The Fats and oils situation

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Material Information

Title:
The Fats and oils situation
Physical Description:
301 v. : ill. ; 26-28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Agricultural Economics
United States -- Agricultural Marketing Service
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture. -- Economic Research Service
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture. -- Economics, Statistics, and Cooperatives Service
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture. -- Economics and Statistics Service
United States -- World Food and Agricultural Outlook and Situation Board
Publisher:
The Bureau
Place of Publication:
Washington
Publication Date:
Frequency:
frequency varies

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Oil industries -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Oils and fats, Edible -- Economic aspects -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Agricultural Economics.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
FOS-1 (Mar. 1937) - FOS-301 (Oct. 1980).
Issuing Body:
Issued by: Agricultural Marketing Service, 1954-Mar. 1961; Economic Research Service, May 1961-<Oct. 1977>; Economics, Statistics, and Cooperatives Service, <May 1978>-July 1980; Economics and Statistics Service, Oct. 1980.
General Note:
"Approved by the World Food and Agricultural Outlook and Situation Board," Oct. 1977-Oct. 1980.
General Note:
Title from caption.
General Note:
Item 21-D.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 000502965
oclc - 01588232
notis - ACS2699
lccn - 46039840 //r82
issn - 0014-8865
sobekcm - AA00005305_00008
Classification:
lcc - HD9490.U5 A33
ddc - 380.1/41385/0973
System ID:
AA00005305:00008

Related Items

Succeeded by:
Fats and oils outlook & situation

Full Text


*. *.': RS Z1ftM S AGRICULTURE
i e't of Agriqultural Economics
1:: ^:, Wshington T DT


S-- ---- ----------- ---- --- ---- --
July **14, _1937

'I" T fE A T S A ND 0 I L S S I T A U DEPOSITORY

i-he general fats and oils situation has not changed significantly
'The general fats and oils situation has not changed significantly


l El." last month, the Bureau of Agricultural Economics reports. Prospects

il::.'till continue good for increased supplies of edible vegetable oils in

193?-38.

Acreage

Cotton acreage reports to the Buread's Crop Reporting Board indicate
a 10.4 percent increase in acreage in cultivation Jily 1, 1937, as compared
with the acreage in cultivation on the same date in 1936. Soybean acreage
shows a 7.3 percent increase, and corn acreage an increase of 3,6 percent
over last year, while peanut acreage shows a decrease of 1.9 percent. Flax-
seed acreage is reported at 8.4 percent below last year, but with indicated
increased yields production is expected to increase.

Prices

Prices of vegetable oils are in general slightly lower than last month.
The price index of 23 fats and oils (as computed by the Bureau of Raw Materials
for American Vegetable Oils and Fats Industries) based on the 1909-14 average,
decreased from 119.5 in May to 118.0 in June. The index for June 1936 stood
at 97.5. The same index for June 1927 stood at 135.8. The U. S. Department
of Agriculture index for all farm commodities was 124 in June 1937 as compared
with 128 in May and 107 in June 1936. This compares with 138 for June 1927.

Crude coconut oil on'the Pacific Coast at 5.6 cents averaged seven-
tenths of a cent lower in June than in May and 2 cents lower than the aver-
age for January to June. This compares, however, with a price of 3.9 cents
in June 1936 and 4.2 cents average January to June 1936. (See table 15.)

Lard and butter

The lard situation also is continuing the trends indicated last month.
Hog slaughter for May and June 1937 combined is the second smallest in 40
years. Cash lard prices show no material change. Butter production in the
last half of 1937 will probably show some increase over the same period of
1936, but even so the average price for the last half of this year may be
somewhat above the last half of last year.

Legislation

Numerous bills looking toward changes in the excise taxes on fats
and oils and in the oleomargarine taxes and regulations have been intro-
duced during the 75th Congress. But to date no hearings have been held
and no new legislation on these subjects h.:s been enacted.


t







FOUR MINOR FOOD OILS

Corn, Olive, Sesame, and Sunflower Oils

Statistics covering four of the minor food oils are presented in
this issue. Although each of these oils is significant in special fields,
the average annual consumption of all four of them combined is less than
one-fifth of the average annual consumption of cottonseed oil, and only
one-twentieth as much as the average total combined consumption of lard,
butter, and cottonseed oil.

Corn oil

The 1936 consumption of corn oil represented only about 1.5 per-
cent of the total disappearance of fats and oils in the United States.
Olive, sesame, and sunflower oils furnished another 1.5 percent. An in-
crease of 10 percent in cotton acreage such as is reported for this year
might increase cottonseed oil production by an amount equal to the total
average consumption of corn oil. Corn oil is a minor by-product of the
corn refining industry. The Corn Industries Research Foundation states
that "a bushel of shelled corn weighs 56 pounds. From this bushel approx-
imately 33 pounds of corn starch can be produced, or 37 pounds of corn syrup,
or about 25 pounds of the highly refined corn sugar known as dextrose.
Whether starch, syrup or sugar is produced from corn, a bushel will also
yield about 15 pounds of gluten feed and 1-1/2 pounds of corn oil as by-
products." It should be noted, however, that this yield of oil is from wet
process grinding. Yield of oil from dry process grinding is more nearly
one-nalf pound per bushel because of the difficulty of completely separating
the germ from the starchy portion. Starch, syrup, and sugar are produced
by wet milling process, corn grits, corn flakes, corn meal, and flour, etc.,
are produced by dry milling. The corn refining industry has generally used
from 2 to 4 percent of the total corn crop, the average consumption being
66 million bushels for 1931-35 and 82 million bushels for 1926-30.

