier. The price of soybean neal advanced in May, but
continued somewhat below that of May 1940. (Tables 8 and 9.)

Among the imported-oilseeds, castor boan prices netted a 12-oprcent
gain in May, and averoaed slightly higher than in May last year when Brazilian
supplies were short as a result of unfavorable weather conditions. Largely
as a result of an advance in shipping rates, the average price of copra at







JuIra 1941


-6-


West Coast markets advanced 30 percent from April to May, and in the latter
month was more than double the price a year earlier. The price of copra
meal also advanced sharply in May, As a result of action by the Maritime
Commission, the advance in shipping rates for coconut oil and copra, which
went into effect early in May, was rescinded later in the month.

Decline in lard output in 1941 to be
less than anticipated earlier

During the first 4 months of 1941, the production of lard tinder
Federal inspection, including rendered pork fat, totaled 512 million pounds,
9 percent less than in the corresponding period of 1940. EErlier indications
pointed to a reduction of 10-20 percent in lard output for the calendar year
1941. It now seems likely that the decrease will not exceed 10 percent. In
1940, the estimated production of lard, including output on farms and in non-
inspected plants, as well as that produced under Federal inspection, amounted
to approximately 2,297 million pounds.

With lard and grease production reduced no more than 10 percent and
with factory output of butter, cottonseed oil, linseed oil, and peanut oil
running considerably above last year's levels, total production of fats and
oils from domestic materials in 1941 may be slightly larger than the record
output in 1940. Much will depend, of course, on the outturn of field crops
this year. Dry weather has been experienced in several areas during the
past 2 months, and a considerable deficiency of moisture exists in the South-
east, which may have an adverse effect not only on cottonseed and peanut pro-
duction but to some extent also on the output of hog and dairy products,

Emergency castor-bean seed. program
announce ed

An emergency castor-bean seed production progrrj was announced on
June 10. This program is designed to furnish a supply of adapted seed
stocks in the event defense developments should mnko it expedient to increase
domestic castor-oil production in 1942. The program will be limited to 11
counties in the black-land area north and south of Drllas, Texas.

It is contemplated that approximately 1,700 acres of castor beans
will be planted in Texas under the seed program this year. To encourage.
the planting of castor beans, fnrers cooperating in the Agricultural Adjust-
ment Administration progrpn in the designated counties will be offered 3,5
cents per pound for cleaned seed, and will be exer.pted from deductions from
their 1941 Agricultural Conservation Progrnn payments for excess soil-
depleting acreage equal to 5 acres or 5 percent of the crop land, whichever
is the greater, where the excess is due to tho planting of castor beans.

Planting seed of four varieties, which tests during the past several
years show are the best now available in the required quantities will be
distributed to cooperating farmers, The Conmmodity Credit Corporation will
finance the purchase of the harvested bonns, The beans purchased will be
hulled and cleaned for storage in approved warehouses pending the determi-
nation of whether a further expansion in domestic production in 1942 is
desirable,







POS-52


- 7 -


With.normal production, 1,700 acres should produce approximately
1,.500,000 pounds of beans.- Thip is enough seed to plant from 250,000 to
300,000 acres in.the. event it becomes necessary to do so. Plantings of
250,000 acres of castor beans would- produce from 55 million to SO million
pounds of oil depending on seasonal conditions.

It was emphasized that. the castor-bean seed program is strictly a
S defense measure made advisable by the possibility of the lack of shipping
. to bring in our normal requirements of tung oil from China and castor beans
': from Brazil and India. So far this year, imports of castor beans, chiefly
S from Brazil with a smell quantity from India, have exceeded imports in the
Corresponding period in 1940. Developments in the international situation
during the next 6 months are expected to determine whether or not commercial
castor-bean production should be encouraged in 1942. Under normal conditions,
castor beans usually cannot be grown successfully in this country in compe-
tition with beans produced in semi-tropical areas.

In the first World War, castor oil was in great demand as an aviation
lubricant. During that War an unsuccessful attempt was made to grow castor
beans domestically. It failed because of the lack of adapted seed. Since
then, satisfactory aviation lubricants have been developed from petroleum,
Dehydrated castor oil can be used as an acceptable substitute for some of
the important purposes for which tung oil is now needed, a substitution of
S considerable importance since imports of tung oil have been sharply reduced
by war in China.

