The Fats and oils situation

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Title:
The Fats and oils situation
Physical Description:
301 v. : ill. ; 26-28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Agricultural Economics
United States -- Agricultural Marketing Service
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture. -- Economic Research Service
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture. -- Economics, Statistics, and Cooperatives Service
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture. -- Economics and Statistics Service
United States -- World Food and Agricultural Outlook and Situation Board
Publisher:
The Bureau
Place of Publication:
Washington
Publication Date:
Frequency:
frequency varies

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Oil industries -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Oils and fats, Edible -- Economic aspects -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Agricultural Economics.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
FOS-1 (Mar. 1937) - FOS-301 (Oct. 1980).
Issuing Body:
Issued by: Agricultural Marketing Service, 1954-Mar. 1961; Economic Research Service, May 1961-<Oct. 1977>; Economics, Statistics, and Cooperatives Service, <May 1978>-July 1980; Economics and Statistics Service, Oct. 1980.
General Note:
"Approved by the World Food and Agricultural Outlook and Situation Board," Oct. 1977-Oct. 1980.
General Note:
Title from caption.
General Note:
Item 21-D.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 000502965
oclc - 01588232
notis - ACS2699
lccn - 46039840 //r82
issn - 0014-8865
sobekcm - AA00005305_00009
Classification:
lcc - HD9490.U5 A33
ddc - 380.1/41385/0973
System ID:
AA00005305:00009

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Succeeded by:
Fats and oils outlook & situation

Full Text





UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
WASH I NGTON
JANMIA Y IR 1 C3,1

------------------------------------------------ l
T H E F A T S A N D O I L S S I T U A T I --

-US DEPOSITORY


PER CAPITAL DISAPPEARANCE OFCOMPOUNDS AND
VEGETABLE SHORTENING, AND LARD. 1912-36


APPARENT DISAPPEARANCE COMPUTED FROM FACTORY PRODUCTION PLUS OR MINUS NET TRADE AND
CORRECTED FOR CHANCES IN STOCKS WHERE AVAILABLE. PER CAPITAL BASED ON JULY I POPULATION
* PRELIMINARY


NEG.32991 BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS


FOs-i I


/ ;


IL DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE







Table 1 .-,pp!arent disappearance per capital of butter, oleomargarine, lard,
copo-.unds and vegetable shortenings, mnd exports of lard per capital,
United States, 1912-36

: : : Totl : :ompounds: :


Calendar:
year : Butter


and : Total :
vegetable:lard and: Grand
s!.orten- : cor- : total
inf_ ._pounds :
Lb. Lb. : Lb.


1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919 :

1920
1921 :
1922
1923
1924 :
1925
1926
1928

1929

1930
1931
1932
1933 :
1934 :
1335 :
1936 2,/ :


Lb.

16.7
1 ,. 6
17,2
17.4
17.5
16.0
13.9
15.3

14.8
16.2
17.1
17.9
18.1
17.7
17.5
17.5
17.2
17.4

17.3
18.0
18.1
17.6
18.0
17.1
16.5


:01eomar-: butter :
: marine : and : Lard
:oleor.ar-:
: __ _:_ garine : :
Lb. Ib. :Lb.

1.5 18.2 : 11.4
1.6 18.2 10.9
1.4 18.6 : 10.9
1.4 18.8 : 11.8
1.8 19.3 : 12.0
2.8 18.8 : 10.5
3.3 17.2 12.3
3.4 18.7 11:.C

3.4 15.2 : 12.2
2.0 18.2 11.1
1.7 18.8 : 13.5
2.0 13.9 14.5
2.0 20.1 : 4.5
2.0 19.7 : 12.5
2.1 19.6 12.4
2.3 19.8 12.8
2.6 19.8 : 13.3
2.9 20.3 :12.9

2.6 19.9 12.6
1.9 19.9 : 13.5
1.6 19.7 : 14.2
1.9 19.5 : 13.8
2.1 20.1 : 12.8
3.0 20.1 : .4
3.0 19.5 : 11.1


19.9
20.5
21.9
22.0
21.7
21.5
22.9
22.7

13.9
18.2
2U.3
21.1
21.6
22.3
22.0
22.6
22.7
22.8

22.4
22.9
21.7
21.4
22.3
21.5
23.5


: Lard
: exhorts
S /

S Lb.


5.8
6.0
4.7
4.9
4.6
3.8
5.4
7.5

6.0
8.3
7.3
9.6
8.7
6.3
6.3
6.1
6.7
7.1

5.5
4.8
4.6
4.9
3.6
0.9
1.1


i Net exports and shipments to non-contiEuous territory.
2 Prelimiiniary.

Apparent disappearance is computed from production plus or minus net trade and
corrected for changes in stocks where -vailable. Per capital based on July 1
population.

