Poultry and egg situation

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Poultry and egg situation
Physical Description:
v. : ; 26 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Agricultural Economics
United States -- Agricultural Marketing Service
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture. -- Economic Research Service
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture. -- Economics, Statistics, and Cooperatives Service
Publisher:
The Bureau
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Creation Date:
September 1949
Frequency:
quarterly
regular

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Poultry industry -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Egg trade -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
statistics   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )

Notes

Citation/Reference:
Bibliography of agriculture
Citation/Reference:
Predicasts
Citation/Reference:
American statistics index
Citation/Reference:
Index to U.S. government periodicals
Statement of Responsibility:
Economics, Statistics, and Cooperatives Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with PES 1 (Jan. 1937); ceased with PES-308 (Dec. 1980).
Issuing Body:
Issued by: Agricultural Marketing Service, Dec. 1953-Mar. 1961; Economic Research Service, May 1961-Dec. 1977; and: Economics, Statistics, and Cooperatives Service, Mar. 1978-Dec. 1980.
General Note:
Cover title.
General Note:
Description based on: PES-301 (Mar. 1979).
General Note:
Previously classed: A 93.20: and A 88.15/2:

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 000502977
oclc - 04506769
notis - ACS2711
lccn - 79643440 //r81
issn - 0032-5708
sobekcm - AA00005304_00011
Classification:
lcc - HD9437.U6 A33
ddc - 338.1/7/6500973
System ID:
AA00005304:00091

Related Items

Succeeded by:
Poultry and egg outlook & situation

Full Text

I-UN KhLLLASE I
OCT. 1, A. M.


'SIT NATION


BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

R* SEPTEM


BER 1949


U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Through AMugust, the 1949 price support pro-
gram had resulted in dried egg purchases of 57
million pounds in the 12 States where driers
- have made deliveries to the Government. (The


NEG 4-394 X .uREAU OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS


eggs which were dried were not necessarily pro-
duced in those States.) See Table 8. The CCC
has announced thar the dried egg purchase pro-
gram will continue at least through October.


PES-138


DRIED EGG PURCHASES FOR PRICE SUPPORT,
JAN.-AUG. 1949 BY STATES, AS A
PERCENTAGE OF U. S. TOTAL








The Poultry and 3g Situation at a (ltnoe
l .._- er .A ear sr.. .... I ..,-... -


a Unit 'Nonth'Aw w 99"14
Averages 1940 194.


rl production ................. : il. doz. :July

-S age number of layers on farms Million : do.
of lay For hen ............. I uaber i do.

,)"rent civilian per oupita
itleappearanoe .................. do. : do.

'r"rosen eag production ............a Mil. lb. a do.

p$rled egg production ............. do. : do,

,..Aloee received by farmers ...... Ct. per oOL; Aug.

l'O eies received by farmers as a a
percentage of part1 .......... s Percent a do.

JItatll price (BAE) .............. ,Ct.per dot.. July

t -feud ratio .................. Lb. feed Au,.



hell ......................... l.000 obsess do.

Frozen ......................... do. a do.
I Z
Dried .......................... mil. lb. i do.

Chicks hatched by commercial a
hatcheries .................... Million a July
I I
Potential layers on farm ..... do. AgS.

Pallets of laying age ............ do. : do.

Pullets not of laying age .......: do. : do.
a a
F frm price of poultry ration Dol.per cwt: do.


::: rioes received by farmer for a
chlokena ...................... Ct. per lb.: Aub.

jricess reselven by farmers as a a
percentage of parity .......... a Percent a do.

;l-'tail price of chickens (DAE) .. Ct. per lb.: July

r l:kProee received by farmers for a
burkeys .......................: do. Aug.
a


ft Poultry, excluding turkeys .... Mil.lb. do.

a4 turkey .......................a do. a do.

Ilaken-feed ratio .............. Lb. feed do.

urkey-feed ratio ............... I do. a do.

Average weekly receipts of poultry
fbt Central veatern Primary a
k!rket8, per plant ............ .1,000 lb. a do.

take placed in 7 broiler :
be .| ..................... Million July


BASS


336.3

290.5

13.8


366.6

292.8

15.2


28.7 31.6

17.7

9.3

31.4 49.2


50.5

Y65.2

281.9

283.3

2.54


5625

68653

20.0


55.6

561.0

2853.7

277.3


361.2

291.4

13.7


30.5

le.6

6.1

49.8


93

64.1

14.1



1936

4491

65.5


58.3

589.2

284.4

304.8


4.07 5.46


Month g gggg 1968 Comments as nument situa
a


:: Aurb.

aS do.
a:
S, do.
a
I1

Sdo.
II
:: do.

|: do.