UTILIZATION OF FATS, OILS, AiD ROSIN IN SOAP

Consumption of fats, oils, and rosin in the soap industry in 1940,
totaling 1,948 million pounds, was 21 million pounds (1 percent) larger than
.the previous record consumption in 1939, and was 279 million pounds (17 per-
cent) larger than in 1930. The use of rosin in soup has declined somewhat
during the. past 10 years, apparently as a result of growing consumer prefer-
ence for soap flakes and powders and a diminishing demand for yellow laundry
soaps. The use of imported fats and oils in soap also has declined since
1930, partly because of duties and taxes levied on imports and processing.
On the othe- hand, utilization of fats and oils of domestic origin has ex-
panded nnterirlly in recent years. Domestic fats, which made up about 54 per-
cent of the total saponifiable materials used in soap in 1930, accounted for
two-thirds of the total in 1940. (Tables 2-4.)

Increased production also has been a factor responsible for the greater
use of douentic fats and oils in soap. The nost notable gain has occurred in
inedible t,2,low and greases. Utilization of soybean oil and domestic vege-
table-oil foots in the soap industry has increased to some extent.

A marked decline in the use of imported palm oil in soap has taken
place during the past 10 years. The use of palm-kernel oil in soap has been
almost discontinued. Palm oil is a hard oil of the tallow class, while palm-
kernel oil is one of the so-called lauric-acid oils which contribute quick-
lathering properties to soap. Since 1934, both these oils have been subject
to an excise tax of 3 cents per pound on the first domestic processing.







JUEm 194i


- -


Reductions in the use of palm and palm-kernel oils in soap, however,
have been nearly offset, in absolute terms, by increases in the use of the
quick-lathering coconut and babassu oils. Coconut oil also has been subject
to a processing tax in recent years, but abundant supplies of this oil have
been made available from Philippine coconut plantations at comparatively
low prices. Consumption of coconut oil in soap increased from 303 million
pounds in 1930 to 397 million pounds in 1940. Brazilian babassu oil, which
is free of tax and duty, was virtually unknown to the .domestic soap industry
in 1930; use of this oil in soap amounted to about 41 million pounds in 1940.
The combined consumption in soap of the three commercially important quick-
lathering oils coconut, palm-kernel, and babassu increased from 333
million pounds in 1930 to 438 million pounds in 1940, a gain of 32 percent.

Because of their ready solubility and quick-lathering properties,
there has been an increasing demand for lauric-acid soaps. The quick-lather-
ing oils have contributed 20-22 percent of the total saponifiable materials
used in the expanding output of soap in erch of the past 15 years, except in
1935, following the imposition of processing taxes on coconut and palm-kernel
oils.

3.6 billion pounds of soap produced
in 129 .

According to the Census of Manufactures, approximately 3.6 billion
pounds of soap and products containing soap were produced in the soap industry
in 1939 compared with 3.2 billion pounds in 1937. Output in 1939 was valued
at 273 million dollars. (Table 5.)

Production of most kinds of soap and soap products was increased from
1937 to 1939. Significant reductions occurred, however, in the output of
yellow bar laundry soaps, bar cleansers containing soap, and shaving cream.
Production of white laundry soaps and granulated soaps, on the other hand,
was materially increased. Significant gains were recorded also in output of
toilet soaps, soap chips and flakes, washing powders, and liquid and textile
soaps.

Glycerin production at record level
in 1940

Glycerin is produced mainly as a byproduct of the soap industry. All
fats and fatty oils contain glycerin, little of which is retained in soap.

According to reports of the Bureau of the Census, domestic output of
crude glycerin, 9O percent basis, increased from 62 million pounds in 1919 to
197 million pounds in 1940. Production in the United Statee is estimated to
be about half .of the world total. Despite the large production in this
country, there usually is a net import balance for glycerin, which has im-
portant uses in many industrial products. In 1940, however, exports of
glycerin were approximately 5 million pounds in excess of imports.






-.I::; -52 -9-

The Soviet Union, Japan, Philippine Islands, Argentina, and Cuba
ordinarily supply a considerable p.rt of the glycerin imported by the United
States. NTo gl3cerin was imported from the Soviet Union or Japan in 1940.
SExports to Canada, Japan, pnd Sweden, on the other hand, assumed considerable
proportions.

