The Fats and oils situation

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Title:
The Fats and oils situation
Physical Description:
301 v. : ill. ; 26-28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Agricultural Economics
United States -- Agricultural Marketing Service
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture. -- Economic Research Service
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture. -- Economics, Statistics, and Cooperatives Service
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture. -- Economics and Statistics Service
United States -- World Food and Agricultural Outlook and Situation Board
Publisher:
The Bureau
Place of Publication:
Washington
Publication Date:
Frequency:
frequency varies

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Oil industries -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Oils and fats, Edible -- Economic aspects -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Agricultural Economics.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
FOS-1 (Mar. 1937) - FOS-301 (Oct. 1980).
Issuing Body:
Issued by: Agricultural Marketing Service, 1954-Mar. 1961; Economic Research Service, May 1961-<Oct. 1977>; Economics, Statistics, and Cooperatives Service, <May 1978>-July 1980; Economics and Statistics Service, Oct. 1980.
General Note:
"Approved by the World Food and Agricultural Outlook and Situation Board," Oct. 1977-Oct. 1980.
General Note:
Title from caption.
General Note:
Item 21-D.

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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 000502965
oclc - 01588232
notis - ACS2699
lccn - 46039840 //r82
issn - 0014-8865
sobekcm - AA00005305_00027
Classification:
lcc - HD9490.U5 A33
ddc - 380.1/41385/0973
System ID:
AA00005305:00027

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Succeeded by:
Fats and oils outlook & situation

Full Text
* -* C *-**


UNITED.STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
WASH I NGTON
APRIL 14, 1939


THE FATS AND OILS S I TUAT ION

---------- ------ ------





CONSUMPTION OF FATS AND OILS IN THE UNITEDLSA ITOR


NEG 32177 BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS


FOS-26
,i


U 5 DEPARTMEkr OF AGRICULTURE








Table 1.- Price per pound of specified fats and oils, February-March, 1938-39

1938 1939
Fat or oil Feb. Mar. Feb. Mar.

SCents Cents Cents Cents
Domestic prices-
Butter, 32 score, N. Y. 31.13 30.33 26.25 24.30
Oleomargarine, dom. veg.,Chicag : 15.00 15.12 14.50 14.50
Lard, prime steam, Chicago 8.56n 8.76n 6.58 6.53n
Lard refined, Chicago 10.06 9.95 7.54 7.52
Lard compound, Chicago 10.31 10.20 9.25 9.25
Coconut oil, edible, r.Y. 6.12 6.06 4.18 4.38
Cottonseed oil,crude,f.o.b. S.E. mills: 6.70 7.03n 5.61 5.78
Cottonseed oil, p.s.y., IT. Y. : 7.90 8.20 6.70 --
Soybean oil, refined, I'. Y. : 9.10 9.25 7.50 7.50
Peanut oil, domestic, refined, F. Y. : 10.OOn 10.24 9.25 9.12
Rape oil, refined, '. Y. : 12.06 11.96 10.80 10.80
Oleo oil, No. 1, N. Y. : 9.50 9.19 7.81 8.19
Oleostearine, barrels, N. Y. : 7.44 7.56 6.34 6.62

Corn oil, refined, V. Y. 9.74 10.16 8.94 8.88
Olive oil, edible, Y. : 27.86 26.00 25.07 25.07
Teaseed oil, crude, 1. Y. 8.47 8.38 8.97 8.94

Coconut oil, crude, Pacific Coast : 3.56 3.62 2.72 2.89
Tallow, inedible, Chicagn 5.28 5.03 4.96 5.14
Grease, house, I. Y. : 4.94 4.60 4.77 4.94
Palm oil, crude, N. Y. 4.22 4.14 3.68 3.82
Olive oil foots, barrels, N. Y. : 9.19 8.94 7.09 7.03
Palm-kernel oil, denatured, N. Y. 4.18n 4.12n 3.40n 3.45n
Babassu oil, tanks, N. Y. 6.75n 6.68 6.16n 6.12n
Sardine oil, tanks, Pacific Coast 5.97 6.20 3.90n 4.07n

Linseed oil, raw, I'inneapolis : 9.78 9.57 8.30 8.58
Tung oil, drums, N. Y. 15.34 13.28 14.97 15.16
Perilla oil, drums, F!. Y. 11.12 10.62 9.64 9.67
Soybean oil, crude, f.n.b. mills : 6.12 6.40 4.76 4.91
Menhaden oil, crude, f.o.b. Baltimore : 5.00n 4.92n 4.02n 4.07n

