The Fats and oils situation

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Title:
The Fats and oils situation
Physical Description:
301 v. : ill. ; 26-28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Agricultural Economics
United States -- Agricultural Marketing Service
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture. -- Economic Research Service
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture. -- Economics, Statistics, and Cooperatives Service
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture. -- Economics and Statistics Service
United States -- World Food and Agricultural Outlook and Situation Board
Publisher:
The Bureau
Place of Publication:
Washington
Publication Date:
Frequency:
frequency varies

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Oil industries -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Oils and fats, Edible -- Economic aspects -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Agricultural Economics.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
FOS-1 (Mar. 1937) - FOS-301 (Oct. 1980).
Issuing Body:
Issued by: Agricultural Marketing Service, 1954-Mar. 1961; Economic Research Service, May 1961-<Oct. 1977>; Economics, Statistics, and Cooperatives Service, <May 1978>-July 1980; Economics and Statistics Service, Oct. 1980.
General Note:
"Approved by the World Food and Agricultural Outlook and Situation Board," Oct. 1977-Oct. 1980.
General Note:
Title from caption.
General Note:
Item 21-D.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 000502965
oclc - 01588232
notis - ACS2699
lccn - 46039840 //r82
issn - 0014-8865
sobekcm - AA00005305_00043
Classification:
lcc - HD9490.U5 A33
ddc - 380.1/41385/0973
System ID:
AA00005305:00043

Related Items

Succeeded by:
Fats and oils outlook & situation

Full Text












DECEMBER I~4F


...I....... ....- .


ION OF L.EADINt FATS AND OILS FROM DOMESTIC
MATERtAt-L UNITED STATES. 1919-43


E ,;:" ..... .; ** M









.. ..



a-


ai:. .-.:400



i. .... ." ----
S.. : : .. ; .s


, ".., .. .., :!. ..... .; ..K


..... .. .. : .. ..o...., *b


:. .:





; *




::::: .. ; ...:: .: F

Ml't1

.....6 ~ ....i..:


.1935


1939


1943


1.45 PARTLY FORECAST


WEE. 43423 BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS


4 JIAdl;~e~it. il ip S<.c terls l:s expectedd to total 10.7 bil
ti."A2 i tUAen il Denls in La9I. Lard, soybean oil, ta.l.lo, grease,
:f.t7xat~~fae shtoin the. greatest expansion under wartime progrq
md *44l. 'Bets r 'ppri~dtit in has declined because of diversion ofJ
N r f appears has increased rapidly, but most of the increase h -
a, .4ady, :d salted nuts.








PRICES

Item


-q


a 1 ovenber m 194
I 1941 1942 lantaumber i Oaahar


Butter, 92-soor, Chicago ............................... .. .
Butter, 92-soore, New York .....................................
Oleomargarine, dam. veg.. Chicago ..............................
Compoumds (animal and veg. cooking fate), Chicago ..............
Lard, loose, Chioago ..........................j.... .........
Lard, priem steam, tieroes, Chicago ..............................
Lard, refined, cartons, Chicago ..............................
Oleo oil, No. 1, barrels, Hew York .............................
Oleostearine, bbl., N. Y. .......................................
Tallow, edible, Chicago .......................................

Corn oil, rude, tanks. f.o.b, mills ...........................
Corn oil, refined, bbl., N. Y. .................................
Cottonseed oil, rude, tanks, f.o.b. S.E. mills ................
Cottonseed oil, p.e.y., tank cars, I. Y. .......................
Peanut oil, rude, tanks, f.o.b. mills ........................
Peanut oil, dom., refined, drumae. N. Y. .......................
Soybean oil, rude, tank cars, midwestern mill ................
Soybean oil, edible, drums, l1..l., 5. Y. ......................

Cooonut oil, Manila, crude, tanks, f.o.o. Pacific Coast 2 .....
Coconut oil, IUtnila, rude, buli, c.i.f. N. Y. 2/ ..............
Coconut oil, Mmnila, refined, edible, tank cars, f.o.b. N.Y.2//
Olive oil, edible, drums, N. Y. ................................
Olive oil, inedible, dPuma, N. Y ..............................
Olive-oil foots, prime, drum, N. .............................
Pain oil, 1Iiger, crude, drums, U. Y. 2/ .......................
Rape oil, refined, denatured, bulk, c.i.f., N. Y. ..............
Sunflower oil, tank cars, f.o.b. N. Y. ..........................

Tallow, No. 1, inedible, Chicago ..............................
Grease, A White, Chicaco ......................................
Menhaden oil, crude, tanks, f.o.b. Baltimore ..................
Sardine all, crude, tanks, Pacific Coast .......................
Whale oil, refined, bleached winter, druns, N. Y. ..............

Linseed oil, raw, tank cars, linneapolis .......................
Linseed oil, raw, druns, oarlots, N. Y. ........................
Perilla oil, crude, drums, tl. Y ..............................
Oiticna oil, druns, H. Y. ...................................
Tung oil. drums. N. Y. ..........................................

Castor oil, No. 3, bbl., N. Y ....................................
Castor oil, No. 1, tanks, .. Y. ................................
Castor oil, dehydrated, tanks, I. Y. ...........................
Cod-liver oil, med. U.S.P. bbl., N. Y. .........................:
Cod oil, Newfoundland, drums, I. Y. ............................:


17.5
15.8
9.9
9.8
11.6
12.0
10.3
8.9

11.2
15.0
11.4
12.4
11.9
15.8
9.8
13.4

9.8
_/10.6
72.5
54.4
17.2
12.0
4/14.8


8.4
8.6
7.7
7.9
11.1

9.4
5/ 9.8
22.8
22.0
35.8

12.4
11.8
16.0
38.0
10.5


T/46.a
19.0
17.0
18.8

15.6
13.2
10.5
9.9

12.8
15.5
12.8
14.0
13.0
17.0
11.8
14.7

11.0
11.4
12.8
58.4
61.2
19.0
12.1
4/16.0
14.3

8.4
8.8
8.8
8.9
11.1

12.1
5/12.8
24.5
25.0
39.0

13.8
13.0
17.7
36.4
12.0


L.56
42.6
19.0
17.I
12.B
13.8
15.6

10.5
9.9

12.8
15.5
12.8
14.0
S13.0
16.5
11.8
15.0

11.0
11.4
12.6
71.5
55.5

12.1
16.0
14.3

8.4
8.8
8.9
8.9
12.3

14.5
15.3
24.5
25.0
39.0

13.8
13.0
17.7
36.5
12.0


42.6
19.0
17.0

13.1
18.5
15.e'
15.9
10.5
9.9

12.8
18.6
12.6
14.0
13.0
16.5
11.0
15.0"

11.0
11.4
12.1
71,5
58.3

11.1
16.0
14.3

8.4
8.8
8.9
8.9
12.5

14.5
15.3
24.5
25.0
39.0

13.8
18.0
17.7
36.5
12.0


INDEX NUMBERS (1924-29 = 100)


10.,
9.9
18.8 ":!


11.6
15.0
11.0
71.8


16.0

11.0
11.4
14.9







O.B
n.5


12.1










15.2
24.5
82.0
39.0

U.O
18.8
-.J
15.0
84.5



12.0
1I.


Eight domestic fats and oils (1910-14 : 100) ................... 119 150 142 142 142
Eight domestic fate and oils ...................................g 84 107 101 101" 101

All fats and oils (27 items) ................................... 93 112 108 108 106
Grouped by origin
ni-l fate ................................................. 82 104 96 96 *6
Iarine animal oils ........................................... 11 127 152 12 1
Vegetable oils, domestic ..................................... 111 128 182 152 181
Vegetable oils, foreign ...................................... 143 145 157 157 16?
Grouped y use,
Butter ....................................................... 81 104 9 93 91
Butter, seasonally adjusted .................................. ft 96 92 90 86
Lard ................................................... 75 105 105 106 105
Other food fats .............................................. 10 134 159 139 19
All food fats ............................................. 110 103 103 108
Soap fate .................................................... 11 119 120 120 120
Drying oils .................................................. 107 132 150 150 149
Miscellaneous oils .......................................... 105 11 117 1177 117
All industrial fats and oils .............................. 112 126 132 182 188
Prices compiled flm Oil, Paint and Drug Reporter, The National Provistoner, The Journal of Comerce (New York), nd
reports of the Pood Distribution Administration and Bureau of Labor tatlatles. Prioe. quoted include eseise fone
and duties where applicable. Index number for earlier years beginning 1910 are gfvn In Technical Bulletin No. 7 T
(1940) and The Fats and Oils Situation beginning December 1940.
f Reflects open market sales only. Current figures refer to all types of wholesale trading for oash or abhrt-tim
credit. / Throe-cent processing tez added to price as originally quoted. 5/ anks, N. T. V Quoted an drus.
Y Converted to present basis of quotation.


el


- ---- ----- ------- ----~


. J A


~I













-- Contents
Lil Page
d:.. O utl. qf n S
i Suary* 3
SOutlook ................*........... 5
a Recent Developments ....*........... 8 :
: Recent Government Actions ......... 11
: Southeastern Europe: Pre-War Fats
and Oils Position ............. 14 :
: Tables ......,........... ........ 16 :
a Index of Special Articles 1939-43 27 :


Summary

Supplies of fats and oils in the United States.will be larger in

1943-44 than in 1942-43, Production from domestic materials is likely to

total about 11.2 billion pounds (revised estimate) compared with an output

of 10.6 billion pounds a year earlier. Factory and warehouse stocks at the

Beginning of the season (October 1) were 80 million pounds larger this year

than last. Imports will be increased.