:: Sept.


as Sept.
A p


a' Sept.


269.5

281.9

12.3


326.5

285.6

14.9


321.1

286.3 Will now increase seasonslS

13.5


27.9 31.2

7.5

5.9

34.6 51.4


:: do. 6438

:: do. 6070
II
ia do.

II
is Aug. 34.9

pt.


:: do.


4608 1450 Lowest on record for
September.
6225 3924 75 percent orat last year'*
SAomAercial StoOk.
2b.7 68.7 "lostly Goverument owned.


47.2 52.2

535.0 557.9


307.8 287.5 288.3 ;


:: do. 284.7

6:: do. 2.61


247.5 269.6

3.93


Poultry i


a
20.9 32.5 25.1 :: Sept. 21.2

a:
114 114 91 :a do. 114

35.9 54.3 52.0 : Aug. 36.4


25.6 43.2 33.8 :; Sept. 24.7
a1


72.9 72.0 50.0 s: do. 98.5

26.9 19.2 21.3 a: do. 20.7

8.5 8.0 7.3 ta do. 8.4

9.4 10.6 9.8 is do. 9.6
Is

i s
20.1 20.4 20.5 :s do. 25.4
Sa
--- 17.7 19.0 a, s Aug.
I M


i Current prices moh loser
than last year.






Current priaee above
supports.


62.7

2.1 I Movement from storage
: was small this August.


23.2 29.5 6 Increasing seasonally.


15.6 2/22.6


erage 1943-47.
ve weekly periods centered on August 1949.
.1k:


. J -8-71


t







THE POULTRY AND EGO SITUATION


Approved by the Outlook and Situation Board, September 22, 1949

I
a In this issues Page I
a Indicated 1949 World Egg a
a Production ................. 14 1


SUmMARY

Recent wholesale egg prices in city markets have been very finn.
Fam egg prices also have been strong, having taken their full seasonal
rise so far this simmer. At 48.8 cents per dozen in mid-August, egg
prices received by farmers were 93 percent of parity, although almost a
half cent below August 1948.

Through August, egg supplies from current production were slightly
smaller than in 1948, but output in the later months of 1949 is very
likely to ex*eed that.in corresponding months of 1948. The larger pro-
duction will be partly' attributable to the expected increase in number
of layers, in keeping with the 4 percent increase over last year in the
September 1 number of potential layers. An additional increase is likely
on account o. a steadily improving fall and winter rate of lay. However,
the expected'production increase is not likely to completely offset the
reduction frim last year in the use of cold-storage stocks, which now are
much smaller. than last year. On September 1, United States commercial
stocks of shell and frozen egg combined were only 54 percent of holdings
a year earlier,

Supplies of chicken meat are at or near a seasonal peak. Market-
ings of farm chicken are greatest in September and October, and recent
chick placements indicate that the output of broilers from specialized
broiler areas will continue at a high level for the rest of 1949. Cold
storage stocks of poultry increased seasonally in August, beginning the
net in-movement which usually runs through December or. January. Poultry
prices are sharply lower than last year. At 25.1 cents per pound, the
August farm price was 23 percent lower than the price in August 1948.

Farmers intend to market their large 1949 turkey crop earlier in
the season than they have in the past. Marketings have already begun,
and the farn price, though higher than the Government support, is much
lower than last year's record. To September 22, only 174 thousand pounds
of turkeys have been bought under the price-support program, which is
intended to prevent United States farm prices from falling below 31 cents
per pound, equivalent to about 90 percent of parity.


;***** *







From Low Storage Stocks

Through mid-September, price trends in metropolitan egg markets were
sharply. upward. From mid-August to mid-September, wholesale prices of the
better grades of egjs increased by as much as 3 or 10 cents per dozen in
Eastern markets and on the Pacific Coast. Chicago prices increased more
than might have been expected on the basis of changes in other cities-.
During the same period, Chicago egg futures prices for October delivery
also increased, by about 3 cents per dozen. Table 1 compares selected
August-September egg price changes for both the present .year and last year.