Foreign prices- I/
Cotton oil, crude, naked, Hull 4.14 4.23 2/3.77 3.68
Copra, Resecada, F. 1.59 1.58 --
Palm-kernel oil, crude, Hull : 4.48 4.34 2/3.56 3.77
Whale oil, crude, No. 1, Rotterdam : 3.58 3.14 2/3.03 3.14
Tallow, beef fair-fine, London 4.63 4.51 7/3.87 3.87
Linseed oil, naked, Hul; 6.22 6.04 7/4.96 5.07


SConverted to U. S. cents per pound at current monthly rates of exchange.
Preliminary.


FOS-26


- 2 -






FOS-2 6


THE FATS AND 0 ILS SITUAT ION



The general outlook for domestic production and prices of fats and

oils has not changed materially since last month's report.

Prospective plantings for 1939 reported by the Crop Reporting Board

of the Bureau of Agricultural Economics on March 17 indicate acreages of

flaxseed, soybeans and peanuts exceeding acreages planted in 1938. Prices

in March averaged about the same as in February with a fractional increase

in the prices of some commodities.

Some increase in total consumption of fats and oils in 1939 will

probably be brought about by inercased demand for drying oils and indus-

trial oils. The total amount of fats and oils used in soap and in food

products is more stable than the quantities used in the drying industries.

Flaxseed

Flaxseed growers, encouraged by relatively high flaxseed prices,
favorable provisions of the Agricultural Cnnservation program, and the
reduction in wheat acreage, have indicated an intention of increasing flax-
seed acreage this spring to about 2,023,000 acres, or nearly 85 percent
more than the acreage seeded in 1938. If these intentions are carried out
the 1939 seedings would still be about 19 percent below the 10-year(1929-38)
average. Average yields and abandonment would give a total production of
12 million to 13 million bushels. The 1938 production was 8,171,000 bush-
els, and the previous 10-year average production was 11,943,000 bushels.
The 1938-39 domestic utilization is expected to total 26 million to 28 mil-
lion bushels.

Indications are that domestic demand for flaxseed in the summer and
fall of 1939 will be somewhat larger than last season, but demand condi-
tions in Europe are uncertain and supplies in Argentina are somewhat larger
and lower-priced than a year ago.

Definite statistics as to world stocks of flaxseed are not avail-
able, but data on production and exports indicate that supplies at the first
of March 1939 were somewhat larger than a year earlier. North American pro-
duction in 1938 was about 1,750,000 bushels larger than in 1937. The Argen-
tine harvest is estimated at 61,020,000 bushels, or slightly larger than the


- 3 -







FOS-26 -


previous harvest. Shipments from Argentina since the first of
January, how-ver, have been smaller than during the corresponding
period last -ear, so that remaining supplies are somewhat larger
than a "ear ago. The Indian crop which will become available for
market in Anril is re-orted to be about the same as last season's
harvest of around 18,250,000 bushels.

Domestic supplies of competing and supplementary drying oils
which. furnished almost one-third of United States drying oil require-
ments in the calendar year 1937, are larger than average, but there
are no indications that production of these oils during the coming
-season will be materially different from last year, except that soy-
bean oil s'Oplies probably will be larger.

Peanuts

The prospective acreage of peanuts grown alone for all ourvoses
in the United States in 1939, is indicated to be about 6.2 -ercent
larger than the acreage -lanted in 193E. In the Virginia-Carolina
area, the indicated increase is 3 percent; in the Southeastern area,
6 percent; in the Southwestern area, 11 percent.

If the acreage harvested for nuts is increased proportionately,
it would total about 2,000,000 acres. On the basis of yields equal to
the average for the 5 years 1934-38, the total crop of peanuts for
nuts from this createe would be about 744,000 tons. Such a crop would
be about 32,000 tons more than the 1938 crop, and about 225,000 tons
more than the 10-year average production, 1927-36.

The estimated total production in 1938 was appro::imately 712,000
tons. Of this quantity, approximately 127,000 tons of surplus peanuts
were purchased under the Agricultural Adjustment Administration program
for diversion into oil and byproducts. The remaining 555,000 tons were
used in the commercial trade or on the farm. If the same quantity is
so used in 1939, then there will be a surplus of approximately 159,000
tons.

