UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Bureau of Agricultural Economics
\ ._- ------ ----------
.. "--- TEH-FATS AND OILS SITUATION
SLLTENTS FEATURING DRYING OILS
Use of drying oils 2 : Soybean oil 17
Linseed oil 5 : Minor drying oils. 19
Tng oil 10 : Taxes and duties .21
Perilla oil . 13 : Prices 23
Fish oils .. ... 15 : Oleomargarine 25
CONSUMPTION .OF DRYING OILS, UNITED STATES, AVERAGE 1934-36
H ofE ri Ea r aO *Gi CuluHR
rL HIarr guqllu Our as, uLrutl r [COmOMr
Tabtl 1.- Consumption of fats and oils in the drling industries
in the Unitud States, 1931-36
:Linseed :Tung oil:Prilla : :Soyboarn :Othr _/: Tota
oil 1j Ij oil 1/ :Fish oil: 2: Tot
:14il ., Ib. Mil. lb. Mil. b1. Mil. Ib. Mil. lb. Mil. lb.
S on g9 16 23 12 4 544
: 45r 123 63 40 16 11 703
: 471 90 11 27 9 3 611
S 354 74 11 20 12 4 475
: 37 102 25 22 14 5 54
: 4c9 117 24 25 13 7 595
: 45 129 60 43 18 8 723
: 477 121 105 52 17 18 790
As n rccntag.
P.rccnit Pcrcnr.t Prcent Pcrcent Pcrcent
73 17 3 4
64 17 9 6
3 3/ 100
2 2 100
2 1/ 1C0
3 3/ 100
3 i] 100
2 1 100
2 1 100
2 1 100
I/ Since: drying oils are used dir ctl.y as well as ir. fr.ctor,' consump-
tion, thuse figures represent total domestic disappearance
;excluding small quantities reported by Bureau of the C,.nsus as
used in soap, shortening, and miscellaneous products.
2/ Includes factory consumption of castor and miscL.llaneous oils, in
1931-33. In 1934, 3,000,000 pounds cach castor and sunflower
oils, and 1,7..,0',000 pounds miscellaneous oils. In 1935,
4,0-',000 pounds castor oil, 2,0.IC,:,000 pounds oiticica oil, and
2,000,000 pounds miscellaneous oils. In 1)36, 5,000,C00 pounds
castor oil, 2,000,000 pounds oiticica oil, and 11,000,02%0 pounds
miscellaneous oils, probably largl:, humps, .d oil.
L3 Less than 1 percent.
Based on Esi.roau of the Census, Factor.y Consumption of Primrny Animal
and V,.gota.'lo Fats and lils, by classes cf products, calendar years,
- 2 -
FOS-3 3 -
CONSUMPTIOI ANTD SUPPLIES OF DRYING OILS
Consumption of fats and oils by the drying industries has increased
steadily from the low point of 475 million pounds in 1932 to 790 million pounds
in 1936. Over these years the percentages contributed by tung and soybean oils
have been approximately maintained while a decrease in the percentage of linseed
oil has been balanced by increases of pcrilla, fish, and miscellaneous minor
oils such as h-cipseed, castor, and oiticica oils. The levying of the 4-1,'2 cents
per pound excise taxes on perilla and hempsccd oils and 2 cents per pound on the
seeds, effective August 21, 1936 (See table 12), and the consequent decreased
imports together with increasing demands for drying oils will undoubtedly lead
to continued increased use of fish oils, tung oil, and all available substitutes.
See table 1.
Estimated total consumption of drying oils amounted to about 204 million
pounds in the first quarter of 1937 compared with about 156 million pounds in the
same period in 1936. This increased consumption was shared by linseed, tung, and
fish oils. About 4 million pounds more fish oils were consumed in the first quartc.
of 1937 than in the sanm period last year. Use of pcrilla and hc-opseed oils droppro2
sharply as was expected because of the excise taxes.
Net imports of flaxseed into the United States amounted to about 17 million
bushels in the 9 rLonths ending March 1937, compared with only about 11 million
bushels for the sac.i period in 1934-35, although production fror the very short
crops of 1934 and 1936 was approximately the same, that is, about 6 million bushels.
See pp. 12-13 of FOS-2, April 1937, for flaxsced situation.
