Poultry and egg situation

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Material Information

Title:
Poultry and egg situation
Physical Description:
v. : ; 26 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Agricultural Economics
United States -- Agricultural Marketing Service
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture. -- Economic Research Service
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture. -- Economics, Statistics, and Cooperatives Service
Publisher:
The Bureau
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Creation Date:
March 1951
Frequency:
quarterly
regular

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Poultry industry -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Egg trade -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
statistics   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )

Notes

Citation/Reference:
Bibliography of agriculture
Citation/Reference:
Predicasts
Citation/Reference:
American statistics index
Citation/Reference:
Index to U.S. government periodicals
Statement of Responsibility:
Economics, Statistics, and Cooperatives Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with PES 1 (Jan. 1937); ceased with PES-308 (Dec. 1980).
Issuing Body:
Issued by: Agricultural Marketing Service, Dec. 1953-Mar. 1961; Economic Research Service, May 1961-Dec. 1977; and: Economics, Statistics, and Cooperatives Service, Mar. 1978-Dec. 1980.
General Note:
Cover title.
General Note:
Description based on: PES-301 (Mar. 1979).
General Note:
Previously classed: A 93.20: and A 88.15/2:

Record Information

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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 000502977
oclc - 04506769
notis - ACS2711
lccn - 79643440 //r81
issn - 0032-5708
sobekcm - AA00005304_00011
Classification:
lcc - HD9437.U6 A33
ddc - 338.1/7/6500973
System ID:
AA00005304:00095

Related Items

Succeeded by:
Poultry and egg outlook & situation

Full Text
~- /~) I


FOR RELEASE

THE I MAR. 28, P. M.

SIT UATION
BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
PES- 151 MARCH 1951


Rail transportation of eggs reached its re- shifted to trucks. Beside the diversion of ship-
cent peak during the war years 1944-45, when ments from rail to truck, an additional factor in
shortages and conservation efforts limited the the declining rail traffic is a shift in the loca-
availability of truck transportation. Since then, tion of egg production relative to population.
however, the importance of the rails as egg car- This is discussed in a later part of this report.
riers has declined steadily, with traffic being









The poultry and egg situation at a glance

a i 'Average 1 I : A tbih 1veraWge 15 1on rnt
Sdate 19394 t1%9 2.1:990 V/ sor dael.lO-49 d1950 1 1951 :Cnmta o arlt -utieon
.I / -. &; I


KNEe


Fam production ..................

Average number of layers on farma

Rate or lay per hen ..............

Apparent civilian per capital
disappearance ..................

Frozen egg production ............

Dried eqg production .............

Price received by farmers ........

Price received by farmers as a
percentage of parity ...........

Retail price (BAE) ...............

Egg-feed price ratio .............

Stocks:

Shell ..........................

Prozen .........................

Dried ..........................

Chicks hatched by cosmarcial
hatcheries .....................

Parm price of poultry ration .....



Price received by farmers for
chickens, live .................

Price received by farmers as a
percentage of parity ..........

Petall price of chickens,
dressed (BAE) ..................


Mil. doz. : Jan.

I Millions Jan.

S Eggs : Jan.


: Eggs : Dec.

: HiK. lb. : Dec.

: Mil. lb. : Dec.

:Ct. per dou Jan.


: Percent : Jan.

:Ct.per doz.: Dec.

: Lb. feed : Jan.



:Thous.casaer Feb. 1

*: MH. lb. : Feb. 1

M Ni. lb. : Feb. 1


: Millions : Jan.

:Dol.per cwte Jan.




:Ct. per 1I.: Jan.

: a
: Percent : Jan.


:Ct. per lb.: Dec.


Price received by famers for
turkeys, live .................. :Ct. per lb.: Jan.

Stocks:

Poultry, excluding turkeys ..... Kil. lb. : Feb. 1

Turkeys ......................... Kil. lb. : Feb. 1

Chicken-feed price ratio ......... Lb. feed : Jan.

Turkey-feed price ratio .......... Lb. feed : Jan.

Average weekly receipts of poultry :
at Central Western Primary :
Markets, per plant ............. Thous. -lb.: Jan.

Average weekly placement of chicks
In 7 broiler areas ............. Million : Jan.


326.41. 31.2 18.4 :: Feb.

391.8 405.2 394.6 :: Feb.

10.0 12.8 12.7 :: Feb.


