Poultry and egg situation

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Material Information

Title:
Poultry and egg situation
Physical Description:
v. : ; 26 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Agricultural Economics
United States -- Agricultural Marketing Service
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture. -- Economic Research Service
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture. -- Economics, Statistics, and Cooperatives Service
Publisher:
The Bureau
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Creation Date:
July 1951
Frequency:
quarterly
regular

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Poultry industry -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Egg trade -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
statistics   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )

Notes

Citation/Reference:
Bibliography of agriculture
Citation/Reference:
Predicasts
Citation/Reference:
American statistics index
Citation/Reference:
Index to U.S. government periodicals
Statement of Responsibility:
Economics, Statistics, and Cooperatives Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with PES 1 (Jan. 1937); ceased with PES-308 (Dec. 1980).
Issuing Body:
Issued by: Agricultural Marketing Service, Dec. 1953-Mar. 1961; Economic Research Service, May 1961-Dec. 1977; and: Economics, Statistics, and Cooperatives Service, Mar. 1978-Dec. 1980.
General Note:
Cover title.
General Note:
Description based on: PES-301 (Mar. 1979).
General Note:
Previously classed: A 93.20: and A 88.15/2:

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 000502977
oclc - 04506769
notis - ACS2711
lccn - 79643440 //r81
issn - 0032-5708
sobekcm - AA00005304_00011
Classification:
lcc - HD9437.U6 A33
ddc - 338.1/7/6500973
System ID:
AA00005304:00098

Related Items

Succeeded by:
Poultry and egg outlook & situation

Full Text









U.l

'1


SITUATION


BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

f 154 JULY


'-AUG. 1951


BROILER PRODUCTION AS A PERCENT
OF COMBINED BROILER AND FARM
CHICKEN PRODUCTION, 1950


100%
80s
60--
40-
20-
0'


U. S. AVERAGE 51.5 PERCENT


EXCLUDING NONFARM CHICKENS


DEPARTMENTT OF AGRICULTURE


NEG. 46207-X BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS


1. I 1950, the number of broilers produced
Wes slightly greater than the number of chickens
rem farm production. On a weight basis, how-
~ear, the proportion of broilers to farm chick-
yMa is somewhat smaller. Chickens raised in


backyard flocks are not included in the chart
above. Chickens from this source usually make
up 10 percent of farm chicken production.
Details regarding this are shown in able 4
on page 8.






-2-


The poultry and agg sitution at a glan


item Chit i or
aiate


Parm produatlo .....................: Nil. Co&. I N

Averose number of ayore a farms ... Milllncs a y

ates of lay per be. .................: gB : Iby

Apparent civilian per capit :
dlsappearanoe ...................... ggs a y

Frozen *g production ............... Nil. lb. May

Dred egg production ................ Nil. lb. Iay

Prie received by fa mrs ........... :Ct.per do.: Jimu

Price received by farmers a a :
percentage of parity ...............: Percent JIm*

Retail price (AS) ..................:Ct.per doa.: ly

Egg-feed price ratio ................: Lb. feed Jiune

Stocks: I

Snell ............................. Touseases: June I

Frozen ........................... N1l.b. JI e 1

Dried ............................. Nil.lb. June 1

Chicaks batched by cao res l : :
hatcheries ..........................: Hllimos M by

Chicks and young chicka an firms ..: Nillan June 1

Yam price of poultry ration ........ :Dol.per et: Ju




Price received by frmre for :
chickens, live ..................... :Ct. per lb.: Ja e

Price received by rhrmrs acs a
percentage of parity ...............: Percent Jiune

Retail price of chckma, :
dressed (BAi) ......................:Ct. per lb.: Iy

Price received by farmers for :
turkeys, llve ...................... Ct. per lb.: Juie

Stocks: :

Poultry, excluding turkey ........: Nil.lb. Jme 1I

Turkeys .......................... mNl.1b. Junme 1


I I i I .
M Nath I : : : Mtith *..: : a


I
1_


Chicken-feed price ratio ............: Lb. feed J

Turkey-feed price ratio .............: b. fee : Jim

Average weekly receipts of poultry :
at Central Vestern Primry : :
Itrkets, per plant .................: Thous. lb. Iby