In the first 4 rionths of 1937, prices of .iost drying oils, except tung oil,
were on a sorcwhat highe-r level than in the sae.i period of 1936. They also wer.
well above the annual average prices prevailing in 1935 and 1936. Fish oils espedCin
have been 2 to 3 cents higher in price in recent months, as th-y carc being utilized
by the drying industries in increased anoL,-tz. The not-ble oxc-ption is tung oil
which has declined in price since April 1936. The .pril 1937 price of 15.3 cents
per pound was 3.9 cents below that of the preceding April, and was lower than the
1935 and 19l3b annual average prices of 17.0 and 16.l cents, respectively. The de-
cline is attributed to the definitely increased supplies. See table 13.
Table 2.- Drring oils: Production, n t imnorts, stoc-s, and apparent
disappearance, by quarters, 1936, and 1st quarter of 1937
(N1t exports are indicated b-" a minus sign)
S : a16 1! : 137 I/
Linseed oil -
Stocks, cnd of -..riod
Tung oil -
Stocks, unr of p..riod
Perilla oil W/
Stocks, ond of *riod
HL-mpsc.id oil -
Prc'u cti on
Stoc!:z, end of r; riod
Fish cils -
Estimrated disanrn. rance
for drying uses Z/
So"btarn oil 8
Estimated disarr earance
for trying uscsL
Oiticica oil -
Es ti-mat,.d iisapr, arF.nc-
dome stic and import, d material.
Production from domestically grown nuts is ronorted with "oth:r oils".
Production is oil equivalent of imported sud. Apparent disappearance
for fourth quarter of 1936 and first quarter of 1937 is reported
factory consumption. i/ Jot serarately reported.
Less than 50j0,000'j pounds. 1/ 19.3 percent of total disappearance.
Usc in dr,'ing industry b- quarters estimated on a p,.rcentage basis
zonnarable to oprilla oil.
- 4 -
- 5 -
Table 3.- Flauxsod: Production in snucifi-d countries, and ,stimatcd world
total, average& 1919-23, 1924-28, 1929-33, annual 1933-36
: 5-yvar avura e : Annual
Country 1919-23 1924-28 :1929-33 : 1933 1934 1935 I/: 1936 1/
North aki.rica -
Europc and Asia -
OthLr countries /:
South America q:
1.000 bu 1.000 bu:1,000 bu 1.000 bu 1,000 bu 1.000 bu
23,275 13,553 : 6,904 5,661 14,520 5,908
6,085 2,455 : 632 910 1,667 1,795
31 90 3/ 50 : 71 65 69
17,853 16,664 : 17,600 16,080 17,920 16,168
21,466 30,343 : 29,133 27,020
2,359 2,173 : 1,774 2,179. 2,793 2,820
: 2,400 3,200
1,376 1,140 : 823 1,014 1,487 1,444
: 125 249 654 1,276
61i 493 : 183 429 607 1,006
463 385 : 272 337 430 773
823 595 : 485 597 811 725
256 398 : 420 365 450 5,4
4ch 314 : 244 290 369 41h
379 268 : 138 10 273 394
237 : 272 109 240
355 155 : 105 168 225 288
44h 209 : 202 251 210 221
iS4 119 : 1i7 181
3?9 177 : 87 80 88 149
3 8 : 8 14 46 75
34 46 : 39 33 36
390 455 : 125 326 243 315
35 38 : 12 8
37 4o : 49 74 64 77
: 35 43 24
61 74 : 25 34 23
(216) (i41): (113) (14'i (i.1 (111
.924-25 :1929-30 :
to : to :1933-34 : 1934-35 1935-36 :1936-37
cqf-.Q .1q72-.h : :
50,305 72,406 68,403 : 62,595
86o 1 on T .l4 : 2.875
79,720 56,100 74,012
-3.02 .00(7 4. C0
1l03,000 154,000 145,000 :127,000 142,000 132,000 144,000
:Mil. Ib. Mil 1b. Mill. b. b. Mil. b. Mi. lb. il il. i b.
equivalent 10/ : 1,895
2,838 2,672 : 2,356
2,624 2,441 2,665
Table 3.- Flaxseud: Production in specified countries, and estimated world
total, average 1919-23, 1924-28, 1929-33, annual 1933-36 Continued
2j Hrvested in March, April, or May of year shown. Planted late in preceding
yEar. (Mr. A.C. Dillman's office, B.P.I,, May 3, 1937.)
4 4-year avw rage.
4' Harvested January April of year shown. Planted August November of
preceding year. Exports are distributed over sevLral months, heaviest
txports being Arril DccLmbcr. The 5-year av rage 1932-36, shows about
12 percent of the calendar year exports were shipped out in the 3 months
January Harch. (Broomhall's Corn Trade Yearbook, 1929, p. 20;
Estimates of Area and Yield of Principal Crops in India, 1933-34, p. 54.)