Requirements for fats also will be larger in 1943-44 than in the

previous year. Lend-lease shipments will continue at a high level, and

military needs will expand, Relief requirements for Europe, if the war

should end in 1944, probably would impose an additional burden on domestic

supplies. Hence there is a distinct possibility that the domestic supply

situation for fats and oils, after becoming somewhat easier in.the next

few months, may grow stringent again before the end of 1944,

Disappearance of food fats and oils for civilian use totaled between

46 and 47 pounds per capital in 1943 compared with an average of 50 pounds

per capital in 1940-42 and 4g pounds per capital in 1935-39. The principal






DZClBMUE 1943 -. .-.a... -!

decrease was in sonumption ~ft.. ~h;au .which waw-daB more thaar.3 pounds per

capital from 1942-and- -we& m-re thawr4- U-oni 'under the -1935.39 average. Shis

was partially offset by an increase of about 1 pound per capital in margarine

consumption. Present indications point to a further decrease in butter

supplies in 1944.
". ...........
December 1 indications paint .ta .a production of 196 million bushels

of soybeans and 2,562 million .pounds of peanuts in 1943. Although lower

than estimated a month earlier,. .these .figures indicate an increase of 5 per-

cent and 16 percent, respectively, from the 1942 levels. The estimate of

1942 soybean production has been revised downward to i 'fmillion bushels.

Flaxseed production in 1943, estimated at 52 million bushels, is 27 percent

greater than in 1942. Production of cottonseed in 1943 is estimated at

5.1 million tons, down 11 percent from last year.

Europe as a whole is a deficit fat-producing area, but a surplus of

fats for export normally is produced in southeastern Europe. Nevertheless,

the surplus in that area is not large, In 1934-38, six countries of south-

eastern Europe Hungary, Yugoslavia, Albania, Rumania, Bulgaria, and

Greece had an annual export surplus of about 125 million pounds of fats

and oils, including oil in exported seed. The principal export items were

olive oil from Greece; sunflowerseed and oil, rapeseed, and soybeans from

Rumania and Bulgaria; and lard from Hungary and Yugoslavia. Since about

1935 the Germans have encouraged increased oilseed production in the Danube
countries. The extent of the increase since the beginning of the war is

not known. Even a large percentage increase in the output of. oilseeds in

these countries could do little to relieve the shortage of fats in Europer

Pre-war consumption of fats on the Continent, excluding Russia, was in the






4I,: f. ,




a neighborhood of 14.5 to 15 billion pounds, with net imports (including whale

a:..'il. nd oil'in imported materials) accounting for over 4 billion pounds.

IWo.latlCtion of animal fate and oils in Europe has declined materially since
*; : : ,::... .. ..:* *. : .. ...
q" I : .I d ... .

~' .. December 28, 1943

OUTLOOK

BAOCGROIUND,- Production of domestic oilcrops was encouraged
in 1942. The total output of fats and oils in the 1942 crop
year was nearly 1 billion pounds, 10 percent greater than in
the previous year. Both domestic and expert demands for fats
also mounted and measures were taken to control prices .and
distribution. Production was again encouraged in 1943, and
present indications point to a further gain of 600 million
pounds (5 percent) over output in the 1942Wcrop'year.

ly of-Frats to be Increased in 1944 but still-
.: ,'. Insufficient to Meet Probable Demands
... "* 1 '
Total series of fats and oils will be substantially greater in
1943-44 than a ear earlier. Output of fats and oils rrom domestic materials
if'the present crop year now appears likely to total about 11.2 billion pounds
come~red with 11.3 billion pounds expected a month ago. Nevertheless, the
t;'ae estimate represents an increase of 600 million pounds over output' in
1.94g,43. Imports are likely to be larger in 1943-44 than a year earlier,
and stocks of primary fats and oils on October 1 also were somewhat larger.

Some easing of the domestic' supply situation has already occurred,
'-particularly in linseed, castor, oiticica, and sperm.oils. Government restric-
tions on the use of castor oil have been almost completely removed, and limi-
tations on use or movement of the other three oils have been partially relaxed
"- recent weeks. Lard production in the last quarter of61943 will reach a
n6w peak of over 900 million'pounds (including non-inspected butput), and
since th'e ation-point cost was reduced to 2-points'in December, disappearance
into civilian use has'been rapid. -Other food fats, however, are In relatively
restricted supply. The butter shortage continues' severe. Stocks of edible
vegetable oils on October 31 were only moderately greater than a year earlier.

S Production-of fats and oils from domestic materials in 1944-45 may be
s 'qiewhat less than in'1943-44. Lard and grease production is expected to be
substantially smaller in the year beginning October 1944 than in the current
crop year, as farmers' intentions in ,ecember 1943 indicate a prospective
-decline of 16 percent in the number of' sows to farrow in the spring of 1944
compared with the number farrowed in the spring of 1943. If acreage goals
for 1944 are achieved and crop yields are about normal, oilseed crops would






DECEMBER 1943


- 6-


be materially larger than in 1943. The increase in vegetable oil output in
the 1944-45 season, however, probably would not be sufficient to offset: f24ul
the decrease in lard and grease production.

With price ceilings in effect, demand for fats is expected to continue
in excess of supply in 1944. Domestic civilian demand, which was partially
unsatisfied in 1943, is expected to continue at a high level. National income
in 1944 probably will average higher than in 1943 despite the possibility of-,
some increase in unemployment resulting from shifts in war production scheduled
and some reconversion to the manufacture of civilian goods. Military require.'
ments for fats and oils will increase in 1944 because of an increased number
of men in the armed forces, Export demand also may increase. If the war
in Europe ends in 1944, a substantial quantity of fats would be needed from
the United States as well as from other parts of the world to meet even in
part the requirements for consumption on the European Continent. It is
possible that the domestic supply situation for fats and.oils will tighten
again before the end of 1944.

Fat Production Increased in 1943;
Exports Up 50 Percent

Production of primary fats and oils from domestic materials in the
calendar year 1943 probably totaled about 10.7 billion pounds, 700 million
pounds more than in 1942. Imports, including oil in imported seed, were
about the same as in 1942. Stocks were reduced about 250 million pounds in
1942 but in 1943 were increased moderately. Total disappearance of fats and
oils in 1943, including exports, probably was about 250 million pounds greater
than a year earlier.

Significant changes occurred in 1943 in the way in which fats-were
used. Exports to our Allies were about 50 percent greater than in 1942
and a substantially.larger quantity was taken for military purposes both
to feed our men and to manufacture implements of war. Civilian consumption
of food fats was reduced 5 to 6 percent..

Civilian Disappearance of Food Fats
Under Rationing About 4 Plunds
Per Capita Annually

Civilian disappearance of food fats in 1941, the last peace-time year
for the United States, was 51.4 pounds per capital, on the basis of actual.
weight of butter and fat content of margarine and other manufactured food
products. That was an exceptional year, however, with consumer purchasing
power at a new high and dealers anxious to build up inventories in the face
of rising prices. In 1935-39, civilians had consumed an average 6f 48,3
pounds per capital annually. Civilian disappearance in 1942 totaled about
49 pounds per capital. With rationing, a reduction of consumption to about
44 pounds per capital annually was contemplated a level not quite 10 per-
cent under 1935-39. This level has not been reached to date, however,
According to present indications, total disappearance of food fats in the
9 months since rationing began may be estimated at between 34 and 35 pounds
per capital, equivalent to an annual rate of about 46 pounds per capital.




lsa2 7 -

The greatest food-fat scarcity in 1943 was in butter, With declining
production and increased military requirements, the quantity available for
at.:. evir~lian consumption 'in 1943 was about 12.5 pounds p'er capital, over 3 pounds
le*" ess than in 1942. To compensate in port for this reduction, an increase in
Margarine production; was permitted. Consumption of margarine by civilians
l'".% 1943 ( ma have reached 4.1 pounds (actual weight), 1.3 pounds more than a
4:-es earlid. Civilian lard consumption is estimated to have been nearly a
; petnd greater than in 1942, but consumption of salad and cooking oils (includ-
:r, ing quantities used by bakers, oandy-amakers, and other food manufacturers)
i: totaled about a pound less. Disappearance of lard for civilian uses was
:.,:specially high in December,' with production at the highest rate on record
: and the ration-point value down to 2 per pounds compared with 5 for shortening
o other than lard.
:I. -Table 2.- Food fats and oils: Per capital disappearance for civilian use,
S" 1935-43
(In terms of fat content, except butter)
S6 ; Lard and : Other f
Tear Butter : Maaie : rendered f Shortening products :

2 ii "
: pork-fat : and uses

Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds

Average:
'1935-39: 16,8 2.3 11.0 11.9 6.3 48.3

1940 : 17.0 1.9 14. 9.0 7.6 50.4
1941 16.0 2.2 14.2 10.5 s.4 51.4
1942 15.7 2.3 13.5 9.0 8.3 gs.
1943 /: 12.5 3.3 1.3 9.1 7.3 46.6

.o convert to approximate finished weight basis multiply by 1.25.
j excluding quantity used in manufactured products.
*'f Total may differ slightly from sum of items because of rounding.
'f Preliminary.