Averae weekly placement of chicks :
in 7 broiler areas .................I Mi111 : My


Curet Ie
1 J I:


A AT IM
9 : 1950 1951 z r o
I I :I date 19i0-
:I 3


197.2 516.8 313.0 1: JTae 493.0
: *
338.5 342.5 336.2 :1 Jime 319.2
I:
17.6 18.1 18.3 :: Jase 15.4
II

30.9 33.5 34.5 1: June 28.5

77.0 58.0 71.8 June 55.1


::
19.1 3.2 J: J :

3e.7 30.1 U.7 aJuly 35.1


88 67 9k ::Jul 95

13.6 1k.8 A. ::. JIane 5.3

11.2 8.3 11.3 ": July 11.8
I:


6,052 3,412 2,083 July 1 7,025

210.3 179.7 182.7 :: July 1 217.6

--- 80. 51.4 :: Jul I ---


2k3.3 211.6 276.5 :: Sune 114.9

570.0 509.1 549.3 :: July 1 582.3

2.97 3.61 3.95:: July 3.03

II
Poeltry


23.5 22.1 27.3 :: July 24.1


115 76 87 :: July 17

k2.8 52.6 56.8 :: Jims m2.0


27.0 28.8 35.8 :: July 27.7



66.1 59.5 77. Julj 1 6h.9

12.3 77.1 47.9 .July 1 37.1

8.1 6.1 6.9 :: July 8.1

9.1 8.0 9.1 :: July 9.2



10.7 16.8 26.5 : Junm 17.0


--- 7.0 9.9 Ju:: e ---
..


101.7



3.70


hg
ad


: Oatt balsam of year will
1l3.9 : be moebtly fr brlers.
SInlcatest I iarmes In Jan.1
33.8 : 1952 laUig loek

3.95:


23.4 37.0 (Affcted by h leveI l of
:( broler ratlbteI and
( seaamlly-inreaIslng --
s80 86 a( kethg of tham chliea


52.7 5%.6


30.5 35.3


58.2 72.7

61.1 39.5

6.3 6.8

8.2 8.9



21.5 30.2 1sltag gesammlly


7.3 9.7 : Bi1


JULT-AUIwT 1951


.7.




A


Deeaseng srgmomm
k35.3 439.2 : but efrm tg st
: or lat year
323.6. 319.3 :

16.2 16.5 :


31.2 32.6 :

29.A 39.7

17.1 2.7 :

36.3 b6.6 :


69 91:

16.b 65.53

9.2 11.8 .



3,667 2,2t :(As or snar seamm
188.5 190.1 a k

93.0 45.9


>
I





PES-154 3 -

T.HE POULTRY AND EGG SITUATION
--- --------- ------ -- --

Approved by the Outlook and Situation Board, July 31, 1951
SUMMARY

Although egg production is declining seasonally, output is running
higher than a year earlier. A three percent gain over a year ago in the
July 1 rate of lay per bird more than made up for the slightly smaller
number of layers on farms.

Despite larger supplies, strong demand is holding egg prices above
a year earlier, when they were at the lowest summer-time levels since
the war ended. The outlook is for further seasonal increases.

The main hatching season for farm laying flock replacement is com-
pleted. The number of young chickens raised on farms is estimated at
702,676 thousand an increase of 5 percent over the number raised in
1950, but 10 percent less than the 1940-49 average. The laying flock
replacement hatch occurred relatively late this year. Therefore, it is
likely that eggs produced by pullets will not be marketed in Ja rge volume
until fairly late in the fall.

Eag Production Declines Seasonally;
Prices Move Irregularly Upward

Egg production on farms is declining seasonally toward the annual
low-point which, for the U. S. occurred in September last year. Reflect-
ing this trend in supplies, the general tendency in egg prices has been
upward, although the day-to-day price movements have not been uniformly so.