The U. S. average farm price of eggs, 48.8 cents per dozen in
August. was seasonally higher than the 45.3 cent price of the previous
month, but 0.4 cents lower than e. year earlier. The seasonal rise prob-
ably is continuing, because terminal market egg prices are considerably
higher than they were in mid-August. In the last three years the peak of
farm egg prices has occurred consecutively in October, December, and
November.

At 64.1 cents per dozen, the U. S retail price of eggs (1A) for
July was practically. the same as a year before, when the price, was efti-
mated at 64.2 cents. In the same month, the 1949 farm price was 0.5" cents
lower than a year earlier.

In August, supplies of eggs from current farm production were
slightly lower than the year before. However, this situation Is:a lkly
to change in coming months. For the remainder of 1949 the numbers of
layers each month are expected to exceed the corresponding numbers of the
previous year, and the tendency toward increased rate of lay has been most
pronounced in the fall and winter months. l1/

Commercial egg distributicn in September-December 1949 Is likely to
be smaller taien in the same months of 1948. Although supplies of fresh
eggs for the -remaining months of 1949 will probably be larger than in the
same months of 19b,3 supplies of both shell and frozen eggs in cold
storage are smaller. The reduction in use of eggs from stored supplies
will more than offset the probable increases in production. On September
1. the 1,40. thousand cases of shell eggs in commercial storage were only
31 percent of last rear's holdings. while frozen egg holdings were 75 per-
cent of last year.




Ij See table 9, The Poultry and Egg Situation, January 1949.








:z *i:E















%DM
0








tK^ilni
o








sty
Hlai

'4


43
<0
4)


WIb
*o
ah s
. e ai-
m 4


0L*l
*r.
es



043
o (

S
a











4r4
0C
0 0

u S
al *



"' d


I.
'II


I i .



O tiAt.-
4rt


'-4



HIM
Sm em *


43


pag
S- -
A 42

4'd


10s
0 't. I




I I
'ILr


*law
I MI
nd L-
fTir


sD r**
^C


~1.
L0in







'00
'4 '




em ii, a.mlcm e
a~ll -iA

*. t




to 04


n m >
I ^
aRt


43
a-


5,4

J 4
0;1


0c~~-4
I-I
I
In


K
ha
hO

0
H
C
H
* .0
Lw


U

I
d


.4
Loa
*M



I4











0)
S
C



cd













L"
0-
0
0



I
U,

E
e


04






'U
CO


Sa







5
a




at


* i

t b !
0. 0.





21 1
mm mi m


s 42


*r
HC

H
o +h




;43
f.4
4.4







0

m
4.
0
wO D


.0, 0


as a

*4
a


t &- *
04 0



El aa
Ca *<.4


+20 0(
1 0.


+3% o0
+O -*t
..a> e a
1.113 MD e
Oi^^


"








A. Net supply: Thousands of oaser or equivaleat
------- 1. Farm and assumed non-farm production 44,275
2. Net reductions of commercial storage stocks
( a) Shell 4,442
b) Frozen 3,127
Total 51,804

B. Distribution:
1. Domestic consumption, commercial exports,
hatching, and other commercial uses 51,108
2. Federal price-support purchases 696
Total 51,804
Current production would have to increase to an extent considerably in
excess of the likely 3 to 5 percent increase in numbers of layers go;
pected by January 1, if egg supplies this fall are to equal those of last
fall. This will be true even if the usual annual increase, in the fall
rate of lay is anticipated. Despite expected reductions from the previous
year in over-all September-December egg supply, egg prices'will not teoess-
arily continue firm through 1949. The monthly egg production-increases
over 1948 are expected to gradually grow larger in the successive months
from September through December. As these monthly increases become larger,
we come into months when the normal dependence upon stored shell egga be-
comes smaller. These combined factors, added to the seasonal factors which
normally turn prices back down after their autumn increase, may result in
an early weakening of egg prices. The slight downward trend of consumer-
incomes, and price limitations upon the substitution of fresh eggs for
stored eggs and egg products, are additional factors augmenting the ex-
pectation for later weakness in the market.
-- So far this year, the withdrawal of shell eggs from storage has been
very early. The July and August withdrawals of O08.million cases in 1949
has been exceeded in recent years only when the level of stocks has been.
very much higher than at present (table 2). This earlier out-moveaent has
been less evident in the important storing States of the North Central
region than in the United States as a whole.
Table 2.- Shell eggs: U. S. commercial cold-storage stocks, July 1 and
September 1, and net withdrawals, 1945-49


