The Fats and oils situation

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Material Information

Title:
The Fats and oils situation
Physical Description:
301 v. : ill. ; 26-28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Agricultural Economics
United States -- Agricultural Marketing Service
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture. -- Economic Research Service
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture. -- Economics, Statistics, and Cooperatives Service
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture. -- Economics and Statistics Service
United States -- World Food and Agricultural Outlook and Situation Board
Publisher:
The Bureau
Place of Publication:
Washington
Publication Date:
Frequency:
frequency varies

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Oil industries -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Oils and fats, Edible -- Economic aspects -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Agricultural Economics.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
FOS-1 (Mar. 1937) - FOS-301 (Oct. 1980).
Issuing Body:
Issued by: Agricultural Marketing Service, 1954-Mar. 1961; Economic Research Service, May 1961-<Oct. 1977>; Economics, Statistics, and Cooperatives Service, <May 1978>-July 1980; Economics and Statistics Service, Oct. 1980.
General Note:
"Approved by the World Food and Agricultural Outlook and Situation Board," Oct. 1977-Oct. 1980.
General Note:
Title from caption.
General Note:
Item 21-D.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 000502965
oclc - 01588232
notis - ACS2699
lccn - 46039840 //r82
issn - 0014-8865
sobekcm - AA00005305_00019
Classification:
lcc - HD9490.U5 A33
ddc - 380.1/41385/0973
System ID:
AA00005305:00019

Related Items

Succeeded by:
Fats and oils outlook & situation

Full Text







DECEMsaE 15, 1938


-. a- -- -
.. ...FA-T S A ND O I L S I T U A T I O N




THIS MONTH'S ISSUE IS DEVOTED LARGELY TO ** -
DISCUSSION OF THE PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTO ...
- OF OLEOMARGARINE. STATISTICAL INFORMATION Sis
IS INCLUDED.


' PERCENT

70:


40


30


U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


MATERIALS USED IN THE MANUFACTURE OF
OLEOMARGARINE, 1919, AND 1926-38


1926 '27 '28 "29 '30 '31 32 '33 34 '35 '36 '37 '38*
TOTAL FOR 10 MONTHS, JAN. OCT. 1938
'hE9 32Ia'3 BUREAuOF AGRICuLTURu L ECONOMICS


PRIOR TO 1919'ANIMAL FATS CONTRIBUTED 40 TO 70 PERCENT
OF THE FATS USED IN OLEOMARGARINE. COTTONSEED OIL AND PEA-
NUT.,OIL WERE NEXT IN IMPORTANCE. FROM 1919-33 THE USE OF
COCONUT OIL INCREASED, REACHING A HIGH POINT OF 75 PERCENT
OF THE TOTAL OF ALL OILS USED IN 1933. THE EXCISE TAX OF
3 CENTS PER POUND IMPOSED IN 1934 WAS AN IMPORTANT FACTOR
IN CAUSING A SHARP REDUCTION IN THE USE OF IMPORTED OILS
IN OLEOMARGARINE. DOMESTIC OILS HAVE BEEN USED MORE EX-
TENSIVELY THAN IMPORTED OILS IN EVERY MONTH SINCE NOVEMBER
1936. Low COCONUT OIL PRICES DURING THE PAST YEAR, HOW-
EVER,'ARE REFLECTED IN A SLIGHT REVERSAL OF THE TREND.


,r. Ki









Table 1.- Price per pound of specified fats and oils, October November, 1937-38


Fat or oil


Domestic prices -
Butter, 92 score, N. Y.
Oleomargarine, domestic vegetable,


Lard, prime steam, Chicago
Lard refined, Chicago
Lard compound, Chicago
Coconut oil, edible, 'U. Y.
Cottonseed oil, crude, f.o.b.
Cotto'seed oil, p.s.y., :i. Y.
Soybean oil, refined, IT. Y.
Peanut oil, domestic refined,
Rape oil, refined, :T. Y.
Oleo oil, :o, 1, IT Y.
Oleostearinc, barrels, 17. ?.


S. E.


IT. Y.


Corn oil, refined, IT. Y.
Olive oil, edible, I. Y.
Teaseed oil, crude, N. Y.

Coconut oil, crude, Pacific Coast
Tallow, inedible, Chicago
Grease, house, U. Y.
Palm oil, crude, N. Y.
Olive oil foots, barrels, N. Y.
Palm-kernel oil, denatured, IT. Y.
Babassu oil, tanks, N. Y.
Sardine oil, tanks, Pacific Coast

Linseed oil, raw, Minneapolis
Tung oil, L r'.ns, IT. Y. 2/
Perilla oil, runs, Hi. Y.
Soybean oil, crude, f.o.b. mills
Menhaden oil, crude, f.o.b. Balto.

Foreign prices I/
Cotton oil, crude, naked, Uull
Copra, Resecada, Philip-oine Islands
Palm-kernel oil, crude, Hull
Whale oil, crude, No. 1, Rotterdam
Tallow, beef, fair-fino, London
Linseed oil, naked, Hull


03


: 1
Oct.

:Cents

36.04o
Chicago : 5.00
9.98
: 12.00
: 10.25
7.05
mills : .lOn
7.30
8.97
: 10.50n
: 12.5
:13.00
9.33

: 10.08
: 32.0On
9.38

4.40
5.69
S .72
: .50n
: 10.2
: 4.95n
:1/7.62
4.72n

: 10.l0
:21.S0n
: 13.90
: 5.85
4.67n


:4.93
:2/2.03
5.25
4.20
5.28
6.75


Pitures. 2/ In 1937, quoted as "Atlantic Const".
Converted to U.S. cents per pcund at current m.-nthl- rates of exchange.
Preliminary.


o93g
" Nov.


Cents


iJov. Oct.