27.5 31.0 31.3 :: Jan.
is
9.3 1.4 :: Jan.
::
8.7 0.5 :: Jan.

36.2 31.2 &2.6 :: Feb.


94. 62 82 a: Feb.

54.5 55.2 81.1 :: Jan.

12.8 9.3 11.0 s: Feb.



29. 380 75 :: Mar. 1

81.3 55.1 31.2 :: Mar. 1

76.3 90.5 :: Mar. 1
::
52.1 86.7 91..8 :: Feb.

2.88 3.38 3.89 :: Feb.




21.9 20.3 24.3 :: Feb.


108 71 80 a: Feb.

':
L2.5 47.8 47.7 :: Jan.


29.8 32.6 33.9 i: Feb.

i:

152.3 158.1 167.7 :: Mar. 1
:
76.2 137.6 116.6 :: Mar. 1


::
7.0 6. 6.2 :: Feb.

10.4. 9.6 8.7 : Feb.



9.8 12.6 15.7 i: Feb.


6.1 7.6 a: Feb.


371.4 137.1 433.6:

385.2 395.6 386.6:

11.5 13.3 13.5:Record high for Februry.


94 66

&9.8 46.9

11.6 8.8


9
34.9:

15.5:Malf last January, despite
: mll storage stoke.
1.7:

41.4:


90:

61.4:

10.5:Nore favorable to producer
a than year ago.


672 735 164&) By mid-March, mbetatillI
,) in-Ivmt, bad not yet
76.8 73.2 32.2,) begun.

-- 77.2 81.1:


110.5 141.8 158.5:Renord high for the month.

2.82 3.35 3.96:




21.8 21.8 26.9:


108 77 88:


42.7 42.3 49.21
I

28.6 31.6 34.51



132.8 131.0 140.6:)
7. ) Declining seasonally.

7.9 6.5 6.8:

10.1 9.4 8.7:



7.4. 9.7 15.8:


6.6 9.1WU11 result in large
Smarketings beginning April.


j/ bcept when data are for January, February, or March, when av-rage is 1940-L9.

L Ebceoc when data are for January, February, or March, when entries are for 195:.

1' Except when data are for January, February, or March, when entries are for 1951.


MARCH 1951


- 2 -






PES-151, -" .IVA. 3 -
- ..-, ; -- -
THE P 0 T.' N D EGGS I T UAT ION
-- -'- --

Approvef"by the Outlook and Situation Board, March 19, 1951

SUMMARY

Hatching@,to provide chicks for farm.flock replacement are now
nearing their seasonal peak. The increased rate of hatchery activity,
compared with a year earlier, indicates that farmers may raise as many
as or more chickens this year than they did in 1950.

One factor inducing a large hatch this year is the present level
of egg prices, which in.mid-March was about a third higher than last
year. Costs of feed and other items necessary for poultry and egg pro-
duction are also up, but not as much as egg prices.. As a result, the
mid-February egg-feed price ratio was more favorable than a year ago.

The relatively high level of egg prices is delaying the accumu-
lation of eggs for storage in the shell, and for freezing. Heavy into-
storage movement will not start until (a) stores feel that egg prices
are near the season low, or (b) spot and future prices assume a rela-
tionship that makes hedging possible. Meanwhile, activity has lagged
behind last year. This contrasts with earlier expectations, which
anticipated.storage activity greater than in 1950.

Broiler chick placements have been at a high rate since late
January, indicating large marketing of that class of poultry in April
and subsequent months.

The Commodity Credit Corporation has sold 25 million pounds of
dried egg from its stocks for export to the United Kingdom. This re-
duces remaining stocks to about 42'million pounds, about half the
quantity bought for price support in 1950.





MAfCH 1951


EVIEM AND OAM LOOK


Increases in Hatehery Output
s8 otC es in ar 'e
Intentions to Raise Fewer Chickena

The 1951 spring hatch is well under way, but reports are not yet
available to indicate to what extent farmers have changed their initial
intentions to raise chickens this year for laying flock replacement. On
February 1, farmers intentions were to raise 4 percent fewer chickens than
a year ago, but developments since then, including the publication of the
intentions report, may have served to change farmers' original plans.

Continued favorable prices for eggs, through mid-March, have been
Important among the influences favoring a large hatch of chicks for lay-
ing flock replacement. Even though these egg prices have been accompanied
by feed prices hiLher than a year earlier, the monthly er -feed price ra-
tios since December have been higher than the year before. In the past,
increases in the springtime ratio have been followed by increases in the
number of chickens raised (table 1).