Year July 1 : September
: tocks : stocks

: 1,000 cases 1,000 cases

1945 : 4,693 3,530
1946 : 9,726 7,807
1947 : 4,063 3,710
1948 : 5,612 4,599
1949 : 2,258 1,439


Net withdrawals:N wet a
: July 1- :as a percentage
: September 1 : of ul
1,000 cases Percent

1,163 25
1,919 20
353 9
1,013 18
819 36






7






evf ustf ida the of,
ap Y a whictsae
r iounh",~ft Oov, ork bxigthe
d.o gpde white
44 e= A ther momal.Pro


41.-',O~taperond 1 o 6, voleeg, equ










jet, IA:t t E tar

a s8 l larnge then llhe~ 28U.6 milont recsoar
r` 2 here wrest 0t oe4 i 1tmonths fhat the'

Tale E tha a ea th,.oen ofus 1Oc9 nber olyers an
0- ha fika re 6 ok Jualy 17949. aid seleso~dal elie
1 the t ult of culith ddat~oss n

48.4 o 42r















The carry-over of mature layers from 1948-49 to 1949-50 tA
be small, not only because the January 1949 laying flock included &X
ratio of hens to pullets than would have been suggested by the OI*4.....
but also because the 1949 laying flock was the smallest since 1942. % X
not common practice to hold hens for a third laying year, and asa
fact, current trends are in the direction of a 'in, ereased preopi
in the laying flock. Therefore, it is likely thf the January-. *
flock will include fewer hens than-were in the comparable flocks
years. /
The prospective increase in the number of laying- pul.ete ..:
offset the decline in hen numbers. On September 1, 1949, there, .'
lion potential layers on farms, including 269.6 pullets .not et :f.
This total is 4 percent larger than last year. There were 118.7 .
and young chickens (under 3 months) on farms, 2 percent over last 5 ;r!in
compares the September numbers of potential layers in recent ye&r : p
the consequent change in laying flocks for the following-Januafy. .U E
relationship indicated in the table continues, the January 1 9, 19 Ad
is likely to be between 3 and 5 percent larger than a yrarlearle'. :

Table 4. Young chickens, potential layers, and layers on'.. :.. 0
Numbers, and as a percentage of previous years
: selected dates, 1941 to date ....::
: September 1 : Jan. 1 following As a Percentage of pre.i
S: :Hens arid: :__ Septembr 1 J_
a Potential: Young : pullets:Potential: : -:Hens a
S layers :chickens: of : layers :Potential: Young : pullets ...mP n
1/ : 2/ : laying : 1/ : layers :chickens: of .. : lera:
:: Millions Mtll.M n Millions llis PerPercent Percent ue -
941 : 503 M10 371 428 5
;942: 568 157 426 489 113 98 115 14
3.943 638 226 456 524 112 144 107
944: 597 143 427 474 94 63 94 .
945: 603 210 421 474 101 147 99 lO
46 561 124 398 436 93 59 95 '"'":
i947 : 565 133 391 426 101 107 98 98
948: 535 116 380 413 95 87 97
558 119 ____ 1_____ 1..4 10
-RHens and pullets of laying age, plus pullets not of laying age. ...
SSome young chickens are included with potential layers.

The statistical basis for this expectation was shown in table .8,
Situation, July-August 1949.
!A.





















ABnmLatin Bgns-

$. Chicken prices continue at levels sharply lower than these prevail-
ag ". year ago. The August U. S. farm price of 25.1 cents per pound is
74 cents, or.23 percent, under the corresponding price in 1948. The
1 'A6get.:prince, n increase from the 1949 low of 24.3 cents in July, is
i>" ffS,,tot. 91 percent of parity.

I .-mid-Augupt, the trend of chicken prices in metropolitan markets
in specialized producing areas was slightly upward. Since then there
Sas bee$.t:1 giht. weakening of poultry prices, perhaps a reflection of
-e a.yo y xincreasing marketing. In mid-September broiler prices paid
o Salisbury, .-Maryland producers have averaged slightly over 29 cents per
pond,, resulting in a broiler-feed price ratio of 6.1. This ratio is
6wsisdered favorable, and it is reported that a shortage of hatching eggs
is aow limiting the number of chick placements being made in specialized
producing areas. Currently reported placements of about 4.5 million, chicks
.r week iOn .be'vpn specialized-broiler areas represent less than a record
rate for 1949, but the weekly placement are about one-fifth higher than
the weekly placements in September of last year.