The data are ronorted estimates for British India and native states plus
estimates by the Government for miscellaneous provinces not rcvorting,
or about 5 p,.rccnt.
5/ Flax and hemp.
6/ 3-ycar ave.rrgo.
7/ In lIorth.rn Africa, flaxsuud planted in fall and wintL.r is harvested March
to JunLU of the year shown. (International Rvitw of Science and Practice
of Agriculture, July DLc6mbbr, 1922, p. 1I93; Tunisian Products,
Direction of Agriculture, Commerce, and Colonization, 1908, p. 16-17;
Egyptian Goverrment Almanac, 1931, pp. 292-3; Notes on Egyptian Agriculture,
U.S. Dc;artmerit of Agriculture Bul!ltin No. 62.)
S/ In computing the totals, arbitrary estimatess havL be~n interpolated for
years whuro data are unavailable.
9j Planting extends from !'ay to Septembur, depending on latitute and altitude.
Harvest begins in Octobu r or o.vember and may extend into F.bruary.
(Annuario AgropLcuario, 1932, p. 53; Paint, Oil, and Chemical Review,
A-ast 1935; North Dakota Agricultural .Experimcnt Station Bullltin 253,
-*,c.nbur 1931, "Flax Production in Argentina", by H.L. Bolleor; InternationaJ
Institute. of Agriculturu, Monthly Bull tins; Broomhall's Corn Trade Year-
beck, 1'29, p. 20.)
LC_ Using -.33 as oil yield factor.
Compiled from official sources and the Int.rnational Institute of Agriculture.
- 6 -
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- 10 -
Imports of tung oil into the United Strtes during 1936 -ere larger
than for any previous year, and imports for the first quarter of 1937 ex-
ceeded those of any quarter of 196b. See tables 2 and 6. Supplies in China
are reported to be more abundant than usual, as the crop harvest in the fall
of 193F, is reported by the American Commercial Attache in Shanghai to be 10
percent larger than the good crop of 1935.
In spite of increased imports, consumption during the year decreased
by almost 8 million pounds; stocks increased by a similar amount, and are
still larger at the end of the first quarter of 1957. During the 6 years
for whih data have been reported by the Bureau of the Census, tung oil has
supplied an average of 17 percent of the total oils used by the drying in-
dustries paint and varnish, linoleum and oilcloth, and printing inks but
consumption in 1936 dropped 2 percent below this average. See table 1. Since
tun? oil can be stored in the dark for a considerable time without deteriora-
tion, large stocks can be accumulated without fear of loss.
Tang oil gives a film, especially noteworthy because of its quick
drying toughness and lovw -ater permeacility, but somewhat lacking in exten-
sitilitr, and having a tendency to become yellow.
Generally speaking it is used in paint products to secure drying
speed anld water resistance, and no other oil gives quite the same degree of
these two qualities, but relatively few finishes are subject to continual im-
mersion in water, and good resistance to washing and weather exposure may be
seu6red,. -ith other materials.
'hina has. in the past, been practically the sole producer of tung oil.
Man- Chinese farmers have regarded the growing of tung trees merely as a side
line, an.i their methods nf oil ektrarction have been very uwsteful. It was,
therefore, difficult to obtain a standardized or uniform product, but all tung
oil nr-w teing exported from China must be tested by the Governmental tLsting
latoratories. In theirr -ay.s, too, methods and policies in China are being
altered for the plurpo:e rf improving the quality of theL tang oil.
By an executive decree of the Chinese Government, May 12, 1956, all
rrodu.?tion ani distribition of vt-xetable oils, including tung and perilla, 7ere
placed uin-er 'c.vernment control. The corporation ras formally inaugurated on
Auiust 15, 1i3'; headquarters are iocated in Hankow, as is also the main re-
finin- plant of the corporation. The corporation, lnown as the China Vege-
table Oil Refiner'-, Ltd., functions as agent for China's vegetable oil in-
dustr-', withi a vie- of standardizing and improving production. The corpora-
tion alc'o arranges financing, transporting, and marketing facilities for the
entire; vegetable oil industry and is authorized to manufacture lubricating
nils, paints, and varnishes, according to consular reports.
There Pre no relisale and accurate estimates of production in China.
The International Institute of Acri clture at Rome estimated a production of
68 million pounds in 1914, and 227 million pounds in 1929. One estimate
places domesti.: consumption in China in recent years at 93 million pounds.