Domestic consumption of glycerin in 194b was somewhat smaller than
:'the record cbnsuiption in 1939. Stocks were increased during the year, and
S.a.on December 31 amounted to approximately 90 million pounds, (Table 6,)
Prices of glycerin have been maintained at a comparatively stable level dur-
+c-" P )





JUlE 1941


Table 2.- Estimated quantity of domestic and imported fats, oils,
and rosin used in soap, United States, 1922-40


:Domestic :Imported :


fats
and
oils I/:


: Million
: pounds


782
737
891
851
908
992
949
924
907
863
923
869
1,052
1,092
1,103
1,076
1,168
1,248
1,299


fats
and
oils 2/
Million
pounds


338
458
430
564
578
634
686
765
653
678
605
588
563
411
474
582
509
561
553


Rosin
(do-
mestic


Million
pounds

141
143
105
141
118
100
91
114
109
120
131
132
142
139
149
136
117
118
96


: : Percentage of total
: Total :Domestic :Imported :
:i I/ :fats and :fats and : Rosin
___oils : oils :


Million
pounds


Percent Percent Percent


1,261
1,339
1,426
1,556
1,604
1,726
1,726
1,803
1,669
1,662
1,658
1,588
1,757
1,643
1,726
1,795
1,794
1,927
1,948


62.0
55.1
62.5
54.7
56.6
57.5
55.0
51.3
54.4
52.0
55.6
54.7
59.9
66.5
63.9
60.0
65.1
64.
66.7


26.8
34,2
30.1
36,2
36.0
36,7
39.7
42.4
39,1
40.8
36,5
37,0
32.0
25,0
27.5
32.4
28.4
29.1
28.4


11,2
10.7
7.4
9.1
7.4
5.8
5.3
6.3
6,5
7.2
7.9
8.3
8,1
8.5
8.6
7.6
6.5
6.1
4.9


Compiled as follows:
Fats and oils-


1922-30, United States
130-32.


Tariff Commission, Report No. 41, pp. 127,


31-40, Bureau of the Census, Animal and Vegetable Fats and Oils,
except cottonseed-oil foots end other foots, which are estimates
of the Bureau of Agricultural Economics.


Rosin-
Naval Stores Research Division, Bureau of Agricultural Chemistry and
Engineering, United States Department of Agriculture. Rosin data
are for year beginning April.
1/ Includes all tallow, greases, stearine. lord, oleo oil, neat's-foot oil,
red oil, cottonseed gnd other foots, cottonseed oil, corn oil, peanut oil, ands
beginning 1930, soybean oil; also proportionate part of whale and fish oils
represented by domestic production of those oils, and one-half the linseed oil
"other" oils, and miscellaneous soap stock used in soap.
2 Includes all babassu oil, coconut oil, palm-kernel oil, palm oil, olive
oil, castor oil, rape oil, sesame oil, sunflower oil, vegetable tallow, and,
prior to 1930, soybonn oil; also proportionate part of whalo and fish oils
represented by imports of those oils, and one-half the linsoed oil, "other"
oils, and miscellaneous soap stock used in soap.
/ Total of unrounded numbers.
4/ Preliminary,


Year
:*


1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940


---


-------- --


- 10 -


19





O 3S-521


Table 3.- Soap: Fats, oils, and rosin used in manufacture,
United States, 1936-40


Item


S 1936 : 1937 1: 938 9 1939 : 1940


; Hard oils(tallow class): :1,000 b. 1,000 lb. 1,000 lb. 1,000 lb. 1,000 lb.
Slow lathering-
* : Tallow, inedible ......: 660,020 613,509 702,267 785,041 786,456
Whale and fish oils i/. 160,647 189,009 145,954 166,483 107,911
S Greases ...............: 9S,714 94,247 96,356 120,856 256,886
' Palm oil .............. 78,453 14l,358 91,642 102,146 84,934
Tallow, edible ........: 228 143 332 41l 657
Olcostoenrinc ......... 320 321 240 278 549
S.r d ..... ........... 9 --- 1 50 645
Total ,................ 998,391 1,039,537 1,036,792 1,175,272 123,038
Quick lethering-
Coconut oil ...........: 307,376 252,241 342,982 318,912 396,857
Palm-keriol oil .......: 26,443 111,514 29,498 '3,657 197
Babassu oil ...........: 8,993 14,300 ,289 j __J63l 41 221
Total ............:.. 342,12 37,063 330,J69 4o30,202 43S,275
Soft.oils:


Cottonseed-oil foots
.nd other foots 2/ ..:
Olive oil.-sulphurcd


13,000


183,000 205,000 156,000 130,000


and inedible ........: 25,599 1,8074 16,312 20,507 16,585
Soybean oil ............: 5,023 10,274 10,597 11,177 17,612
Cottonseed oil ...,.....: 1,278 3,414 2,883 1,061 2,971
Corn oil ...............: 2,527 2,392 2,514 4,441 3,638
Castor oil .............: 1,623 2,123 1,G10 946 1,225
Linseed oil ............: 1,482 1,359 1,455 1,730 1,489
Peenut oil .............: 1,734 G20 545 805 387
Sesame oil .......... 1,869 2,944 302 14 38
Ol oil .........,....... 57 74 119 67 127
Rapo oil :..............: 7,771 9S1 55 2 49
Olive oil,'edible ......: 53 21 31 54 130
Neat's-fort oil ........ : 41 16 20 11 19
Perilla oil ............: 2 --- 1
Tung oil ...............: 2 -
Other 3/ ............ ,: 4,26J 10,812 14,031 7,364 2 O51
Total ................ 236335 242.106 252,974 204,230 17,321
Tctal fats and oils ..:1,57 7538 1,b5.,7to 1, 6 535 1,809,704 1.352,63
Rosin 4/................ 14,536 136,1iO io 16~ 117507 5/95.633
Totnl snpnnifiable
materi. s .......... :1,726,074 1,795,166 1,793,999 1,927,211 1,945,267
Compiled. es follows: Fr.ts and oils, Buro.u of the Census, Animal rnd
Vegetable Fnts and Oils; rosin, Naval Stores Research Division, Bureau of
Agricultural Chemistry r.nd Engineering, United States Department of
Agricult'.reo.
/f Inclulns whnle oil, and herring, srdine, menhaden, and other fish oils.
SEstimated.
Reported as "other vegetable oils".
SThe rosin season extends from April of one year through M.rch of the next
year. Data are placed in the cnlenda.r ye-r in which most of the season occurs,
5/ Preliminary.


f"


rr


- 11 -







JITE 1941


- 12 -


Table 4.- Soap: Fats, oilq, and rosin as percentage of
total saponifiable materials used in manufacture,
United States, 1931-40


Item : 1931: 1932: 1933: 1934: 1935: 1936: 1937: 1938: 1939:.1940

:Pct. Pot. Pet. Pot. Pct. Pct. Pot. Pot. Pot. Pet.
Hard oils (tallow
class):
Slow lathering -
Tallow, inedible : 31.5 33.1 32.0 37.7 40.4 '38.2 34.2 39.1 40.7 40.4
Whale and fish
oils ..........: 7.6 5.9 6.1 5.6 8,4 9.3 10.5 -8.1 8.6 5.5
Grease ..........: 7.8 8.7 7.9 8.1 6.0 5.7 53 5.4 6.3 15.2
Palm oil ........: 10.4 10.1 11.8 8.8 5.3 4.5 7.9 5.1 5.3 4.4
Other ...........: 2 .2 .1 .1 1/ -1/ I 1/ / -1/
Total ........:57. 5.0 58.0 60.3 60.2 57.7 57.9 57.7 609
QLick lathering -
Coconut oil ......: 20.5 21.3 20.3 19.4 14.0 17.8 14.1. 19.1 20.2 20.4
Palm-kernel oil ..: 1.7 .2 .4 .9 23 1.5 6.2 1.6 .2 1/
Babassu oil ......: --- --- --- -- .5 .8 .5 2.0 2.1
Total .........: 22.2 21.5 20.7 20.3 16. 19.8 21.1 21.2 22.4 22.5
Soft oils:
Cottonseed-oil
foots and other
foots ...........: 9.1 9.2 9.1 8.0 11.6 10.6 10.2 11.6 8.1 6.7
Olive oil, sul-
phured and
inedible ........: 2.5 2.0 2.] 1.8 2.0 1.5 1.1 .9 1.1 .8
Soybean oil ......: .2 .3 .3 .1 .2 .3 .6 .6 .6 .9
Cottonseed oil ...: .1 .2 4 .2 .1 .1 .5 .2 .1 .2
Other ............: 1.1 .9 1.1 1.2 1.1 1.4 1.0 1. .7 .5
Total......... 13.0 12.6 13.0 11. 15.0 13.9 13.4 14 10.6 9.1
Total fats and
oils .........: C2.g 92.1 91.7 91.9 91.5 91.4 92.4 93.5 93.9 95.1
Rosin ............: 7.2 7.9 8.3 8.1 8.5 8.6 7.6 6.5 6.1 4.9
Total saponi-
fiable mate- :
rials ........:100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0