Cold-storage holdings of frozen poultry increased during August
i from 71.3 million pounds at the beginning of the month to 82.8 million
tt pounds o September 1. This is about equal to the net August movement
of other recent years except 1948. The high poultry prices which pre-
vailed in 1948 discouraged the accumulation of storage stocks, and the
;net in-movement that year began later than usual.

The largest monthly marketing of farm chicken usually occur in
September and October. There is no reason to expect any substantial
change from this pattern this year. Reports on the volume of poultry
k, handled by a group of central Midwestern poultry plants indicate that
receipts of poultry.in_the first.week in September were greater than .in
.any other week this year.


H, '* f


an




























The difference between the large increase -in cocmnerei
output and the more moderate increase in the. number of tukiP..
largely due to a much greater poult mortality.this year than a
also to an increased proportion of the total hatch of- pounlts b
duced in comercial hatcheries. For the ten years prior to 19
losses averaged about a quarter of the poults started. Oanppti
in 1948 were at the low level of 13.6 percent. (See tabal 54i
poults this year probably will be about the same as the tn-ye


Table 5.- Turkeys Death losses of poults, and numbers ani:i


a Death loss of poults, as a a
Year a percent of total 8
I number starbegd
Percent

1938 a 26.3
1939 26.0
1940 25.9
1941 27.8
1942 28,8
1943 29.3
1944 25.9
1945 22.3
1946 21.7
1947 20.2
1948 113.6


1949.


: .> f: r ..... m .:
Turkeys sl ,eet *e

unh :


S 27
34-
34
33
33
32
36


1/ Preliminary.


": ...,* **i .. ,:'

; ;. :.:. ..:
:* '4: : ::. ::
.: I C. .."
4 '.
..:


*a


.I
i


.44..


3.:..


I
C
I
V.'


~1


r



I
I,







t*i.1a..- Regto. g tUe.infrease is largest in the South Central States
r. percent) olluweA-by the Jest North Central States (*-.36 percent),
S- The thre.arlest producing States,. California, Texas, and Minnesota,. .
report InOt aes over last year of 35, 40, and 36 percent, respectively.

SA part of this increased turkey orop has already been marketed, at
pi.ice sharply lower than comparable: price, last year. The. August 1949
U. s. average farm price for. turkeys was 3358 cents per pound (live weight),
K against 43.2 cents a year before' .,Terin.al-maiket prices for dressed
:, turkeys have likewise declined. In hid-September, at the price pattern
t:. hen prevailing&in Eastern markets, demand seemed strongest for lightweight
hen turkayg.(under 14 pounds, dressed) and for heavy tome; dealers reported
that. other ..weghts were moving slowly, Despite the inactive demand for
certain classes of birds, offerings to the Commodity Credit Corporation,
:" under the price-support program, have been very anallj from the announce-
mment of the program on July 5 through September 22, offerings have totaled
only 174 thousand.pounds. United States cold-storage stocks of turkeys
decreased by 1.35 million pounds in August, while August decreases in the
past three years have been 8,6, 14.6, and 5.9 million' pounds respectively.


'TWhiloiturkey prices
fallen, so tole turkey-feed
farm. turkey price. At 9.8
0.4 pounds higher than the
* lorer than last August.


are lower than last ycar, feed costs have also
price ratio has fallen loss sharply than the
in August, the turkey-food price ratio was
1928-47 average for the month, but 0.8 pounds


Farmers' marketing intentions with respect to the 1949 turkey crop
indicate a continuation of the trend toward early sales. If farmers
intentions are borne out, they will have sold a quarter of this year's
turkey crop by the end of October. Table 6 compares those intentions
with the marketing of previous years.


Table 6.- Turkeyss Percentage of annual crop marketed in
specified periods, 1940-49

ear October or November Deember January or
a earlier s : a later
Percent Porcent Percent Percent

1940 8.8 42.1 36.9 12,2
1941 8.5 39,8 33.9 12.8
1942 11.8 41,1 36.3 1008
1943 10.1 41.1 35.2 13.6
1944 16,6 38.7 30,9 .13.8
1945 19.6 36,4 30.0 14O0
1946 2203 36.7 28.4 12,6
1947 19.8 40.5 32.1 7.6
1948 19.5 40.1 31,2 9.2
1949 1/I 25.7 38.1 28.5 7.7

/. / Intentions.