Monthly hatchery reports provide the most specific indications to
date confirming the expectation that more chickens will be raised this
year than last. As shown in table 2, the increase over last year in Feb-
ruary hatchery output probably matches the increase in broiler chick place-
ments. The number available for laying flock replacement, then, was pre-
sumably about the same as a year earlier. If March and April hatchery out-
puts are in accord with their advance indicators, however, (respectively,
10 percent more eggs in incubators March 1, and 24 percent more chicks
ordered for April), then the additional production of those months over a
year earlier will indicate larger placements of non-broiler chicks. The
prospective increases in output are larger than could reasonably be ab-
sorbed in broiler placements.

The interpretations above, relating increased hatchery output to
increases in chicks to be brooded for laying flock replacement, apply
only to March and the subsequent month for which there is already an in-
dication regardinL the size of the hatch. They did not apply in January
and February because the increase in hatchery output in those months was
almost entirely accounted for in broiler chick placements. The expected
increases in the subsequent months probably will exceed the increases in
broiler chick placements.


- 4 -







Table-1-.- Egg-feed price ratio* chickens, rai-sed, and.pullets on
farms, Jan.1, United.. States, 1925 to date


Egg-feed : : Pullets : Percentage of preceding year
e :price ratio : Chickens : on farins Egg-feed : Pullets
ear : (weighted : raised : January1 : price : Chickens : on farmsr
: average*) : : 'dll g ratio* : raised' : .Jauary.1
ratio* f1nnnrlt"


1925
1926
1927
1928
1929

1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939


Pounds

12.9
13.5
13.4
12.2
13.1

13.8
10.6
11.6
14.3
10.9
11.4
13.1
9.4
11.4
12.6


1940
1941
1942 :
1943
1944
1945 :
1946
1947
1948 :
1949

1950 :
1951 I p/


10.4
11.5
13.2
14.7
11.2
12.8
11.9
11.3
9.8
12.7


Millions


679
718
750
700
751

777
,709
736
750
644
.658
715
601
651
697


634
.745
844
1,001
832
915
746
745
637
744


9.6(101 ).1l/670


Millions Percent Percent


244
230
237
238
212
226
249
215
242
254

240
278
319
350
301
325
285
285
268
300

276


102
105
99
91
107

105
77
109
123
76
105
115
72
121
111


83
111
115
inl

111
76
114
93
95
87
130

76


103
106
104
93'
107

104
91'
104
102
86
102
109
84
108
107

91
118
113
119
83
110
82
100
86
117


/ 90.


l Preliminary.
2/ For 1951, November thru February; comparable 1950
3/ 1951 to date as a percentage:..of comparable 1950.


in parentheses


'Weights are as follows: Preceding November, 1; preceding December,
January, 3; February, 4; March, 5; April, 3; May, 1.


Percent







94
103
lo3
100
89
107
-110
86
113
S105

'94
116
115
110
86
108
88
100
94
112


-5- ,.


PES-151





MARCH 1951


Table 2.- Baby chicks! Hatchery Output, broiler placements, and- .-
chickens raised for laying flock replacement, by months, 1948 to date