Soybeans

The indicated acreage of soybeans grown alone for all purposes
in the United States is about 12 percent larger than the acreage planted
in 1.33.

Whale oil

Private estimates place the total whale oil production of
NTorwegian, British, German, and Japanese whalers at about 1 billion
pounds for the lc,3-?7 season, closing in March, compared with 1.3
billion pounds in li'7-`8 and 1 billion ir. 193t-3?.





FOS-26


The Nor'wegian herring oil production is also reported as un-
satisfactory this season; private estimates place the total at about
half the output in 1937-3S.

Consumption of lard and vegetable cooking fats in 13g2

The orosnective increase in lard trnduction this year will be
reflected in increased earorts of lard. It irill also mean a consider-
able increase in domestic lard consumption. In the past 15 years the
per capital consumption of lard and vegetable cooking fats has been
relatively constant at about 22 pounds. But as indicated in the
accompanying table the aggregate and per capita consumption of lard
and of vegetable cooking fats has fluctuated considerably, with changes
in the consumption of one being largely' offset by opposite changes in
the others.

In the period 1935-37, when Isrd production 7ns relatively small
because of the droughts of 19jh and 1S36, the annual consumption of
lard per capital was much smaller than it hbd been in the previous
decade. On the other hand, the per capital consumption of vegetable
cooking fats in the 1935-37 period \-as considerably larger than it had
been in earlier years. The larger production and consumption of
vegetable cooking fats in these "ears reflected, to a considerable
extent, the increased utilization of imported materials in the manu-
facture of these products, but the use of domestic materials also
increased.

If the combined per capital consumption of lard and vegetable
cooking fats continues at about the same level of other recent years,
the increase in consumption of l.rd this year will be accompanied by
a reduction in the consumption of vegetable cooking fats. Part of
this decrease in consumption may be brought about by a decrease in
volume of imported raw materials used in the manufacture of vegetable
cooking fats. It is also probable that imports of cottonseed oil
this year will be smaller than in ?138, thereby reducing the supply
of cottonseed oil available for the manufacture of vegetable cooking
fats and other uses. The volume of vegetable cooking fats produced
and consumed in 193?, however, will be affected to some extent by
the size of the 193? cotton croo.







FOS-26


Table 2.- A;:arent disappearance, total and per capital of lard, compounds
-nd vegetable cooking futs, ar.3 exports cf lard per capital, United
States, 1920-38


: Total :
: FPr:dj-ion : Disapreararce
Year : :egetabtle: :Vegetable:


: LLrd : cookinrg
: :t f ts
:Mi.lb. Lil.lb.
Average:
1920-24 2,329 755
1925-29 2,285 1,147
1930-34 2,270 1,';37

19-20 1,943 747
1921 : 2,092 11i
1922 : 2,23 7:-4
1923 2,632 751
1924 : 2,635 830

1925 : 2,133 1,153
1926 : 2,185 1,141
1927 : 2,240 1,179
192E : 2,432 1,143
129 : 2,435 1,12'

193C : 2,201 1,211
1-31 : 2,27- 1,172
152 : 2,751 945
1-33 : 2,44- ,53
1354 : 2,72 1,204

1955 : 1,267 1,547
193 : 1,C73 1,597
1937 1,434 11,955
1933J 1,735- 1,539


: Lard : cooking
Sl :* fats
Mil.lb. Mil.1b.


1,449
1,513
1,678

1,304
1,201
1,4A4
1,618
1,638

1,432
1,444
1,518
1,600
1,572

1,557
1,67E
1,756
, 743
1 3F-



i- __-
1,443
1,23
1,443


753
1,15C
1,094

715
763
742
738
507

1,127
1,123
1,161
1,130
1,209

1,2C0
1,168
?41
949


1,541
1, 66
1,594
1,56C


Per capital disappearance


:Vegetable
Lard : cooking
: fats


Lb.

13.2
12.8
13.5

12.2
11.1
13.5
14.5
14.5

12.5
12.4
12.8
13.3
12.9

12.7
13.5
14.3
13.9
12.9

9.5
11.2
10.5
11i .


Lb.