Cents : Cents

35.07 : 26.29
15.12 15.75
9.50 :'.42
11.38 : S.53
10.38 : 10.00
6.25 : 5.25
5.98 : '.31n
7.10 7.60
3.75 :7.91
10.31n : 10.42
12,29 : 10.49
12 75 : 9.25
9.06 : 7.5

9.s4 :9.82
31.67n : 25.07
9.31 : 7.3

4.03 2.93
5.39 :5.03
5.12 : 4.82
4.1 : 3.57
10.06 : 7.12
4.72n : 3.65n
/7.44 : 6.33n
4.77 3.73

10.20 : g,48
15.t2n : 1,79
12.75 : 9,98
5.e2 : .03
4.63n : 4.00


4.38 : 3.96
1.S1 :4/1.31
4.5 : 3.62
4.13 : j.01
5.10 4.15
-.29 : 4.67


I


FOS-22


- 2 -


m


q


27.27
15.40
7.06
8.33
P.75
4.3
6,47

7.90
10.12
10.67
9.00
6.75

9.59
25.07
7.50

2.81
5.22
5.02
3.59
7.12
3.55n
6.12n
3.90

8,10
14,50
9,94
5.03
.00n


V/3.71

4/3.40
Y 2.94
4.10
iV4.64









OLEOMARGARIlE


In August 1936, a mimeographed bulletin entitled
"Oleomargarine, Stnti-tics of Production, Materials used
in Manuf-cture, Consumption, Trade, and Prices" was pub-
lished'by the Bureau of Agricultural Economics.

Continued demands for current stpti-tical informa-
tion on this subject have made it seem advisable to devote
an issue of the Fats and Oils. Situation largely to bringing
the data to date.





Production of 397 million pounds of oleomargarine in 1937 was

the largest evr reported. And production in the first 10 months of

1938 has exceeded the-corresponding period of 1937 by 10 million

pounds.

ExZorts are .always negligible. They have averaged less than

2 million pounds annually in the pnst 15 years. And stocks in

storage are never accumulated to ary appreciable extent. Domestic

consumption, therefore, corresponds very closely with current

production.

There have been striking changes in the ingredients used

in the manufacture of oleomnrg-rine. D-ring the first 30 years

of the production of the commodity, th.t'is, prior to 1919, animal

fats contributed 40 to 70 percent of the fats used in oleomnrg'rine,

but their use has shown a steady decline, dropping off from 50

percent in 1922 to less t.an 6 percent in 1937. In the only days,

cottonseed oil and peanut oil were next to animal fats in importance.

Almost immediately after the imports of copra and coconut oil

increased so enormously in 1917, the use of coconut oil in oleomargarine








FOS-22


commnnced ti- assume incrc-sinc innortance, reaching a high point

of 75 percent of the total of all oils used in 1933. Here the turn-

ing point was reached, largely as the result of a wave of State

legislation taxing oleomnrg-rine containing any fats or oils other

than specified domestically produced fats and oils, together with

an excise tax of 3-conts por pound on the first domestic processing

of coconut oil. In 1937 total foreign vogotible oils contributed

less than 30 p,.rcent of the fats and oils used in oleonr.rgarinc.

For the coconut oil so displaced, cottonseed oil and soybean

oil have been largely substituted. In ITovonber 1936, for the first

time since 1916, nore cottonseed oil than coconut oil was used in

oleomargarine, and in 1937 domestic vegetable oils supplied almost
st
65 percent of the total fnts and oils seed. During thhc ear, how-

ever, supplies of foreign oils have been plentiful and low in

price, and since Januiry 1938 there has been a slight increase in

their use in the manufacture of oleomargarine.

The Bureau of Internal Pevenue reported th addition of

vitamin concentrate to the materials used in oleomarngrine beginning

October 1937.

Available data on foreign production of oleonargrtine indicate

downward trends in some countries. Per capital disappearance in

Germany dropped from about 15 pounds i: 1929 to about 12 pounds in

1937; in the IIethe.rlands the decline was from about 20 pounds in 1929

to about 14 pounds in 1937; in Denmark the per capital decrease was

about 4 pounds, from about 50 pounds in 1929 to about 46 pounds per

person in 1937.


- 4 -








SOME COMPARISONS BETWEEN OLEOMARGARINE AID BUTTER

Total consumption of oleomargr.rine in the post 3 years has been the
highest on record. The average consumption of 3 pounds per capital was
exceeded only in the 3 years 1918-20. In the past 3 years per capital con-
sumption of butter averaged 16.9 pounds. Consumption of oleomargarine was
about 18 percent of the total consumption of butter and 24 percent of the
consumption of creamery butter.

It is often assumed that each pound of oleomargarine consumed re-
places a pound of butter, and from this it night follow that the market for
butter during the prst 3 years was about 15 percent less than it would have
been if oleomargarine had not been used. But this conclusion is not justified.

Table 12 presents d-+a on retail prices of the principal edible
fats, butter, oleonargarine,lard, and compounds and vegetable choking fats.
In order to compare the different prices, each price is expressed as a
percentage of the price of butter. In the decade 1921-30 the retail price
of butter averaged 52.8 cents; the retail price of oleomargarine averaged
28.5 cents, or 54 percent as much as butter. During the 3 years 1935-37
the retail price of butter averaged 38.6 cents and the retail price of
oleomargarine 18.7 cents, or 48.4 percent as much as butter. In the past
3 years the price of oleomargarine averaged somewhat lo'ier in relation to
butter than in the 20's. This nay have had some effect in tending to
stimulate oleomargarine consumption in relation to butter.

For the.decade 1921-30 the retail price of oleomarg-rine averaged
28.5 cents per pound and in each year was higher than the retail price of
vegetable cooking fats, which averaged 24.3 cents. That is, oleomargarine
averaged 17 percent higher in price than compounds and vegetable cooking
fats. But in the 3 years 1935-37 the relationship changed and oleomar-
garine avrnaged lower in price than vegetable cooking fats by 2.9 cents
per pound or 13 percent. The decline of oleomargarine prices in relation
to prices of vegetable cooking fats has been more narked than the decline
in relation to butter.

From 1921-30 the retail price of oleomargarine averaged higher in
price than lard by 9.5 cents per pound or 50 percent, while in the 3 years
1935-37 it averaged only 1.1 cents per pound higher or 6 percent above lard.

In recent years the price of oleomargarine has been much lower in
relation to cooking fats than in the 1920's. With the price of oleomar-
garine relatively low in relation to these other fats, it is probable that
oleomarg-rine is coming more and mord into competition with them. This
may be a factor in explaining the relatively high consumption of oleomar-
garine in recent years.