Considering the small yield of oil per bushel of corn and the pre-
vailing price of the product it is not conceivable that corn millers would
incre-se their grind solely to produce corn oil. In addition to the
influence of general business conditions and the price level, the price of
corn oil is closely tied in with the supplies and price of cottonseed oil
and lard. These commodities will be discussed in a later issue.

Prior to 1933 the United States exported small amounts of corn oil
annually. Beginning with that ycar net iu -orts have increased from 9
million pounds to 29 million pounds. The -stablishment by American com-
panies of wet process corn grinding plants in the United Kingdom, France,
Czechoslovakia, G-er.nrny, Korea, Yugoslavia, MaIxico, Argentina, and Brazil
has increased the United States imports of corn oil.

Most of the corn oil produced is refined and used as salad and
cooking oil. It- igh smoking temperature makes it very useful for deep
frying 7ni it_- F .cr is satisfactory for a salad and table oil. Factory
consu..ption i_ shown in table 1.


FOS-5


- 2 -





- 3 -


Table l.-Corn oil: Factory consumption by classes of products
and total disappearance, United States, 1931-36


Products using
corn oil


Compounds ad vegetable
Sshortenings-
Oleom?-rgarine
Other edible products
Soap
Drying industry
Miscellaneous products
Foots and loss 1/
Total factory
consumption 2/
Total apparent
disappearance 3/


1931 : 1932 1933 : 1934 : 1935 : 1936
:1,000 Ib.1,000 lb.1,000 lb.1,000 lb.1,000 lb.l,000 lb.

: 6,616 3,067 1,128 1,895 2,815 430
52 54 341 4: 32 1,258
:20,307 27,330 27,893 38,630 36,122 51,017
: 4,104 2,532 3,638 6,268 2,828 2,527
245 157 225 404 329 123
: 2,404 2,152 3,749 2,973 3,786 3,967
: 9.091 7.122 6.972 9.736 10.209 12.830


: 42,819 42,414 43,946 59,910 56,121 72,132


: 105,575 106.892


123.284 132.418 131,490 145,461


Compounds and vegetable
shortenings
Other edible products
Soap
Miscellaneous products
Foots aid loss
Disappearance not
reported as consumed
in manufactured
products

Total.


As percentage of total disappearance of corn oil

:Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent

6 3 1 *2 2 4/
19 26 23 29 28 5/36
4 2 3 5 2 2
2 2 3 2 3 3
9 7 6 7 8 9



S 60 60 64 55 57 50

: 100 100 100 100 100 100


1/ Foots, or residue from refining, are largely used in soap stock.
2/ The Bureau 'of the Census computes net consumption by deducting from the
total of -both crude a.nd refined consumed the quantity of refined oil
produced.
3/ Computed from data on production, trade, and stocks. (See table 2.) It
is believed that most of the difference between reported factory con-
sumption and computed apparent disappearance is probably due to the fact
that considerable quantities of oil go directly into such edible uses
as salad and cooking oil, etc.
4/ "Less than one-half of 1 percent.
5/ Includes 1 percent used in oleomargarine,


The first section of the table is from the Bureau of the-Census, Factory Con-
sumption of Primary Animal and Vegetable Fats and Oils, by Classes of Products.
The second section is computed by the Bureau of Agricultural Economics front
preceding data.


FOS-5


,


,


,


-' -


,-~


,- -





FOS-5


Table 2.-Corn oil, crude: Production, trade, stocks, amiapparent
disappearance, 1920-37


Calendar ycx.r


1920
-1921
1922
-1923
1924
1925
-1926
1927
1928
1929


1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935-
Jan.-Mar.
Apr.-Jai e
July-Sept.
Oct.-Dec.

Total.
1936- 2/
Jan.-Mar*
Apr.-June
July-Sept.
Oct.-Dec.

Total

1937- 2/
Jan. -!L r.


(Net exports are indicated by a minus sign)
:Factory : : : Net .
:produc- : Imports :Exports : exports : Stocks,
: tion : / : or not :at end of
0 a i nnnrtt *a ,arinAl


:1,000 lb.

: 98,619
: 87,481
111,508
:111,343
:117,065
:104,153
120,041
117,441
:124,327
:133,680


120,747
113,145
106,496
128,616
114,610

21,808
25,152
23,297
29.531


1,000 1 000 lb. 1, b. 000 lb. 1,000 lb.


12,059 -12,059
4,400 -4,400
5,733 -5,733
4,361 -4,361
3,679 -3,679
3,847 -3,847
1,324 -1,324
310 -310
337 -337
315 -315


9,169
10,769

7,260
4,588
5,496
8.402


613
776
960
1,026
1,314


331
243
235
24


: 99,788 25,746 833 24,913 131,490

: 30,869 7,071 219 6,852 25,840 33,084
: 28,414 8,120 332 7,788 21,422 40,620
: 34,128 7,226 122 7,104 22,840 39,814
: 28,583 6,256 256 6,000 25,480 31,943

: 121,994 28,673 929 27,744 145,461


-613
-776
-960
8,143
9,455

6,929
4,345
5,261
8.578


18,033
27,834
18,521
16,635
14,713
16,378
19,686
25,206
28,609
24,777

17,432
24,226
22,870
36,345
27,992

21,326
27,191
21,892
21.203


: Apparent
: disap-
: DpeTrnce


n 'De!-r-.nce


1,000 Ib.