6.9
9.7
8.8

6.7
7.1
6.8
6.6
7.1

9.8
9.6
9.8
9.4
9.9

9.8
9.4
7.5
7.6
9.5

12.1
12.4
12.3
12.0


:Total lard
:and vege-
:table cook-
: ing fats
Lb.

20.0
22.5
22.2

18.9
18.2
20.3
21.1
21.6

22.3
22.0
22.5
22.7
22.8

22.5
22.9
21.8
21.5
22.4

21.6
23.6
22.8
23.1


/ Ket exzsor:s tr.1 s'.i-rents to ror.-ccr.ricri us territory.
/ ?rel iircr-.


Apparent -isaFpearLne is c3r. puted frrom r:ducti"n plus r minus net trade and
c;rrezsed for c~rrges in st::ks where -vailable. Per capite based on
j .ly oc! rI.i:n.

It should te r.nte-d th-t these data are crly Epprcxiations. The avail-
atle ststis:ical inf:rr'-tin, especially r. ar.iml f-ts, is incomplete. Total
sl-.ugh-er :f meat .ir.Lis in feder'lly inrspected est-blishrents represents
aetuai "E'.t, -uit .ta fr hr s ghter r s hter are estimates by the Bureau of
Agricultu:rrl E icr.cnmis.


: Per
: capital
: exports
'Lard I/

S Lb.

S 8.0
S 6.5
S 4.7

S 6.0
S 8.3
S 7.3
S 9.6
: .7

S 6.3
S 6.3
S 6.1
S 6.7
S 7.1

S 5.5
S 4.8
S 4.6
S 4.9
S 3.6

S 0.9
: 1.1
S 1.3
S 1.8


- 6 -




FOS-26 -7 -

Table 3.- Price per -pund of large, cottonEeed oil, and vegetable
cooking fats, by orths, 1337-39

Lard Cottonseed oil C.mnoceds
: ____ ____:: ______ and
Date ?rime steam Refire, rude :Deodorizel, vegetable
: Chicago Ch cae- mills : eble, cooking
: __ :: Chica3 : fats
SCents "Certs Cenzs Cents Cents
1937 -
Jan. : 13,6 14.0 10.4 12. : 13.7
Feb. : 12.4 13.3 : 9 12.3 13.8
Mar. : 12.5 13.2 : ?.3 12.1 : 13.7
Apr. : 11.6 12. : ?.5- 11.8 13.7
May : 11.9 12.9 53. 11.2 : 13.2
June : 113, 13.2 : ,2 1.? 13.4
July 12.2 13.6 : .3 10,5 13,2
Aug. : 11.3 13.0 7.rn 10.2 12.2
Sent. 11.0 13,0 : 6,2 11.0
Oct. : 10.0 12.0 t.ln 9.c 10.2
Nov. : .5 11.4 : .gC 9.- 10.4
Dec. : ._3 9.8 5-c9 .4 10".4
Av. 11.3 12.7 : .0 10.3 12.4

1938 -
Jan. 8, 10.1 : :.2 -. 10.2
Feb. : 86 10.1 : .7 10,3
Mar. : 8,8 10.0 7.0 : 10.2
Apr. 8.2 9,4 : 9.4 10.3
May : .l .2 : 7,0 10,2
June s.4 9.4 6,3 9. 10,2
July : 3,9 97 73 K- : 1,3
Aug, : .1 ?.C : 0,3 -r : D
Sent. 7.8 8.9 : 10,2
Oct. 7.4 .85 .3 ?.I : 10.0
Nov. 7.1 8.3 : .5 8.9 .
Dec. : .7 7.9 : _. .? : 9.
Av. .0 .2 : .7 ?.3 10.2

1939 : :
Jan. : .6 7.7 : .. 8 .2
Feb. : .6 7.5 : .2 : .2
Mar. : .5 7.5 5. .3 : 9.2
Comniled as follows:
Lard, prime steam Natioral Prcrisioner. Average c: weekly-
quotations d--ir- the month.
Lard refined Bureau of Agricultural EcoZnoics. Average cf wee.lyv
average of caily c':otaticns d'r-in t:e mcnth.
CottenEc ed rci, crude Ol, Paint, and 2Drg Rencrter. Average ?f
quctati-ors for Saturdays d-irin- the month.
Cottonsued oil, edible Natinai Pro-.-isi :nr.-e. Average of weekly
range during the month.
Compounds bureau of Agricultural Economics.