Since the price of oleomargarine is so much lower than the price
of butter, it is not correct to consider thnt each cound *cf oleomargarine
used replaces a pound of butter.


FOS-22


- 5 -





FOS-22


-.6 -


The percentages that the consunrstion and -alue of oleonmrg-rine are
of the consunntion and value of butter are compared in table 11. Thp value
parcentago is probably a better measure of the relative importance of butter
and oleonarrarine than the percentage that oleomargarine consumption is of
butter consumption.

Consumption values are computed .s follows:- Trade output of
creanery butter was multiplied by the rctril prices of butter to get an
estimated value of creanery butter. The production of farn butter was
nultiplied by the farm price of butter and added to the value of creannry
butter to g-t the tot-l value of the butter consumed. The value of oleo-
margarine consumed was calculated by .ultinlying the apparent consumption
each month by the retail price.

The question is sometimes o.sked, hn-7 nuch higher would butter prices
be if there ware no oleomargarine used? It is not -possible to answer the
question directly, but the data in tble 11 give some basis for an answer.
First, it is evident that the relative in ortance '-f butter and oleomargarine
fluctuates front year to year. If ol-onnar;rino *ere clii-'ated this fact
would d not rncessarily cause consunrrs to send a larger proportion of their
income for fats than the: n7o-'ld -th-rwise. Thus, if there had been no oleo-
narcarine produced in 1937, c'nsuners niriht have shifted their expenditures
from oleonarg-rine to butter. We consume all the butter we produce. There-
fore, unless butter had been imported in lrgZ r quantities or domestic pro-
duction increased, the consunntion of bvttcr wouldd not have been affected.
If the entire expenditure for oleconar-arine had 1een shifted to butter in
1937, it night hav: raised butter prices by 9 percent. In oth-r yeo.rs it
night have been less. Tt was shnrn, however, in tab'e 12, "that the retail'
price of oleonarg-.ri::e is m..ch closer to lrd a-.d vegetable cooking fats
prices than to the price of'butter. If oleonnrgirine -were eliminated it is
quite p-obable that a c, nsiderable pr portion of the consumer expenditures
for oleoi.ar.arine nw-uld be shifted to lard and vegetable cooking fats, con-
modities cf about the sane 'rice, and which can be substituted for oleomar-
carine in some uses, or to other foods. Thus, the net effect on butter would
probably have been decidedly less than the 9 nprcent mentioned. It is quite
probable that the net effect on lard and vegetable cookinC fats ni-ht be
greater than the effect on buttr. A complete analysis of the competitive
relations betw.oe:n butter and oleonarG-nrine -7uld hae-o to go much farther
than this, including a consideration of the elasticities of demand and
supply for b-,th products.

Sumnarizing the probable results from the elimination of -lconar-
gnrine: First, butter -rices would rise, but this would d be followed by some
increase i. butter production. This in turn, would result in lower prices
for and larger consumption of butter. Thus,the eventual effect on butter of
the elminintic' of oleonnrgirine ni-Jt be smnoehat higher butter prices and
some increase in butter consumption. The rise in n-ice probably would be
decidedly less than the 9 percent mentioned, however, and the increase in
butter production per capital pro.-ably would be decidedly less than the
present consumption of oleonargarine per capita. The of ects on butter would
depend partly upo- the unknown extent to which oleon.rgarrine is used as a
substitute for lard and vegetable cooking fats rather than for butter. In
any event, the changes in butter prices an. c nsunption probablyy would be
n uch smaller than the present relative volumes of consumption of oleomar-
garine and butter might indic-te.






Table 2.-Oleomargarine: Production, withdrawn for export, and withdrawn
for consumption, calendar years 1887-98 and 1909-37

Calendar : : Withdrawn for : Withdrawn for consumption
year : Production export / Total 2/ Per capital 3j
: 1,000 lb. 1000 lb. 1,000 lb. Lb.


1887
1888
1889
1890
1891
1892
1893
1894
1895
1896
1897
1898



1909
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919

1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929

1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937


*30,931
37,185
33,111
35,388
4s,310
55,958
75,984
63,442
50,880
45,664
50,799
71,035


1,183
1,996
1,625
1,585
964
2,183
2,898
3,694
3,216
3,101
2,578
2,476


28,831
35,207
31,553
33,643
47,381
53,375
73,052
59,764
47,690
42,870
47,870
68,478y


.5
.6
.5
.5
.7
.8
1.1
.9
.7
.6
.7
.9


Data for intervening years not available


115,961
147,418
105,059
142,224
152,048
141,166
141,969
187,563
287,245
350,607
368,799

369,484
215,082
184,752
227,580
231,829
233,951
242,560
277,498
316,662
356,248

325,660
229,927
203,232
245,472
264,410
381,633
393,293
397,267


2,673
3,057
3,242
2,839
2,402
1,836
3,532
2,664
2,666
2,969.
15,428

6,101
1,454
1,099
1,531
1,156
1,304
1,901
1,928
2,047
2,163

1,869
1,847
1,621
1,499
1,595
1,429
1,197
327


112,s48
144,318
101,569
138,754
149,919
138,883
138,805
183,387
283,717
346,851
353,858

363,736
214,628
183,512
226,287
230,480
232,102
240,491
275,728
314,039
352,929

323,262
229,995
201,688
242,878
263,237
379,920
390,995
397,266


1.2
1..6
1.1
1.5
1.6
1.4
1.4
1.8
2.8
3.4
3.4

3.4
2.0
1.7
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.1
2.3
2.6
2.9

2.6
1.8
1.6
1.9
2.1
3.0
3.0
3.1


Continued -


FOS-22


- 7 -








Table 2.-Oleomargarine: Production, withdrawn for export, and withdrawn for
consumption, calendar years, 1887-98 and 1909-37 Contd


I/ All oleomargine "withdrawn for export" free of tax must be reported to the
Bureau of Internal Revenue after having'reached destination or the tax will
be collected. Exports reported by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic
Commerce may cover various classifications of material.

2/ Figures are for quantity withdrawn for general use, tax paid (10 cents per
pound on colored and one-fourth cent on uncolored) plus withdrawn free from
tax for use of the United States in prisons and other Federal institutions.