Butter Supply to Decline Somewhat
furtherr in 194 -

With butter production expected to decline further, the civilian supply
of butter will be smaller in 1944 than in 1943, perhaps by about one-half
pound per capital, Under present quotas on fats and oils for margarine manu-
'facture, civilian output of margarine could be increased in 1944 about three-
quhrters of a pound per capital over the 1943 level,

The quantity of lard and other cooking fats and oils available for
civilians in 1944 will be governed largely by production of lard and crude
vegetable oils, on the one hand, and military, industrial, and export require-
ments, on the other. Production of lard and vegetable oils will be greater in
the first three quarters of 1944 than a year earlier, In the fourth quarter,






DECEMBER 1943 8

however, lard output is expected to be substantially less than the record p ua
duction in October-December 1943. Production of vegetable oils near the year*
end will depend 6n the size of the 1944 oilseed crops. In addition to the
expected increase in military requirements and the possible increase in exports,
fat requirements for civilian soap production will be greater in 1944 than in
1943 as a result of the recently increased quotas for soap manufacturers.

RECENT DEVELOPMENTS

Yields of Oilseeds per Acre Mostly Down
in 13; Production UP

With favorable growing conditions less widespread in 1943 than in 1942,
the national average yields of cottonseed, soybeans, and flaxseed per acre
were somewhat reduced. The national yield of peanuts per acre increased
slightly, because unusually good yields in the Southeastern area more than
offset reduced yields in the Virginia-Carolina and Southwestern areas. In
the Southwestern area, planting was delayed by spring floods and growth was
retarded by summer drought. An unprecedented percentage of the acreage was i
diverted to hogging because of prospective low yields.

Soybean planting also was delayed by wet weather. In the Northern
States, this handicap was largely overcome under the influence of fairly
favorable growing conditions during the summer, but in most Southern States ..
the crop was injured by hot, dry weather. Much acreage in the South originalfto
intended for harvest for beans was cut for hay instead.

Flaxseed yields per acre were unusually high in North Dakota and Montana
but somewhat lower than in'1942 in most other States.

Early-season prospects for cotton and cottonseed pointed to an even
higher yibld than the 1942 record, but drought in August and early September
resulted in considerable deterioration of the crop, especially in Tennessee,
Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Texas. Some further reduction occurred on the northern
fringe of the Cotton Belt as the result of killing frosts in mid-October.

Despite reduced yields per acre, production of oilseeds increased in
1943, as a result of substantially increased acreage. The Output of soybeans
in 1943 was about 5 percent greater than in 1942, and peanut and flaxseed pro-
duction increased 16 percent and 27 percent, respectively. With a decrease
in cotton acreage as well as in yield per acre, cottonseed production was down
about 11 percent from 1942. In terms of total tonnage, the increase in pro-
duction of these 4 oilseeds amounted to only 1 percent, as the reduction in the
cottonseed crop nearly offset the increases in other crops. However, since
flaxseed and peanuts.have a higher oil content than cottonseed, in terms of
probable output of oil, the increase in oilseed production amounts to about
5 percent, after allowance for non-crushing uses of the crops.







Table 3.- Principal oilcrops: Acreage, yield per acre, and production,
1942 and "1943 "

__creage ea _
Year aid : Cotton in : : Soybeans I
Peanuts picked Flaxseed
percentage : cultivation Peanuts pic : harvested Fla
and threshne. planted
change July 1 for beans a p t
: 1,000 acres 1,QOO acres 1,000 acres 1,000 acre!
10,008


p
-";"


19342 a;. ...* .a
'
~S


23,302"
22,151...


: Percent


3,439
S3Percen9 .

Percent


10,008
10,820

Percent


S


4,715
6.320


Percent


Percentage a
increase (+) .or:
d-orease (-) ,. 4.9 + 14. + 8.1 4- 34.0

a: Yield per acre
a (Based o acreages shown above)
S Cottonseed. Peanuts a Soybeans : Flaxseed
.: : Tons. Pounds Bushels Bushels


1942 ...........
1943 I/ .,.,..,.:


Percentage
increase (+) or;
decrease (-) ..:





1942 ...........
1943 _/ ......:
*

Percentage
increase (+) or;
decrease (-) ..:


.245
.231


Percent


- 5.7


643
649


' ,


Percent


+ .9


18.7
g8.1


Percent


- 3.2


8.7
8.2


Percent


- 5.7


Product ion
Cottonseed : Peanuts : Soybeans : Flaxseed
1,000 tons Million pounds Million bushels Million bushels


5,717
5,116

Percent


*, 10.5


2,212
2,562

Percent


+ 15.8


187.2
195.8

Percent


+ 4.6


41.1
52.0

Percent


+ 26.5


1/ Preliminary,

Little Change in Fat Production in
.October Stocks Increase

Factory production of primary fats and oils in Octob6r, at 841 million
pounds, was slightly greater than a month earlier, Cottonseed oil output
increased 38 million pounds in.October, and there were increases in the
production of peanut oil and federally inspected lard, Fish oil production,


- 9 -


YbS-S82






DEOEMBER 1943 10 ..

however, showed an unusually large decline ('31 million pounds) from the high
September level of 45 million pounds. Creamery butter production declined
19 million pounds in October, and was 13 percent lesa...han-a year" earlier .
(Table 9.) -

According to preliminary indications, productton .of-creame y butter
declined again in November, seasonally and "was about .5..percent under a year
earlier. Output of lard in federally-inspected plants, on the other.hand **
increased sharply in No6ember to 211 million pounds. This was thg.hlgheet
on record for any November and approached the peak monthly figure :of 218,2
million pounds reached in January 1924.

Factory and warehouse..stocks of primary fats and oils on October .31
totaled 1,960 million pounds (crude basis), 73 million pounds morerthbar a-
month earlier. Inventories of vegetable oils and fats increased 135 million
pounds, but stocks of animal fats declined 62 million pounds. "Ref;ecting a
seasonally high rate of production, stocks of cottonseed and linseed oils
rose 75 and 62 millionDounds, respectively* Casto.r oil stocks increased
13 million pounds. Lard and butter -inventories declined--38 and 21 millionn
pound, respectively, partly as a result of net withdrawals from Government
stocks. ,..

War Food Administration cold-storage holdings of lard on October 31
amounted to 93 million pounds, 23 million pounds less than a month earlier.
Holdings of butter by the War Food Administration and the-Dairy Products
Marketing Association, totaling 149 million pounds, were down 15 million
pounds from a month earlier. ..

The October 31 stocks totaled 121 million pounds more than a year
earlier. The principal factor in this-rise was an increase of 236 million
pounds in Government-held stocks of butter ahd lard, including butter:held
by the Dairy Products Marketing Association. stocks, of soybean oil also
were much greater than a year earlier. Inventories of inedible tallow.and
greases were nearly 100 million pounds smaller, and substantial declines. .-*.
from a year earlier also were shown by cottonseed and linseed oil stocks.
(Table 10.)

Government Purchase of Lard
at High Level in November : .

Purchases of fats and oils and soap by the War Food Administration in
the 4 weeks ended November 27 totaled 166 million pounds (with margarine and
soap in terms of fat content) compared with 23 million pounds in October and
a monthly average of 148 million pounds in the first 9 months of 1943.
November purchases of lard and rendered pork fat constituted 131 million
pounds. This figure has been exceeded in only 1 month, June 1943, since the
purchase program began. Butter purchases amounted to 23 million pounds and
were made from stocks accumulated before October 1 by the Dairy Products
Marketing Association and by authorized receivers under the butter set-aside
order. Purchases of linseed oil were small in November. Total linseed oil
purchases in the first 11 months of 1943, however, were 414 million pounds,
almost six times the total for 1942,





1 3-82 11 -

Table 4.- Purchases of fats and oils by the War Food Administration. 1941-43 .
"" :, ;~ 1_ 3
SItem : 1941 1942 Oct. ; Jan.-Nov.
Oct.. Nov. !21
S: -i. /
:Mil. lb. Mil. lb. Mil. lb. Mil. lb. Mil. lb.