87,169
73,280
115,088
108,868
115,308
98,641
115,409
111,611
120,587
137,197


127,479
105,575
106,892
123,284
132,418

35,403
23,632
33,857
38.598


: 31,253


10,562


167 10,395


25,972


41,156


1/ Ho reexports reported;
2/ Prelir.in.ry.
Compiled as follows:
Pr-'duction ?nd stocks-


no imports sepeartely reported prior to 1933.


Bureau of the Census, Animal and Vegetable Fats and Oils. Production of
crude oil, and stocks of crude plus refined converted to crude (using 0.93)
Trade figures-
Foreign Corr.ierce and Navigation of the United States. Imports reported as
edible; exports reported as crude and refined not separately stated, used
as crude.
Apparent disappearance computed from table.


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Olive oil

Even at prices'ranging from 20 to 35 cents per pound, 62 to 92 million
pounds of olive oil are consumed annually, as a table oil and in French and
other salad dressings. Highly refined cottonseed, sesame, and corn oils also
are used for such dressings.

The quantity of olive oil obtained from the-1936-37 crushings of olives
in the Mediterranean Basin countries vas smaller than expected at the time of
harvest, according to a report from Agricultural Attache IT. I. Nielson at Paris.
Because of civil war conditions in Spain, it has not been possible to make the
usual survey, although it is believed that the Spanish olive oil production
from the 1936 crop was about 770 million pounds. On that assumption, it is
estimated that the world production of edible olive oil from the 1936 crop,
inclusive of Sonin, approximated 1.5 billion pounds, compared with 2.0 billion
pounds a year before and an average of 1.8 in the 8 preceding years. (See
table 5.)

It is believed that total supplies for the 1937 marketing year, inclusive
of Spain, will be at least 33 percent smaller than those of 1936. This is
caused by the small carryovers following the short oil production from the
1936 olive crop.

With shipments from Spain drastically curtailed and with li'fht supplies
in other olive oil producing countries, it is expected that the prevailing
hirh prices for edible olive oil will continue at least until exports from
Spain become normal ajain. (See tnble 6.)

Table 4.- Olive oil, edible: Production, net imports, stocks
December 31, and npoarent disappearance, 1930-36


Factory
nrnicinti rn


SNet imports


Stocks,
Tnp. .^l


: Apparent :
:distanerrance:


Factory con-
sumrtionr 1


S1.000 lb. 1,000 lb. 1,000 lb. 1,00 lb. 1000 lb.

1930 : 2,184 92,784 8,390 92,692
1931 : 1,649 70,289 4,051 76,277 1,697
1932 : 860 74,217 4,631 74,497 1,516
1933 : 2,103 71,917 6,869 71,782 1,861
1934 : 1,035 2/ 56,008 1,312 62,100 2,188
1935 : 664 70,7E9 2,986 70,279 3,213
1936 / : 4,498 60,972 4,099 64,357 3,972

e


l/ In miscellaneous edible products.
/2 Imports for consumption, beginning
/ Preliminary.


January 1334.


Compiled as follows:
Production and stocks, Bureau of the Census, Anir.ial and Vcrctable
Fats and Oils.
Trade figures, Foreign Commerce and Navigation of the United
States.
Apparent disappearance conmutod from table.


Year


-------


FOS-5


- 7 -






FOS-5 B -

Table 5.- Olive oil: Production in specified countries, 5-year average
1922-23 to 1923-27 and 1927-28 to 1931-32, annual 1932-33 to 1933-37

:5-year avera-e:: : : 936-37
:q1922-23:197-8 *3
Country :1922-3: 7- 1932-33 1933-34 :1934-35 1935-36 :(Prel.)
: to : to :
:1928-27:1931-32: : : : :


Europe and Asia -
Snc.in
Italy 2/
Greece
Portu;.al
Tarkcey
Syria
Trance
Yu;o slav i .
Palestine
Cyprus
Alb.nia

Africa -
Tunisia
Algeria
French '.orocco
Tripoli ta.nia

North A-nerica -
United States
Ztimrrted world
total 5/


:Mil. lb

653
417
161
73
: /29
28
: 21
9
8
2



60
52
15
3/ 9


1

:1,537


Mil.lb :Mil. l bil. I lil.b H1 il. lb.


873
433
200
120
46
25
14
11
3
3


767
448
296
72
77
9
26
8
3
:4/


132
30
18
6


1 : 1


1,906 ; 1,894


684
349
232
165
40
35
10
9
2




132
18
16
5


2


680
465
270
49
55
28
24
9
2
4
4


122
35
25
5


1,701 1,780


1/970
463
194
115
28
27
16
4
20


Ij 770
333
141
60
40
16
18
4
6


2,027 1,479


lI Though the 1935-35 production 'ans officially reported at 849 million
that estimate is ';cncrally rce'rded as being too low. Rough estii
191--37 as no definite information is available; trnde estimates
front 300 million to 1 billion pounds.
2J Includes Italian Aegean Islands from 1927-28 through 1934-35.
S4-Jear averaf-e. 4/ Less than 500,000 pounds.
SThe total is summation of data in thousands and includes some ninor
interpolations.


n pounds,
nate for
vary


0ompiled from official sources, the International Institute of Agriculture,
and reports of the Paris office of Burenu of Agricultural Econor.ics.