3/ Based on July 1 population.

Compiled and computed from Bureau of Internal Revenue records and Internal
Revenue Bulletin.


Table 3.-Oleomargarine: Production in the United States as reported
by the Bureau of Agricultural Economics and the
Bureau of Internal Revenue, 1930-37

Bureau of Agricultural Economics 1/ :Bureau of
:Uncolored : Colored : Internal
:.Combind: Combined : Total, : Revenue
Combined 'Combined '
Calendar: Vege- :animal : Vege- : animal : : uncol- : Total
year :tabtab : a T : table : : :ored andiuncolored
and ot and Total
:and nut : :vge- :and nut vege- :colored : and
oil :table : oil table : 1/ : colored
: ::: : : : I I/ .
:1,00u Ib 1.000 lb 1,000 lb:l OuO Ib 1 000 lb 1,OuO Ib:1,000 lb:1,000 Ib

1930 : 211,130 87,017 298,147: 4,749 8,859 13,603: 311,755: 325,660
1931 : 162,931 52,876 215,807: 2,150 3,996 6,146: 221,953: 229,927
1932 : 155,674 38,6o4 194,278: 971 2,467 3,43: 197,716: 203,232
1933 : 199,008 40,719 239,727: 703 1,801 2,504: 242,231: 245,472
1931 : 207,468 52,511 259,979: 792 2,129 2,921: 262,900: 264,410
1935 : 329,764 46,0s7 375,851: 936 1,890 2,826: 378,677: 381,633
1936 : 340,137 43,090 383,227: 1,252 1,419 2,671: 390,898: 393,293
1937 : 319,477 40,320 389,797: 955 748 1,703: 391,500: 397,267


I/ Production reports to the Bureau of Internal Revenue are required by law and
are therefore considered to be more accurate thnnn reports to the Bureau of
Agricultural Economics which are voluntary, but the latter are useful
because they are broken down into special classifications.

Compiled as follows:
Bureau of Agricultural Economics figures are from reports of manufacturers.
Internal Revenue figures are from mnnurl reports of the Commissioner.


- 8 -


FOS-22




P o 022. 9'--

Table 4.-Oleomargarine production by States, year beginning July, 1932-36

: "Year beginning July
State 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937

:1,000 lb. 1000 lb. 1,000 lb. 1,000 lb. 1,000 b. 1,000 lb.
Colored and
uncolored
Ill. : 87,692 99,078 143,301 129,993 129,531
Ohio 36,148 39,280 61,852 84,094 86,285
Calif. : 28,133 30,617 .38,54o 39,798. 43,9S1
N. J. :18,155 19,575 28,042 26,116 24,219
Mich. 10,453 12,377 13,623 13,119 14,626
Ind. : 8,946 12,444 '22,407 30,003 36,549
Kans. :12,770 12,400 25,454 23,845 25,148
Md. 5,613 5,385 5,775 6,655 7,940
Mo. 3,851 4,319 8,538 9,435 11,145
Tex. 2,262 2,142 3,072 5,020 5,557
Minn. 963 810 731 1,129 1.,215
Oreg. 898 1,029 1,114 1,460 1,869
Mass. 1,538 1,474 -
Nebr. 910 1,148 -
Colo. 451 581 1,246 1,o.42 1,1.99
R. I. i 253 529 126 2 -


Uhitod Statos

Colored
N. J.
Ill.
Md.
Mo.
Kans.
Ind.
R. I.
Nebr.
Colo.
Tex.
Ohio


: 219,043 243,187 353,821 371,738 389,264



1,152 1,373 1,107 859 463
360 495 305 643 475
673 297 474 510 243
298 245 80 295 338
267 193 316 287 270
48 45 68 44 55
6 33 -- 1 -
5 3 -
3 21 22 18
5 1 23 10 30
:- -- 11 102 75


United States 2,813 2,689 2,905 2,773 1,967
Colored and Uncolored
Percentage of United States production produced in specified States
SPercent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent

Ill. : 40 41 41 35 33
Ohio : 17 16 17 23 22
Calif. 13 13 11 11 11
N. J. : 8 7 6
Other : 22 22 23 24 28
l/ Less than 500 pounds.

Compiled from-annual reports of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue.
These data are not available on calendar year basis. Data for 1937 will be
available in January.






















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O v-l ,O -1I -i
055ar
Oggg (E
OMMA ~


mpt.2


ND
w NP LO to
* *


0
O0







Co

0
-4


0



0







0
1-1I





















0
0









0
0
r-4





























0
0
0



























0
1-4








0






Sr
0
0
















-I






O- 1
0
0
r-








0
0
-4



0
0




,-



0



0
1-




-4
-4



















02
4-I


-4
ci
O F


I l
r-
(D0)
La .0






10
Hi*




0O0
0 m










r-l
.o

1 a
















P 0c
a.-
0 >








i-T



0










C,
oa






















co












D,
i E





























0
0) 'C

*






D .-vI

































O,
o-)


00
E-4
dmc
lE:






140
00
oH

0 r-

"-I

0 4




0 0


om







Table 9.-Oleomargarine: Miscellaneous materi-ls other than fats and oils,
used in manufacture, calendar years, 1930-37

Calendar : a Doriva- : : Soda
year :Salt :Coloring : Sugar : tive of :Lecithin :(bonzoatet Total
: : : :glycerin : a of) i
:1000 Ib. 1,. 1,lb. 1.000 lb. 1,000 lb. 1,00 lb. 1000 lb. 1,000 lb.

1930 : 27,365 16 150 6 103 27,640
1931 17,266 7 191 9 76 17,549
1932 12,609 3 307 3 69 12,991
193 14,095 3 85 522 2 99 14,806
1,4 15,725 3 156 634 5 96 16,619
1935 :21,076 3 1,222 22 197 22,520
1936 : 20,04- 2 1,145 22 170 21,386
1937 : 17,o31 1,235 41 165 19,073


Compiled from Bureau of Internal Revenue records and .Internal Revenue Bulletin.