I1











*N
-: .('
*.: ..
. .; ,










WMUMCl 46. L.sAAUIAu U&u C&LALMMUWIUD2wL IJL ULW U Ja v A'& & W--- -- e
on July 22, trading has been at prices approximating ar exceeding thi De
apartment of Agriculture paying price.

Table 7.- Turkey futures contracts: Weekly volume of trading ."a
Chicago Mercantile Exchange, and open interest at endL. of'
each week, June 1949 to date

Week : Volume of trading, : Open interest aten
ending: : all contracts :- of veek -
Number of onmtracte Number of. cotrBts
1949

June 3 : 26 20

June 10 : 53 60

June 17 : 34 80

June 24 : 11 90. .



July 1 18 99

July 8 20 111

July 15 18 119

July 22 : 93 142

July 29 : 58 148



Aug. 5 : 18 .148.

Aug. 12 : 37 .. 144.

Aug. 19 44 123:

.Aug. 26 : 10 130

Sept. 2 : 3 131

.Sept. 9 : 16 141

1/ Trading began June 1. "





































0 0i 9-4 0 0 H-
OO4r-OOH


:.4.'. .C2L *C
C I c (rn ir\ 4O m
0r -4 Ml oi H r-t O


cuo ooo


cu ri rn t-- i(\
co aIco ^0 vo
0 L(. 'ho 10 \D
HH 4


O Gc ,- r o E-
.t.. .
* .. .
S H 4 Hf '0 H 0 r4;I


.. ... ,


: o I


'0
*7
o



0
0
o
0

rO


0
o

4-


so m ** **
*P

a
** **Bt


'-i


.thU1 *5
.n u m 0
4Bd M 0 .
ES -P .4?.0 44 0 44

I pi 's o. ph ; J k g
R. 4) P.i > 9- 1.


kh ^4r-:1- m d W ee
0Q P 4- W3St l s to
4 al r WOi-i B i
,


0
0i

a3 0



0
0
a *
m0
fo








, ..
, .


cu -.
[--









'o CD



P'--


'-4

Cu
00)


B*ft *B ** SB



4.
R 5
., .* **

la|
i
a 4i
We a



m" ^

o k
1a hal


I












.l.?


".9;


H
r*


** *
%.0




d*
* t
.. a



SB .q


. .* *..

























Gj j ..j jU ..:.'r cu...".
World egg production is about one-fifth above the 1A-W-3g 8f
age. This is mainly accounted for by the 50 percent inveas :
States in the past 10 years. This sizeable increase heavily''. i:
world comparison as it represents a production 8 times largeqt1.
any other country and approximately one-half of all reported .tfi

Egg production in 1949 will exceed. prewar in Belgium, Den.tb aoe
Sweden, and Switzerland, and favorable gains in production fr r a .
time levels were made in Ireland, the NetherlandIs, Czechooslo.tti
United Kingdom. The countries now exporting eggs are led by.,
Belgium, Ireland, the Netherlands, and Hungary, also shipping' *.
quantities. *

Mediterranean European countries, have reported lees prondod In-,::
creases in their egG production. Austria and Italy have sholrn..iu at In.
increase in production, while the output in Greece is below 13I0 '.

Egg prices, almost without exception, have declined in. tti*:.
increase in feed supplies has caused a more than comparable rql': s
price of feed. Thus, in many countries, including the Unhted
egg-feed ratio continues qulte.favgrable. In addition to the'.-;
availability of feed, Government hatchery programs in many cqw ha='A`O
*.. contributed to the larger production of 1949. 4U.

The poultry industries of central- and nctfhw0etet wrn ape .:'
with the exception of the United Kingdom, have recovered to the.'i
that rationing and price controls are not the general rule.
of this area have several broad programs, such as financio f1ee 1
improving the quality of birds, supplying husbandry infozrmatia e ':
hiding sufficient inspection and market outlets.

V h: :." :.' i









Countries


WORTH
-55
pan
uni
Cub


k.:"








|y.i': :i.
'. .






',i.' ''. .
I "..
R E*





r0 "
.'" S


.Dominioap R.ublio........

EUROPE
-=&nia.................
Austria..................
Belgium..................
Bulgaria.. ..............
Czeohoslov ak ..........-
Dennark.............. ...v
Eire................. .a*
Finland.................
France ............ ......
Germany.S..e O....C.....Ii
Greece...................
Sumgary........... ..... a
Italy....................
Luxembourg.............
Netherlands..............
Norway...................
Poland and..Qansig .......
Portugal.. .f .............
SRumania...'..............
Spain.................
Seden.................
Switzerland..............
United Kingdom Farm /.
Total
Yugoslavia...............