It should be noted tnat there data are only rough approximations. The
available statistical infornmtion, especially on animal fats, is incomplete.
Total slaughter of mer.t nrim-jls in federally inspected establishments represents
actual count, but data for other slauc:hter are rather rough estimates by the
Bureau of Agricultural Economics. Butter production for census years 1912-29
are data as reported by Bureau of the Census. For intercensus years interpolations
are made on the basis of market receipts and production reported to the Bureau of
Agricultural Economics. Beginning 1930, from reports of the Bureau of Agricultural
Economics.


3.5
9.6
11. 0
10.2
9.7
11.0
iC .E
11.7

6.7
7.1
6.8
6.6
7.1
9.8
9.6
9.8
9.4
9.9

9.8
9.4
* .5
7.6
9.5
12.1
12.4


38.1
38.7
40.5
40.8
41.0
40.3
40. 1
41.4

37.1
36.4
39.1
41.0
41.7
42.0
41.6
42.4
42.5
43.1

42.3
42.8
41.4
40.9
42.4
41.6
43.0


- 2 -


FOS-I 1







FOS-11


T E FATS A ND O I L S I TUAT I 0 N


This i.,sue of the Tats and Oils Situation
presents some recent developments in thi vegetable
shortening industry together with a few tables
showing statistical background. See pages 7-21.

Prices of most fats and oils averaged slightly lower in December 1937

than in November and were markedly lower than prices in December of tne

previous year. Exceptions are butter, oleomargarine, vegetable shortenings,

and fish oils, the prices of which warec equal to or slightly higher than

they were in November. Butter, 92 score, at New York avteraed 4.7 cents per

pound higher than in December 1936. The prices of cottonseed oil, lnord,

coconut, soybean, and corn oils were 3 and 4 cents per pound lower in

December tnan in the s~o~e month of 1936. But averse annual prices of most

fats ard oils for the calendar -e:i" 1937 were above aver-ge for tiLe calendar

year 1936, the exceptions bein. tung oil, corn oil, and refined peanut oil,

all of which overaged slightly lower in price than during the calendar y,-er

1936.

Cottonseed oil

T.ne record production of cottonseed from the cotton crop of 1937 is
being crushed in record time. Production of crude cottonseed oil from Aulust 1
to November 3 ', 1937, is reoort.d at 545 million ipoun.Ls, wn!ile 746 million
pounds is tnf l.-rgc:st production ever previously reported in. the correspond-
ing months of a~ny y.ear. Those fiu-res comprre with a production of 633 mil-
lion pounds r.-nd 591 million pounds in the corresponding periods of 1936 rnd
1935, respectively. Prices of crude oil, f.o.b. :.ills, in December 1937 v.ere
a shade lower than in NIovcmber and avr-i:ed 5.9 cents compared with 10 cents
in December 1'36 and 3.4 cents in Decermb.r 1935.

Flaxse d

The December 17 Crop Rerocrt places production of flaxseed from the 1937
United Strtes crop at 6,974 tious-id bushels, compr-red with 5,273 thousand in
1936 ar.d 14,520 thousand bushels in 1955. Imports of f'lcxseed are running
considerably higher than last year. The January to ITovemtber 1937 total import


- 3 -





FOS-11


was 26.4 million bushels compared vith 13.9 million bushels in the first 11
months of 1~33.

The first official estimate of the Ar cntine flaxseed crop aow being
harvcstede is placed at '5?,3c3 thnus-lid tunoils. This lo\i estimate of the
probable outturn indicates a heavy da'.gea from- the Noventer frosts.

The harvesting" period of the Indian flnxseed crop runs from January to
April and no esti;-ates of probable reductionn this spring are yet available.
The first estimate of acreage is 7 percent above the first esti:nte of acreage
a year ago and 17 percent higher thin the first estimate of acreage for harvest
the spring of 1935. Avera-e -"ro.l'ction ir' India am.ountoJ to about 17 million
bushels annually from 1933 to 1936.

Linseed oil prices averaged 10 cents nter 'ou~nd in December 1937 con-
oared with 10.2 cents in Nove-iter and an average of 3.5 cents for the calendar
year 193,.

Soybeans

Soybean production ir: tLe Unite-l States ;-,as exrande, greatly during the
-ast 10 years. The 1937 crop was esti-.:ntcd in tihe Dece:.ber Crop Report at
approximately -I1 million bu.?hels. This co:--ares with 30 million bushels in
1936 anr is next to the largest crp on record, h-ein- exceeded only by the
1935 crop of 44 million b-.shels.

Sroyenn oil prices have declined sharply in t.he past 6 months, influenced
by increase" supplies of cottonrseed and scy:reans as rell is by tie decline in
general business activity.

The estimate of the !,anchuri-n soybcan crop released December 28 stands
at 153 million bushels co-.nared rvith 152. million bushels in 1933.