See tble 7 for exports anrd imports by countries. Seventy to 80 percent of
the exports from China usually go to the. United States, leaving only 20 to
Oi per-ent, of the available supply for the use of other countries. During
recent years, China has increased the planting of tung oil trees in several
- 11 -
But, in many parts of the world efforts are being made to develop
new production areas of tung oil. For more than 10 years there has been
an active interest in the United States in planting of tung trees in the
South, and the Census reports the-number of trees .of all ages has increased
from about 350 thousand in 1933 to over 3.5 million in 1935. The nuts ripen
in October, about the same time as in China.
Production of oil in the United States, while not officially reported.
has been estimated at more than 2 million pounds from the nut crop of 1936,
and 300 to 400 thousand pounds from the cror of 1934. There was no nut crop
in 1933 or 193-, because of cold weather during the blossoming season. This
is a real hazard to the industry. American tung oil is said to be of better
quality than any that comes into this country from China.
From feeding tests carried out on rats, poultry, cattle, and pigs.
it has been definitely establi-shed that tung cake contains certain sub-
stances that render it unpalatable to animals, and a substance which has an
injurious effect on the mucous membrane- cf the intestines. It also has
strong purgative properties. The cake, therefore, is suitable nnly for
use as fertilizer.
The Argentine Bureau of Statistics reports that a total of 20 thou-
sand pounds of tung oil was produced from domestic nuts in 1935, and that
the 1936 output was expected to be considerably .larger.
Paraguay estimates plantings of 30 thousand tung trees. Likewise in
Brazil, the planting of tung trees seems to be a rapidly growing industry.
In 193b there 'were estimated to be 5C"i thousand trees in existence, with at
least hC thousand more scheduled to be planted before the end of 1937.
The Soviet Union is devoting serious attention to the development of
the tung industry. Climatic and soil conditions in its Georgia region are
somewhat similar to those found in our "ulf Coast States. By 193~. an-
proximately 1,OCn acre. had been planted. Reports for 1Q36 estimate plant-
ings of around 7,500 acres, with present plans to increase the plantings
to 25,300 acres by 1938. As Russian plantings are so young, only small
quantities of oil have thus far been produced, but the oil is claimed to
be of satisfactory quality.
In the British Empire experimental work has been carried out under
the auspices of the Imperial Institute for several ;years. Experimental
planting in 1ew Zealand w.as started in 1927, and the acreage now probably
amounts to 10,OOCn acres; they have not as yet harvested a merchantable
crop of oil since it has only been 4 or 5 years since plantings were mode
on a commercial scale. Australia has planted approximately 1,'C00 acres
to tung trees since 1931. Results arpear to be satisfactory or promising
in Queensland, 'rel "ZealandT-RBted-esia, and..9ysaland, but less successful
or discouraging in some other places.
Planning for future plantings in the United States should be in-
fluenced by consideration of plantings in other parts of the -orld, as well
as by considerations of domestic economic factors.
- 12 -
Table 6.- Tung oil: Imnorts, stocks Decrmber 31, and
apparent disarpearaince, avr..ges 1912-29, annual 1930-36
: 1,000 lb
: 95, 46r
1. 0CO Ib
,I Imports for consumntion, b-.innin- January 1934,.
2/ Prel iT nrary.
Table 7.- Tung oil: Nht cxnorts or nrt imports, by countries, 1930-36
(ll t e-rnorts ara- i.idiz atd by a min- s si -.
try : 1'30 : 131 : 1932 : 1933 : 1i
2/ Erxorts not report,
]Cemiled from official
Oil. .. 136.
:Mil lb 1.il Ilb m!il lb
,il lb i.il lb .:il lb ?il lb
: -156 -115 -1. 7 -1'6 -144 -163 -191
d, if any.
sources, and from Fhr, Rviw of Oilsicds, and
3ritish Malaya, Formosa, and Czechoslovakia re,-ort small n, t im-orts.
75, 0 1
-- ---enr~-m----, --
- 13 -
Table S.- Pr.rilla oil and s. .1.in t,.rms of oil: NIt t.rorts
or not imports, by countries, 1931-36
(i t xrorts art indicotied b- a minus sign)
:E.IPRT!.'I SEED: lPORTIT.G SEED:
T S iAD : 11PORT11IG OIL
Description :: ETPORTING OIL :
!Ianchuria Janan Unitc'd Stat.s
!-:il. lb. : il. o1 : ril. lb,
Sa:.d in turms
S, .d in t rms
Sc..d in terms
S 2d in t..rms
Pr .limin ar,
China in 1931.
3/ January 1 IIovcmb, r 30.
Compiled from official sources.