Butter ........................4 3 114
Lard and rendered pork fat .. 326 654 5 131 722
Other animal fate and oils a :. .2 .30 2 1 58
Liaseed oil ................... --- 70 .4 '414
Other vegetable oils .......... --- 100 --- --- 71
.Shortening .............', ....: -- 46 1 --- 62
Margarine (fat content) / .... 1 77 3/ 58
Soap ('ft content) 5/ .,, ......:. ---16. 1/ 2
Total fat equivalent .....,: 329 1,027 23 66 1,522

Compiled from reports of the War Food Administration.
L "Four weeks ended November 27, 1943,
Oompted from unrounhed numbers.
ILess than 500.000 pounds.
*: Includes fish-liver and fish oils.
5/ Fat content"estimated at 30 percent for margarine, 55 percent for soap.

Prices of Fats end Oils Unchanged
ia N oveber .
7-
SLittle'change occurred in November in prices of fats and oils. All
were at ceiling levels except .the price of linseed oil at New York, which
declined 0.2 cents per pound early in the month. The index number of whole-
sale prices of 27 major fats remained at 108 percent of the 19'24-29 average.
k4points below November 1942.

RECENT GOVERNMENT .ACTIONS

Ration Points to be Paid for Salvaged
Kitchen Fat

A program was instituted on December 13 by which housewives receive
meat-and-fat ration points in return .for salvaged kitchen fat delivered to
retail butcher shops. One ration point is exchanged for each full half-pound
of fat turned in, This is in addition to a casn payment of 2 cents per
half-pound.

Retailers will be reimbursed by fat collectors or renderers for the
points paid out, and renderers will get the points from the Office of Price
Administration. The purpose of the program is to encourage housewives to
salvage kitchen-fat that .would otherwise be thrown away. Only housewives,
other consumers, and the operators of boarding houses where less than 50
persons live are eligible for points under,the program. Retail meat dealers,
restaurants Army camps, post exchanges, .manufacturing plants, and other
establishments are not eligible,






DECEMB E 1943 :.l 12 -

Estimated collections of waste kitchen fats in recent months have
averaged about 7.5 million pounds a month. Collections increased gradually
.from about 3 million pounds a month at the beginning of the program in
August 1942 to a peak of 8.6 million pounds in June 1943. Some decline has
occurred since, however, probably as a result of rationing of food fats.
Salvaged waste kitchen fats probably will account for 5 to 6 percent of total
production of inedible tallow and greased in 1943.

Maximum Price for Refined Cottonseed Oil Increased;
Payments to be Made to Shortening Manufacturers

Under Amendment 10 to Maximum Price Regulation 53, maximum prices for
refined cottonseed oils produced from 1943-crop cottonseed will be increased
0.08 to 0.36 cents per pound effective December 28. The maximum price for
prime summer yellow cottonseed oil, tank cars, New York will be 14,31 cents
per pound compared with the former ceiling of 13.95 cents per pound, The
Office of Price Administration had announced in September and October that
requests by the industry for an increase in maximum prices of refined botton-
seed, soybean, and peanut oils were under consideration. These requests have
been based largely on the fact that payments of 0.5 cent per pound on crude
oil refined for food uses, made by Commodity Credit Corporati on onil.crushed
from seed produced in 1942, have not been granted on 1943-rcrop oil,

To enable manufacturers of bulk shortening to meet the increased
cost of cottonseed oil and other increases in cost, particularly for
containers, Commodity Credit Corporation will make payments on shortening
shipped on or after December 17, in drums or tierces holding 300 pounds or
more, for domestic civilian consumption. These payments will be at the
rate of 0.4 cent on each pound of vegetable oil contained in standard
shortening and 0.2 cent on each pound of vegetable oil contained in
hydrogenated shortening so shipped. Prices paid by housewives and domestic
commercial consumers for shortenings and cooking oils will not be affected
by these actions. Manufacturers will absorb any increase in costs in
excess of the Commodity Credit Corporation payments.

More Sperm and Oiticica Oils Available

The War Food Administration announced in late November that recently
increased supplies of sperm oil would make it possible to allocate addi-
tional quantities of this oil for December use and to increase allocations
for essential purposes in January. Sperm oil is used principally in
lubricating and cutting oils. Obtained from sperm ?whales, it has been
in increasingly short supply since the cessation of large-scale whaling
operations in 1939.

It was also announced that an easier supply situation in oiticica
oil will permit increased allocations in January. Requirements for all
military purposes can be met; increased quantities of the oil will be
allowed for electrical insulation, brake linings, and other essential
civilian uses; and limited Quantities will be provided for wrinkle finishes
and waterproof adhesive binders.






S .... .... ...3-

Pof CQaitor Oil as Paint Thinier
.o be Reftricted.

Amendment 2 to Food Distribution Order -32# effective December 10,
continues unlimited use of castor oil until March 31, 1944, with .one
Exception. During J.anay-March, manufacturers may not use castor oil
Sfor thinning or reducing paint, -Varnish, or other protective coating with-
i-. ut allocations. Stocks of castor oil hP.ve continued at a satisfactory
level since restrictions on ause in civilian products were first suspended .
ai October.

Sestrictions on Movement ofLinseed Oil Modified;
Itreased Use as Gore 1il Urged

Amendment 1 to Food Distribution Order 63, effective December 1,
permits unlimited movement of linseed oil among wholesalers, processors,
rushers, and manufacturers of linseed oil products. Deliveries among
wholesalers had been restricted under the order as originally issued,
Under the amendment, wholesalers may also carry over any part of their
delivery quotas from one calendar quarter to another. The amendment
exte ds the definition of linseed oil to cover blends of linseed oil with
6ther oils or volatile thinners. Amendment 2 to the same order, effective
January 1, 1944, raises wholesalers' delivery auotas from 50 percent of
' base period deliveries to 60 percent, the auota percentage in effect under
J ?d--2 since October 1 for use of fats and oils in the manufacture of paint
(or civilians.

Greater use of linseed oil in the manufacture of core oil was urged
by the War Food Administration in December because of its satisfactory'.
inventory position and its special adaptability to that purpose. The use
of soybean and fish oils in core oil manufacture is prohibited under Food
Distribution Orders 29 and 60. Soybean oil is needed for food products.
Linseed oil, though used in making food products for'exoort, is less easily
prepared for edible use than soybean oil. Fish oil is in immediate demand
for use in the synthetic rubber program, for vitamin-feeding oils, and
for other important wartime purposes.

Unrestricted Movement of Crude Vegetable
Oile to Refiners to Continue

It .was announced by the War Food Administration on December 3 that
the restrictions'under Food Distribution Order 29 on deliveries of crude
cottonseed, peanut, soybean, and corn oils, for use in refining, would be
suspended in January-March 1944.. This continues a similar suspension in
October-December 1943, Authorization is still required for delivery of
these oils, brude or refined, to users other than refiners.

New Order Issued on Use of Peanuts
and Peanut Butter

Under Food Distribution Order 89, effective December 15, the
Director of Food Distribution may establish quotas for manufacturers' use
of peanuts' nd peanut butter in the preparation of products for civilian
consumption, except that persons using less than 3,000 pounds in a auota




DECEMBER 1943


period (to be defined by the Director) will be exempt from ouotas. The
Director also may require records and reports necessary for the administrf~a
tion of the order. No action h.s yet been taken under this order. It is
contemplated, however, that users will be required to submit monthly retoaro
giving information that can be used as a basis for establishing quotas if
these should become necessary. The new .order supersedes Food Distribution
Order 78, which was suspended in October and terminated on December l 4

PRE-WAR POSITION OF SOUTHEAST EUm ROP IN FATS AND OILS

Export Surplus of Fate from Southeast Europe Small
in Relation to Total European Requirements

Southeast Europe was a net exporter of fats, oils, and oilseeqd
in pre-war years. In 1934-38 net exports from six countries -- Hungary,
Rumania, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Albania, and Greece -- averaged about 125
million pounds annually, including oil in exported seed, but excluding fat
obtainable from live animals exported (table 5).

Since 1935 the Germans have encouraged increased production of
oilseeds in the Danube countries, particularly soybeans in Rumania and
Bulgaria. Even a large percentage increase, however, would have little
effect on the total European fats and oils situation. Disappearance of
fats and oils in continental Europe, exclusive of Russia, in pre-war years,
was in the neighborhood of 14.5 to 15 billion pounds, with net imports,
including whale oil and oil in imported seed, accounting for more than
4 billion pounds. Imports of fats and oils are now largely cut off by the
Allied sea blockade, which also has affected adversely production in Europe
of animal fats by halting imports of feed grains and oil cake and meal.

Pre-War Fat Consumption Relatively High
in Greece; Low in Rest of the Area

Apparent domestic disappearance of fats and oils in Greece in-the
years immediately preceding the war amounted to about 300 million pounds
annually, including the quantity used in soap manufacture (table 7).
This was equivalent to 43 to 44 pounds per cppita, compared with an
estimated annual consumption of 27 pounds per capital in Italy before the
war. I/ Disappearance of olive oil, exclusive of "foots," amounted to
about 33 pounds per capital, and other vegetable oils accounted for another
5 to 6 pounds per capital. Consumption of animal fats for food was small,
probably not more than 3 pounds per capital annually, consisting mostly of
butter.