Peanuts

The December 17 Crop Rerort ectir.atcs 7pe.nut prcuctiun (in-the-shell
basis) at 1,292 million poundi corm.are- with 1,337 million cnounis in 1936.

Legislation

Imports of hemp, perilli, :apco':, rape, and sesame ceeds were practi-
cally stomped by the ir. ort tqx of 2 cents per nound placed on these seeds by
the Revenue Act of 193,5, effective August 21, 1936.

Pronos-ls for reductiDn of the tnx rate, sponsored by several interested
groups, have been rreZsnted to C.-,nress. A subcormiittee of the Tays and .eans
Co-mittee has recommended the fo!lowin- rates: He .'mseed 1.12 cents per -pound;
perilla 1.31 cents; raoesecd 1.51 cents, and sesame seed 1.05 cents per pound.

In December 1937 the State of Georcia r.emorialized the Congresmof the
United States "to repeal the Fe!eral statutes which now levy special taxes
and licenses and other restrictions aeOinst the sale Rnd use of food products
made from cottonseed oil and peanut oil. ."


- 4 -






FOS-11


- 5 -


Table 2.-Price per pound of specified fats and oils, November, December,
and annual, 1936-37

Ft or oil N.: 1936 : 1937
_: ov. : Dec. :Annaal: Iov. : Dec. :Annual
: Cnts Cents Cents: Cents Cents Cents
Domestic prices-
Butter, 920, N. Y. : 33.6 34.2 33.0 : 38.1 38.9 34.4
Oleomargerine,domestic veg., Chicgo : 16.0 16.4 1/15.1 : 15.1 15.5 15.8
Lard, prime steam, Chicago : 11.8 13.1 11.3 : 9.5 8.3 11.3
Lard, refined, Chicago : 12.7 13.6 12.2 : 11.4 9.8 12.7
Lard compounds, Chicago : 12.6 13.2 12.2 : 10.4 10.4 12.4
Coconut oil, edible, N. Y. : 9.1 10.4 7.4 : 6.2 .2 8.5
Cottonseed oil, crude, fob S.E. mills : :.7 1C. 8.6 : 6.0 5.9 8.0
Cottonseed oil, p.s.y.., T. Y. : 10.0 11.0 9.8 : 7.1
Soybean oil, refined, IT. Y. : 10.2 11.3 9.8 : 8.8 8.4 10.9
Peanut oil,domestic,refined, IT. Y. : 12.5n 12.8n 12.5 : 10.3n 10.On 12.1n
Rape oil, refined, IT. Y. 10.0 10.5 8.3 : 12.3 12.1 12.3
Oleo oil, Io. 1, IT. Y. : 11.1 13.1 11.2 : 12.8 12.1 15.1
Oleostearine, barrels, IT. Y. : 9.3 10.7 9.0 : 9.1 7.1 9.7

Corn oil, refined, II. Y. : 12.5 12.7 12.0 : 9.8 9.4 11.5
Olive oil, edible, N. Y. : 21.CT 26.On 24.1 : 31.9n 31.3n 31.9n
Sunflower oil, refined, IT. Y. : 11.1 12.1 10.5
Teasced oil, crude, IT. Y. : 11.8 13.9 10.6 : 9.3 9.1 10.8

Coconut oil, crude, Pacific Coast : 6.4 8.1 5.0 : 4.0 3.7 6.0
Tallow, inedible, Chicago : 7.2 7.8 5.8 : 5.4 5.1 7.5
Grease, house, ?. Y. : 7.2 ?.8 5.5 : 5.1 4.5 7.4
Palm oil, crude, IN. Y. :5.2 6.1 4.3 : 4.2 4.On 5.6
Olive oil foots, barrels, N1. Y. : 9.3 10.0 8.7 : 10.1 9.8 11.1
Palm-kernel oil, denatured, ii. Y. : 5.6 7.6n 5.1 : 4.7n 4.5n 6.0
Babassu oil, tanks, IT. Y. 2/ :9.4 10.4 8.0 : 7.4 6.6 8.9
Sardine oil, tanks, Pacific Coast :4.9 5 4.5 : 4.8 4.9 6.0

Linsced oil, raw, Minneapolis :9.2 9.5 9.5 : 10.2 10.0 10.3
Tung oil, drums, Atl-ntic Coast : 13.0 14.3 16.1 : 15.6n 1.8 15.7
Perilla oil, drums, II. Y. : 9.7 10.9 .8 : 12.8 11.5 12.1
Soybean oil, crude, fob mills : 3.0 9.1 7.5 : 5.6 5.2 8.1
Menhaden oil, crude, fob Balto. : 4.4n 4.7n 4.3 : 4.6n 4.8n 5.2n
Hempseed oil, cr-.de, II. Y. :9.6 9.8 5.9 :-