FOS-26


Table 4.- Oleomargarine: Production and materials used in manufacture,
United States, January February 1938-39

: 1938 : 1939 1/
Item : : :
Jan. Feb. Jan. Feb.
:1,000 lb. 1,000 lb. 1,000 lb. 1,000 lb.

Oleo oil : 794 911 1,187 1,289
Oleostearine : 284 248 232 228
Lard neutral 149 146 107 115
Oleo stock : 57 72 131 132
Total animal : 1,284 1,377 1,657 1,764

Cottonseed oil : 19,580 16,792 9,884 9,412
Soybean oil 4,217 2,756 4,811 4,395
Peanut oil 236 318 219 194
Corn oil : 209 41 119 62
Total domestic vget.ble 2/ : 24,242 19,907 15,033 14,063

Coconut oil : 4,390 6,431 7,245 5,295
Bnbassu oil 2,138 1,099 712 1,168
Palm-kernel oil : 919 528 122 44
Total foreign vegetable 3/ : 7,447 8,058 8,079 6,507

Total fats and oils 32,973 29,342 24,769 22,334


Milk 7,350 6,949 5,856 5,422
Salt and other miscellaneous : 1,990 1,644 1,394 1,256


Production of oleomArgarine 40,476 36,201 30,319 27,701


I/ Preliminary.
Ordinarily domestically produced.
o/ t domestically produced.


Compiled and computed from Bureau of
Revenue Bulletin.


Internal Revenue records and Internal


- 8 -





FOS-26


- 9 -


FATS AND OILS -- FACTORY CONSiWMPTION BY CLASSES OF PRODUCTS
COMPARED TITH APPARENT DISAPPEARANCE



The data on factory consumption in the following tables were
compiled from Bureau of the Census; data for 1931-37 from Animal
and Vegetable Fats and Oils; data for 1938 are from the preliminary
sheet, Factory Consumption of Primary Animal and Vegetable Fats
and Oils, by Classes of Products. Apparent disappearance was
computed by the Bureau of Agricultural Economics from data on pro-
duction, trade, and stocks. The percentages were computed from
the preceding data in the table.

Data on miscellaneous consumption in minor industries and
uses have be.n collected over a period of months from various sources
and are admittedly incomplete and scattered. It is intended that
additional data shall be gathered as it becomes available and time
permits. In most cases there are no data showing actual amounts or
percentages of the fats and oils utilized in these minor ways. The
figures in parenthesis refer to the reference list of sources at the
end of the tables.

In most cases com-nuted apparent disappearance exceeds reported
factory consumption because in many cases there is more or less direct
consumption of the fats and in some cases because factory consumption
figures may be incomplete. In certain cases the difference between
factory consumption and computed disappearance is, of c.:urse, very
wide. For example, only 1 or 2 percent of edible olive oil and lard
are utilized in factory consumption, the bulk of the two fats going
into direct consumption. In the c-se of linseed oil more than a
third of the utilization is other than factory consumption. More
than half the corn oil used is for sand, table, cooking, or other
purposes, and is not reported as factory consumption.

In a few cases reported factory consumption exceeds computed
apparent disappearance, which means that some r-lace along the line
the data are incomplete or incorrect.




- 10 -


FOS-26





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FOS-26


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FOS-26


Table 6 .- Coconut oil: Factory consumption by classes of products
and total disappearance, United States, 1931-78 Continued


NOTES -

I/ Fantory ronsLamption exceeds computed disappearance. Percentages.
are worked on factory consumption.

2/ Miscellaneous consumption includes uses in:
.andles and night lights
Cosmetics ard pharmaceutical preparations
Cutting oils and lubricants
Dyeing cottons and softening cotton goods
Foods -
Baked products
Candies and other sweetmeats and confections
Salad oils
Vegetarian foods
Ointment base and in medicines
Vulcanizing rubber (13, p. 128); (3) 40:37-372,
pt. 2, June 1937.
3/ Foots, or residue from refining, largely used in soap stock.

SThe Bureau of the Census computes net consumption by deducting from the
total of both crude and refined consumed the quantity of refined
oil produced.

5/ Includes pairt ard varnish, printing ink, and item reported as
miscellaneous see above.

6/ Less than onre-half of or.- percent.

7/ Probably mostly goes into such edible uses as salad, table, and
-ooking oils, and other .inor uses.