With plentiful supplies of olive oil at hand, both production and
consumption of soap in Greece before the war were high in comparison with
other countries of southeast Europe. Production averaged about 55 million
pounds annually in 1935-39 -- approximately 8 pounds per capital. With net
exports averaging 606,000 pounds, apparent domestic disappearance was only
slightly less.


1/ Fats and Oils Situation, July and August 1943.


- 14 -




i. .. ....
|,. .- ,: ..: K .
'. F-, r15


in jaigei A :the four. Balkan States other than Greece, apparent
'.:,eiestic disappearatae of fat. .n.d,6" s in pre-war years may be provisionally
..:!estimated: at about 750 million.pounds (table 8). .Apparent disappearance in
'ifgary probably exceeded .25 pound' per capital, with lard accounting for
t..,hree-fourthse of the total. In the rest of the area, a disappearance of
:.Less than 15:pounds per.capita is indicated. Production of fats and oils in
:' qhease countries is not reported., but rough estimates can be made for vege-
Stable oils on the basis of crop production and trade statistics, and for
.'animal fats on the basis of livestock and slaughter statistics. A large
part of the animal fat output is produced and consumed in peasant households,
toutt entering commercial channels. The principal fats consumed were lard
:'ndh.hog fat, butter,.beef and mutton fats, and sunflower oil. In contrast
'.: te-.ha pattern of consumption in Greece, animal fats constituted about
-..: wo-thirds of the total domestic disappearance of fats in the other five
countries of southeastern Europe.

i Suited States -Chief Purchaser of Olive Oil;
.North and West urope Principal
Market for Other Fates

The principal export items from Southeastern Europe in 1934-38 were
Solve oil from Greece; sunflower seed and oil, rapeseed, and soybeans from
i .Bumania and Bulgaria; and lard from Hungary and Yugoslavia. Over 40 percent
"oIf,the olive oil exported from Greece was taken'by the United States; about
St5ppercent was taken by Italy, mostly for refining and-blending with
'domestic oils for re-export; and the rest was fairly evenly divided among
Argentina, Brazil, France, the United Kingdom, Germany,-and Egypt.
Soybeans went almost exclusively to Germany. The other-principal oilseeds
and seed oils were distributed mostly among the: V o"tries of northern and
S:'estern Europe. Germany and Czechoslovakia took most of the lard.

The principal fate and oils imported into Southeastern Europe in
19q-38 were inedible animal fats, marine fats and-oils, and coconut oil,
: including oil in copra. These imports were mostly of non-European origin.













S .
i-a y ,




DECEMBER 1943 16 -
Table 5.- Southeastern Europe: Net imports ) or nt exports (-) of fates a.
oils, and oil-bearing materials in terms of oil, average 1934-3 ,
Iter :Hungary Rumahia' 3*1- : Tugo- :Albania Greece t
-- t.----6_-- -Iaia: : sla;ia: sa t
: 1,000 1,000 ,100 1,000 iOO00 1,0000 0
: pounds pound pound, pounds pounds Eounds found
Primary fat
Animal fats :
Butter .................:- 9,118 99- 23 5 + 865 ,57
Lard and pork fat l/ ....:-42,568 2,171 1,644 -12,609 -- -- 5B,998
Goose grease and edible .-
tallow .................:- 522 --- 12 9 -- 5


Inedible tallow and
greases 2/ .............:+ 4,508 + 118 +
Other inedible / ....... 605 + 853 +
Total ................. -47095 1 417 -
Marine fats
For medicinal or food use:+ 135 + 292 +
For industrial use 5/ ...:+ 9,142 + 1,081
Total ...............+ 1,37_ +
Vegetable fats
Olive oil. including


97
388
1,270
206

206


+10,5373/+ 2 l5.20g
+ 48 3+ 20+ 317 j
41 6 + 1 7T J 1 + r182 89

S,1/---) u72 .73
+ 3217) )72 +g
+- 2 =- -7? -+ '' j


inedible and "foots" 6/ :+ 812 + 870 + 317 1,023 -
Sunflower oil j/ ........:- 797 8,945 5,099 8/
Melon seed oil ..........: -- -- --- 269
Rapeseed oil 2/ .........:- 790 224 248 + 7
Coconut oil 10/ .........:+ 334 + 88 + 4,156 + 48
Linseed oil ...........:+ 391 + 5 + 953 + 177 +
Other drying oils 11/ ...:+ 191 + 289 + 46 8
Castor oil 12/ .........:+ 466 +. 341 + 91 --- +
Cottonsepd oil 1/ ......: --- + 8 --- + 99
Other edible .......... .:). 287 + 32 + 467'+ 438
Other inedible ..........:)_ + 224 + 289 + 2,180 /+
Total ................:+ 89- 7 312 + 972 1,66 +
Total, primary fats ..:~6 24 7,36 92 + 366 +
: Oil-bearing materials, in


14 -32,187 31,22
-- --- 14,584
--- 2-9
2.69

72 + 128 + 17

27 -- + 92
--- 286 1.
-4). 4.2)36
19_ --- )
te4 -2rms of oil
terms of oil


Sunflower seed (25) .....:- 2,092 -18,368 -17,312 + 2,153 -- -
Rapeseed (35 ) ...........:- 3,196 -17,568 3,582 286 -- -- 24,
Soybeans (114) 14/ .......: --- -13,349 2,001 486 -- -- -15
Melon seeds (25 ...-....:- 3,707 1,237 1,250- 129 --- + 615 8,700
Mustard seed (25%) .......:- 161 5,777 11 1 --- --- 5950
Hempseed (24%) ...........:- 96 3,251 --- + 134 -- -- 3
Poppy seed (41%) .........:- 755 303 47 + 91 --- --- 1-.1
Cottonseed (15%) .......: --- -- 663 6 5 + 348 26
Copra (63%) 5/ .......... :+11,336 + 2,375 -- --- + 4,695 + 18.6
Flazseed (33 ...........:- 41 1,205 + 28 + 5,495 28 + 3,262 7,5
Olive residues (10) ..... --- --- --- /- 21 + 4,052 + 4,0
Peanuts 16/ ..............: --- + 199 --- + 2,789 + 11 + 222 + 3.2
Sesame seed (45%) ........ --- + 1,689 + 170 + 606 + 19 + 196 + 2,680
Other materials ..........:- 4 17 0 145 --+ 2 69
Total ................:+ 1,28 -59,795 -2 98 +10.505 ~2_1 59,080
Total, fats, oils, and:
oil-bearing materials,:
in terms of oil .....:-35,640-67,151 -24,790 +13.971 + 460 -12,792 -125.91
Continued -
&








!0ab3s45S southeasternn Burope; Net imports. (+) or net exports (-) of fats, oils,
and oil-bearing materials in terms of oil, average 1934-38 Continued
,yugo.- .Total six
: .te.. ,ungary Rumania : Thr 'Albania! Greece:Total six
.. :.igaria slavia. __ countries
: :. ... 1,000 1,000 1,00 .000 00 1,.000 1,000 1,000
,. pouns pounds pounds pounds pouds pounds pounds
S Secondary ormuanufatured product, p actual weight)

S / ..+ 1 + 6 + 5 241 6 37 + 1,96
.i..l. ne IS/ .... .......:+ l+ 6 + 5 24l + 6 837 + 1.096


*: .
4f5~bnated fats:
rit oil ................:
uilov and grease ......,:+
maetable oils .........:

lpbonated oils .......o.:


--- +
175 +
--l +

19/ +


399
30
31


--- --".


ty acide .
tweric and other solid .:2R/-214
Al other, including
.oleie .......... ....... :21/-492

nde 2/ ..............+ 1.

~alcanied oils. ......... + 103
,. ,r -
Soap e.....,...........m... 212
1*.2
Paints and varnishes.....:+ 266
Printing inks ........... :+ 18


--- + .19 + 223

-- + 326 + 689


a--.