- 14 -
Table 9.- Perilla seed and oil: Imports, stocks Decembor 31,
and apparent disappearance, averages 1913-29, annual 1930-36
Calendar year total oil and : Stocks, Dec. 31 : Apparent
:oil equivalent : : disappearance
: of seed l/ :
: 1,000 lb. 1000 lb. 1,000 lb.
1/ 1922-30, imports of perilla seed are included with ssame seed;
1931-32, no imports of perilla seed reported.
Perilla seed is extremely rich in oil, and the oil probably has the most
rapid drying properties of any oil now usud in the paint and varnish industry.
Upon drying, the oil produces a brilliant, tough, waterproof film, con-
siderably harder than that of linseed oil, and next to linseed and tung oils,
perilla has been for the past few years our most important drying oil.
Average annual imports of 5 million pounds, 1925-29, rose to 119 million
pounds in the first 9 months of 1936. See table 9. With the iriposition of 4-1/;
cents per pound excise tax on the oil and 2 cents per pound on the seed, effective
August 21, 1936, imports were completely stopped during the last quarter of the
year, but 2 million pounds have been imported during the first quarter of 1937.
See table 2.
Stocks have been reduced from 39 million pounds on September 30, 1936, to
10 million pounds at the end of March. Now, imports will have to come in over
the excise tax or substitutes for the oil will have to be found. It was reported
in 1936 that one manufacturing company had formulated a paint using 45 percent
soybean oil and 55 percent tung oil.
- 15 -
Experimental plantings of perilla seed have been made in the United
States but not on a sufficiently large scale to furnish data on the probable
returns to the grower. Production costs are relatively high and in view of
the lack of promise of profit, perilla is not recommended for commercial
planting at this time. Development of better varieties or methods might
change this situation according to a brief mimeographed release by the
United States Department of Agriculture in July 1936.
Experiments with perilla are being carried on in the Illinois
experimental -fields of th6 State Coll-ee of Agriculture, and the crop is
considered as deserving of further experimentation.
The meal or cake is particularly valuable for fertilizer for
mulberry trees and rice, and is so used in Japan. Formerly it was not
considered desirable for cattle feed in the United States, but the Bureau
of Plant Industry stated in July 1936 that perilla press cake compr-es
favorably with linseed and cottonseed cake as a stock feed, and it has
been used for this purpose in California.
The literature on fish oils and their use in the paint and varnish
industry shows a great difference in the opinions of the various investi-
gators. While it seems to be generally believed that fish oils (at least
so iar as our present knowledge goes) are not suitable by themselves to
replace linseed oil as a vehicle for ordinary paints, their value for use
with otner drying oils in special paints has been demonstrated by extensive
research in spite of a recognized inferiority with respect to certain
The chief merits of fish-oil films are their flexibility and extensi-
bility. On the other hand, they are somewhat softer, tackier, rind less
tough than the films of vegetable drying oils. Softness is partly due to
the inherent nature of the drying components of the films and is a necessary
accompaniment of flexibility; it therefore cannot be considered a total
Sardine, menhaden, and pilchard oils have been used for many years in
the manufacture of heat-resistant flexible paints for boiler fronts, smoke-
stacks, ind other metal surfaces subject to great expansion nid contraction.
For this purpose they are said to be superior to other drying oils with the
exception of tung oil. They have also been largely used in barn paints.
Herring and whale oils are not usually considered good drying oils, r.lthough
treated whole oil for use in varnishes in place of linseed oil has appe-red
on foreign markets in recent months. It is too recent to have proven its
value to the industry.
In the usual tung oil spar vr-nish which is used as a medium with
aluminum for exterior.purposes, the addition of up to 30 percent of a
suitable fish oil, like sardine, increases the life and the resistance to
heat of the aluminum paint. }Yettled fish oils find a large use in the so-
called one-coat whites, factory whites, and enamels, and the use in enamels
and varnishes is steadily increasing. Oiled fabrics include such materials
as used in raincoats, tarpaulin, "AmeLican" cloth, table baize, etc. Tney
are manufactured by applying several co.ts of boiled oil containing suitable
pigments mid allowing each coat to dry thoroughly. Here again drying fish
oilg are used extensively with linseed oil in the manufacture of these com-
mo ai~es, the product being more flexible than tnat from linseed oil alone.