ASIA
Uebanon.................
Palestine.e..............
Syria..............
Turkey ..................
'China....................
Japan....................
India....................
Pakistan.................
Philippine Islands.......

SOUTH AMERICA
Argentina................
Brazil...................
. Chile....................
Paraguay.................
Uruguay..................

AFRICA
"g-tb.........;.........
Fresh Morocco...........
Union of South Africa....

OCEANIA
"Auetralia 6/.............
aw ZealanK ..............


, Average I I I I ndioated
'. 1934-58 196 1947 1948 1949
2 3 i i 2


MEIMa .

.... .......a.......
ted Statea........... *.
a................ .


v Millions a Millions

2.638 3,583
I I -
S355.498 55.590
S 320 300
* -- o60


S 143 -
S 663 a 270
S. 1,693* 1,100
. 682 -
. 1,958 s 776
1,979 883
* 1,086 801
* 317 93
- 6,200 a 6,200
6,585 a -
550 349
, 1,050 a -
s 5,600 3,600
4 0 : --
* 1,978 480
S 369 155
3.500 2,276
A 250 a -
1.500 *2/ 532
a 1,700 a -
900 1,149
423 391
V 53,871 2,418
S/ 5.098 a 3,850
s 1,000 a 1
a

9 2 65
108 1 200
S 92 a 120
1,003 s 863

S 3,.5553 936
S .- 2,794
* a 571


2 I
1,127 a -

S 520
I a -
289 5 358
I I

751 -
: 1,000 -
: e
2 2
* 708 1.358
4 0o a -
I I


B/ elte totmpouto i aaaadtel UntdSats u at ray oe e


I/ Relates to farm production in Canada and the United States, but data for any oountries
bt explicit on this point. -/ 58 counties. J Year ending in May of year indicated.
W 3-year average. /5 Not available. W/ Commercial production.

Office of Foreign Agrioultural Belations. Prepared or estimated on the basis of official
statistics of foreign governmentB, reports of United States Foreign Service officers, results
of office research, and other intoration. Data relate to prewar boundaries, unless other-
wise noted.


c Millions
a
* 52
* 55,252
288.
a 60


I -
S 285
- 1,380

S 903
S 995
, 733.
* 117
2 6,300

*, 576
S 65o
a 4.300
a 30
a 1,052
* 198


I -
* 1,992
s 1,217

a 2,600
S 4,o000



S 60

a 90
S 895.

a -0
2 --

2 --




460
* 100
326



I --
* 372


1.47
I -


"* .













I?:.
C.


s Millions

4.279

55,168
276




350
S 1,.L40

1,110
a 1.568
S 920

6,100

S 367
750
4.450o
35
1,280
263



1",800
,raooo
S 1.535
a 520
S 3,000
4,300



48

110





250



2,160
a 370



l -

1434
i


Millions

3.940
i
55,500
264
-

*

380
1,800
-
1.380
2,100
1,080

6,500

350

4.550
35
1.540
330
-
-
i
-
1,500
559
3,500
5,000
-








year "nan in Isa. TIe imports or grains ana the reduced price or poultry ..
food provide farmers with an optimistic outlook, since export markets have
boon obtained* Danish farmers will tend to increase egg production under
egg-feed relationships as favorable as thoso currently prevailing. Do-
mostio consumption of eggs has been 10 percent higher than prowar dueo ..|
the meat shortage, but high prices will induce more sales and smaller horns
consumption. Danish efforts to provide high quality products in ample
supply have boosted their eggs to third place in national exports .

Higher egg production in the Netherlands this year has enabled the
resumption of exports at an important level. Current export lovols have
boon reached by the requirement that a portion of each poultryman's eggs
be delivered for export, in order'to provide exchange credits on the
import of protein feeds for poultry. The Netherlands has removed ration-
ing and in February dropped price controls. This has permitted consumers
to bid freely for their egg supplies at a price rich is profitable .to
poultrymen. Few eggs wore placed in storage in 1949. The 1949 hatch was
the largest since prewar.