+ 369 + 250


--- + 16
162 + 34


+


+ 88

+ 3
+ 1


-- + 28

--- + 523

-- + 55

--- + 103


+ 26 606


+ 47


- 5


-- +
-- +


Acd erin ................- 449 +
SPt= de glycerine .........: -
[ILubricating -oils and.
gi fieasea. containing some :
animal or vegetable fat .:+ 213


558 +


1 299
145


+ 349 + 16o
145


+ 213


S___ Byproducts from crushing
Oilcake and meal .........:+31,512 -22C661-83,009 --- --- --- -272,158
Continued -


+ 399*
+ 205
+ 31

+ 22


---
---
---


---


1--- -





DECEMBER 1943 I1 -
Table 5.- Southeastern Europe: Net imports (+) or net exports (-) of fats, oils,
and oil-bearing materials in-terMe of oil, average 1934-38 Continued

Compiled from official trade statistics, except that estimates of the International
Institute of Agriculture iused for Albania-where available.for 1934-38.
I Figures for Hungary-and Rumania include bacon, which is not reported separately.
Lard reported separately accounts for net exports of 30,473,000 pounds from Hungary,
12,554,000 pounds from Yugoslavia, and 1,645,000 pounds from Bulgaria.
2/ Excludes wool grease; figure for Hungary includes some inedible vegetable fat.
1/ 1934 only.
/ Wool grease, degras, mixed greases (including bone, marrow, and fish), and
inedible animal fats not otherwise specified. Also stearin and olein except for
Hungary. '
/ Figures for Hungary and Yugoslavia include spermaceti.
Figure for Hungary includes peanut oil and sulphonated .il. for technical use.
Figure for Hungary includes melon seed oil.
/Incfuded in "other edible."
9/ Figure for Rumania includes hempseed and mustard seed oils.
10/ Figure for Hungary includes palm and palm-kernel oils for industrial use.
Coconut oil termed "edible" or otherwise indicated to have been prepared for direct
human consumption is included with margarine.
11/ Includes treated linseed oil where reported separately from raw.
12/ Excludes sulphonated castor oil,
13/ The figure for Rumania includes soybean oil.
:1/ Three-year average, 1936-38 used because of marked upward'tiend in'production
and exports. The 5-year averages are as follows: Rumania, -8,995,000 pounds;
Bulgaria, -1,657,000 pounds; Yugoslavia,-311,000 pounds; total, six countries,
-10,963,000 pounds. '
f5/ Includes palm kernels and similar materials in Rumania; conversion factor'of 5
percent used. Includes coconuts in Greece, for which no import of copra is
reported.
16/ Shelled 40 percent; unshelled, 30 percent; not specified, 35 percent.
17/ Entered above as soybeans because the upward trend in this item parallels the
trend in soybean production.
18/ Includes coconut oil prepared for direct human consumption. The figure for
Hungary also includes lard substitutes, and the figures for Rumania and Greece may
include some. edible animal fat.
1/ Included with olive oil.
20/ Includes stearin. ,
21/ Includes olein.
22/ Candles of tallow or stearin (pure or mixed with paraffin); also other objects
partly of tallow or stearin.





PS-82 19-

S Table 6.- Southeast Europe: Production of oilseeds, average 1934-38

_; .. "W o Total
Sitem' :JungarytRumanta:BulgarlaYYugoslavia:Albania: Greece: six
l--e .S : countries
Mi1 Mi. Mil. Mil, Mil. Mil. Mil.
1, lb. lb. .: lb. .. lb. lb. lb.

i q aber seed a 11,7 3944 331.6 26.2 --- --- 763.9
peseed ...*3 18.7 92.6 30.9 23.6 -- 65
han /,.: -V 115.1 16.9 4-- 136.4
ttonseed .... -- 4o0,8 / 3.1 59.7 103.6
2ed 2,2 48.3 6,0 62 -- -62.7
Aa ,Seed ......: 15.2 20,7 2,4 2,6 .. 40.9
Seawes seed ., 2.6 .7 : *- 17 22,0
Ioppy seed *o..: 9,5 --- 4.6 --- 14.1
eanuts -- -" 3/ .9 -- 14.9
pastr beans ,.-. 1.5 -- 1.1 ..4/ j1 -- 2.7
Ielon seeds 5/ ; 14,8 16.9 5.0 1,6 38.3
putard seed :/: ,6 23.1 / 6/ -- -- 23.7

aept for melon seeds and musarseed, com4.ued frt data compiled by the
office of Foreign Agricultural Relations from official statistics, publica-
Sions of the International Institute of Agriculture, and reports from United
ates agricultural attaches,
J Average for 1936-38; used because of rapid upward trend in production and
-A
Average for 1935-38; 1934 not reported,
L Average for 1934'37j 1938 not reported,
Average of 1937 and 1938, Earlier years not reported,
let exports of seed, plus seed equivalent:of net exports of oil (oil
l.ts multiplied by 4), From table 5.
Less than 500,000 pounds.
t. i






IECEMR 1943

Table 7;- Greece:


taji
S Ita ..


20 -

Prqduction, trade, and apparent domestic disappearance of
fats and oili aiYd soa average 1934-8 *-.
I ---- --"--- -- N-- et ** AppArent dginetic
ProductiOn e .-.....
,tpet (c d sapearance-
S ron 6 or ne t,
:+ Sredoimestpi- ,e 4r de. ip -.rts-.. ... Total. :Per capital
mSnteri la materiaiA: :
I .000 ooo i l- 000- 4 1,000 b lb ...... .00 lb. Lb.


Animal fats "1 : .
Butter........ ..... -.- 124.51 --- 2/4 1,702 "/ 14,153 ..2.1--
Other 2..... ...:........ : 2L 16 b00 2/ 3L30 2 3171 19%L 64-. **
Total ...... .... ..+.2,., 2 .51 4+ 2.0 _
Marine fats .... '-
Edible............. ;-rs- : N.A. -- + 4,723 4,723.

Vegetable fate : .". -. 1
Olive.oil ....;:........: 25,2913 --- -"23,503 29,410. 33.4
Olive'-pit oil".":......., 21. 768 ..052-. 8, 6 "- -6 ..
Sesame oil .......-...: g/ 6 740 196 --- 4 6936
Coconut and palh-kerne- :
oil- ................ -- 4/ 3 85 --- ~585
Cottonseed oil ........: 4,"458. -349--- -W 2 -s. .s4.520
Linseed oil ............ --- 3,.262 + 128 3; 90;
Castor oil ............. 274 --l. 74
Peanut oil ............. .-- 222 --- 222 '
Total ...............: 267 1,

All fats and oils ........ :__l14.6o04 15.. J_.A5 5.4.26q 4Q -J-i44 -

Soap 5/ .......... .__ 55. ___ .666 54.650 6 7.
Production front domestic materials: Butter and. vegetable aste, tote pri'~ tion
as reported in the official statistical yearbook ninus oil equivalent of imported.
material, if any (except as otherwise indicated). Animl' fats'other than'b.tter,
calculated from estimated slaughter of domestic animals, assiunihg a fat yidld, per
100 pounds live weight, of 5 pounds from cattle, 3 pounds from sheep, and 16 pounds
(raw fat) from hogs. Estimates of livestock slaughter from Office of Foreign
Agricultural Relations.
Production from imported materials: Animal fats, obtained as for production from
domestic materials. All imported animals assumed to be slaughtered. Vegunable
fats, oil equivalent of imported materials, from table 5 (except as otherwise
indicated).
Net imports or exports: From table 5.
Apparent domestic disappearance: Production plus net imports or minus net exports.
Population in 1936 estimated at 6,877,000.
I/ Includes margarine. 2/ Provisional estimate; comprises lard and pork fpt (raw
fat basis) and beef and mutton fats. 3/ Oil equivalent of sesame seed production,
minus an allowance of 20 percent to cover utilization of the seed in noncrushing
uses. 4/ Production of coconut oil as reported in the official statistical year-
book (average of 3,600,000 pounds annually) plus oil equivalent of imported palm
kernels. The oil equivalent of imported coconuts (table 5) considerably exceeds
the reported production of coconut oil. 5/ Fats and oils used in soap (probably
25 to 30 million pounds of fat) constitute part of the total apparent domestic
disappearance of 304,269,000 pounds.








oil-bearing material in terms of oil, average 1934-38

titSd i Net im.- :Apparent domestic
S t d podut ports (+): disappearance


: Oilseeds


i : in terms :
t: of oil
:Animal :(20 percent:
:fats and: deducted :
:olive oil: for non- :
: crushing :
: : utilisa- :
tion)
: Million Million
: pounds pounds


:or net ex-!


ports (-)r
(includes:
oil equiv-:
alent of i Total
exported .1
or
imported
seed)
Million Million
pounds pounds


Animal fats
Butter ................ 98 -- 10
"Latd' anf'porkt fat (raw fat
basis) ...... .......... .: 409 ---/ 74
-Other'/ ...................: 91 --- + 18
Total animal .........: 598 2-6


N.A.


88

335
109
532


Per
capitala


Pounds


10.5


+ 19


0ilieeds and vegetable fats
Snflower.seed and oil ....; 123
Rapeseed and oil ..........: --
Soybeans and soybean oil 4/: --- 16
Hempsee and oil .......... -- 12
Flaxseed and linseed oil ..: --- 11
Melon seeds and oil ,......: --- / 10
Olive oil ................. 9 ---
Mustard seed and oil ......: ---/ 6
"Oottonseed:and oil ........: -- 5
Poppy seed and oil .........: --- 5
Sesame seed and oil .....: --- 1
Peanuts and peanut oil. ...: --- 1
Castor beans-and oil ......: -- 1
Copra and coconut oil ...... --
Other seeds and oils ......: ---
Total vegetable .......: 9 257


All fats and oils .........:


607


- 50 102
- 26 20
- 16 ---
- 9
+ 6 17
- 10 ---
+ 1 10
- 6 --
- 1 5
- 1 4
+ 2 4
+ 3 4
+ 1 2
+ 18 18
+ 25
S76 200


2/- 123


751


Continued -


Item


Marine fats ..........
eo0


4.0


14.9






DEC3RB3 19 43 22,- .