The harvesting of olives in the above countries occurs bet-iccn October and
7cbruary, the exact period varying with the country. Since the finest
oil is nade from fruit fully ripened on the trees, harvesting for oil
production is toward the latter -nrt of the period. It is believed that
reported olive oil production refers in all cases to edible olive oil.


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Table 7.-


- 10 -


Olive oil, edible: United States imports, by countries
average 1326-30, annual 1931-36


:5-yoar : : :
Country of origin :average,: 1931 : 1932 1933 1934 : 1935 : 1936 1/
:1925-30 :: : ::
:1.000 Ib:1 000 lb 1.000 lb 1,000 lb 1,000 lb 1.000 lb 1,000 1b
EuroDe -
Itly : 58,292: 43,714 45,014 43,264 29,591 35,821 22,374
Spain :19,922: 23,513 24,532 19,655 23,408 31,038 32,380
France 4;5.1: 2,429 1,727 2,194 2,410 2,195 3,625
Greece : 640: 122 221 630 234 932 637
Portulal 157: 204 82 95 80 94 266
Other : 1,716: 1,511 1,020 581 185 708 1,690

Total V 85,247 71,493 72,626 66,419 56,008 70,789 60,972

1/ Prclininary.
/ General inmorts, 1923-30; imports for consumption, 1931-35.

Teaseed oil

For many years tcnseed oil has been used as an adulterant of olive oil.
The adulteration is s.id to have been practiced on a larfo scale in EnCland
(Oil and Soap, 13:194-195, AuC. 1936), and may have been prevalent in the
United States in the past year or two. The close similarity between teaseed
and olive oil in both physical and chemical constants hfs, until the recent
development of some nen tests, made it practically ii.mossible to prove adultera-
tion, even thou.-h as nuch as 75 percent teaseed is mixed with 25 percent olive
oil.


Inports of teasecd oil from Chine
pounds in 1934 to about 8 million ooundE
first 4 months s of 1937. (See table 8.)
there is neither dut; nor excise tax on
less than half the orice of olive oil.


Shave increased fron half a million
in 1936, and 14 million pounds in the
Continued imnorts are probable as
the oil, and the price por pound is
(See table S.)


Table 8.- Teaseed oil: Inports into the United States from
China and Honc Kong, 1929-37


Year Teaseed Year Teaseed : r Teaseed
yea : oil :: Year :: o : : Year :
oil oil oil
: 1,00 lb. : : : 1.000b. : l : :1.000 Ib7
:: :: :: :1937
1929 : 500 : : 1933 : : 1,380 : : Jan. :2/ 296
1930 : 441 : : 1934 : : 2,407 : : Feb. : 1,338
1931 : 834 : : 1935 : : 6,68 : : Har. 5,739
1932 : 707 : : 1936 : :1/7,904 : : Apr. : 6,296

J/ Includes 20,810 pounds from Kwantung in May, and 20,318 pounds from
Netherlands in September.
2/ Includes 112,899 pounds from Kwantung.





- 11 -


Sesame oil

Sesane oil is a superior edible oil, and is very desirable as a salad
and cooking oil, because of its resistance to rancidity. It is also extensi-
vely used in vegetable shortenings; 60 to 65 percent of the total disappearance
of sesame oil in the past 3 years was utilized for this purpose. But even so,
it has represented only about 1.5 percent of the total oils used in vegetable
shortenings, 1931-36. It is scnetimes adulterated with cottonseed, peanut,
rape, or poppy oils.. Ordinarily the price of this oil is too hih to encourage
its use in soap. The amounts reported as beinc used in soap in 1931 and 1932
probably represented low grade oil and foots from refining. (See table P.)

Imports of sesame seed and oil into the United States never have been
large, and never have been-significart factor in the fats and oils situation.
The largest imports of seed and oil entered in 1935, totaling the equivalent
of 66 million pounds of oil. At this peat:, imports of sesame comprised only
about 4 percent of the importation of all fats and oils, and less than 1 per-
cent of the total conszuption of fats and oils. Imports in 1935 and 1936
averaged the equivalent of about C1 million pounds, while the average for the
5 years 1930-34 nns the equivalent of -bout 27 million pounds of oil.

Tariffs and taxes have been potent in causing shifts in imports from
seed to oil. From the middle of 1930, when the first duty on sesame oil v'as
imposed, up to Aujust 21, 1936, most of the sesar.e oil consumed in the United
States vas imported in the fnor of seed from China with smaller amounts from
India and Japan. (See tables 11 and 14.) Since August 21, 1936, ..hen an
excise tax of 2 cents per pound (equivalent to about 4.4 cents per pound on
oil yield) was placed on imported sesame seed, imports of seed have been
negligible and ;vill undoubtedly rerlain so while the present level of prices
obtains. But 31 million pounds of edible oil have been imported bct.7en
September 1, 1936, and April 30, 1937. (See table 10.)