Table 10.-Oleomargarine: Trade, calendar years, 1929-37


Year Imports : Exports : Met exports

: 1000 lb. 1000 lb. 1,000 lb.

1929 2 902 900

1930 :2 692 690
1931 : 2 547 545
1932 : 1 474 473
1933 : 0 28 288
1934 : 1 369 368
1935 1/ 3 12S 45
1936 : / 726 106 -/ 618
1937 / : 5/2,462 163 J/2,299

l/ Of this amount only 375 pounds came into continental United States.
Balance into Virgin Islands.
2/ Of this amount 601 pounds came from the Philippines duty free. Most of it
was entered in the customs district of Puerto Rico and was probably used in
Puerto Rico, according to the Tariff Commission.
3/ Net imports.
4/ Preliminary.
5/ Of this amount 2,170 pounds came from the Philippines duty free. See also
note No. 2 on imports into Puerto Rico which is still true in this year.

Compiled from Foreign Commerce and Uvigation of the United States.


- 18 -


FOS-22






- 19 -


Table 11.- Apparent disappearance por copita of butter, oleor-rgerine,


lard, compounds and vecgtable cooking f-ts, and
rleonargarine as a percentage -f butter, United


consumption of
States, 1912-37


Butter :Oleonar-:
I : marine


Year




1912
1914
1915
1916
1917
191-
1919

1920
1921
1922
192
1924
1925
1926
1927
192
1929 :

1930 :
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937 3]


Pounds

16.7
1 .6
17.2
17.4
17.5
16.0
13.3
15.3

16*.2
17.1
17.9
1:3.1
17.7
17.5
17.5
17.2
17.4

17.3
13.1
1G.3
17.9
15.3
17.3
16.6
16.7


Compounds
and
Lard vegetablee%
r cooking'
fats
Pounds Pounds

11,4 8.5
10.9 9.6
10,9 11,0 :
11.3 10.2
12.0 9.7
10.5 11.o
12.3 10U :
11.0 II.

12.2 6.7
11.1 7.1
13.5 b.S
14.5 .6
14.5 7.1
12.5 9.3
12.4 9. :
12.8 9.3
13.3 9.4
12.9 9.9

12.7 9.3
13.5 9.4
14.3 7.5
13.9 7.6
12.9 9.5
9.5 12.1
11.2 12.4
10.5 12.3


Total
butter
and
ol ocnar-
gnr ine
Pounds

1.2
18.2

16.8
19,3
10.3
17.2
1C.7

18.2
13.2
13.8
19.9
20.1
1 .7
19.c
19.
19.8
20,3

19.9
20.0
19.9
19.0
20.4
20.3
19.b
19.0


Grand
: total


:Pounds

: 3.1
S 3,7
'0.5
40,3
41.0
: hl.3
: lOj.1
: 1.I .

37.1
36.4
39.1
: L.0
S41.7
: 12.0
: 41. c
42.4

: 3.1

42.4
42.9
41.7
41.3
: 42.3
:41.9
: 3.2
42.6


:Consunntion of
: olonr-r-'rine
:as a percen*r.ge
: of butter
Quant ity Value 2/
: Percent Percent


9.6
5.1
5.0
: 10.3
S17.5
: 2 .7
:22.2 14,0

:23.0 14.1
:12.3 3.0
9.9 9.1
:11.2 4.
:11.0 7.0
11.3 6.8
:12.0 7.1
:13.1 7,2
:15.1 7.-
: 1.7 G.7

15.0 .3.8
:10.5 6.1
: .7 5.2
10.6 5.5
:11.5 5.5
17.3 9.S
: 1.1 9.1
: .6 3.9


SInclul as farr a:d factory.
SWithdravals of oleonargarine for domestic use (tax naid plus free for
Government use), tines the retail :rice rf oleorarg-rine as a percentage
of creamery butter consunrtiorn tines retail price of butter in cities
plus production of farn butter tines faru orrice rf butter.
3/ Preliminary.


Pounds

1.5
1.6
1.4
1.4
1.3
2.3
-.3
3.4

3.4
2.0
1.7
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.1
2.3
2.6
2.9

2.6
1.9
1.6
1.9
2.1
3.0
3.0
3.1











LL
0
w
2
0


Z

<
z W


w



< -


w




U- I
LL. X
0 w
< Z
(I)











H2
0-
L 0






0
U -I



CL



Q- -




0









0 0 0 0
in N n \


n 0 m O In
N O


4n 0



U C-
3 om.
ZWa a


tn <


w0
OC
a-


a U

U

z






0) L
a
2-
-J







w

U


Sw
I




vi
=3
-







- 22 -


Table 12.- Retail price per pound and index numbers of principal
edible fats, United States, 1913-37


Year Butter


SCents
Average-:
1921-30: 52.8
1935-37: 38.6

191 : 38.3
1914 : 36.2
1915 : 35.8
1916 : 39.4
1917 : 4g.7
1918 57.7
1919 67.8

1920 : 70.1
1921 : 51.7
1922 : 47.9
1923 : 55.4
1924 : 51.7
1925 : 54.g
1926 : 53.1
1927 : 55.6
1028 : 56.5
1929 : 55.1

1930 : 46.1
1931 : 35.4
1932 : 27.4
1933 : 27.3
1934 : 31,2
1935 : 35.6
1936 : 9.6
1937 :40.7


Oleomar-:
garine


Cents


28.5
18.7




29.7
33.7
38.5

38.9
30.2
27.5
28.4
29.7
30.4
30.4
28.3
27.4
27.2

25.5
20.0
15.2
13.0
13.6
15 .9
18.3
15.9


: : Index
Conmp.ounds
and
Lard vegetable
cooking
: : Butter
fats
Cents Cents

19.0 24.3 : 100.0
17.6 21. : 100.0

15.8 : 100.0
1Z.6 : 100.0
14.S 100.0
17.5 : 100.0
27.6 : 10.0
33.3 : 100.0
36.9 36.3 : loo.o

23.5 35.1 1 100.0
15.0 22.6 i 100.0
17.0 22.5 : 100.0
17.7 22.9 : 100.0
19.0 21;.9 : 100.0
23.3 25.8 : 100.0
21.9 25.7 : loo.o
19.3 25.1 100oo.o
13.6 24.9 : 100.0
18.3 24.7 : 100.0