Belgium returned to a not ogg export status in April. The Govern-
mont has been enforcing quality controls so that only high-grado .ggs will
leave the country. Although egg prices have declined, th9y are in favorable,
relation to food prices, which also have fallen duo to the larger supplies
from both indigenous and foreign sources. So far, diseases and overcrowded
poultry houses have held tho rate of lay per hon to a fairly low lovol.

In 1948, egg production in Ireland increased substantially under
subsidy from the United Kingdom and the Irish Governments. This govrn *'
mental aid has decreased in 1949, but the prices offered remain favorable
enough to definitely encourage expansion in ogg production. The Irish hope
that negotiations nith England will continue price-setting two years in,
advanco for unlimited quantities of exports, thereby permitting forward
planning by farmers. The Government offered high quality chicks at low
prices during the hatching season.

In 1949 egg production in the United Kingdom increased as a resultl" ,
of favorable weather and somo incroaso in chicken numbers. Food supplies, t
furnished in proportion to egg delivarids to packing stations, aro moro
abundant than formerly. Egg production in'Norway is still short, and
insufficient to mcet domestic roquiromentsj Egg production there is profit!'
able and conditions are quite favorable for poultrymon. The largo hatch
in 1949 is expected to ease the shortage by the and of the year.

Swedon appears to have ample ogg supplies. Homovcr, the low Governi
mont'support price in 1949 is expected to discourage a large hatch, this
year. The present high level of c:nsumor purchasing and the continuation
of meat rationing are expected to assist in maintaining a strong domestic
agg market. Further increases inSwedish egg production would induoo a
search for foreign market outlets.







p: ftvorablo to flooding for a relatively high rate of lay. Farmers can now
buy and soil soodindury cereals without transportation and end, use permits.
SNotwithstanding a French egg production higher than prowar, suhpplios to
V urban oonsauers are not always obtainable at reasonable pricooe

Tho Moditerranean countries havo not mado their poultry industries
objoots of primary concern, and thoir poultry programs have not boon
remarkably effective, Those countries are still hoavy importers of oggs.
They also import food for domostie production and continue.to operate
rationing and delivery production' programs.

O. Coohoslovakian egg production, while still materially bolow prewar,
has rooovrod somovhat from its. low wartime lore, Egg production has
S increased under Governmont control of hatchorics, which havo offorod moro
S and bottor chicks, Thie, plus improved food supplies, should considerably
S ease the shortage of oggs by this fall. Tho recently rovisod roquiroiants
: for ogg deliveries are basud upon the number of hootaros in eaoh farm, not
on the number of poultry as specified in the previous plane

'Austria received urgently nooded food imports through the assltanco
of ECAe Those may increase egg production. Largecr domestic production
and im'orts aru noedod to ease the black market trade in eggs.

Egg production in Greeooe has continued to decrease. The spread of
Newcastle disease and lack of concontratod foods are important factors in
the decline, High import duties on food and no duty on eggs oncourago ito
import of og-.s rather than the solution of domestic production difficulties.

South American Governments aro giving moro attention than in the
past to oncouragom;nt of ogg production. Vonozuoela is giving encourage-
mont to large cornhc.rcial poultry enterprises ..-ith modern production and
marketing methods, In South A n rica, the poultry industries generally
are based upon vLry small native flocks.

In Argeontina, Uruguay, and Chiloe, the 1949 food supplios'have boon
more plonuiful and the cg production outlook appears favorable.

Canadian farmers will produce about 330 million fewor oggs in 1949
than in 1948. Chicken numbers have continued bolo;* 1948 in spite of the
15 percent increase in hatch during 1949 over 1948.
The increased demand for chicks was relatively groator for
cookorols of.heavier broods than for pullots. This change in interest
results from tho doubtful og- export market for 1950. Currently, the
oggmfood ratio is relatively favorable.








L





::: ", pear. of A.ric t.re .....
Vaehingtah 25, D. 0. payomet o r

OFFICIAL BUSINESS

BAE-PES-138-10/49-3600
Permit No. 1001


~r
an,

5-44~~


%tma


3 1262 08904 0017
* .H..".!.: .
... : :. :
"'.A.... ..


41tt JA.


* I I
* ** ',. *"". 1


* 1:r










*1




AlV
S" v. .. v
., ,, :.:
"- ..% .. "..' *.! 1
*' "::' ': : ',




















.. : ..
: .
. -** a'^ 1














.
." i: -1. *.:i. :. lI
i;." ". ^:>ll":.:': :^"lr

'f fw
















I
j..