Although moving downward seasonally, current egg production is higher
than a year ago. On July 1, the national laying flock was 1 percent smaller
than a year ago but laid at a rate 3 percent higher than a year earlier.
Consequently production was 2 percent higher.

Production, in the coming months, is likely to increase further com-
pared with a year ago. The large number of pullets being raised this year
will eventually raise the number of layers higher than a year ago. On
January 1 there may be 3 percent more layers than at the beginning of this
year. In addition, the rate of ,lay. is likely to continue to increase.
The gain over a year earlier is likely to be greatest in November and
December, when the rates last year were held below the trend by unusual
weather.

The increase in production through the remainder of 1951 will probably
offset the reduction from last year in the quantity of shell eggs placed
in cold storage. July 1, 1951.holdings of shell eggs were 2.4 million cases
against 3.7 million a year earlier.






JULY-AUGUST 1951


July 1 stocks of frozen eggs,190.6 million pounds; were 1.1 percent
greater than the 1950 peak holdings. Production of frozen eggs during
June amounted to 39.7 million pounds against 29.4 million pounds in the
like period of 1950. Production and stocks during the next few months are
expected to remain higher than during 1950.

Stocks of frozen eggs at 35 markets as of July 28 increased 3.5 mil-
lion pounds over the July 1 holdings, while those of shell showed a decrease
of 83 thousand cases. Indications are that the.peak holdings were reached
during this period, and net movement for the rest of the year will be out-
ward.

The relatively late hatch this year suggests that large scale market-
ing of eggs laid by 1951 pullets and the seasonal price decline may not occur
until relatively late in the year. In the last 5 years, the seasonal peak
in farm egg prices has occurred once each in September, October, and Novem-
ber, and twice in December. One of the December peaks was in 1950, when
unusual weather depressed production and delayed the arrival of supplies t6
market.
Chicken Supplies Increasing .
Seasonally; July Prices Lower

Average chicken prices declined slightly from mid-June to mid-July as
marketing increased. Broilers and hens declined about equally in price.

Chicken meat supplies have been Increasing and will probably increase
further in the next few months. Marketings cf farm chickens are normally
high during July, August, September, and October, with.the peak coming in
either September or October. Heavy marketing of broilers will continue as
the record large numbers of broiler chicks placed since the first of May
reach marketing age.

Downward price pressure from these supplies will be partly .offset by
continued high red-meat prices and general h'h-level demand.

Hatchery Output High

A continuing high volume of hatchery output has provided large numbers
of chicks for liVing flock replacement as well as for broiler production.
The large hatch of chicks for egg production is over for this year, but
broiler placement continues at a high rate.

The number of young chickens raised on farms In 1951 is estimated at
702,676,000--5 percent more than were raised in 1950, but 10 percent less
than the 1940-49 average. All regions showed increases over 1950. The
gains were greatest in the North Atlantic and Viestern States, while the in-
creases in the remaining regions did not exceed 4 percent. .These regions
include States where egg surplus problems have been chronic.

The general increase in young chickens reflects, in part, the favor-
able egg-feed price ratios that existed during the main hatching season.
The large increase in the North Atlantic States may also have been stimula-
ted by the strong demand for hatching eggs in that region. Most of the in-
crease for the United States as a whole came fairly late in the season.


- 4 -






Table 1.- Chickens raised on farms in 1951, with comparisons

: Region United
Period : North : E. N. : W. N. : South : South :Western State'-
: Atlantic: Central: Central : Atlantic: Central:
:Thous. Thous. Thous. Thous. Thous. Thous. Thous.
)-year average
940-49 ,.... .....: 100,814 148,237 220,805 84,851 161,193 68,450 784,350
)49 -.,...........: 107,920 141,443 194,948 75,932 153,372 70,126 743,741
050 ..............: 100,132 130,059 175,112 68,256 132,291 64,425 670,275
?51 ...j/.........: 113,659 130,842 181,518 70,308 133,588 72,761 702,676
ircent 1951 is
af 1950 ..........: 114 101 104 103 101 113 105
r Data for 1951 are preliminary.