17.0 214.2 : 100.0
13.3 23.1 : 100.0
8.S 20.1 : '00.0
9.1 1'.7 : 1'0.0
11.8 19.2 : 100.0
19.5 21.8 : 100.0
16.3 21.5 : 100.0
17.0 21.6 : 100.0


numbers if retail prices
of principal fats
(Buttar = 100)
: :Vegetable
Oleomar-
: : Lard : cooking
Sugar ine


54.0
4.4




i .0
58.4
56.8

55.5
58.4
57.4

57.4
55.5
57.3
0.9
S.5
4c.4

55.3
56.5
55.5
47.6
43.6
3.1
46.2
46.4


36.0
45.6

41*3

41.3
44.4
56.7
57.7
54.4

42.1
34.s
35.5
U1.9
36.8
2.5
41.2
34.7
32.9
33.2

36.9
37,6
32.1
33.3
37.8

41.2
41.8
14i.8


46.0
56.0






53,5

0,l
3.7
47 0o
41.3
48.2
47,1
48,4

4.1
44.8

52,5
65.r
73.4
68.5
61,5
61,2
54.3
53.1


Compiled as follows:
Prices Bureau of Labor Stati:rtics ?etail Price Bulletins.
Index numbers computed in Bureau of Agricultural Economics.


FOS-22







.RETAIL PRICES AND APPARENT DISAPPEARANCE PER CAPITAL OF
OLEOMARGARINE AND BUTTER. UNITED STATES, 1917-37
CENTS
PER
POUND
70 .......- --"-- --- "PRICES




Butter'




60 :-- -- --- -- ---. .---..-- 1 -- -
50


40


30


20

Oleomargarine
10


0
POUNDS
PER
CAPITAL DISAPPEARANCE PER CAPITAL


20 1A_- -




15 - - ---

B TTER *

10 - -




5 ------------------- ----------



SL E O A R G A RG I E

1917 19.19 1921 1923 1925 1927 1929 1931 1933 1935 1937
*INCLUDES FARM AND FACTORY BUTTER PRELIMINARY


U.5. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


NEG C.4789 BUBEAU OF.AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS


FIGURE 3







- 24 -


Table 13.- Price per pound of butter and oleom rgarine,
specified markets, by months, 1936-38

: :01comarrarine, Chicago:
Year Butter, Margin,
: .: Drmostic :
and 92 score, rmb :butter over
: New York : vegetable : Animal veg
month : ow York / veg-table
: Cents : Cents Cents : Cents


1936 -
Jan.
Feb*
Mar6
Apr.
May
June
July
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
1lov.
Dec.
Av.

1937 -
Jan.
Feb.
Mar.
Apr.
May
June
July
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
INov.
Dec.
Av.
1933-
Jan.
Feb.
Mar.
Apr.
May
June
July
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
Nov.
Dec.
Av.


34.6
36.9
32.2
31.0
27.5
29.7
33.6
35.6
35.0
32.9
3 .6
3;.2


_/ ;ot reported )rior to April 1937.


16.5
14.0
13.0
14.2
14.9
15.3
15.8

1.4


1;.O :
16.0 :
16.0 :
15.S 14.5
1 .5 : 13,5
14.o : 16.7
14.0 : 19.4
14.9 : 20.7
15.3 : 19.7
15.5 : 17.1
15.5 : 17.6
15.6 : 17.8
15.3 : 17.9

1.4 : 17.7
If.5 : 17.-
1-.5 19.2
1&.5 : 1.4
16.L : 15.9
15.4 : 15.5
15.0 : 1.b
15.0 : 17.3
15.0 : 19.8
15.0 : 21.0
15.0 : 23.1
15.0 : 23.4
15. : i .6

15.0 18.2
14.5 : 16.1
14.5 : 15.2
14.5 : 12.2
13.s : 11.6
13.4 : 10.5
14.5 9.9
15.7 : 9.S
15.5 : 10.2
15.0 : 10.5
14.9 : 11.9


33.0 : 15.1


31.2 :
34.3 :
35.8
32.9
32.3
30.9
31.6
32. :
35.0
36.0
3 .1 :
38.9 :
34.4

33.7
31.1
30.3
27.7
26.4
25.9 *
2h.1
2;.2
26.2
26.3
27.3


1-.5
16.5

16.5
16.4

15.4
15.0
15,5
15.2
15.0
15.1
15.5


15.0

15.5

15.5


1c.2

16.0
15.8
15.4


I_ _


i


FOS-22










z m
O U- -.. .
0 0 0 0

0 0D
U U
0z z- U
N 7
-*~ ~ -^ -I cn
LLK-- -





< m Jm

-' () -- -



z z c of





-O^ -
Z z
:
O z -b --

L ______d^



0 l')


>- w a -
<) Q) LO

z 0'-,-** Im.


cN





m- I Q. -
I-
0-)


0 cn.




Fr L cJ 0
f% w L j





FOS-22


Table 14. -


- 26 -


Sn-.cified oils: Prige per pound
of oleomargarine, by mon


and quantity used in production
ths, 1933-38


Year
and
month

1933 -
Jan.
Feb.
Mar.
A.or.
May
June
July
Aug.
SeF. t.
Cct.
Nov.
DE.c.
Total or
avt.rags
1934 -
Jan.
Feb.
Mar.
Aor.
May
June
July
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
Nov.
Due.
Total or
average
1935 -
Jan.
Feb.
Mar.
Arr.
May
June
July
Aug.
Sen t.
Oct.
Nov.
Dr.c.
Total cr
average


Pric Quantity ussd in oleoamrareine
:Cottonseed: Coconut : leo oil,
:oil, white: oil, : No. 1 Cottonseed: Coconut : leo oil
:deodorized: edible, w Yor oil : oil
SChicago :New York 1/: e : ____
I C n s Cents Cents Mil. lbl. Mil. lb. Mil. lb.