Coconut butter the separated stcarine resulting from "wintering" coconut
oil or palm-r,:rncl oil is known to the trade as coconut butter or
"chocolate fits" (not to be; conifusrd with cocoa butter) is used in
candy, swe.t fillings for wafers, etc. Also used is an adulterant
for cocoa butter. The oluine is largely us d for cooking shelled
nuts which i--r to be ss:lted. (13, ,. 123); (3) 40::7-372, pt. 2,
June 1937.

Coconut acid oil (from the acidifirstion of soap stock from the soda
refining of coconut oil) lIay be us-d in place of coconut oil in
slightly low gradc soaps. (16) 91:27, Jan. 1, 1937


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Marine animal oils this term is used to designate all marine mammal (i.e.,
whale), fish, and fish-liver oils.

The principal use in the United States is in soap, for which much
of the oil is hydrogenated.

Fish oilst The literature on fish oils and their use in the paint
and varnish industry sho~w a great difference in the opinions of the var-
ious investigators. While it seems to be generally believed that fish
oils (at least so far as oar present knowledge goes) are not suitable by
themselves to replace linseed oil as a vehicle for ordinary paints, their
value for use with other drying eils in special paints has been demon-
strated by extensive research in spite of a recognized inferiority with
respect to certain properties.

The chief merits of fish-oil film are their flexibility and ex-
tensibility. On the other hand, they are somewhat softer, tackier, and
less tough than the films of vegetable drying oils. Softness is partly
due to the inherent nature of th l76ag components of the films and is
a necessary accompaniment of flettVLUtt~ it therefore cannot be consi-
dered a total defect.

Sardine, menhaden, and pilchard oils have been used for many
years in the manufacture of heat-resistant flexible paints for boiler
fronts, smoke-stacks, and other metel surfaces subject to great expan-
sion and contraction. For this purpose they are said to be superior to
other drying oils with the exception of tung oil. They have also been
largely used in barn paints. Herring and -hale oils are not usually
considered good drying oils, although treated whale oil for use in var-
nishes in -)lace of linseed oil has appeared on foreign markets in re-
cent months. It is too recent to have proven its value to the industry.

In the usual tung oil syr'warnish which is used as a medium with
aluminum for exterior purposes, the addition of up to 30 percent of a
suitable fish oil, like sardine, increases the life and the resistance
to heat of the aluminum paint. Kettled fish oils find a large use in
the so-called one-coat whites, factor-.' whites, and enamels, and the use
in enamels and varnishes is step.dilr increEsing. Oiled fabrics include
such materials as used in raincoats tar aulin, "American" cloth, table
baize, etc. The" are manufactured by applying several coats of boiled
oil containing suitable nignents and allowing each coat to dry thoroughly.
Here gain drying fish oils ore used extensively with linseed oil in the
manufacture of these commodities, the product being more flexible than
that from linseed oil alone.

Miscellaneous consumption includes use in: Alkyd resins (as ex-
tender); caulking compounds (because retained elasticity is of paramount
importance); core oils (11, p.70); illuminating nur-oses and burning; in-
secticides and sheep dips; insulting products (in combination with other
oils); lithographing products; lubricating compositions; mediums for ren-
dering paper partially trans-narent; in patent leather and in tanning
chamois; plasticizers for lacquers; rope manufacture and treating jute;


708-26


- 17 -








rubber substitutes; tanning, curing, finishing, and dressing leather; tem-
pering steel, and waterproofing medium for porous stone surfaces.

A few of the marine animal oils have special uses:

Shark oil (shark-liver oil): A recently invented Japanese.process
makes it possible to utilize shark oil as lubricants in,'aeroplane and other
motors at temperatures as low as 450 below zero. (19) 39:28, Sept. 1937.

Sperm oil (not a true oil but a wax): Refined sperm oil is particu-
larly valuable as a lubricant for light moving machinery and as an illum-
inant and burning oil. It may also be used for the general uses listed un-
der marine animal oils. (21, p. 5,9,10) For many purposes other oils are
blended with sperm oil.