- 16 -
Table 10.-Fish oils: Production, trade, stocks December 31,
and apparent disappearance in tne United States, averages
1912-29, annual '1930-36
S(Net exports are indicated
: Dec. 31
by a minus sign)
: : Percentage
: Apparent used by
: disap- : drying
: pearance : industry
1,000 lb. Percent
Fish oils include: sardine, menhaden, herring,
Various combinations represented in different
and other fish oils.
years. Do not include
The 1934 excise tax of 3 cents per pound on fizh oil applies only to
im:.orted oils, and appears to discourage imports; trade figures show a
small net export in 1936 against 15 million pounds net'import in 1932, and
domestic production of fich oils was about three times as large in 1936 as in
1932. See table 10. The volume used for drying purposes in 1936 was more
than double the amount so used in 1932, and the percentage contributed to
total use of drying oil jumped from 4 percent to 7 percent in the same
period. See table 1. With the technical advances in methods of refining,
decdorizing, and wintering fish oils, this trend is likely to continue.
The actual amount of soybean oil used in paint increased gradually
from 1931 to 1935, dropping off slightly in 1936. The percentage con-
tributed by soybean oil to the total drying oils used dropped from an
average of 3 percent in 1931-33 to 2 percent in 1934-36. For a discussion
of the soybean and soybean oil situation see FOS-2, April 1937.
- 17 -
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- 19 ._
The high price nf tung oil has led to extensive practical tests of new
oils in order to find satisfactory substitutes or oils to use in combination
with it. Oiticica ril, fr-m Brazil it is actually a solid fat, liquified
after being imported is being used by the drying industry in increasing
The trees grew profusely alrng the northeastern coast of Brazil and in
November produce nuts containing 60 to 65 percent of oil. The potential supply
is large, but reliable estimates of the number of trees in Brazil are not avail-
able and a large percentage of the trees are in the mrr inaccessible regions.
It is believed that mere than 10 million pounds of eiticica oil were produced in
Brazil in the 2 years 1934 and 1935. Four million pounds were exported from
Brazil in 1935, and 10 million pounds in 1936.
As a whole the results of its use have not been entirely satisfactory,
but since it took a good many years to learn to use tung oil properly, the fact
that oiticica oil has not been wholly successful during the first 2 or 5 years
of its use is not proof that it may not become important in the drying industry.
Oiticica oil gives as gond a gloss as tung nil but the color is not as satis-
factory, and at present clear varnishes made with this oil seem to b e somewhat
less water-and-alkali resistant than tung oil varnishes.
Some chemists believe that while niticica oil Jill surely come into the
industry for use in quick-drying finishes, its greatest application may be for
special forms of protective cr.atings. Others believe that it may become of
significant importance ;- the printing ink trade.
Imports in 1936 amounted to about 2 million pounds, and about 1 million
pounds have ccme in during the first quarter o.f 1937. So far it has beeL con-
sistently lower in price than tung "il. As there is no excise tax on citicica
oil and it is free of duty its increased use seems probable, with increasing
imports during the remainder of 1937.
I empseed cil
Hcompseed oil is a ver-y good drying oil and played a part in replacing
tung oil during the period ;f high prices of tung ril in 1954, 1935 ani 1936.
Imports oi hempseed into the United States, averaging about 5 million
pounds annually frr.n. 1929 tr 1933, were used almost entirely for purposes
other than crushing and thErefnre did nrt contribute to the drying nil sup-
plies cf the United States. In 1934, hempseed imports jumped to 13 mLllion
pounds, in 1935 to 117 million pounds, and during the first 9 months of 1936,
63 niillion pounds. Oil production, from imported seed, has been privately
estimated at 2 rmllion pounds in 1934, and retorted as 17 milli-n -_ounds in
1935, and 13 million pounds in 1936. Imports of the oil always have been
negligible, never amounting to more than about 400,000 pounds.
Tnh Revenue Act of 1936 placed an excise tax o.f 4-1/2 cents per pound on
the cil. As a duty of 1-1/2 cents per pound was already effective on the oil
the charge became 6 cents per pound. A tax of 2 cents per pound also was placed
on the seed which means a charge nf almost 8 cents per pound against the average
oil yield. The tax appears to have been completely effective in barring imports
as none have teen reported since August 19I36. Stocks of hempseed oil, amounting
to more than 8 million pounds at the end of the first quarter of 1936, were re-
duced to less than a million pounds at the end of the first quarter of 1937. The
dry:inc i.ductry cannot therefore expect to augment drying oil supplies with hemp-
T'ppy oil gives a licht colored transparent film that is well suited for
use in enamels and also for artists' paint. The cold-pressed oil, however, is
chiiefly used for edible purposes. The press cake is rich in protein and is used
as stock feed. Czechoslovakia,,Turkey, Hungary, and the Netherlands are the
principal poppy seed producing countries, with a production of 8 to 40 million
po.unis in each annually.
Foppy seed iriported into the United States are used for culinary purposes.