6.5
6.6
7.1
: 6.7
7.1
7.2
7.7
7.1
b..
: 5.n


4.6
4.6
4.7
4.8
5.1
5.2
5.0
4.7
4.4
4.6
4.6
__4. PS


6.0
5.7
6.9 :
6.2
6.6
6.6
6.6
6.8
6.6 :
6.2
6.2
6.4 :


1.5 13.4
1.3 10.7
1.4 13.5
1.4 12.8
1.5 12.3
1.4 8.7
1.3 1".8
1.3 12.7
1.5 13.3
1.8 14.7
1.9 14,3
1.8 13.0


1.0
.3
1.0
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.4
1.4
1.3
1.7
1.8
1.3


: 6.___ 4,8 6.14 : 1.0 150.1 __ 15.1


: 5.



:6.
: 6.3

7.1
7.8
3.6
1:. 2
S 11.4


4.6 6.5
4.4 6.1
4.4 6.1
4.4 6.1
4.2 5.8
4.7 6.0
4.8 g .5
4.s 7.4
8.1 10.7
~.6 11.5
8.4 11.3
8.8 10.5_


1.5
1.9
2.2
2.1
3.4
3.7
4.1
6.3
7.4
7.3
7.3
__7.5


: 7.7 7.8 _1.,_ 54.8


S 13.4
13.8
13.4
13.0
12.2
11.8
11.1
11.3
11.1
11.5
11.3
11.3


9.6
10.4
11.2
11.7
Ir.9
10.1
9.2
98.
9.2
9.8
9.8
,;.J


10.4
2j 12.4
2 14.
13.5
13.0
12.8
12.1
12.2
13.0
13.4
13.8
i1.T


9.0
12.2
9.9
11.0
7.8
6.4
5.8
6.4
6.7
6.6
8.5


10.6
12.7
13.6
10.6
9.4


1.2
1.5
1.8
1.1
1.3


Z1


4.5) e.-
6.3 2.0
7.8 2.4
1P.3 2.6
11.4 1.9
12.8 1.8
S13. ___ 2.1

123.7 -2a.Q9

14.4 2.3
17.3 2.6
i I


15.9
13.8
11.5
10.3
13.1
16.8
16.4
15.3


-2--. 2A_152


1.L
1.7
1.5
1.2
.9
1.0
1.2
1.3
1.5
1.3-


: 12'.1 1.0 12.9 :1 99.5 __ 174,- 1. --

Continu.ed -




S' -f 7 :-


Table 14.- Specified oils: Price per pound and quantity used in production
of oleomargarine, by months, 1933-38 Contd.

: Price quantity used in oleromararine


Year
and
month


1936 -
Jan,
Feb.
Mar.
Apr.
May
June
July
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
Nov.
Dec
Total or
average
1937 -
Jan.
Feb.
Mar.
Apr.
May
June
July
Aug.
Seat.
Oct.
Ncv.
Dc.c.
To0al or
ei c.ragi
193s -
Jrn.
F, b.
Mar.
ATr,

June
Jrly

S0o t.
Oct.
Nov.
De.c.
Total or


:Cottonseetd: Coconut : o oil
:oil, whiteil wl, :hi: o :Cottonseed: Coconut :
:deodorized: edible, : N. 1' oil oil : o oil
: Chicago :N2 _YYork U1/:N. York _
; Cnts Cc.nts CEnts : Mil. lb. Mil. lb. Mil. lb.


10.8 9.9
i:o.4 10.0
10.4 9.8
o1.4 9.7
in.1 8.8
10.2 9.1
1: li4 9.2
10.8 9.9
1:0.8 10.9
: 10.6 11.7
10.8 12.1
: 11.8 ___13.4


13.4 :
12.4 :
11.5 :
11.0 :
10.1 :
9.2 :
9.4 :
10.2 :
11.1 :
11.5 :
11.1
-al'


8.6
10.7
8.8
8.5
7.y
6.6
7.6
7.6
9.1
10.0
10.4
12.7


17.9
17.1
13.3
12.3
10. 0
9.7
9.6
11.7
14.0
13.2
10 .3
10.9


1.4
1.5
1.3
1.3
1.1
1.5
1.6
1.6
1.4
1.7
2.0
1.9


: o0.6 10 4 11.2 : 108.1 150.5 __ 18.3


1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1


.2.4
.2.3
.2.1
.1.8
.1.2

.0.5
.0.2
9.8
9.6
9.6
XL4


1:0.8

S 9.
9.6

9.4
9.4
9.4
9.6
9.4
9.1
3.1
8.3


14.6
14.2
14.n
13.5
12.2
11.1
10.6
10.1
9.6

9.2
___i.2 _


14.4 :
13.8 :
13.4
13.1
12.5
12.8 :
13.0 :
12.9
13.0
13.0 :
12 :
12_ :,


13.8
12.8
14.6
14.8
12.6
11.0
9.3
10. 0
13.3
20.2
20.3
21 3


15.1 : 173.6
*


9.5
9.1
3.1
S.6
8.4
8.2

8.2
8.2
8.2
7.4


9.8
9.5
9.2
8.9
8.5
8.5
9.2
9.6
9.4
'.2
9.0


19.6
16.8

11.4
10.0 *
9.5
8.2
9.1
10. 2
i1,4


6.4
9.9
5.2
4.1
4.1
5.6
b.b
7.7
9.1
7.0
5.6
6.6


1.3
1.4
1.6
1.4
1.1
1.1
.8
.8
.8
.8
.6
.7


7 12, 3


4.4
6.4
9.6
9.0
7.8
7.4
6.3
7.3
8.7
8.4


.8
.9
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.1
1.0
1.1
1.0


l/ Includes 3-cnt procbssLng tax beginning Setpt.nmbr 195t
2/ Mostly nominal.