India and China are the ,rincinal iro.ducers of sescae seed. Estir.ptes
for the 4 ye-rs 1933-35 show an averr-e production of 2 billion pounds of seed
annually in China, and 1 billion pounds in India. Ssar.ie oil is not an
important iter in international trade, the trade in seed bein- miuch -..ore
important. Front 1905 to 1914 exports *tf seed from India avera-ed about 240
million pounds annLully, and from 192.3 to 1930 they averaged only -0 million
pounds. Exports of seed from China have been much larger since 1908 than they
were prior to that date. Exports for the past 3 years are shown in the follow-
in7 tabulation.


: Exports of seed: Exrorts of oil
Year : India :China India :China

:Mil.lb. Mil. lb.:Mil. lb. MIil. lb.

1934 : 18 96 : 1.0 0.5

1935 : 1 23 : 1.0 0.7

1936 : 12 234 : 1.7 1.0


FOS-5





- 12 -


Table 9.- Sesame oil: Factory consumption by classes of products
and total disappearance, United States, 1931-36


Products using : : :
sesame oil 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936
:1,O000 lb 1,000 lb 1,000 lb 1,000 lb 1,000 lb 1,000 lb

Compounds and vegetable
shortening :33,817 7,797 7,371 4,720 34,967 33,120
Oleomargarine : 251 77 57
Other edible products 141 132 4,800 1,408 14,605 16,728
Soap :8,197 1,871 758 466 749 1,869
Miscellaneous products 41 25 35 36 58 21
Foots and loss 1/ : 2,331 689 870 773 3,796 3,540
Total factory
consumption 2/ : 44,778 10,514 13,834 7,403 54,252 55,335

Total apparent
disappearance 3/ 52,592 14,292 14,008 10,337 56,682 54,376
:As a percentage of the total factory
consumption of sesame oil 4/
Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent

Compounds and vegetable
shortenings : 76 74 53 64 65 60
Other edible products : 5/ 1 35 19 27 30
Soap 18 18 5 6 1 3
Other 6/ 6 7 7 11 7 7

Total 100 100 100 100 100 100

1/ Foots, or residue from refining, are largely used in soap stock.
2/ The Bureau of the Census computes net consumption by deducting from the
total of both crude and refined consumed the quantity of refined oil
produced.
3/ Computed fromdata on production, trade, and stocks. (See table 10.) It
is believed that some of the difference between reported factory con-
sumption and computed apparent disappearance may be due to the fact that
some oil may go directly into such edible usoe as salad and cooking oil,etl
4/ Computed by Bureau of Agricultural Economics from preceding data.
5/ Less than one-half of 1 percent.
T/ Chiefly foots, including- loss in refining and negligible amounts used by
other industries, see above.

The first section of the table is from Bureau of the Census, Factory Consumption
of 1-rimary Animal and Vegetable Fats and Oils, by Classes of Products.


FOS-5




FOS-5


- 13 -


Table 10.- Sesame seed and oil: Production, imports for consLumption,
stocks December 31, and apparent disappearance, 1930-37

: Sesame oil : Imports
Calendar: Factory : Imoorts : Stocks, :Apparent : of sesame
year : produc- Inedible : Edible : Total : Dec. 31 : disap- : seed
: tion : :-_____ :pearance :


:1.000 lb. 1,000 Ib. 1,000 lb.1.000 b.000 lb.


10,757
63
71
59
72
360
3,317


3,840
4,258
- 7,644
11,946


10,784
64
72
6l
73
371
3,366

3,Sko
4,258
7,644
11,946


2,713
10,704
3,052
3,878
2,656
11,322
11,573


1.000 lb.:1.000 lb.

32,777 : 55,6o6
52,592 : 139,608
14,292 : 19,182
14,o00 : 42,631
10,337 : 22,327
56,682 : 146,394
54,376 : 117,795

S 28
S 137
S 171
1,000


1/ Preliminary.

Compiled as follows:
Factory production and
Fats and Oils.
Trade figures, Foreign
Apparent disappearance


2/ Less than 500 pounds.


stocks, Bureau of the Census, Animal and Vegetable

Commerce and Navigation of the United States.
computed from table.


Table 11.- Sesame seed: United States imports for consumption, by
countries, 1931-36

Country of origin: 1931 : 1932 : 193 : 193) : 1935 : 1936 1/

:1. 000 b. 1,000 lb. 1,000 lb. 1.000 lb. 1,000 lb. 1.000 lb.


Asia -
China 2/
Japanese Empire:
Kwantung
Japan
British India
Other

Total


139,064


94
33
417

139,60o


5,146 37,589 21,s48 140,596 111,090


39
10,956
2,77,1


4,700o
73
35
234


67
111
245
56


3,427
1,285
313
773


1, 120
4,182
1,309
q4


19,182 42,631 22,327 146,394 117,795


21,993
60,519
6,568
14,773
9,042
64,977
51 ,261


1930
1931
1932
1933 :
1934
1935
1936 / :
1937 / :
Jan.
Feb.
Mar.
Apr.


]I Preliminary.
2/ Including Hong Kong.

Compiled from Foreign Commerce and Navigation of the United States.