Spermaceti wax: Spermaceti wax is a co-product with refined sperm
oil derived from crude sperm oil, representing about 10 percent of the
crude head oil. The wax is used principally by the cosmetic industry for
the production of face creams, pomades and other toilet preparations. It
is used in ointments and certain medicinal preparations, in finishing lin-
ens and in confectionery. It is used to a small extent in candles, either
alone or with stearic acid or paraffin. (3) 40:37-372, pt. 2, June 1937;
(21, p.O). (

Cod-liver and other liver oils: Fish-liver oils are good sources of
vitamins A, D, (,- p.2b) and K, and are utilized principally.in pharmaceu-
ticals and medicinal uses. In practice, to save sorting, liver oil is often
obtained from cod livers admixed with other livers (4, p.267). In addition
to these uses liver oils are used extensively in poultry feeds either un-
mixed or combined with other oils as a growth-accelerator for young chicks.
(3) 40:37-372, pt, 2, June 1937; (5).

Cod oil (i.e., crude or "unracked" cod-liver oil): The oil obtained
from putrid and decomposing livers has an objectionable taste and odor and
is the cod oil or "brown oil" of commerce. Its principal use is in leather
tanning and finishing, but it is also sold as "fish stearine" for soap
making. (3) 40:37-372, pt. 2, June 1937; (5)


POS-26


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FOS-26


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- 54 -


OO
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Table 26.- Soybean oil: Factory consumption by classes of products
and total disappearance, United States, 1931-38


NOTES:-

I/ Although'it is somewhat difficult to snponify soybean oil, it is used
for the manufacture of soft soap (potassium soap), often used for
automobile soap. Hydrogenated soybean oil is used for hard soap.

2_ For use in paints, er.amels, and lacquers, heat treatment of raw soybean
oil produces a material that dries more rapidly than raw oil. It is
particularly desirable for use in making white or pale colored enamel
paints for interior use, as it does not yellow with age as linseed
oil does. A mixture of equal parts of soybean and perilla oil
approximates raw linseed oil in drying time. A mixture of 40 percent
perilla and 60 percent soybean oil gives approximately the same hard-
ness as raw linseed oil. Fifteen to 20 or 25 percent soybean oil in
a linseed oil paint is said to increase the elasticity of the paint.
(4, p. 207). It is used in the modification of synthetic resins
mainly of the glyptal and phenol formaldehyde types.

3/ Miscellaneous consumption includes use in: Basis for cutting fluid;
candles; core oils; lamps for burning; livestock fly spray; rubber
substitutes called "factis" (Factic is made by combining a vegetable
oil in a certain way with sulfur or sulfur chloride. It is useful
when used in mixtures with ral riibbrr.); sprays, as a spreader and
sticker for lead arsenate in spray for codling moth control in apple
orchards, and waterproofing cement.
(13, p..E61, 262, 2?6, 26g); (12, p. 93-109); (3)
40:37-372, pt. 2, June 1937; (5); (18); (17) 14:15,
Jan. 1937; (2).

4/ Foots, or residue from refining, largely used in soap stock.

5/ The Bureau of the Census conr.utes net consumption b:' deducting from
the total of both crudi and refined consumed the quantity of
refined produced.

/ Less than one-half of one percent.

J/ Includes paints and vrrnishes, linoleum and oilcloth, and printing
ink see above.


FOS-26


- 35 -




FOS-26


- 36 -


Tablp 27.- Sunflower oil: Factory consumption by classes of products and
total disappearance, United States, 1933-37

Products using : : :
sunflower oil 1533 1934 1935 1936 1937 I
:1,000 lb. 1,000 lb. 1,000 lb. 1,000 lb. 1,000 lb.

Soap : ,889 7,142 103
Compounds and vegetable
cooking fats :2,469 901 10,896 208
Oleomargarine --- --- 100 5
Other edible products :2,535 1,003 910 920
Paint and varnish 2/ 175 631 310 97
Linoleum and oilcloth : 116 1,909 ---
Misrellaneous 3/ 172 40 -- --
Foots and loss : 529 130 3 --

Total factory consumption 13,885 11,756 12,402 1,230
Total apparent
disappearance : 22,466 25,451 36,874 26,029 725
S As percentage of total disappearance of
: sunflower oil
:Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent

Soap 35 28 ---
Edible products 5/ 22 7 32 4
Other 6/ 4 11 1 4
Disappearance not reported as:
ronsurned in manufactured
products 7/ 39 54 67 96
Total 100 100 100 100