Table 8.- Southeastern Europe, excluding Greece 1/. Production, trade,
and apparent domestic disappearance of fats and oils, including
oil-bearing material in terms of oil average 1934-38
Continued "

Production estimates are provisional. Derived as follows:
Butter -
Except for:Albania, .computed from-estimates :of the Office of Foreign
Agricultural Relations and estimates in studies published by the
International Institite of Agriculture, Production per capital in
Albania assumed to be the same as in Yugoslavia.
Lard and pork fat -
Estimated by the Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations. Based chiefly
on estimates of hog slaughter. Lard-type .hogs (Mingolicas) assumed to
yield about 32 pounds of raw fat per 100 pounds live weight; lean hogs,
about 16 pounds. :
Beef and mutton fat -
Except in Albania, calculated from livestock-slaughtet and meat production as
estimated by the Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations. Cattle and
buffalo assumed to yield 7 pounds of fat per 100 pounds live-weight in
Hungary, 6 pounds in Yugoslavia, and 5 pounds in Rumania and Bulgaria.
Sheep, goats, and lambs (excluding baby lambs) assuabd to yield 3 pounds of
fat per 100- pounds live weight. Production per capital in Albania assumed to
be the same as in Yugoslavia and Greece.
Olive oil ....
Based on official statistics of Yugoslavia nd .estimates for Albania by the
International Institute of Agriculture. Albanian production is negligible
for the purposes of this table.
Oilseeds -
Production as shown in table 6, discounted by 20 percent to allow for
utilization in noncrushing uses.
Trade -
From table 5. .
Apparent domestic disappearance -
Estimated production plus net imports or minus net exports. Population of the
fivo countries covered by the table estimated at 50.6 million in 1936.
Totals computed from unrounded numbers.
/ Hungary, Rumania, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, and Albania.
SExports of lard converted to raw fat basis.by multiplying by 1.33.
SProduction estimate comprises beef and mutton. fats: trade figures include goose
greese, edible tallow, and inedible animal fats, from table 5.
4/ Average for 1936-38 used because of marked upward trend in production and
exports. There is little if any domestic production of soybean oil, because the
beans are produced largely under contracts to export to Germany the entire crop
available for crushing.
/ Net exports of seed and oil, in terns of-oil.








. from domestic materials, 1940-43
: October : 1943
- Item : 1941 19q42 Aug. Sept.' Oct.
I ? -1 k 1 41 -T T;1 M41 T1h Mi1 IT


~ fats and oils
amery butter ...............: 133.7
pcted lard and.rendered
; rk fat ..................... : 12 .5
.teases excluding wool grease .:
8eathe-foot oil ...............:
P .Ie0 oil ..................... :
earine, animal, edible ...... "
swallow edible ................:
oatllvo, inedible .............
0ol1 grease ..... ............
iVish-liver oil .. ..............
tii feh oil..................... :
: Total, animal ...,........
table oils, crude basis
oE outay oil ...................:
S. orn o i l ......... .. ...... .
;`.h ottonseed oil ................ 209.0
Srinaseed oil ................ N.A.
m eP ut. oil .................... : 13.3
;: i beeap oil .................: N.A.
Qther vegetable oils ..........
Total, vegetable ............: 'I
Grand total ...........: "
: Indice
Year
abeginnir


124.0


'12o0.0
.7 -

*-8: ..
.4.5
11;3
80.7.
.1.3
.6


151.9


*l-.5.4
46.6
.2.
7 7
3.9
11.5
S.68.5-
1.2
* --*. 8 .


126.5


* 141.0
43.5
.2
5.7
3.0
10.8
70.5
1.3
.5


148.2
44.8
.3
4.9
3.3
10.2
74.3
1.3
.8


20;3- ,: 21. 4_.1 14.0
S 0 448.4. 7 47097 _

6.7 --.10,3 11.8 13.1
9.1- ......11.4- 16 3 17.9
21.5 .19.5 .20.4 21.4
'234.3 4..0;0 -152.9 190.8
84.S 68.0" 105.0 98.7
.8.2 .-13.6 4.7 13.1
64;5 5 91-.2.. -. 76.3 73.7
S2.6 3.5 1.4 .2.
437 '-257.5 -88.8 14
S-84 ".73.5 __. 37.2 841.1
Lted productive frm domestic materials
S o-b. M~~1i.-4.2. 1942- 43 19
: Mil, Tb V. Mi-. ..- l. 1Mil lb. Mil. Ib.


Iutter, iholuding farm ..........: Oct. : '2,287 *2,142 -2,112 1,960
Iaid and rendered perk fat, total: Oct. :2,285 '' 2,440- 2,739 3,200
IXnedible tallow and greases,total: Oct. : I,492 1,733 /1.,0 1,650
~2ldiblJ tallow, eleostearine,
e" ol stock,.and eleo oil ....... Oct. 218.: 277 271 295
*.a-f0.oot oil ................ Oct. : .4 55 ... 3 4
b)l grease .....................: Oct. : 1 15 15 15
'Marine animal oils ............. July : 175 215 163 180
.Qa oil ............. .... ....: Oct. : '186- '242 240 240
Oqttonseed oil .................: Aug. 1,425 1,250 1,400 1,240
Luseeed oil 2/ ................... July : 494 546 729 900
Olive oil .......................: Nov. 11 8 10 10
-eSanut oil ........................ Oct. : 174 78 133 3/ 185
Soybean oil ...................: Oct. : 564 707 1,198 1/ 1.300
Tung oil .......... .............: Dec. 4: 2 5
Total ...................... _: 9_ 333, 9,0; 1,i 11,182
-ompiled from reports of the Bureau of the Census and the Depprtrent of Agriculture.
Monthly reports do not show total production of butter, lard, inedible tallow, and
greases.
SBased on most recent indications, subject to change. 2/ Domestic production.
Revised.


~LLL ~U ~~I~ ~YI `~~L ~Y ~L~L LVI.
rr






LSGSiMER 1943 '- 24 -

abl' 10.- Factory and warehouse stocks of specified fats and oils, crude basis,
October 31, 1941-43, August 31 and September 30, 1943

S: Oct. 31,: Oct. l,:
I temf1 : 1142 Aug 1 Sept.0O X
: Mil. Ib.Mil. lb. Mil. lb. Mil. b. il.
Animal fats and oils .
Butter .................. ..... .. 186.6 87.0 231.5 232.5 211.2=
Lard and rendered pork fat ......: 177.4 .57.5 260.0 195.4 157.2
Greases, excluding wool grease ..: N.A. : 91.2 98.1 86.9 S2.8
Neat's-foot oil ............. ..: 2.9 .2.4. 2.8 3.2
Oleo oil ............ .... ...... : n" ...3.6... 9.3 8.0 5
Steerine,.animal, edible ........: ..2.5 3.2 2.7. 2.
Tallow, edible .................: 13.4. 14. 12.9 11.8
.Tallow, inedible ...............: 212.1 .118.9 122.4 121.6
Wool grease .................... 5.2 .-3.0 3,1 "3.6
Cod and cod-liver oil ...........: "12. 13.7 13.0 13.5:
Other fish-liver oil ............: 2.4 1.9. 1.8 1.5
Fish oil ................. ......: 130.7 -92.2 125.2. 131.6
Marine mammal oil ..............: 61.g 41.0 37.8 36.1
Total, animal ............... : _-62.9. .889. ,7. -7 82.0


Vegetable oils, crude.basis I/
Bebassu oil ....................: N.J
Castor oil 2/ ...................: "
Coconut oil ................:
Corn oil ......................: "
Cottonseed oil .................. : 359,
Linseed oil .................... : N.J
Oiticica oil ....................: "
Olive oil, edible ..............:
Olive oil, inedible and foots ...: .
Palm-Kernel oil ............... : "i
Falm oil ........................: "
Peanut oil ......... ...........:
Ferilla oil ....................: "
Rape oil ......................: "
Sesame oil .................. .. : "
Soybean oil .....................: :
Tung oil ..................... .: "
Other vegetable oils ...........: "
Total, vegetable ............: _"
Grand total ................: "


11.6 10.1
23.3 43.8
134.4 157.1
35.7 32.5.
7 349.3 183.0
273.1 177.2
7.9 6.5
6.9 3.0
11.4 7.2
S.6 4/
89.9 75.3
17.1 42.5
2.6 .9
16.3 23-.7
.1 1.5
105.9 217.0
31.4 28.2
39.2 31.4
1,1 6 1,.0 0.
1,315.5 1,935.0"