&E Imports so far in 1951
Differ from 1950: Less from China,
More from the Netherlands

So far in 1951, the pattern of imports of eggs and egg products into
the United States has been markedly different from the preceding year. To
date in 1951, movement of dried egg products, principally yolk, has been
light in contrast to the large imports of the same period of 1950. In
the second quarter of 1951 imports of shell eggs from the Netherlands were
substantial, exceeding imports from Canada, usually our most important for-
eign source of that commodity.

The changes in the foreign trade pattern are of considerable signifi-
cance to sectors of the food industry producing or using these egg products.
However, the shell equivalent of the U. S. egg imports are but a small per-
centage of the total national supply. In 1950, for example, the total imports
were equivalent (shell basis) to 0.4 percent of the U. S. production of eggs,
and in the first quarter of 1951 the equivalent percentage was 0.2.

The virtual end to dried egg imports from China followed a "freeze"
in December 1950 of Red Chinese dollar balances in the United States, and
an embargo upon exports to the U. S. proclaimed by the Peiping government
shortly thereafter. The available foreign trade data indicate that the
two actions have been effective in curbing the trade in dried egg.

Shell egg imports from Canada during the first 5 months of 1951 totaled
2,907 thousand dozen. Of this amount only 15 percent were imported in
March May. This marked slackening from the January February rate re-
sulted from a changed price differential existing between United States
and Canadian markets. The U. S. Canadian egg trade is very sensitive to
the relative prices in the 2 countries, since important terminal markets
in the U. S. and Canada are within a day's truck haul to each other. The
U. S. tariff on chicken eggs from Canada (as well as from most other
countries) in the shell, is 3j cents per dozen.

During April and May, the Netherlands landed 431 thousand dozen eggs
in the United States, 2.5 times as many as were received from Canada,
normally our largest supplier of shell eggs. Trade sources suggest that
the continuation of this trade from the Netherlands will be sensitive to
the relative net returns which are possible in Holland from exports to
(a) Germany, (b) United States, and (Q)the dribben area and South AmenaM.


- 5 -


PES-154






JULy-AUGUST 1951


Table 2.- Imports of egg and egg products, by country of origin, average 1937-39,
1940-41, 1942-h5, annual 1946-50, wvth comparisons

: : Avermae : : : : : :: :

Item : nit "1937- :190- :19-2-: 1946: 197: 1918 199 : 19 :: 1950 : 951
: : 39 : 41 : 5 : : : : : :


Shell eggs
Chicken ............ :
Canada ............
Dominican Republic :
Argentina ......... :
China .............:
Hong Kong ......... :
Netherlands ....... :
Other ............. :
Total ........... :


1,000 doz.:


do.


Other than chicken :1,000 dos.
China .............: do.
Hong Kong .........: do.
Other ............. : do.
Total ........... : do.

Dried whole eg8 :1,000 lb..
China ............. : do.
Hong Kong ......... : do.
Other .............: do.I
Total ...........: do.

Dried egg yolk: : 1,000 lb.
Canada..............: do.
China ............. do.
Argentina .........: do.
Other .............: do.
Total ...........: do.

Dried egg albumen :1,000 lb.
Canada ............: do.
China .............: do.
Other .............: do.
Total ...........: do.

Eggs, frozen or
otherwise prepared :
or preserved :1,000 lb.
Mixed whole egg : do.
Canada ............: do.
China .............: do.
Other .............: do.
Total ...........: do.

Egg yolk :1,000 lb.
Canada ............: do.
China ..............: do.
Other ............. : do.
Total ........... : do.

Egg albumen
Total ...........: do.