:Average :Presumed :Balance, For a1 ng flock replemoent
Total :rate of :monthly presumedd Total :Chickens
Year :hatchery :weekly :number of-a'ijber ofipresamed fEstimated:raised as
and :output of:chiccp.ee- chicks .chbilc pkicnum"er ofnumber ofla percent-
month : baby :mbens, 7 ipla.ced for'marit: y c: chicks chickonstage of
: chicks :spe'-dPized broilers ;a1eyng flock placed, raised chicks
-t: bnler saxeW I/ ,rep acement J an.-Jul: placed
: Millions Millions Millions Millions Millions Millions Pereeut
19 48
Jan. : 52.6 4.2 34 18
Feb. 97.8 4.4 32 66
Mar. : 214.4 4.7 38 176
Apr. 285.7 5.4 42 244
May 211.7 5.1 41 171
June : 92.7 4.8 38 55
July a 55.6 4,5 36 20 (750)
Aug. 47.2 3.9 32 16
Sept.: 44.5 3*7 29 16
Oct. 4: 6.8 4.5 36 10
Nov.: 57.9 5.8 45 13
Dec. : 55.0 6.1 49 6 637 84.9
1949
Jan. s80.2 6.6 53 27
Feb. ; 139.7 6.6 48 92
Mar. a 263.7 7.0 56 208
Apr. 3 302.3 7.0 55 248
May 2: 57.9 6.9 55 203
June 116.7 6.3 49 68
July : 59.1 4.8 38 21 (865)
Aug. 52.1 4.6 37 15
Sept.: 54.8 5-3 241 13
Oct. a 64.0 6.5 53 11
Nov. : 59.1 6.2 48 11
Dec. : 55.3 5.9 47 8 744 86.0
1950 :
Jan. 8: 6.7 6.2 50 37
Feb. 1: 41.8 6.6 48 9 -
Mar. : 267.0 8.1 65 202
Apr. : 284.5 7-5 58 226
May 1 214.6 7.0 71 144
June : 104.7 7*3 56 48
July a 76.5 7.2 58 18 (752)
Aug. : 75.9 7.1 57 18 -"
Sept.: 72.9 7.3 57 16
Oct. 3 74.5 6.8 54 20
Nov. a 70.7 6.8 53 18
Dec. 68.3 7.3 59 10 670 894.
1951 :
Jan. : 94,8 7.6 61 34
Fob, : 158.5 9.1 66 92
1/ Weekly placements in 7 areas, converted to monthly placements, expanded on
assumption that 7 area-placements were about 55 percent of U. S. total.


- 6 -





PES-151 -'
Table 3.- Hatchery output of chicks: Relation between advance indicators of
monthly output and reported output, selected months, 1940 to date


Month
'and


* Batche.


.year .
:KMillionf
Feb. 1940 : 59.
-1941 : 91
1942 : 103
1943 : 133
1944 : 329
1945 111
1946 119
1947 : 121
1948 : 98
1949 : 140
1950 ; 142
i, I : 159

1941 : 185
1942 2: 234
1943 : 279
1944 : 293
1945 : 268
1946 : 265
1947 : 256
1948 2: 14
1949 : 264
1950 : 267
..,....1951..; .........
Apr. 1940 : 227
1941 : 237
1942 : 292
1943 335
1944 318
1945 : 339
1946 : 344
1947 : 305
1948 : 286
1949 : 302
1950 : 285
.i...A ? ..... ....** .
May 1940 : 175
1941 : 222
1942 : 252
1943 : 324
1944 : 239
1945 : 310
1946 : 211
1947 : 230
1948 : 212
1949 : 258
1950 : 215


ry output :Eggs in incubators on
Percent of :first of month, percent
year earlier: of year earlier


Percent

154
113
129
97
86
107
102
81
143
101
112

119
126
119
105
91
99
97
84
123
101

99
104
123
115
95
107
101
89
94
106
.94
S**"'**i
91
.127
114
129
74
130
68
109
92
122
S 81


: Advance bookings, first
; of previous month, per-
:: cent of year earlier 1/


t Percent Percent
73
117
154
147
162
.83
108 126
95 .88
90 .
132 179
102 .97
117 101

141
135
167
126
2/
95 .17
2/ 132
74 72
127 159
101 86

.-I
127
145
177
102
90
98 97
91 112
89 73
90 133
90 .77
: ** 124
IsE.................................... ...... ..... ,....
128
; : 141
175
70
2/
74 70


103
91
120
82


109
77
144
63


i/ Previous.to 1946, bookings reported for all months ahead; beginning .1946,
bookings reported for 1 month ahead.
2/ Not reported.


J I I I I I -


r


v I





MARCH 1951


Table 4-: Egg prices received by farmers, poultry ration values, and e
egg-feed price ratios, U.S. averages, monthly, January 1948 to date

1948 : 1949
Egg : Value of : Egg- : Egg ; Value of : Egg-feed
Month ::price : poultry : feed : price I poultry : price
: per : ration : price : per : ration : ratio
: dozen : per cwt. 1/: ratio 2/ : dozen : per cwt. 1/ : 2/
: Cents Dollars Pounds Sents. Dollars Pounds