It is believed that none are crushed in the United States, although in foreign
countries considerable amounts of poppy nil are produced. Imports of seed,
therefore,. are' not to be consaidred as available for nil production. Imports of
poppy oil into the United States have been negligible, average in.L only about 15
thousand pounds per year in the past 5 years. These imports come chiefly from
'Grrmany, with smaller amounts from Iletherlands and the United Kingdom.
Saff'lower has been grown extensively. in India, Egypt, and Turkestan, and to
a limited extent in U.S.S.R., but tic ruil has not entered into international trade
to any *i:tr-nt. The cr-p is being suggested by the Bureau of Plant Industry as a
new dry land and irrigation crop f,-r tne INc.rth.crn Great Plains, and experimental
plantings are being rn-de. The oil is especially useful in t.e manufacture of
white paints and whitc enamels, as it does not yell-w. It dries as quickly and a
hard as linseed oil. Limited feeding tests with press cake indicate that it
possesses value as a feed for dairy cattle, sheep, and poultry.
Rape oil does not affect rne drying oil picture as it is not a satisfactory
drying oil and is used by the drying industry only in negligible amounts in mix-
tures with other oils for certain purposes.
Sesanc and sunflower oils
It is possible t ,at some sesame oil is used in the dryirn' industry, but
none has been reported. Repr.rts show that 3 million poun-ds :f asnflower oil were
used in the drying industry in 1934, 97 thousand pounds in 19335, and none re-
P..rted in other years.
Castor oil is a non.iryi:-ng oil, but by a novci treatment, zyncurine oil
(also called Scheiber oil from its inventor) ..s obtained fr.on cast.-r oil by
splitting off water. This reaction results in the introduction f two conjugated
diblc linkages yi-lding an oil intcrmldiate between linS u-'d -il and tung oil.
This oil is reported as buin;g mianufa'-tured corimircially in Gcrr;iny, although the
cost of production is very high. On account of its peculiar t.un:,-like structure
the oil yields a l.-ossy rater-proof film.
Census reports snow c-onsLumption cf caster oil by the drying industry as
2 million, 3 million, 4 million, and 5 million pounds in 1 '3, 1 34, 1':'., and
- 20 -
- 21 -
Table 12.- Driing oils: Txcis. taxes imposed by tht PR,.i,.nuL Acts of 1934 and
1936, MffI.ctivo on and after Aug. 21, 1936, and tariff rats .str.blishi d b
Tariff Act of 1930, as ametnd.d by, Presidential -roclamations and by,
Trade Agr.cm-.nts to May 1937
Fat or oil I/
: Excis tax
: on imports
:into Unit-.d StatEs 3/
P. rilla oil .
Pt-rill. s .d .
Poppy oil .
Rubb rs .d oil
Safflow r oil
Tung oil . .
Walnut oil .
Poppy s. d .
Rabb r std .d
Soyb ans .
Tung nuts .
Rap. oil -
rend, red unfit for food
oth.r . .
Sesaac oil -
rnnd rud unfit for food
oth.r . .
Sunflower oil -
r.-nd: rd unfit for food
oth r . .
R p.- s I-cd . ..
S. sne s d .
Surflcwer sc(d .
S.,dds and nuts n.s.p.f. (whon
oils dtrivcd th' rcfrom art frC')
All oth.r crpru:ss3,d or oxtracted
v.g. t.a i oils n.s.p.f.
Nut oil n.s.p.f.
: l-c p;r lb.
: -i "
:65c p.r bu. of 56 lb.:
S2c rr lb.
: 3ec ) r lb. but not:
:lss than 459 ad val.:
2c p.r lb.
: c .r r r al.
: o p.r lb.
C:20 ad valor-.n
: Fr.. r
: 2c .r lb.
2'4-.: ad valorum
- 22 -
Tr.bli. 12.- Drving oils: Excis~ trxes imposed by th.. R v nuo Acts of 1934 and
1936, iff,.ctive on and aftr Aug. 21, 1936, and tariff rates established by
T-.riff Act of 1930, as amrr.d_ d by Presidontial nroclarmations and by
Trade AgrL m.nts to May 1937 Continued
: xciSL. tax
F:.t or oil / Duty 2/ : on imports
: :into Unit,.d St.at..s 3/
marinee animal oils -
Herring and m-.nhad.n oils : 5c p.r gal. : 7/ 3c
Whale oil ..... ...... c : 1 "
All oth r fish and marine
animal oils n.s.p.f. ... : 20% ad valorm : L "
i/ Wh..th.r or rot rLfined, sulnhonr.tud, sulphatid, hydrogenated, or
2/ Dr-ing oils entering continental United Str..ts from "possessions" of
th. United States are frue of duty.