- 27 -








UTILIZATION IN OLEOMARGARINE AND PRICES OF
COTTONSEED, COCONUT. AND OLEO OILS, 1933-38
CENTS PER I | | P1 OUNDS
POUND I I I MILLIONS i


1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938
INCLUDES a CENTS EXCISE TAX. BEGINNING SEPTEMBER 1964


U.S DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


FIGURE 5


NEG 34790 BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS




FOS-22 29 -

Table 15.- RE.tail dealers licinse.d to sell uncolored oleomargarine, and
number of population per dealer, year beginning July, 1935-37

State Re.tail dealers : Pooulation p-.r d aler
S.__ 195 l3 : 1936 : 1937 : : 1935 : 1936 : 97
:Numbe.r Numbt.r Number : Numbt.r Number Number

Ind, : 9,432 9.748 4: : 4c 400
Kans. 5,04c 5,516 4c: : 300
Ohio : 16,11 16,677 4,0 4o0
0olb. : 2,153 2,315 500 500
Mich. 11,343 11,838 400 400
Va. : 4,076 6,233 : : 4o 300
GOrg. 2,172 2,493 500 400
Me. : 1,448 1i,66 60ob 4oo
Ill. :15,609 16,116 500 500
lNbr. : 2,610 2,849 500 500
Mo. 8,122 8,451 5c00 500.
Pla. : 3,366 3,870 : : 500 40k
D.. : 89 929 70 700
Md. 3,180 3,271 : 500 500
Del. 409 41 ,: : brc' 7C
N. H. 794 1,014 : : 6- 500
Ari z. 794 726 5rO 600
Calif : .9,138 11,353 700 500
R. 'I. 954 374 700 7 0
Iowa 3,517 3,989 700 600
N. J. 5, 'S 4,769 :900 00
Va. : 3,235 4,068 700
Wyo. 317 346 700 700
Mass.. : .4,715 4,563 :900 1,000
Ky. 3,703 3,789 800 0n
N. Y. 13,G28 13,255 :900 1, f10.
Minn. 2,134 2,144 1,200 1,200
Ne.v. 96 111 1 000 900
Te.x. 6,010 7,6`31 : 1,000 800
N. Mi-x. 443 539 : : 1,000 800
Ga. 2,892 3,257 1,100 90C.
La. : 2,125 2,691 : 1000 800
S. C. : 1,430 1,.639 1, 00 1,100
Conn. 1,254 1,313 14orn 1,3Yn
t. 299 352 : 1,300 1,100
Ala. : 2, 19 2, 420 1,3 j 1,200
Ark. 1,563 2,163 1,500 900
N. C. 2,449 2,878 : 1, 4 1,200
Pe. : 41336 4,78: : 23,C0 2,500
Utah 241 2g6 2 2,1C 1,I 00
Miss. 509 626 1,30C 3,200
Tonn. 275 320 : 1'','0 ,'0
S. Dak. : 31 4s : 22,300 14,400
Ckla. : 201 3544 : 12, 6,0 7,100
Mont. 21 2 : 25,3C\ 20,700
Idah'" 7 6 : : 6 O 2,200
Wis. 5 3 ::.35] 975, 700
Wash. :_ 11 : ___ 153,700
Total__ 10527__ 755 __
I 'Compllt.d fro.n annual r-nort of the Commissionc.r of Intr.rnal RTvi.nue
Data for 1937 will be. available. in January.






- 30 -


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r08-22


Fat or oil : 1932 : 1933 : 1934 : 1935 : 1936 : 1937 1/

:Mil.lb. Mil.lb. Mil.lb. Mil.lb. Mi.lb. Mil.lb,


Vegetable
Coconut oil
Cottonseed oil
Palm-kernel oil 2/
Peanut oil
Sesame oil
Soybean oil
Sunflower oil
Prepared vegetable, oils
Other vegetable fats
and oils
Total

Animal
Prepared animal oils j/
Oleo stock 5/
Oleo oil 6/
Neutral lard and other
pork fats


53 54 5o
1 1 2
6 7 7
3 2 1-
7 7 7


: 1 1 1
: 101 93 93


3/ 1
104 98


S24 34 25 32 31 36
: 6 6 8 7 5 5
2 2 1 / 3/ 3/

2 2 4 1 1 1


Total
Grand total vegetable
and animal 7/

1/ Preliminary.


34 43 33 40 37


: 135


142


143


2/ Contains some palm oil.


3/ Less than 5o05,OCC pounds. I/ Presumably almost entirely vwhale oil.
/ Quoted as ,Premier jus".
6/ In foreign countries "oleomargarine" is used to designate the material
we call "oleo oil,.
Z/ Includes less than 500,0 0 pounds of compounds, animal stearine and
other fats as reported.

Compiled as follows:
1932-33, Survey of Oilseeds ard Vegetable Oils, groundnut products, vol. 3,
p. 193 ., Otobor 1934. Quoted in long tons of 2,240 pounds.
Beginning 1934, Denmark, Statiztiskc Heddolelser, Produktionsstatistik,
annual.

Reported, for the first time in 1932, 1,265,440 pounds of vitamin preparation
were included.


31 -


Table 17.- Denmark: Materials used in the manufacture of
oleomargarine, calendar years, 1932-37'


42

141






- 32 -


Table 168- United Kingdom: Materials used in the
oleomargarine, calendar years, 1932


Fat or oil


: 1932 :


1933 : 1934


UNIVERSITy OF FLORIoA
3 1262 08904 23


manufacture of .:i
2-36

: 935 : 936


Vegetable
Coconut oil
Ccttonseed oil
Palm-kernel oil
Peanut oil
Soybean oil
Sunflower oil
Other vegetable


Total


:Milb ib l, lb. Mil lb. Mil, Ib. Mil. lb.

S 85 67 56 72 85
S 34 16 36 27 31
S 40 34 36 38 20
: 27 29 25 18 25
S 31 31 13 27 11
S 25 16 -
fats and oils: 7 4 7 7 7

249 197 172 188 179


Animal
Whale oil
Stearine
Oleo oil
Oleo stock 2/
Butter
Other animal fats and oils
(mostly lard)

Total
Grand total vegetable and
animal


130
9


130
7


4


143
9
7
4
31


2 2" 2 2/


S130

: 379


152

349


134

307


166


345


1/ F-cl rminary.
2/ ,' L-.. .-s "Premier jus".
I/ L :..n 500,CC0 pounds.

Co-1.: 1 f.'o: Great Britain, Imperial Economic Committee, Intelligence
Bi ..-.. Vegetable oils and oils *eds; a summary of figures of production
and trade relating to cottonseed, linseed, rapeseed .110 pp. London,
1937.

Rounded figures have not been adjusted to add to totals.


FOS-22


V


:*