Jan. : 48.7 5.08 9.6 47.1 3.62 13.0
Feb. : 45.0 4.55 9.9 41.8 3.44 12.2
Mar : 42.6 4.65 9.2 41.2 3.47 11.9
Apr. : 42.6 4i71 9.0 42.3 3.53 12.0
May : 41.5 4.64 8.9 43.4 3.51 12.4
June : 43.4 4.59 9.5 44.1 3.43 12.9
July : 45.8 4.40 10.4 45.3 3.45 13.1
Aug. : 49.2 4.07 12.1 48.8 3.46 14.1
Sept. : 51.4 3.93 13.1 52.4 3.46 15.2
Oct. : 54.7 3.68 14.9 51.4 3.40 15.1
Nov. : 58.3 3.59 16.2 47.0 3.31 14.2
Dec. : 52.8 3.62 14.6 40.5 3.38 12.0
1950 .1951

Jan. : 31.2 3.38 9.3 42.6 3.89 11.0
Feb. : 29.6 3.35 .8.8 41.4 3.96 10.
Mar. : 31.6 3.40 9.3
Apr. : 30.9 3.48 8.9
May : 29.6 3.62 8.2
June : 30.1 3.61 8.3
July : 34.3 3.70 9.2
Aug. : 38.0 3.73 10.2
Sept. : 40.4 3.68 11.0
Oct. : 43.2 3.60 12.0
Nov. : 45.8 3.63 12.6
Dec. : 57.7 3.74 15.4
i/ Value of home-grown feeds credited at prices received by farmers for such feeds;
purchased feeds at average prices paid. 2/ Number of pounds of poultry ration that
could be bought for the value of 1 dozen eggs.
Thble 5i- Hatchery output and chicken production, annually. 1i40 to date
: Chickens : BImilere : Total
Year : Hatchery : raised for :: produced in : Chickens raised : As a percentage
: output : farm flock : specialized : plus broilers : of hatchery
: replacemmat : enterprises : produced : output
Millions Ai-.Llionso Millions Millions Percent
1910 :. 859.3 633.7 v2e.8 776/5 90
1941 : 1,093,3 745.0 191.5 936.5 86
1942 : 1,280.3 844.3 228.2 1,072.5 84
1943 : 1,609.1 1,001.4 285.3 1,286.7 80
1944 : 1,288.5 832.1 265.0 1,097.1 85
1945 : 1,620.8 914.8 345.6 1,260.4 78
1946 : 1,265.5 745.8 275.6 l,0Io.4 81
1947 : 1,289.6 745.4 295.3 1,040.7 81
1948 : 1,261.9 637.4 355.8 .993;2 79
1949 ; 1,504.9 743.7 487.1 1,230.8 82
1950 : 1,538.2 670.3






PES--151 -9-
Slow Start for Accumulation.of
Eg_. fbr Cold Storage;
Pribe Sbeen as Explanation

Continued.high prices ;'through mid-March, have slowed the movement
of eLFs to cold storage. The profitable prices realized on the stackw
stored..in .1950 and held late into the yeat were expected to induce .in-
creased eeg -stora{ge this year, b4t the prices to date seem to have-.been
--a-deterrent to:such activity. "

At their mi&-Ma.rch levels,, the price of bL 'future contracts be-
ing. traded for fall' delivery did not-greatly ekce'ed'the price of fresh eggs in
Chicago. As a result there was nn practical hedue for stores. Ordin- ....
-arily there is a margin sufficient to..cover s.tora6e oeeie" The Septem.ber
tp4_.A ta.ot. future contracts' on March.'19 were priced -about 1 "cent
higher than the fresh-eCas that were available for storage to meet cQn-
tracts for fall delivery.

The hedGing mari-in between future.'prices amid country prices (as
for example, prices in Iowa) was somewhat more favorable' for storage, than -
the Chicago price comparison. However, in'this case immediate resale in
the terminal'market would offer as favorable returns as storage on a:hedged
basis, and presumably this helps to explain the low level of enrly-sqason
storage activity. Although future prices in mid-March were higher than .
the future price of last spring, and higher than the price at which .most
future contracts closed last fall, they have not increased as much as spot
egg prices Otable 6).

The' mid-March' level of eggC prices was sustained b, consumer demand
for immediate .consumption. Current output moved readily into commercial
channels at Loinc prices, with military requirements and hatching account-
ing for the principal diversions of current production from immediate ci-
vilian consumption.

Latest available data indicate that in January civilian per capital
eG.j disappearance was almost the same as a year ago. Developments then
have probably resulted in a larger per capital consumption of eGLs to date
in 1951 than in 19>0.