Foreigin rices- 3/
Cotton oil, crude, naked, Hull : 5.9 6.8 5.9 : 4.4 4/-*.1 5/5.8
Copra, Resecrlr., Philippines : 3.3 4.2 2.4 :4/1.9 6/3.1
Palm-kernel oil, crude, Hull :6.0 7.6 5.4 :4.9 4/4.7 5/6.0
Whale oil, crude, ITo. 1, Rotterdam : 4.2 4.7 4.4 : 4.1 4/3.7 /4.7
Tallow, beef, fair-fine, London : 5.7 6.2 6.0 5.1 4/4.9 5/5.8
Linseed oil, nrked, Hull :5.5 6.0 5.8 : 6.3 4/6.1 5/6.4

SAverrae April-December. 2/ Beginning Febru'ry 1937, prices are futures.
SConverted to U.S. cents per pound at current monthly rates of exchange.
4/ Preliminary. Average for 2 weeks. 5/ Avera e for 11-1/2 months.
SAverage for 11 months.








oleomargarine

The enirmas av.ilibl? supplies if c) ttnreed jil t3g-th.-r Viththe many
Stat.- taxes an L3 iearinrine mroe frmi fjr i:. inrrAdiinents,tndicat-- that tha
dispL--rnen.t If ccinut 311 obv c'ttirns-Ld [il in Lia n.rrg-.ri:ne will
:r.tinue.. In ivcmnEc..r 1536 abi)t eque.l ar u-ts )f epch )f te tw) hils were
used in the m.:itufr"ctare if L.:j-m.rr-..rine, vhile in ljveember 1937 the .v.)uwnt
)f *. ttinsecd ,il us-d ';as pal.r.st fjur ti:ies -s l&-re as the .Ln)unt )f
C) "'.ut .-i! used.


T.-ble l 3.- ll )mrgerine: Pr)ductin nid raiterials used in rm-nufacture,
United St-te:r, .'-ctbz.-r -nd li-nb r, 1936 -in f 1957

I t E-r, -- ---
"_ {).t.. t I I. v I : )'>ct N)v .
: Q' Lb. 1 0I C I : I L "Dr" Lb. 11000 lb.


Ole) ail
1lea ste-rine
iard, neutral
Ore3 st)ck
Tatal animal


C0ttr.se-d 3il
Sjyb-aen il
Peanut il
C rn ail
Tatal domestic v-etable

Cacnnut 3il
Pili,,-kernel a il
:B.bbzsu il .
P-.lm il .
f)uricuri ) il
Sespne il.
Tatal foreign ver.t..jle
Ttal fats and hils


L, 741 L,9] :r 773 650
2C:4 2:' 3: 3 j 309
:'D 2''2 : I, 1:0 160
: 17_ 17. : l10 59
3: ,41. 1,1n4 : 1 9 1,178


l-'-,.:

z?
q r rl'

11.97


i 717
333
7,
5'?

S144. 27


10,271-
284
5L6


'1 .8
'lh",^5


2i l.h


75



992
i
----L
31^ 24


2C,339
2, 18-
240
1ic.9
22,874


5,All
383
501


: 135,619
: 57

: 23 L
: 6L. .?


SS, 2 32,554 30,547


Milk : ,7732
S1lt r t -- misll e]-i e s : L_-. 3 -


Production .f )l:- j-.-rgArine


75,5 l


_, 1 4,
l-_^7L4


: 7,497 7,C37
- 2 ,r98 1,78


34,l209 : ~e, 645


I/ Preliminary.


Compiled ard c-npu.ted from rcpoarts if the C-) -.iziner )f Internal Revenue.


37,475


F"'S-11


- 6 -


:_8 1 6, 495







COMPOUNDS AfND VEGETABLE SKORTEIJINGS 1/

Compounds and vegetable shortenings constitute the major outlet for
cottonseed oil. In this use, however, cottonseed oil meets competition
from other oils including soybean and peanut oils, and furthermore the
compounds and vegetable shortenings must compete with lard. In the face of
a prospect of some increase in the supp ly of lard in 1938, and with the
second largest soybean crop on record, there is a real problem in disposing
of a record production of cottonseed and the oil from tha-t seed.

The cbund-nce of cottonseed oil and relatively low prices may result
in th:.t oil l:rgcly displ-*cing foreign oils that have been used in recent
years in the manufacture of compounds. In the cars 1932-34 cottonse.:d oil
constituted 87 percent of the fats and oils used in the manufacture of com-
pounds .:nd vegetable shortening, but the use of foreign oils (mostly palm
and coconut oils) increased in 1935 and 1936. In the latter year cottonseed
oil constituted only 5? percent. Reports are not yet available but preliminary
estimntes indicate that production of compounds and vegetable shortenings in
1937 probably bout equal-d production in 1936 and that the percentage of
cottonseed oil used was considerably ni'ghr than in 1936.