3/ In this case "United Status" means the'Str-.tes, the TL:rritories Alaska
and Hawaii, rrd tho District of Columbia (a-:cordin. to Suc. 1111
(a) (10), Rw.vLnuu Act of 1932, and Soc. 801 (a) (111), R.vnuo Act
4/ If rul-d to be "v..- table oils" n.s.p.f., a tariff rr.te of 2CO ad
valorem, if."nut-oils" n.s.p.f., frL of duty.
5/ Reduced from 32 cents p.r I C0 pounds. "'th. rlands Tr-.d. Agr .-ment,
F.b. 1, 1936.
6/ Th6 division bctwounnon-dr;ring, s3mi-r:-ing, and drying oils is not
clearcut: In gnn;ral, a fLt or oil having an iodine numb r lh:ss
than 100 is cl-sred as non-i.ring; on; having an iocinr nuimb.r
bctwmn 100 and 130 as simi-dr-ing; 6ni. with a Tino t abovL 130 is
put in th.. dr irig class. Th, b,st knoiwr s-mi-dr'ing oils are corn
oil, cottonsiad oil, rape, sesame, and surflow.er oils.
71 Lo, s .not ap-ily to product of An rican fisheries.
- 23 -
Price per pound of selected fats and oils,
March and April, 1936 and 1937
Fat or oil
Butter, 920, Now York
Oleomargarine, nut, Chicago
Lard, prime steam, Chicago
Lard refined, Chicago
Lard compounds, Chicago
Coconut oil, edible, New York
Cottonseed oil, crude, f.o.b.
S. E. mills
Cottonseed oil, -.s.y., New York
Soybean oil, refined, New York
Peanut oil, domestic, refined, N. Y.
Rape oil, refined, New York
Oleo oil, No. 1, low York
Oleostearine, barrels, New York
Corn oil, refined, New York
Olive oil, edible, New York
Sesame oil, refined, New York
Sunflower oil, refined, New York
Teaseed oil, edible, Now York
Coconut oil, crude, Pacific Coast
Tallow, inedible, Chicago
Grease, house, Now York
Palm oil, crude, New York
Olive oil foots, barrels, New York
Palm-kernel oil, denatured, New York
Babassu oil, tanks, NewYork _/
Sardine oil, tanks, Pacific Coast
Linseed oil, raw, Minneapolis
Tung oil, drums, New York
Perilla oil, drums, New York
Soybean oil, crude, f.o.b. mills
Menhaden oil, crude, f.o.b. Balto.
Hempseed oil, crude, New York
Castor oil, No. 3, New York
Cod oil, barrels, Newfoundland
Cents : Cents
31.0 : 35.8
11.7 : 14.4
11.8 : 13.7
8.4 : 9.9
9.4 : 11.1
9.2 : 12.2
12.4 : 13.5n
7.2 : 11.7
11.0 : 13.4
11.1 : 13.0
22.7 : 33.3n
10.2 : 10.1n
9.9 : 12.2n
8.8 : 14.On
4.2 : 8.6n
4.8 : 8.9
4.8 : 8.8
4.6 : 6.6
8.1 : 12.On
7.0 : 11.4
9.2 : 1C.O
19.2 : 15.4
7.4 : 11.6
6.8 : 9.8
1/ Beginning March 1937, prices are futures.
in O 0
i Cr) u
Total production of oleomargarine in the frist quarter of 1937 was about
12 percent lower than in the same period a year ago, although March 1937 showed
a 7 million-pound increase over February.
The increased volume of oils needed for manufacture in March was supplied
by cottonseed, babassu, and soybean oils. Use of coconut oil in oleomargarine
has continued to show a steady decline month by ronth, dropping froc 11 million
pounds in Decerber 1936 to 5 million pounds in March 1937.
Table 14.- Oleo.argarine: Materials used in manufacture,
United States, February and March, 1936 and 1937
1 ntfl ", I #in *i i-
.,\LJ l.oU .
Total fats and oils
: 17,108 13,
S 976 2,
: 7,555 6,622 : 5,197 6,774
: 2,123 1,873 : 1,345 l,131
: 1.1 '-n, o. i. : n I a R fl h
8. 01 419 al lQ 838 24
4., f1 fL
IJ I 'T-
Compiled and computed frou reports of the Connissionor of Internal Revenue.
j ,t /
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
111 I III II 11111 011111 4 l 111 III 1111 11
3 1262 08904 2591