1936-40, based on data. in table 3; data for earlier cars ore r--.in in The Fats
and Oils Situation, August 1937.


/j Less than .05 percent.






iA ..52

Table 5.- Quantit;
: produced ii




Item




S.r..soap
.- Toilet soap ............
S Laundry soap -
White ...............
: Yellow ..............
Granulated, powdered, and
sprayed soap ..........
Soap chips and flakes ...
S Washing powders .........
Cleansers and scouring
powders containing
soap l/..............
Bar cleansers containing
soap ..................


Shaving soap
Stick, powder and cake :
Cream ............... :
Liquid soap .............:
Textile soaps ...........:
Hand pastes .............:
Soap stock for sale ...:
Potash soap; other than :
textile and liquid ....:
Other soap .............:2/


n


13 -

and valuf of the various kinds of soap
the soap industry, United States,
1937 and 1939


1937


Quantity
1,000 lb.

360,611


488,980
633,441

743,195
390,455
232,411


178,346

5,447


5,076
9,556
29,870
60,708
16,931
4,522

25,072
39,790


Value
1,000 dol.

62,805


28,192
33,196

68,409
38,005
9,104


7,172

411


1,954
7,775
2,435
5,358
1,062
347

2,157
3,422


1939

Quantity Value


1,000 lb.


405,084


660,766
580,215

894,727
419,215
248,342


186,150

4,954


5,679
7,611
39,164
63,671
18,748
4,350

30,929
45,640


1,000 dol.

64,920


29,888
27,753

75,632
34,567
8,839


7,714

303


2,197
6,232
3,340
5,014
1,061
286

2,129
3,560


Total .............. 3/3,224,4 11


271,804 3/


Biennial Census of Manufactures, 1939.

/ Does not include production in the cleaning and polishing preparations
industry.
2/ Estimated.
3/ Partly estimated.


3,615,24.5


273.465


*






JUNE 1941

.Table 6.- Glycerin, crude,
stocks December 31,
United


14 -

80 percent basis: Production trade,
and apparent disappearance,
States, 1919-40


(Net exports are indicated by a minus sign)


: Factory Imports
Year for
-production: io
Sconsnmption


: 1,000 lb. 1,000 lb.


1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940


61,793
54,688
63,947
85,337
99,579
95,154
103,407
116,369
128,209
130,499
140,080
138,675
140,002
133,919
119,812
153,115
141,185
154,096
169,039
162,120
184,476
197,320


3,861
29,004
3,400
3,801
15,266
16,265
21,768
40,970
25,158
10,216
21,444
14,987
12,541
8,258
9,873
17,793
8,305
15,372
22,672
16,243
11,392
9,462


Exports


1,000 lb.


4,707
2,069
2,844
3,409
2,099
1,681
1,624
912
823
2,437
1,631
722
390
309
1
3,982
1,361
1.,633
4,4/,9
C,736
14,699


:Net imports:


or
net
exports
1,000 lb.

- 846
26,935
556
392
13,167
14,584
20,144
40,058
24,335
7,779
19,813
14,265
12,151
7,949
9,873
17,793
4,323
14,011
21,039
11,794
2,606
- 5,237


Stocks, :
Dec. 31 :

1,000 lb.

14,050
22,825
26,661
25,894
25,955
26,294
15,464
26,214
45,648
39,558
33,331
32,350
43,034
55,627
30,2246
41,228
43,003
38,980
70,100
97,086
SP,611
90,150


Acparent
dis-
appearance
1,000 lb.