..11.5. 8.0
45.9 58.5
155.4 15.o0
.30.2 28.9
217.0 291.99
182.4 : 244.7
6.3 6.7
2.6 2.4
6.6 6.1

69.5 69-0
31-7 37.1
8 .7
22.7 20.5
1.1 .11i
200.1 1874
27.4 28.
42.1 32.6
1,743.- 1,1960.
1,887.7 l,9 0.4i


Comniled from reports of the Bureau of the Census; except butter and lard, Food
Distribution Administration. Totals computed from unrounded numbers. Includes
stocks held by Government.
1/ Crude plus refined converted to crude basis by dividing by the following factors
Babassu, corn, cottonseed, palm-kernel, and palm pils ...93; coconut, peanut, and
soybean oils 0.94. .
2/ Includes stocks of dehydrated castor oil converted to crude basis by dividing by
0.88.
/ Refined only.
Nj iot separately reported.
4


A
\





-2 -25 -

Table 11.- Prices of specified oil-bearing materials,
November 1941 and 1942, September-NoVember 1943

... NOV.
I em... ... : .Nov.
S .. Ie. "Uit :1941 1912 Sept. Oct. Nov.
W.: -A A
,: : Dolas Dollars" Dollars Dollars Dollarg

r beans, Brazilian,
ii b..Brazilian ports ...: Long ton: 1/80,12 75.00 75.00 .75.00 75.00
fped, United States ;
:Carm price ..............:Short ton 4: 5.28 45.01 51.90 52.50 52.50
seed, No. 1, Minneapolis: Bushel : 1.84 2-.43 3.05 2.99 3-05
need, United States
Sfarm price .............: 1.60 2.23 2.84 2.79 2.84
to, No. 1 shelled
:.'pani-sh, Southeastern a
'shipping points ..........:100 pounds: 8.62 12.50 /l4.1i 5 4.00 14.12
uts (for nuts and oil), : :
i;United States farm price .:. : 4.61 5.*94 7.15 7.05 7.12
beans, United States I -
Ian price ............... Bushel 1.43 1.58 1.69 10 1.80

m*piled from Oil, Paint and Drug Reporter, Daily Trade Bulletin (Chicago), Chicago
ourna of Commerce, Daily Market Record (Minneapolis)-, and reports of the Bureau of
rieltural Economics.
SC. and f., New York.
BRevised.

Table 12.- Price per ton of specified oil-seed meals,
lNovember 1941 and 1942, September-November 1943

." Nov.. :
i Item 1941 1942 2 Sept. : Oct. : Nov.
.: Dollars Dollars Dollars .Dollars Dollars

~opra meal, Los Angeles ...........,..: 36.45 52.88 51.50 51.50 51.50
'ottonseed meal, 41 percent protein,
SMemphis .......................,..... 36.75 38.60 48. 50 48.50 4s.50
Eottonseed meal, 41 percent protein,
Chicago ...................,...... : 42.60 45.40 54.47 54.45 54.45
linseed meal, 34 percent protein,
SMinneapolis ........................: 35.90 39-75 45.-50 45.50 45.50
indeedd meal, 32 percent protein,
ew York ............................: 31.25 33.7'5 45.00 45.00 45.00
Peanut meal, 45 percent protein, :
f.o.b. Southeastern mills ...........: 36.97 39.12 53.00 53.00 53.00
Soybean meal, 41 percent protein,
Chicago ............................: 39.10 46.60 51.90 5190 51 90

ComFiled from records of the Food Distribution Administration.
I/ Bagged carlots.






DECEMBER 1943


- 26 -


Table 13.- Oleomargarine: Production, withdrawals for consumption,
and materials used in manufacture, United States,
October 1941 and 1942, Augst-October 19 _
Item .
-- 1941 Aug.-: Sept, Oct-__
:1,000 lb. 1,000 lb. 1,000 lb. 1,000 Ib. 1,000 lb.
Production:


Colored .............. ....: 206
Uncolored ....... ..........: 33,85
Total 2/ ................. 34,


Tax-paid withdrawals for
United States consumption j/ :


33,933


12,492 15,377 4,092 2,452
7 i 8.5i. 5L4_ 6,514 55m s.
46, 23 53,950 50 667 5,1

35,0o3 38,144 46,676 57,123


Materials used:
Oleo oil ...................: 1,766
Oleostearine .....;........: 278
.Lard, neutral .............: 682
Oleo stock .................: 153
Tallow .............. ...: --
Monostearine .....;........: 16
Total, animal ...........: 2,895

Cottonseed oil .... ........: 13,708
Soybean oil ................: ,.694
Linseed oil ................: ---
Peanut oil ...............: 238
Corn oil ........9...... 82
Cottonseed stearine .....: --
Soybean stearine .......... --
Soya flakes ................: ---
Total domestic vegetable : 18,722

Babassu oil ..............: 275
Coconut oil ..............: 4,680
Palm oil ...................: 1,125
Palm flakes ..... ..........: 16
Palm-kernel oil ............: 36
Sunflower oil ..............: --
Total, foreign vegetable :7 23 _
Total, fets and oils ....:27,74


2 39 1,191
342 272
911 809
447 315
14 23
15
- 8_--2754^


15,612
17,Ge9

37
153
57


20,650
17,498
2,641
266
214
7


-- 7
1 47296
3,~ Cs 1, 289


41
l-1 ---
---- -- _


1,331 1,498
3N5 286
962 1,023
253 123
34 29
294
9, 2, 929


23,852
12,631
638
629
255
6


28,927
14.19
427
347
511
20


3 -
__ C _5 ---
38.0? 4451


-7ol- -47~


Milk ....................... : 6,049 8,012.. 9,063. 8,768 10,079
Salt ....................: 1,155 1,4h9 1,758 1,662 1,872
Derivative of elycerin .....: 70 77 9.8 S7 98
Lecithin ...................: 21 29 44 461 54
'Soda (benzoate of) .........: 15 25 34 23 35
Vitamin concentrate .......: 7 8 11 10 12
Color **.-........... .....: --- 10 ... 3 2
Miscellaneous ..1.........: 1 2 2 2 1
Total, other materials .,: 318 52 11,019 10,6Ob' 12,15_
Total, all materials ....: 35,07 4 9 ,_ -,95 51b ,7 5.1703
Compiled from Internal Eevenue records and Internal Revenue Bulletin.
l/ Preliminary. 2/ Total of unrounded numbers. 3/ Excludes withdrawn free of
tax for use in Federal institutions, and withd-awn for export.


;I


,---


--




pQS-52


Subject and Issue

Africa, French West and North --
Dec. 1942

/ Argentine trade agreement --
Nov. 1941

Coconut oil and copra -- Sept. 1939

Comparable prices -- Feb. 1942

Cottonseed and cottonseed oil --
Aug. 1939, Sept. 1940, Sept. 1941

Crushing capacity -- Aug. 1943

Disappearance, total apparent
domestic, Feb. 1940, Feb. 1941,
Apr. 1942, Apr. 1943

Drying oils -- May 1940, May 1941,
May 1942, May 1943

Flaxseed -- Sept. 1940, Aug. 1941

Greases, inedible -- Aug. 1940,
Sept. 1943

Italy July 1943, Aug. 1943

Lard -- Sept. 1943

Lard and other shortening -- July
1940, July 1941, July 1942,
June 1943

Margarine -- Mar. 1940, Mar. 1941,
Feb. 1942, Feb. 1943

Marine animal oils -- Dec. 1940

Oil yield per acre, by States --
Mar, 1943, June 1943

Olive oil -- Nov. 1942


:Subject and Issue

:Outlook -- Nov. 1939, Dec. 1939, Apr.
: 1940, June 1940, May 1941, Oct. 1941,
; Jan. 1942, Oct. 1942, May 1943,
:Sept. 1943

:Peanuts and peanut oil -- Feb. 1942,
:Aug. 1942, Aug. 1943

:Prices -- Aug. 1939,. June 1940,
:Jan. 1941, Jan. 1942, Jan. 1943

:Production -- Feb. 1940, Feb. 1941

:Soap and glycerin -- Aug. 1940,
:June 1941, June 1942, July 1943

:Southeast Europe -- December 1943

:Soybeans -- Feb. 1942, Sept. 1942

:Statistical summary, 1912-39 --
:Oct. 1940

:Subsidies -- Nov. 1943

:Tallow, edible -- Oct. 1943

:Tallow, inedible -- Aug. 1940, Oct. 1943

:Utilization by classes of products --
: Apr. 1939, Apr. 1940, Apr. 1941,
: Apr. 1942, Apr. 1943

:War, effect on outlook -- Dec. 1939,
:June 1940, May 1941, Jan. 1942

:Western Hemisphere -- Sept. 1940

:World production -- Jan. 1940

:World situation -- May 1943


i


27 -

INDEX OF SPECIAL ARTICLES IN
THE PATS ABD OILS SITUATION
1939-43




. ; : UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA



3 1262 08905 1477






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