Preli;iinary estimates of disappearance of refined cottonseed oil in
all uses luri.g the calendar year 1937 pl-ced the fiigre at 1,600 million
pounds, compared with 1,246 in 1936 and 1,335 million pounds in 1935. It is
estimated th-t about 815 .iliio:i pounds of refined oil were consumed from
August 1 to D-'cember 31, 1937. Subtracting this amount from estimated
possible supplies of 2,300 million pounds for the 1937-38 season leaves
potential supplies of over 1,450 million pounds at the beginning of the
cr.lendar year 1938.

The production and consumption of compounds and vegetable shortening
in 1938 may equal that of 1937 in spite of some increase in lard production.
Lard stocks rre low and part of the increase in lard production may be used
to build up stocks; and exports are likely to be increased to some extent
on account o: low prices. The per capital consumption of lard and compounds
does not var., greatly from y,'ar to year, and it ra;y be probable th:.t the
production or' compounds and vegetable shortening in 1938 will cJnount to
about 1,Ej" to 1,550 million pounds. Using cottonseed oil to the extent of
85 percent would result in total utilization of 1,250 to 1,300 million pounds
of refined cottonseed oil in vegetable shortening. Probably as much as 400
million pounds of cottons:-cd oil may be used in oleomargarine and otner foods
in 1938. Thus, if cottonseed oil should replace imported oils in compounds
in 1938 as it has been doing in oleomargarine the past year (see table 3) a
possible 1,650 to 1,730 million pounds of refined cottonseed oil might be
used for food in the calendar year 1936. End of season stocks of cottonseed
oil in terms of refined oil averaged 420 million pounds in 1935-37 and 720
million pounds in 1931-34.

_I The vegetable shortening industry from its inception through 1933 has
been ably ielt with in The American Vegetable Shortening Industry, its
Origin and Development. 359 pp. Stanford University, Calif. (Food Rec--.rch
Institute, June 1934.) by Weber, G. M., and Alsberg, C. L.,


See FOS-10, December 14, 1937, for data on cottonseed oil.


FOS-11


- 7 -










Competition between lard and other shcrtpning

During the war period, 1914-19, when lard production averaged 1,653
million i:ounds, consumption of cocr'punds 9nd v-egetable shortenings was
almost as much as co.nsumnption of lard, constituting 48 percent of total
crnsjzrition of lard and vegetable shcrteninrs combined, and was almost
twice the -olume of the average exports rf lard during this period.

In the 14 years, 1920 to 1933, lard production was very hi,-h, aver-
agirn 2,318 million pounds annually. Throuhrut this period lard consurnip-
tion was materially above consumption of other r shortening (see table 1)
but with the --,:x:option of the 4 years 1921-24 exports of lard were ccn-
siderably less than the domestic consumption of oomp.unds and vecet'ible
shortenings. In 1035 and 1936 total dr-mestic l.rd production supplied less
than half the total consumption of lard and other shortr.nin's.

In 1I,4, domestic per capital diiarpcar-.nce r:' lord was 1 pcund below
1933 and ccmli-unld disappearance vwus 1.'2 prinds larger, coincidental with
an average rice increase of 2.4 ce-nts per prund for lard, 1 cent for lard
crmr'ui.'ii, and 1.1 cents for refined cottons't-d oil. In 1935, the shift
was greater, because of sharper r-ez',ctirrns in Isrd pr-duction than in 1934.
'Lrd 3di-prpe.r.r.'e decreased from 12.6 to 9.4 -punris per capital and co.i-
prund dis-rcc.rance increased from 9.:. to 12.1 pounds, T:,ilc lard prices
rose from 8.84 to 15.07 cents per pound, l.ird cmprund frrci 3.?? to 1.3.12
cents, and refined cottonseed oil fr.:rm 7.7 tc. 12.1 cents per pcund.

Per c- pta consumption of shrrte-in,'- zrint in the United St-tc-s has
been maintained at slightly higher l e:-ls urii,- th: recent peri-rd cif 1-rd
shortage than in 1932-33 as a result .-f decre'--sd lard o-xports .and inrc:.scd
use of cmoui:nc. Lard *:xprrts dropped fr:r. 5.3- million pcunds in 1933 to
435 million pounds in 1934, 97 milli-rn p"-unds in 1935, -nd then increased
to 112 million [runds in 19.6 and mrrn'c irn lC?. Trtal domestic dis-.Fpoor-
ance of lard and com.priund was 2 r.88? millicrn .cun.ds in 19.33, 2,821 million
in 1'.4, 2,7..2 million in 1935, car.d 2,2'3f. rdllicn pounds in 136. (S-e
tables 4 -rn 7 ) Of this total, rl-rd w~s .r.7 percent in 1933, then dropped
to 57.4 i i-:-Ce.7 in 1. :', to 43.8 percent in 1'D7, a.,d 47.3 percr~nt in 1_".36.
Increased use of .crn unds, thus irrnrea7,id pLur capitCa r rnsm'pt i-ron o*f l".rd
and c'-rr i. r.:"s *'-.t-.,i.d to an avCr' -g; f 22.2 pounds in 1 5.-35 nmnparrd
with an river' of 21.6 pounds fcr 19.'-.3.