Supplies for immediate consumption have been increased'byythb.reL-
duced storage in-movement, and the absence of price-support diversions.
Last year in March, diversions for price support averaLed ab.'ut 160 thou-
sand cases a vwek, and about -600 thousand cases (shell and frozen -equiva- '
lent) went into. commercial storage. "Thin year there ie no Government price
support,' ahd strange accumulations -li.-the first 3 weeks of March were .about"
50 thousand cases weekly (estimated oh basis of 3)-city accumulations).





MARCH 1951


- 10 -


Table 6.- Refrigerator egg futures: Closing prices per dozen in Chicago,
March 1950 and 1951, and spot prices for eggs in selected markets,
with comparisons
: Egg futures : : Spot egg prices,
Z prices 1 : Chicago, per dozen : per dozen
3: : : t ; Iowa :Chicago,:New York
: : : :country : large, :refriger-
Date :Septem-:October:Novem- : Decem- :January : points,: extras,: ator
: ber : con- : ber : ber : con- :current : mixed a eggs,
: con- : tract : con- : con- : tract :receipts: colors : fancy,
a tract : :tract : tract i :'"mostly": 2/ 2/ s heavy
S a : : ; : / a: weights
: Cents Cents Cents Cents Cents Cents Cents Cents
1950
Mar. 17 :39.40(B) 39.55 27-28 36-37
Sept. 22 :5/33.90 33.45 33.75 33.10(B) 32.50-32.55 30-32 48b-50 37-43
Oct. 24 i/: 35.50 36.10(B) 33.00 30.85 6/30-32 56-561 38-421
Nov. 22 / : 48.75 52.00 36.75 W/37-40 61 48-51
Dec. 21 J : 47.25(B) 37.15(B 6/30 46-47

1951
Jan. 24 5/ : 41.00 6/30-32 40-41
Mar. 2 :49.10 49.15 38-39 49-50
9 :48.40 48.35 40 451-47
16 4: 7.10 36-38 451-46i
Daily closing prices, or bid prices (B) where applicable. For deliveries of eggs
stored in 1950, basis 40 percent Ats; 1951, 50 percent A's.
/ As quoted by Federal-State Market News Service.
1950, 60 percent A's; 1951, 70 percent A's.
Mid-western, mixed colors, as quoted by Urner-Barry Company.
Last trading day of the maturing future.
Friday of indicated week.


Table 7.- Apparent civilian per capital disappearance of eggs (shell equivalent)
in the United States monthly, January 1949 to date

Year sJan. tFeb. :Mar. :Apr. a May :June :July a Aug. : Sept.: Oct. : Nov. : Dec.
No. No. No. No. N No N. No. N .o. N No. No.

1949 a 34.0 33.4 37.6 35.9 33.6 30.5 30.5 29.1 28.2 29.2 29.7 31.0
1950 a 35.1 33.1 38.0 36.0 33.5 31.2 32.0 31.1 30.1 31.9 29.5 313
1951 a 34.9





PES-151


Table 8.- Eggs:


- 11 -


Monthly commercial supply from farm production, and
average prices, January 1950 to date I/


: Net c
S : cial
Year Farm storageg
and :produc-:ments,
month tion : and f
: : equiv
: Out
:1,700 1,000
:cases cases
1950 :
Jan. : 14,375
Feb. : 14,569
Mar. : 17,950
Apr. : 17,856
May : 17,228
June : 14,511
July : 13,019 870
Aug. : 11,872 1,122
Sept.: 10,964 1,606
Oct. : 11,317 1,820
Nov. : 11,047 1,208
Dec. : 12,086 781

1951

Jan. : 13,947 390
Feb. : 14,453


ommer- : : Eggs frim far
cold : : :production.and
Government.
;e move- :Eggs for:purchases : storage for
shell :hatching:for rice : domestic con-
rozen : : r p : gumption,
alent : : militaryy use,
: In : : : and export
1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000
cases cases cases cases


301
838
1,718
1,879
1,923
487


591
1,112
1,186
894
436
319
316
304
310
295
285
395


661
116 2/1,224


If Corresponding data for prior months
March 1950, page 6. 2/ Estimated.


151
544
704
1,082
1,678
1,710
1,325
366
422
90
46
17



0
0
are given


13,332
12,075
14,342
14,001
13,191
11,9)5
12,24.3
12,324
11,33.1
12,752
11, )24
12,455



13,676
'13,113
in The Poultry


Situation,


Increase in Broiler Placements
Followed January Price Increase

Recent high levels of broiler chick placements indicate that
supplies of those chickens will be at a record level beginning in April.