__







Sunflower oil

Sunflower oil is valuable as a salad and cooking oil, competing with
cottonseed, peanut, and corn oils. It is also used to a small extent in oleo-
margarine and vegetable shortening. The poorer grades are used for soap. It
is a semi-drying oil which although drying more slowly than the better grades
of soybean oil, can be used in paints when mixed with other oils having higher
iodine numbers. (See table 13.)

Imports of sunflower oil into the United States prior to 1931 were
negligible; annual imports 1931-36 averaged 25 million pounds. The excise tax
of 3 cents per pound on first domestic processing levied by the Revenue Act of
1934 was not followed by decreased imports; in fact, the imports for the calen-
dar year 1955 amounted to 37 million pounds, the largest imports on record. It
is probable that a large percentage of the imports were consumed direct as
salad or cooking oils without further processing and thus paid no tax. The
Re.enuc- Act of August 21, 1936, raised the tax to 4-1/2 cents per pound and
placed it on imports instead of on the first domestic processing, and has up
to the present time been almost completely effective in barring imports.
(See table 12.)

Production of seed in the United States is comparatively negligible
and is used principally for chicken feed, and only occasionally is any crushed
for oil. The output of oil is not reported in official statistics. Sunflower
seed is a valuable and important crop in Russia, produced for two distinct
purposes. The small round thin-shelled variety, containing 20 to 30 percent
of oil is crushed for oil, while the larger thick-shelled variety, containing
15 to 20 percent of oil is largely used for direct human consumption. Al-
though the seed is also produced to some extent in Rumania, Bulgaria, Hungary,
and a few other countries, Russia is the principal exporter both of sunflower
seed and oil. It is probable that most of the sunflo-'er oil imported into the
United States from the Netherlands was exported from Russia as crude oil, re-
fined in the Netherlands and reexnortcd.

Table 12.- Sunflower oil: Imports, stocks December 31, and apparent
disappearance, 1930-37

:Sunflower oil : Imports
Calendar Imports for consumption : : Apparent : of sun-
year Stocks, disa- : flower
Edible :Inedible Total Dec. 31 I
: : rlearance : seed
:1.00 lb. 1,000 lb. 1,000 lb. 1,000 lb. 1.000 lb. : 1,000 lb.

1930 : 4 1 5 : 248
193 : 27,535 199 27,734 `39 27,734 : 409
132 : 4,763 7,631 12,397 3,187 9.549 : 598
195 14,082 13,751 27,833 S,5541 22,466 : 121
19 : 1,o46 7,490 17,536 639 25,451 : 276
135 : 37,052 207 37,259 1,024 36,574 : 667
l:3 2/ : 24,714 541 25,255 250 26,029 : 574

i.' Small quantities of seed are imported fnr roasting, planting, etc.
2_ Preliminary. No imports reported Augast December 1936, and only
3'00 thousand rounds January April 1937.


- 14 -


FOS-5






5- 15 -

Table 13.- Sunflower oil: Factoryconsumption by classes of products
and total disappearance, United States, 1933-36


Products using sunflower oil


1933 : 1934 1935 : 1936
S1.000 lb. 1.000 lb. 1.000 lb. 1.000 lb.


Compounds and vegetable shorten-
ings
Oleomargarine
Other edible products
Soap
Drying industries
Miscellaneous products
Foots and loss Ij
Total factory consumption
Total apparent disappearance


2,469 901

2,535 1,003
7,89 7,142
291 2,540
172 4o
529 130


2/:


Compounds and vegetable shorten-
ings
Other edible products
Soap
Drying industries
Foots and loss
Disappearance not reported as
consumed in manufactured
products

Total


10,896
100
910
103
310
s-5


208
5
920

97


13.885 11.756 12,402 1.230
22.466 25.451 36.874 26.030
As percentage of total
disappearance of sunflower oil
Percent Percent Percent Percent


11 3 30 1
11 34
35 28 3 -
1 10 1 I/
k/ 4 1 I/


39 54 66 95


100


100


100


100


1] Foots, or residue from refining, are largely, used in soap stock.
2/ Computed from data on-production, trade, and stocks. (See table 12). It
is believed that most of the difference between reported factory consump-
tion and computed apparent disappearance is probably due to the fact that
considerable quantities of oil may go directly into such edible uses as
salad and cooking oil, etc.
3] Less than one-half of 1 percent.
/ Includes 1 percent reported as miscellaneous.

The first section of the table is from Bureau of the Census, Factory Consump-
tion of Primary Animal and Vegetable Fats and Oils, by Classes of Products.
The second section was computed by Bureau of Agricultural Economics from
preceding data.


*
:*
*
*









Mayonnaise, salad dressing, and related products

Factory consumption of oils in food products and other vegetable
shortenings and oleomargarine has shown a definite upward trend since 1931,
the first year for which data are available.

Mayonnaise, salad dressings, sandwich spreads and related products
account for a considerable percentage of such use. The production of these
items showed a definite upward trend from 1928 to 1934, a slight recession in
1935, and an upward turn again in 1936, as shown in the following tabulation.