Iincr-7s-:c- fr-ctory dc-and f-r r:.w m.torils provided -.n outlet for
hue stocks of cotnc.-.ned oil, which h-d 'ccuLul' ted btctv.'con 1931 and 1933.
Crops of cott.'--.-,,d vjere snimll in 193.1 and 1'" and in spite of t'h i:-
cr. s-',i .'c:er *-., crushed, producti-n -"f cottonsi-d oil T;-s less in tie
i'2:,4-.-5 and 1._:.-[56 seasons than in rarny rf th.e arc. edir4n 10 yet.-r. This
situation created incroascd demand fcr -ther d-omestic and foreign animal
and .:,-;etable fats and oils, and resulted in a marked chan-ge in th' nmake-up
of factory onr.smnpt ion of fats and r-ils by the shortening industry. (See
tables .' and 6.)


- 9 -







FOS-11


Lard appears to be in a weaker position with respect to alternative
uses than ;vegetable shortenings. There is a possibility of diverting into
other channels some of the raw materials normally consumed in the manu-
facture of vegetable shortenings. Other conditions being the same, the
various fats and oils tend to move into the highest price outlet for which
they are technically suitable. If the price inducement is great enough
some cottonseed may be stored or used for feed or fertilizer. Imports of
foreign oils and oilseeds may be curtailed. Lard, on the other hand, is
a byproduct of nog slaughter, although thLre may be considerable fluctua-
tion in lard produced from the same number of hogs slaughtered, depending
on the weight at which the hoes are slaughtered and the relative amount
of fat left on t..c carcess or sold as grease.

Another factor which weakens the position of lard is that its pro-
duction time is determined by the time of hog slaughter, and it cannot be
stored for indefinite periods. Generally speaking, it is necessary to move
it into cons'1iuirv channels within about a year after the producing season;
vegetable shortsnings, on the other hand, are manufactured from day to day
or week to week out of less perishable raw r.;aterials available the year
around.

Foreign market for Amrerican lard

Experts ha;e provided an outlet for a large shnre- of domestic lard
production since before 1880, and imp.-rts have always bee-n negligible. In
1900, total n-t exports and shipments to non-contiquous territories were
615 million pounds wni-:h was 37.7 percent of total FroCuL.:tion. From 1900
to 1935, except 'in 1910 and 1917, annual exports and shipments remained
above 400 iilli.ni po,.nds, and exports 'n.re steadily in excess ,nf 7?,0 million
pounds from .921 to 1929. (See table .) T.he 5-year average 1930--34 was
561 million puads. In 1935, however, only 97 millionn pounds of lard were
exported anjd 1 million pounds shipped to non-contti.luous territories, or
total exports aid shipments of 115 million pounds. In 19e6 exports were
112 million pounds, shipments 25 million pounds, a total of 137 million
pounds. Exports in 1937 were larger than in 1936, but still for below
figures of years prior to 1935.

Leading lard i~irting countries

The Unitedl Kingdom and Gernuaiy have been the leading importers of
lard from the United States, and have accounted for an average cf 62 per-
cent of t.otl United States exports in the 10-year p-riod 1927-36. Since
the World War, exports to the United Kin.dom remained fairly constant,
averaging 244 million pounds fr.rm 1921-34, followed by a sharp drop in
1935, and an overage of only 64 million po-unds 1935-37. Exports to Germajy
have shown a marked downward trend. Exports of lard to1 Germany in 1907
were less than 2 million pounds compared with 7 million in 1976 and 2
million pounds in 1935. In the 4-year period 19,3-33 exports to Germany
were only 134 million pounds compared ;ith an average of about 200 million
pounds in the 5-year period 1925-29 and an average of 300 million pounds
1921-24. A similar tendency exists with respect to: exports to other
European countries which are trying to reduce imports.


- 9 -






FOS-11


- 10 -


Europe is uniformly following te -clicy of encouraging its animal
husbandry and is promoting the use of vegetable and marine animal oils,
Imports of lard into Germany, Czechoslovakia, A'istria, Belgium, Italy,
Switzerland, and ITrway, orincinol inorti.n countries of continental Europe,
have shown marked decreases belowv average~ of 1925-29. France, P.olannd., Sweden,
and. Yu,-oslnvia hnve become net exporting countries in the last few years.
(Aricultural Statistics, 1937, p. 267, table 3G.)