60,947
72,848
60,667
86,496
112,685
109,399
134,381
145,677
133,110
144,368
166,120
153,921
141,469
129,275
155,066
159,926
143,733
172,130
158,958
146,928
195,557
190,544


Compiled as follows:
Factory production and stocks, Bureau of the Census,
Animal and Vegetablfe Fits and Oils. Stocks are "crude, tO percent
basis," plus ''"dt -iite" and "ch-emic.ally pure" converted to crude
basis hy multinlying by 0.98 and '.95 respectively and dividing, by
0.80.
Trade figures, Bureau .f Foreivgn and Domestic Cornnrce, Foreign Cormerce
and Navigation cf the United States. Imports consist of both crude
and refined glycerin; refined c-nvcrted to crude basis by multiplying
by 0.98 and dividing by 0.80. .rorts nre not designated as crude or
refined, but Lpparenitl.' are .ade up lartly of refined with an estimated
average glycerin content of '5 percent; converted to crude basis by
rnuluipl:ying by 0.95 a-nd dividin- b' O.FO.
Apparent disappear-nce computed from data on production, trad., and stocks.
1/ UIot separr.tely reported.
2/ Preliminary.


.7
.
]


|


u .






15 -

Table 7.- wholesale prices of fats and oils:
Index numbers, May 1939 and 1940,
March May 1941

S (1924-29 9 100)
Group .Iay 1941
: 1939 : 1940 : ar Ar. :iay

Domestic fats and oils I/.......: 76 81.. .93. 104 113
Domestic fats and oils..........: 54 58 66 74' 80

Seats and oils (27 items).......... 57 62 72 79 87
a by oriin 7
A iimal fats.........................: 52 57 67 73 79
; marine animal oils..................i 71 90.. 99 105 107
Vegetable oils, dor.iestic ............: 66 67 71 84 98
SVegetable oils, foreign ............: 78 88 103 112 128
u use
I peter, unadjusted.................: 52 60 70 74 79
:Butter, adjusted 2/................ : 57 66 .68 78 86
ard ............................... : 50 43 54 65 72
Food fats, other...................: 66 65 78 93 111
Soap fats........................... : 66 62 75 90 101
Drying oils.........................: 81 99 99 105 107
Miscellaneous oils..................: 63 101 86 88 93

/ 1910-14 = 100. 27 Adjusted for tyoical seasonal variation.

Table 8.- Prices of specified oil-bearing materialss,
Iay 1939 and 1940, iiarch 'Lay 1941


: : haty : 1941
It.emn .. Unit 1939 1940.Q r. Aor. ay
i : : Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars
Castor- beans, Brazilian,
ship'.t., c.&f.,. New York. :Long ton : --- 6..6. ..55.25 58.50 65.60
Copra, bags, f.o.b.
Pacific Coast..............: 100 lb. : 1.38 1.62 2.38 3.01 3.90
:Cottonseed, Dallas.......... :Short ton: 23.00 25.63 -- -- --
Cottonseed, U.S.. farm price : : 22.87 26.69.. 2.31 25.88 27.67
Flaxseed, No. 1,
Sinneaolis..................: Bushel : 1.83 1.7 1.80 1.93 1.87
Flaxseed, U.S. farm price : : 1.60 1.75 1.53 1.73 1.68
.Peanuts, shelled,
Runners No. 1, S.E. mills : 100 lb. : .38 5.20 5.30 5.40 5.50
Peanuts, U.S. farm price 3.42 3.66 3.46 3.62 3.65
Soybeans, No. 2 Yellow,
,Chicago....................: Bushel : .96 1.00 1.04 1.20 1.32
Soybeans, U.S. farm price...: .87 .96 .89 1.07 1.19

Compiled from Oil, Paint and irug Reporter, Daily, Trade Bulltin (Chicapo), Daily
market Record (iiinneapolis), and reoorts of the Agricultural marketingg Service.




- 16 -


JUE3 1941


Table 9.- Price per ton of specified oilcake meals, May 1939 and
1940, March-May 1941


:_ May : 1941
: 1939 : 1940 Mar. Apr. Ma
: Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollrrs


Copra meal, Los Angeles ....: 24,65
Cottonseed meal, 41 percent :
protein, Memphis ......... 23.65
Cottonseed meal, 41 percent :
protein, Chicago .........: 29,95
Linseed meal, 37 percent
protein, Minneapolis ...... 37.80
Linseed meal, 34 percent
protein, New York ........ / 39.15
Peanut meal, 45 percent
protein, f.o.b. south-
eastern mills ............ 21,15
Soybean meal, 41 percent
protein, Chicago ......... 26.30


20.00

29,40

36.40

30.25

31.60


29,44

28.65


25,25

214,45

30.75

27,40

23.10


20,88

26.85


30,80o 35. 7


25,20


25,10


31,25 30.80


28,50

24.60


24.20

27.50


27,10

24.55


23,28

28.10


Compiled from records of the Agricultural Marketing Service.
/ Bagged, carlots, except for peanut meal.
S30-32 percent protein.