: Factory consumption of oils in:
Year : food products other than vege-: Production of mayonnaise,
: table shortenings and oleo- salad dressing, and related
:_margarine 1/ : products 2/
M million pounds : Million pounds

1928 :92
1929 :117
1930 :- :143
1931 191 :165
1932 : 167 :171
1933 : 248 :179
1934 : 292 :244
1935 : 323 :220
1936 : 263 :236

1/ Compiled from Bureau of the Census, Factory Consumption of Primary Animal
and Vegetable Fats and Oils, by Classes of Products.
2/ Compiled from annual reports of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce.
The mayonnaisee Salad Dressing, and Related Products Industry. The Bureau
of Foreign and Domestic Commerce estimates that the imports upon which
these data are based probably represented 70 to 75 percent of the industry
in 1930, about 90 percent in 1935, and 85 percent in 1936. Converted from
gallons to pounds, assuming 7.5 pounds to one gallon.

About 68 percent of the total weight of these dressings in 1936 is
accounted for by the various oils used in their manufacture, according to
estimates of the Bureau of Home Economics.

In mayonnaise and French dressing, olive oil is highly prized because
of its flavor, bit because of its high price, less expensive oils are used to
a large extent. Consumption of olive oil is decreasing, while imports of tea-
seed oil are increasing. (See tables 4 and 8.) Of the more readily avail-
able oils, cottonseed and corn are the most used for these purposes. However,
highly refined cottonseed, corn, sesame, sunflower, peanut, and coconut oils
are about equally satisfactory for these dressings; their food value is
practically identical as they are all essentially piure fat yielding 4,080
calories per pound, according to the Pureau of Home Economics.


- 16 -


FOS-5





FOS-5


17 -

Table 14.- Rate of duty and excise tax on specified cooking and
salad oils, and oilseeds


: .Rate per pound
: May 1934 to August 1936 :August 21, 1936 to date
Oil Excise tax:
:Duty :on first : Total : Duty :Excise tax: Total
: : domestic : ::on imports:
: :processing: : : :
:Cents Cents Cents :Cents Cents Cents

Corn oil : 20% 0 20: 200%
:ad val ad val : ad val ad val

Cottonseed oil : 3 3 : 3

Olive oil -
Weighing with
container less
than 40 pounds : 8 8 : 8 8
Ir.s.p.f. : 6 : 6 6

Sesame oil -
Unfit for food 1/: Free 3 3 : Free 44 4L
Other 3 3 6 3 -

Sunflower oil -
Unfit for food 1/: Free 3 3 : Free 44 4
Other : 20'% 3 3 + 200 : 20%; 4t 4+ 20
:ad val : ad val

Teaseed oil : Free Free : Free -Free

: Rate per pound
:Average oil: : Excise tax : Equivalent
Oilseeds yield 2/ : Duty since : on imports : cents per
1922 :effective since:pound on oil
: :Aug. 1, 1936 : yield
: Percent : Cents Cents Cents

Cottonseed : 15 1/3 2.10

Sesame seed 45 : Free 2 4.44

Sunflower seed : 25 2 8.00

1/ Rendered unfit for food.
2/ Oil yields nay vary from 1 to 10 or more percent depending on season,
variety of seed, country where grdwn, and method of extraction.
These yields are arbitrary averages based on the best available
information at hand.

For rates of duty and excise taxes on other fats and oils, see table 166
in Fats, Oils, and Oleaginous Raw Materials, U. S. Dqeartment of
Agriculture Statistical Bulletin No. 59, May 1937.






- 18 -


Table 15.-Price per pound
June, monthly


of selected fats and oils, average January-
May and June, 1936 and 1937


: 1936 1937
Fat or oil :Av.Jan.: : AvJan.: :
: June :My u : June : y Ju


Domestic prices-
Butter, 92", N. Y.
Oleomargarine, nut, Chicago
Lard, prime steam, Chicago
Lard, refined, Chicago
Lard compounds, Chicago
Coconut oil, edible, N. Y.
Cottonseed oil, crude, f.o.b.
S.E. mills
Cottonseed oil, p.s.y.,N. Y.
Soybean oil, refined, N. Y.
Peanut oil, dom. refined, I. Y.
Rape oil, refined, N. Y.
Oleo oil, No. 1, N. Y.
Oleostearine, barrels, N. Y.

Corn oil, refined, N. Y.
Olive oil, edible, N. Y.
Sunflower oil, refined, N. Y.
Tcaseed oil, crude, N. Y.

Coconut oil, crude, Pac. Coast
Tallow, inedible, Chicago
Grease, house, N. Y.
Palm oil, crude, N. Y.
Olive oil foots, barrels,N. Y.
Palm-kernel oil, denatured,T. Y
Babassu oil, tanks, N. Y. 2/
Sardinc oil, tanks,Pac. Coast

Linseed oil, raw, Minn.
Tung oil, drums, N. Y.
Perilla oil, drums, N. Y.
Soybean oil, crude,f.o.b. mills
Menhaden oil,crude,f.o.b.Balto.
Hempseed oil, crude, N. Y.