The n ,..ber of hoes in Germany h-s :rently increased since 1924, and the
number in the United Kingdom, France, Poland, uad i.ost of the other European
countries has shown an upwari trer. since 19i0. (Ibid, p. 259.)

Foreign r.arl'et for Jnrited States co-ro'unds and veg-etable shortening:s

Exports of compounds from tne United States were first separately re-
ported in about 15.7. A rather modest foreign r:.iFrket, nrincipally in Europe,
was established by 1907, where. 8'? milli-r. pounds of cnrpou-r.in and vegetable
shortening s are estimated to have 'een e;..Torted. With the sin-le exception
of 1919, when 121 million pounds of ccrpounds vcre exported, this represents
the hi-h point of export trade. E,-orts then grrad-ally diminished to an aver-
age of 15.1 million -ounds in 192.-2-' an; 4.' -Z iliion pounds in 1930-34. In
the years 1935-37 tie United St-tes has '-een a net in-ircoter of cormTounds and
vegetable shorter.inl s, impor-s aver.r-ln- 5.7 million rno.unds in 1935-36 and
less than half a million I*ounds in 1957, r-stly fr-;T the Philiioines. (See
table 4.) The European ole.-'.-ar.-arine industry has so strenthenei the position
of its product in recent years that the A..ericnr. cor.ipound industry may not again
find ready entrance into the E-ro-zean r.arket.

M.arletir.n7 ye et .tle shortenin.ns and lard

In general, co6:pounds or ver-t.'ble shcrt6nir..s may bc classified in two
groups: (1) The highly processed, widely a.vertisei, and specially paclskaed
group which sells under trade rna:-es. (2) Prodcts which are not so highly
processed nor so widely advertised, an. :hich sell in cartons, tierces, or
tubs, largely to restaurants an- bakeries. Larre estnblish':erits find it
desirable to maintain uniforri quality, and hence i,-nst ensure themselves of
uniform character and rerforr:n:ice of their raw r.aterials.

In recent years, however, national pac'cers are endeavorini to meet this
competition by putting out b-rsnds of ir.proved lard which neet the requirements
of uniformity, stability, and corvenier.ce of pac::age. It is estir.ated by some
members of the trade that lard in l-pound cartons now constitutes about 60 per-
cent of the total retail distribution of that nro'uct. This is probably too
high a percentage to n.ply to all distribution. The 2-pound, 4-pound, and 8-
pourd carton distribution protablv represents around 15 -ercent of the total.
The remainder is in tins and t.:bs. The nrincinal reasons for the growing
pop,-larity of the 1--nound cartons are tne som:er:hat better oackaging then formerly
anr' the smaller sized packaL-e which 'reetr the .ie.-and of a lar-e number of con-
si-.ers, who buy on a hand-to-mouth banis.




V ..


!T)S-I

Table



Calendar:
year



1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929


- 11 -


4 .- Compounds and vegetable sh)rtenings: Productibn, trade, stocks
as )f December 31, and apparent disappe.r-'nce, 1920-36


: Imports:
Factory :f.r cn-: Exports
pr) ducti)n: sumpt i :

1,000 lb. 1,000 l1,000C lb. L,


747,255
811,095
784, 18i
750,522
s30,435
1,152,620
1, 14o, 708
1,178,995
1,143,349
1,120,102


1930 : 1,211,268
1931 : 1,171,559
1932 : 945,441
S1933 952.50o
.1934 : 1,204,331
1935 2/ : 1,546,795
; 1936 2/ : 1,586,741
1937 2/ :
Jan. Se-D: 1.126.804


14
5
35
2
83
25
319
250
181
257


92

221
189
281
7,9h9
6,235

1.427


32,051
48,207
41,765
17,067
14, 71
22,313
18,167
14,4210
10,,394
9,975

8,791
5,9914
3,49.,
31453
2, 602
2,181
1,219
1,622


Net
xp) rt s


000C lb.


32,037
4g,202
41,730,
17, 065
14, 28
22,288
17, 84
14,170
10,213
9,718


3,699
5,893
3,277
2,1413
1,900
6,730
4,613


:Appnrent disappearance
SSt)cks
: Dec. 31 : T)tal :Per capital
: : *


1,000 lb. 1,000 lb.


15,515
10,689
19,517
22,857
22,926
26,770
29,929
31, 669

26,672
24,751
26,265
27, 301
27,690
39, 90
44,932


715,218
762,893
742,450
738,283
807, 319
1,126,992
1,122,791
1,160,91l
1,129,977
1,208,6644

1,20.7,566
1,167,587
940,650
949,131
1,202,0 42
1,541,325
1,586,312


Lb.