Settings of eggs in incubators in 7 specialized areas rose to
10 million per week in mid-January (48 percent above a year earlier).
This weekly rate has been sustained or exceeded from that time through
mid-March. Placements of chicks 3 weeks later have been in proportion.
Supplemented by chicks shipped in from outside areas, the weekly 7-area
placements exceeded 9 million in early February, compared with 6-1/2 mil-
lion at the same time a year earlier (table 10). Marketings on a
corresponding large scale usually commence within 9 or 10 weeks after
large placements.

Variations in the age at which broilers are marketed can serve to
spread out the effects of peaks in placements on marketing, except when
extra-ordinarily high placements continue for a longer period than the
practical range of marketing ages. Most broilers are marketed between
the ages of 9-12 weeks.


: U : U. S.
average average
: farm retail
Sarm price,
price,.
per : (BAE)
per
I dozen : per
:.: dozen

Cents Cents

31.2 46.9
29.6 43.4
31.6 47.2
30.9 47.1
29.6 44.8
30.1 46.4
34.3 50.0
38.0 56.1
40.4 58.8
S43.2 65.3
45.8 64,9
57.7 81.1


42.6 61.4
41.4


and Egg





MARCH 19


- 12 -


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PES-151


USDA Belle 25 million Pounds of
Dried Egg to UnLited Kingdm

The Production and Marketing Administration of the Department of
Agriculture announced on March 16 the sale to the United Kingdom of 25
million pounds of dried uiolo eggs purchased by the Commodity Credit Cor-
poration for price support in 1950.

Of the total quantity involve& in the purchase, the greater part
will be paid for by the United Kingdom with their earned dollars. The
remainder will be paid for by the Economic Cooperation Administration and
Section 32 funds, under authority of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1948.
These transactions will result in an average price to CCC for the entire
25 million pounds of about 44.5 cents a pcund.


These transactions will reduce present
slightly less than 42 million pounds out of a
purchased in 1950. The quantity in this sale
posals to date in 1951 to 59 million pounds.
support in 1948 and 1949 has now been cleared


holdings of dried eggs to
total of 82.7 million pounds
brought total sales and dis-
Dried eggs bought for price
from CCC stocks.


Table 10.- Broiler chick placements in 7 specialized areas, and
4 additional. areas, weekly data converted to average weekly
rates by months, January 1951 to date, with comparisons


Year and
month


Current data
Jan. 1951
Feb. 1951
Mar. 1951


:_ 7 specialized areas
: East : Del. :Shenan-:Chatham-: North : N.W.


: Conn.: Mar. :
: : Va. :1


:Thous. Thous.


298
356


: Total


doah : Wilkes,:Georgia:Arkensas:Texas :7 areas
valley : N C. : : : :
Thous. Thone. Thoug, T Thou Thous. Thous.


3,055 630
3,436 874


354
480


1,355 975 931 7,598
1,694 1,138 1,119 9,097
29, 000


3 months prior :
Oct. 1950 :
Nov. 1950 :
Dec. 1950 :


p ear prior
Jan. 1950
Feb. 1950
Mar. 1950



Current data
Jan. 1951
Feb. 1951
Mar. 1951


172
147
238


245
248
240


2,771
2,848
3,174


2,610
2,606
3.237


544
605
642


567
597
854


452
387
347


1,278
1,277
1,129


310 1,064
396 1,321
437 1,451


687
686
818


692
703
946


850
841
894


605
704
871


6,754
6,791
7,242


6,093
6,575
8,036


4 additional areas 2/
:Indiana;Flor-: Ala- :Missis- : Total : : Total
: : ida : bama : sippi :4 areas: :11 areas


152 265
168 331


415
523


1,385
1,833
9/1 Ann


8,983
10,923
9/1in Ann


- _______ -r -t ____


L/ Data not available prior to January 1951.
2/ Estimated on the basis of data for part of month.


,


v 8 w


I J J


-13-


:*
:*
:*


:
:*
:*
*





MARCH 1951


- 14 -


DECLINE IN RAIL TRANSPORTATION OF SHELL EGGS
Railroads probably hauled less then 2 million cases of eggs during
1950, compared with 4-1/2 million in 1949, and 12-1/2 million in 1948.
Factors in this decline are a continuing shift from rail to trucks as the
principal means of long-distance egg transport, .and--of lesser importance--
a gradual shift in the location of egg production relative to population.