Foreign prices- 3/
Cotton oil, crude, naked, Hull
Copra, Resecada, Philippines
Palm-kernel oil, crude, Hull
Whale oil,crude,No. 1,Rotterdam
Tallow beef, fair-fine, London
Linseed oil, naked, Hull


:Cents

32.0
11.4
: 10.8
: 11.7
11.8
6.6

: 8.3
: 9.4
: 9.3
: 12.5
: 7.2
: 11.3
: 8.2

: 11.4
23.0
S10.1
: 9.0

4.2
S5.0
S4.7
4.6
8.3
4.8n
:/ 7.0
: 4.4


9.2
17.1
7.5
6.8
4.6
8.4


5.5
1.9
5.1
4.4
6.4
5.9


Cents Cents : Cents

27.5 29.7 : 33.4
11.1 11.0 : 14.2
10.4 10.3 :12.3
11.1 11.3 : 13.2
11.2 11.2 : 13.6
5.8 6.1 : 10.3

7.6 8.1: 9.5
8.8 9.1 :
8.8 8.6 : 12.2
12.2 12.2 : 13.3n
7.0 7.3 : 12.0
10.1 9.2 : 13.3
7.6 7.3 : 10.3

11.0 10.9 :12.7
22.7 22.7 31.9n
9.8 9.8 :1/12.4
8.3 8.9 : 12.2

3.8 3.9 : 7.6
4.0 4.7 : 8.6
3.8 4.3 : 8.5
4.4 4.2 : 6.6
8.1 8.2 : 11.6
4.9n 4.9n: 7.0
6.9 : 10.5
4.On 3.7n: 6.9

9.0 9.0 : 10.3
18.7 18.7 : 14.6
7.4 8.5 : 11.6
6.3 6.0 : 9.4
4.3 4.3 : 5.5
8.4 8.4 :

:Jan.-Apr.
5.4 5.5 : 6.6
1.6 1.8 : 4.3 4
4.5 4.6 : 7.3
4.1 4.1 : 5.2
5.7 5.4 : 6.4
5.6 5.7 : 6.2


Cents Cents


32.3
13.9
11.9
12.9
13.2
9.2

8.9
10.5
12.3
13.2n
12.5
12.5
9.6

12.4
32.5n

10.1

6.3
8.2
8.3
6.0
11.4n
6.0
9.8
6.9n

10.9
13.8
11.5
9.0
5.6



6.6
/ 3.1
6.0
5.0
6.0
6.6


30.9
12.9
11.9
13.2
13.4
8.1

8.2n

11.4
12.8n
12.7
12.8
9.5

12.0
32.0n

9.6

5.6
8.2
8.1
6.0
11.2n
5.8
8.9
6.9n

10.6
13.1
11.3
8.2
5.8


Prices

i


1/ Average January-April. 2/ Beginning February 1937, prices are futures.
3/ Converted to U. S. cents per pound at current monthly rates of exchange.
for May 1937 are preliminary. 4/ Average for 3 weeks.


FOS-5





FOS-5


- 19 -


Table 16.- Oleomorgarine: Production and materials used in manufacture,
United States, total January-March, monthly April-May, 1936 and 1937

: 1936 / : 1937 1
Item : Total :April : :Total April May
:Jan -Mar. : :Jan.-Mar.::
:1,000 Ib.:1,O00 lb.:1,000 ib.:1,000 lb.:1,000 lb.:1,000 lb.

Oleo oil : 4,189 : 1,303 1,114 : 4,225 : 1,359 1,122
Oleostearine : 933 : 292 321 : 724 : 279 275
Lard, neutral : 689: 184 139 : 520 : 173 151
Oleo st o ck : 549 : 136 121 : 425 : 158 115
Total animal : 6,360 : 1915 1695 : 5,894 : 1969 1,663

Cottonseed oil 28,145 : 8,547 7,361 : 41,307 : 14,789 12,557
Soybean oil 830 : 378 300: 9,271 : 2,752 1,490
Peanut oil : 1,430 : 223 170 : 862 : 395 194
Corn oil : 104 : 291 226 : 504 : 64 118
Total domestic veg.: 30,559 : 9,439 8,057 : 51,944 : 18,000 14,359

Coconut oil 48,343 : 12,334 9,979 : 17,497 : 4,096 4,094
Babassu oil : 4,489 : 2,864 1,035 : 3,203 : 3,032 2,617
Palm-kernel oil : 43 : 71 216 : 1,491 : 1,136 834
Palm oil 388: 63 71 : 543 : 164 157
Sesame oil : 24 : 5 1 : 1 : -
Total foreign veg. :2/53,292 :3/15,346 11,302 : 22,735 : 8,428 7,702

Total fats and oils :90,211 : 26,700 21,054 : 80,573 : 28,397 23,724

Milk 21,573 : 6,529 5,029 : 17,931 : 6,359 5,244
Salt and other misc. : 6,077 : 1,832 1,403 : 4,573 : 1,611 1,346

Production of
oleomargarine : 109,188 : 32,302 25,580 :97,588 : 34,349 28,741
,


I/ Iraeiminary. 2/ Includes 5,000 pounds of sunflower oil.
9,000 pounds of rape oil.


3/ Includes


Compiled and computed from reports of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue.


Oleomargarine


Production of oleomargarine during the first 5
lower than for the same period last year. The marked
domestic oils used in the manufacture is shown in the
also table 16.)


months of 1937 was 4 percent
shift from imported to
following tabulation. (See


Fat or oil : January May
: 1936 1937
:Percent Percent
Animal ............................: 7 7
Oils normally produced domestically: 35 64
Oils never produced domestically ..: 58 29
Total ............: 100 100




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IIIlillll IIA llll llll
3 1262 08904 2443









*; i