7.1
6.8
r.6
7.1
9.8
9.6
9.3
9.4
o.9

9.8
9.4
7.5
7.6
9.5
12.1
12.4


1.GC2 3/ 395 4/37.324 1.114.807


1920-21 includes
Preliminary.


small percentage )f -.rd.


3/ Net imports, principally fr).i Philippine Islrnds.
V/ Stocks September 30, 1937.
Compiled as fltlws:
Priducti)n -
1920-21, U.S. Tariff Ci)mrissian Rep)rt t) C)ngress 3n Certain Vegetable
Oils (Rep)rt 11. 41, 2nd Series 1932), p. 159-160.
1922-36, Bureau )f the Census, Animal r-nd Vegeta.ble F.ts and "ils.

Trade figures fr)m F)reign C)n .erce and LNaviattion )f the United States.
ExpTrts reported as f)ll)ns: 1920-21, under anir-l prJducts as "lard c)n-
p)unds and theirr substitutes f)r lard"; 1922-32, t)tal )f tw) items
separately rep)rtted as "lard c)mpu-iuds crntaininn- ,aimal fats" and "vegetable
)il lard c)np)unds"; 1933-36, under vecetibl. products as "cnking fats
father than Lard".
Imparts are reported as "animal )ils".

Stocks, Bureau if the Census, Animal -nd Vegetable Fats ar.d 'ils.


Per capital disappearance based )n July 1 p)pultti)n.


~ ~ ~ ~ __


_I II_












FACTORY CONSUMPTION OF FATS AND OILS IN VEGETABLE
SHORTENINGS AND COMPOUNDS, 1920. 1929, AND 1931-36
POUNDS
( MILLIONS)


1,500





1,200





900





600





300





0
1920


U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Animal and marine
animal oils
Foreign vegetable oils
Domestic vegetable oils
other than cottonseed
Cottonseed oil


EI rh1
lii h


1\ ''\


1929 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936
DATA FROM BUREAU OF THE CENSUS


NEG. 32992 BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS


FIGURE I








- 13 -


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14 -
FOS-11

Table 6 .-Factory consumpticn of fats and oils, expressed as percentage of
total oils, in compounds and vegetable shorteninbs, United States,
1931-36


Frt or oil


S1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936
:Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent


Cottonseed oil
Soybean oil
Peanut oil
Corn oil
Linseed oil
Total domestic vegetable

Palm oil
Coconut oil
Sesame oil
Rape oil
Babassu oil
Palm-kernel oil
Sunflower oil
Perilla oil
Other 2/
Total foreign vegetable

Tallow, edible
Oleostearine
Lard
Oleo oil

Marine animal oils
Tot.il animal and marine
animal oils

Total fats -nd oils


76.9
.9
.5


86.1
.5
.4


87.7 87.2
.1 .2
.3 .7


63.9
3.4
5.9


57.0
7.1
5.5


S .5 .3 .1 -. .2
S ..--- ---.. / --
: 76.8 67.3 88.2 8 6.3 73.4 69.6


2.9
2.8
2.




9--
1.5
10. 0


2.3
.9
.8


2.2
.7
.8



.3


4-.0


1.4






.1

.1
2.7


7.4
2.9
2.3
1.0

.1
.7

.8
15.2


10.5
2.4
2.0
1.9
.3



1.0
18.1


: 5.3 4.7 4.8 6.0 7.8 7.3
: 2.3 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.7 2.3
: .3 .2 .1 .3
: .a .1 1/ .1 1/ .1

: 1.6 1.4 .9 .9 1.8 2.3

: 11.2 8.6 7.8 9.0 11.4 12.3

: 1JCH. 10. 1 .0 i. 10.0 100 100.0


Less than one-tenth of one percent.
Unnamed vegetable oils reported as "other".


Computed from Bureau of the Census, Factory Connimption of Animal and Vegetable
Fats and Oils, by Classes of Prr,-iotos.















o I
ca
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FOS-11


Table R.-Lard, including neutral: Exports from
the United States, 1921-37


: : To-
Ye-r : TotSl i/ : United : : Other
: Kingdom : Germany cotries
: Lil. lb. : 111. lb. Mil. lb. Mil. lb.


1921
1922
1923
1924
1925

1 '7
1-28
1929

1930
1931

1933
193-1
1935
193r3
1937-
Jan.-
I1ov.


E93
787
1,060 :
971
708
717 :
702

8-18 :

6 56
57 :
552
584 :
435
97.
112 :


115


237
2411
239
241
218
228
225
341
245

241
252
237
296
282
65
64


281
226
379
313
198
204
191
185
219

114
134
139
127
27
2
7


375
320
442
417
292
285
286
357
384

301
192
156
161
126
30Q
41


52


1/ Total exports do not include shipments to territories.

Compiled from Foreign Comnerce and navigation of the
United States.


--17 -











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