Table 10.- Production and stocks of butter, lard, rendered pork fat,
and cottonseed oil, April 1939 and 1940, February-April, 1941

: Apr. : 1941
Item : 1939 : 1940 : Feb. : Mar. :Arr. I/
Production : Mil. lb. Mil. lb. Mil. lb. Mil. lb. Mil. lb.


Creamery butter ..........,.:
Lard, Federal inspection ...:
Rendered pork fat 2/ .......
Cottonseed oil, crude ......


145.8
85.6

85.2


Stocks, end of month


Butter ....... ...............: 70.9
Lard .............. .......... .: 129.5
Rendered por: fat 2/ ....... : --
Cottonseed oil, crude
basis I/ .................: 64.1


153.0
.113.3

61.6


9.5
266.1

832.0
932.0


130.8
106.2
11.5
147.7



16 5
317.4
9.2


149,7
117,2
12.8
122.8



9.0
310.4
8.3


721.7 710.4


163,5
113,3
12.4
102.2



17,8
321.1
6.6

640.1


Compiled as follows:
Production of creamery butter and cold storage holdings of
butter, lard, and rendered pork fat, Agricultural Marketing Service.
Production under Federal inspection of lard and rendered pork
fat, Bureau of Animal Industry.
Factory production and stocks of cottonseed oil, Bureau of the
Census.
/Preliminary.
j Included with lard prior to November 1940.
Crude plus refined converted to crude basis by dividing by 0.93.


*1
,~. *1


Item 1/






2 17-

Table 11.- Oleomargarine: Production and materials used in
manufacture, United States, April 1939 and 1940,
February-April 1941


I.. Item

I: t;


April'


1939
:*


1940


February


: 1,000 lb. 1,000 lb. 1,000 lb

6 Nation:
Rooored .................: 96 177 337
' colored ...............: 23,243 27,234 27,765
m t:.: / -' ,'1' 1d i 9 -~


IUU Ja / ................

etga ials used:
i l o oil ................
Oleostearine ...........:
Lard neutral ...........
Oleo stock ..............:
Monostearine ............:
Total animal ..........:

SCottonseed oil ..........:
Soybean oil .............:
peanut oil ..............:
Corn oil ................:
Cottonseed stearinj .....:
Soybean stearine ........:
Total domestic vege- :
table ...............:


Coconut oil .............
Babassu oil .............:
Palm-kernel oil .........:
palm oil ................:
Total foreign vege-
table ...............:
Total fats and oils ...:


Milk ..................... :
Salt and othor miscel-
laneous ...............:


23,339 27,411 28, 21


1,235
314
638
119


1,161
253
504
120
11


1,032
237
94
81


1941 1/


March


April


1,000 lb. 1,000 lb.


291 413
33,589 2/ 31,766
33,880 32,179


1,561 1,402
282 361
899 885
133 84
15 14


1,L44 2,306 2,049 2,890 2,746

7,483 S,188 11,626 13,142 12,896
4,925 7,140 7,394 9,456 8,422
178 113 163 165 159
27 32 39 39 38
S1 1
2


12,613

3,428
1,247
126


15,474

3,08
937


1?,224

1,296
62


22,803 21,516


1,424
66


1,382
211


1 31


4,801
18,858


4,561

1,078


4,021
21,801


5,244

1,234


1,358


1,491


1,624


22,631 27,184 25,886


5,348

1,088


6,414

1,305


6,016

1,227


Compiled from Internal Revenue records and Internal Revenue Bulletin.

/Preliminary.
Includes manufacturers' returns not available for prior reports.
STotal of unrounded numbers.


-


*


--- -~ --- -~




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

11111111112 116111111
3 1262 08905 1550


,iiIi


i.i.iil:
':
i ;

;;+*Ic; 'B eai;L