1 Quantities for 1937 ard 1939 included in "other vegetable oils".
2/ The oil "dries" more slowly than the better grades of soybean oil. It may
be combined with oils of better drying quality for use in varnishes and
enamel paints. (13, p. 215); (3) 40:37-372, pt. 2, June 1937.
3/ Miscellaneous consumption includes its use to some extent as an illuminant
and for some technical purposes (13, p. 215); (3) 40:37-372, pt. 2, June
1937; it is also used for lubricating (14, p. 280-283, Apr. 1935). Sun-
flower oil is particularly valuable after hydrogenation. (4), p. 93.
/ Less than one-half of one percent.
5/ Includes compounds and vegetable cooking fats, oleomargarine and "other
edible products" see above.
6/ Includes paint and varnish, linoleum and oilcloth, foots and loss, and item
reported as miscellaneous see above.
7/ A desirable edible oil largely used for salad, table, and cooking purposes.






FOS-26 37-




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- 40 -


Reference List

(1) Brocklesby, H.N. and Denstedt, O.F.
1933. The industrial chemistry of fish oils with particular
reference to those of British Columbia. 150 pp.
Ottawa, Canada. (Canada, Biological board, Bull. 37.)
Reference list.


(2) Casberg, C.H. and Schubert, C.E.
1931. An investigation of the suitability of
core oil. Engineering Exp. Station,
Bull. 235.


(3) Chemical Industries. (monthly except October)


soybean oil for
Univ. of Ill.



New Haven, Conn.


(4) Deane, u.K.
1938. Utilization of fats and oils. 292 pp., illus.
(The Chemical Publishing Co. of 1N.Y., Inc.)


New York.


(5) Encyclopaedia Britaniica.


(6) Gardner, H.A.
1934. Oiticica oil. Vatl. Paint, Varnish and Lacquer Assoc.
Circ. 470, pp. 213-285.


(7)
1937. F.Lysical and chemical examination of paints, varnishes,
lacquers, and colors. Ed. 8, 1523 pp. Washington, D.C.


(8)
1919. Soya oil. Paint.. Manfrs. Assoc. U.S. Circ. 67.


(8a) Gardner, E.A. and Butler P.'.
1937. Tung oil culture. Question, and ansviers. Natl. Faint,
Varnish and Lacquer Assoc. Spe-. Circ. June 1937.


(9) Gardner, H.A.
19Z?. Tung oil replacements. Natl. Paint, Varnish and Lacquer
Assoc. Spec. Circ., Oct. 1937%


(10) Great Britain Imperial Institute, London, Ccmmittee for India.
1920. Indian tr-de inquiry. Reports on oil-seeds. 149 pp.
London.






(11) Harrison, R.W.
1931. Market for marine animal oils in the United States.
78 pp. Washington, D.C. (U.S. Bur. Fisheries
Investigational. Rept. 7.)


(12) Horvath, A.A.
1938. The soybean industry. 221 pp. New York. (The Chemical
Publishing Co. of N.Y., Inc.)


(13) Jamieson, G.S.
1932. Vegetable fats and oils; the chemistry, production and
utilization of vegetable fats and oils for edible,
medicinal, and technical purposes. 444 pp., illus.
New York. (Amer. Chem. Soc. Monog. Ser. 58.)


(14) Monthly Bulletin of Agricultural Science and Practice, International
Institute of Agriculture, Rome.

(15) New York Journal of Commerce and Commercial. (daily) Hew York.

(16) Oil and Colour Trades Journal. (weekly) London.

(17) Oil and Soap. (monthly) Chicago, Ill.

(18) Scofield, Francis
1936. The drying time and hardness of some oils and oil mixtures.
Natl. Paint, Varnish and Lacquer Assoc. Circ. 519.


(19) Soap. (monthly) new York.


(20) Soap Gazette and Perfumer. (monthly) New York.


(21) U.S. Tariff Commission
1933. Sperm oil and spermaceti wax. Report to the President..
Rept. (Ser. 2) 64, 20 pp. Washington, D.C.


(2?) Wright, P.G.
1928. The tariff on animal and vegetable oils. 347 pp. Niew York.


(23) Zapoleon, L.B.
1929. Inedible animal fats in the United States, considered with
special reference to sources of animal waste, the ren-
dering industry, municipal reduction, and some effects of
meat inspection. 353 pp. illus. Stanford University,
Calif. (Leland Stanford Junior Univ., Food Research Inst.
Fats and Oils Studies 3.)


F'OS-26


- 41 -




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