5 3 376 478 527 1,400 3,250 5,162 2,11 2,907
10 115 257 152 24 / 102 18 18 2
--- 4,337 252 --- --- / --- --- --- 30
S11 10 --- 1 1 2 6 2 2 1
129 1 --- --- 2/V -- ""







'31/ 1. 2 1 / 21 1 2/ 8 -- 1140
2/ 175 2/ 47 126 204 235 258 9 2 4


,8 B be 8 --- e/ 28 93 147 4
196 --- --- ... --- -- -- .. ...
5 1 / --- ---
: 4 I 1 1 29 93 147 1

--- --- 6 --- 125 100 ---
:2,1 7 2,29. 10 2 --- 205 1,767 7,208 1,714 1
... --- --- --------- --- --- 1 5 22
S 8 --- -----... -. 26 0 19 --- 41
2,149 2,30e 206 --- / 1 1811 7,367 1.W9 23

S / 10 6 65 52 --- /---
1,350 331 38 / --- 2 43 192 8 46
: i i/ --- -. 1. 4/ .
1,, 50 332 78 6 65 .5 48 192 8 6





12 / --- 5 25 ------
8 4 -- 2 4 2 3 1 -
S- --- 2 / --- ---
8 41 12 2 6 2 A8 25 -- --


S- -- 10 --- --- --- 283 149 ---
S659 6 --- Y / / --- 7 145 y
6 --- --- --- --- --- --- ---
S6 210 / 4/ l 283 156 1l4

S -- 4/ -. 4/ --- 192 --- ---


SJanuary-May.
Less than 500 dozen.
1/ Not shown separately prior to 1910; Included to statistics for
SLess than 500 pounds.


chicken eggs.


Note: Totals may not agree with sam of In4ditw ls it.1a 1 ae to rounding.


- 6 -





PES-154


Index Numbers of Seasonal Variation of Eg Pricor

Index numbers of seasonal variation of faim egg prices for the months
July 1951 through June 1952 have been computed by the Bureau of Agricul-
tural Economics. This index is used for making the seasonal adjustment
which is a step in converting monthly farm egg prices to a percentage
of parity.

Compared with the monthly Index numbers for 1950-51, the changes are
minor and do not exceed two points for any month. The changes are such
as to tend to lower seasonally-adjusted prices for the months of September,
November, and December, and to increase them in January and February.
The peak month for seasonally-adjusted egg prices is again October. The
changes in the index are shown in table 3.

The seasonal adjustment factors used in the adjustment for seasonal
variation are not necessarily those that may be determined by the Secretary
of Agriculture for use in connection with len.] minimum price ceilings as
provided In Section 402(d) (3) of the Defense Production Act of 1950, as
amended.

A dozen medium eggs (about 1.4 pounds) are approximately equivalent
in protein value to 1 pound of beef and In fat value to 0.2 pound of butter
or margarine. On an equal-weight basis, eggs are equivalant to beef as
a source of thiamine (vitamin Bl) and Iron, and are twice as good a source
of riboflavin (vitamin B2). They are about one-third as good a source of
vitamin A as butter. Beef contains no vitamin A; eggs contain no vitamin C.
In nutritional value, the egg is second only to milk.--Hans Lineweaveand
Robert E. Feeney, Western Regional Research Laboratory, as cited in Crbps
in Peace and War, the 1950-51 Yearbook of Agriculture, page 676.

Table 3- Index numbers of seasonal variation of egg prices, 1945-52 1/



Year : Jan.: Feb. : Mar.: Apr. : May : June : July Aug. : Sept. : Oct.: Nov.: Dec.


1945 101 92 84 84 85 86 94 98 108 116 125 123
1946 102 93 85 84 85 87 96 101 106 114 122 121
1947 104 90 85 85 86 90 94 101 106 116 120 120
1948 106 92 87 84 86 88 95 100 107 116 119 121
1949 104 91 88 85 80 88 96 101 107 116 11.9 119
1950 103 91 83 85 86 89 97 103 111 118 116 114
1951 101 89 87 87 87 90 97 103 112 118 117 116
1952 99 87 87 87 87 90
T7 For earlier years, See Poultry and Egg Situation, August 1946, page 10.


- 7 -






3JLT-Am45T 1951


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