In the 2 or 3 years immediately prior to World War II, and during
the first 2 years of the war, the volume of shell eggs transported by rail
held fairly steady at about 11 to 13 percent of egg production on farms.
Since the volume of egg production was increasing during those years, the
nearly stable percentage figure was based on a rising tonnage of shell
egg shipments.
As the war continued, there was a shift of Ionc-distance transpor-
tation from trucks to rails. Rubber, gasoline, and operating equipment for
trucking became very scarce, and the object of conservation efforts.
Accordingly, traffic that would ordinarily have moved by other carriers
was shifted to rail, end in 1944 and 1945 about 17 percentt of farm egg
production moved in shell form over the railroads. The number of dozens
on which this percentage is based was a record high for the years covered
by available statistics. The number of carlots involved was not a record,
howeV3r, being held down by the heavier wartime loadings prescribed by
ODT orders (600 cases per car instead of the prewar average of 425).

With the end of the wartime shortages affecting highway transport,
rail traffic in eggs began its downward trend. The annual rail traffic,
as percentages of farm production, dropped in stages from 15 in 1946 to
. 3 in 1949, with indications that the 1950 volume was much smaller than in
1949. The reasons for this steady decline to almost the vanishing point
are more than simply a gradual acceptance by some shippers of the greater
convenience of trucks,

Mounting damage claims, and changes in the regulations governing
damage claims, are one of the developments stimulating this shift. Until
mid-1948 the rail carriers accepted almost full liability for damage to
eggs as a result of breakage, delays in transit, or failure to provide
adequate protection. In July of that year, however, a new regulation pro-
vided that in some cases carriers' liability would be limited to losses
above the first 5 percent of the damage of some carlot shipments of eggs.

Declines in the rail haulage of eggs were largely offset by in-
creases in truck movements. Shippers are finding the speed and flexi-
bility of truck hauling to be a distinct advantage, and evidently have
made the shift in mode of transport without hardship. Truck rates and
charges (for common carriers as well as contract carriers and private
handlers) generally are lower than rail rates for eggs, and differences
in gross charges therefore are to some degree an issue in the shift.
But the less severe damage experience with trucks, the more liberal
liability privileges, and their greater convenience, have combined to
divert most of the long-distance egg hauling to them and away from the
railroads.






. PES-151


At the asme time that this shift between carriers has taken place,
changes in the location of egG production, relative to population, have
reduced the proportion of eggs that are hauled long distances. The Pacif-
ic Coast States have not shipped large quantities of e^fs to eastern mar-
kets since the late 1930's, and Utah 'shipments to Atlantic Coast cities
have fallen off sharpLy in the last 3 or 4 years. In years past, they had
been steady suppliers of selected' qualities of eggs to Now York and other
Atlantic seaboard cities. As the present time, Pacific Coast production
is almost all marketed without long eastward hauls, since that area now
consumes more eges than it produces, and Utah eggs Generally move westward
to the Pacific States to help satisfy the deficit.

Meanwhile, e6L production in the populous Northeastern States has
increased fester than either per capital eLL consumption, or the population
of the region. The result has been to decrease the transportation require-
ments of that region, as a percentage of egg production. Data regarding
the changes in production and population in this and other regions are
shown in The poultry and Egg Situation, July 19%0, page 13.


Table 11.- Railroad ladings. of shell egts compared with
United States, 1939 to date


farm production,


(Data for cover chart)


Rail landings


Thousands
of tons

316
340
392
393
517
753
712
jlr
424
329
122


Egg production
on farms


Thousands
of cases

11,935
12,833
14,791
15,034
19,516
28,420
26,664
23,327
15,989
12,410
4,605


Millions
of cases

108
110
116
135
151
163
155
154
153
153
157


Ladings as
percentage
production


Percent

11.1
11.6
12.7
11.1
12.9
17.5
17.3
15.1
10.4
8.1
2.9


Jan. -June :
1949
1950 :

1/ Computed from


3,039
1,104


unrounded data.


Period



Years

1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
194) :
1946
1947
1948 :
1949


3.4
1.1






U. S. Department of Agriculture
Washington 25, D.C.

OFFICIAL BUSINESS


BAE-PES-151-3/51 5000
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