Poultry and egg situation

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Material Information

Title:
Poultry and egg situation
Physical Description:
v. : ; 26 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Agricultural Economics
United States -- Agricultural Marketing Service
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture. -- Economic Research Service
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture. -- Economics, Statistics, and Cooperatives Service
Publisher:
The Bureau
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Creation Date:
March 1949
Frequency:
quarterly
regular

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Poultry industry -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Egg trade -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
statistics   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )

Notes

Citation/Reference:
Bibliography of agriculture
Citation/Reference:
Predicasts
Citation/Reference:
American statistics index
Citation/Reference:
Index to U.S. government periodicals
Statement of Responsibility:
Economics, Statistics, and Cooperatives Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with PES 1 (Jan. 1937); ceased with PES-308 (Dec. 1980).
Issuing Body:
Issued by: Agricultural Marketing Service, Dec. 1953-Mar. 1961; Economic Research Service, May 1961-Dec. 1977; and: Economics, Statistics, and Cooperatives Service, Mar. 1978-Dec. 1980.
General Note:
Cover title.
General Note:
Description based on: PES-301 (Mar. 1979).
General Note:
Previously classed: A 93.20: and A 88.15/2:

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 000502977
oclc - 04506769
notis - ACS2711
lccn - 79643440 //r81
issn - 0032-5708
sobekcm - AA00005304_00011
Classification:
lcc - HD9437.U6 A33
ddc - 338.1/7/6500973
System ID:
AA00005304:00087

Related Items

Succeeded by:
Poultry and egg outlook & situation

Full Text






SIT UATI'QN'
BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

PES-134 m MARCH 1949


NUMBER
LAYER
1:. :i:.:.: ..Il :


OF EGGS PRODUCED ANNUALLY PER POTENTIAL
JAN. I, BY SIZE OF FLOCK, 1929, 1939, AND 1944


EGGS PRODUCED (NUMBER)
60 80 100


[:. ::.'..


0 ::0-199
{:.:".:. ::* "",

iio.3.-
^:: :....


120


140 160


....1929
1939
*. "1944


BASED ON DATA FROM BUREAU OF THE CENSUS AND BAE


NEG 47138-X BUREAU


OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS


;. The number of eggs produced annually per potential layer January I increases with
fl* size. In 1944, output per bird varied from 97 eggs in flocks of under 50 birds
1O1 eggs in flocks of over 400 birds. In 1929, the range was from 91 eggs in the
uest flocks to 118 eggs in the larger units. From 1929 to 1944, laying flocks of
:i:irds or over Increased from 13.3 to 20.7 percent of all flocks. A substantial part
I8ji increase in average rate of lay per bird--from 94 eggs in 1929 to 112 in 1944--is
r;to the shift to larger-sized flocks hhere birds are more likely to be commercially


DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


.-A



...:E I


. .. ..... .

% %
I I


A: A :2 ':11 AAA
+ +


, ,,
:..


go-ftft


I I I












1 item I




o etion .................... I

aLumber of layers on farm ..:

lay per hen ................:

civilian per capita
rpcs ....................a

e'agg production ..............

aeg production ...............

received by farmers .........

i received by farmers as a
eontage of parity .............:

1 price (BAE) .................

Of ead ratio ......................



Shell .......................... :

Frozen .........................I

Dried ..........................:

eoke hatched by commercial I
hatcheries .......................:

laks placed in 7 broiler areas ...:

W price of poultry ration .......:


Avth erage 19
unit a Month 1938-47 1 1949 1 1949 g


C1




C1


1


Mil. dos. : Feb.

Million : do.

Number : do.


do. a Jan.

Mil. lb. : do.

do. ; do.

t. per doz. a Feb.


Percent : do

t. per doe. : Jan.

Lb. feed : Feb.



,000 cases : do.

do. : do.

gil. lb. : do.


Million : do.

do. : do.

Dollars : do.


Ioena received by farmers for
;1hilokens ......................... Ct. per lb.

fOes received by farmers as a
)jeroentage of parity ..............: Percent

Price of chicken (BAE) .....Ct. per b.

sivea received by farmers for
p urkeys .......................... do.



Poultry, excluding turkeys ..... .. il. lb.

Turkeys ........................ do.

;i1ken-feed ratio ................. Lb. feed

Wrksy-feed ratio ................... do.

oei~pts of poultry at Central
W.eatern Primary Markets, per
Implant .......... .................. 1.000 lb.


Feb.


: do.

: Jan.


Feb.




do.
: do.
: do.




Sdo.
:

i do.


Poultry

19.3


Eggs

343.1

372.3

10.9


27.2





27.1


89

41.8

11.6



664

1,926




102.0



2.33


592.2

378.7

12.4


52.9

10.7

0.6

45.0


92

68.8

9.9



374

3,218

27.6


97.9

17.3


Ocaments


401.2

367.1

13.1


34.2

3.4

2.4

41.8


87

67.2

12.2



148

1,567

26.3


144.2

25.9


4.55 3.44




26.0 29.5 Drop of 1.2 cents from January 15


109 92 106

37.2 56.9 59.4


24.0 37.3 44.1 H: ave declined 7.5 cents since Deo. 5.'


122.0 192.4 80.9 a Lowest since 1945.

63.1 70.0 50.6 : Lowest since 1944.

8.4 5.7 8.6

10.3 8.2 12.8



7.2 8.8 10.0 :


"and of the month.


N.:..:
J











U ...ii


2 percent above last year.

3 percent below last year.

6 percent above last year.


* Running slightly higher than year Ago.





Drop of 5.3 cents from January 15.










Out-movement continued into early Maroh.

Less than half year ago.

Down 5 percent from laat year.


Indicates early hatch for replacement.

Marketing will continue heavy through
May.










approved by:Outlook and Situation Board Zsrh 22:1949


A- 6 p percent increa 'e in the. February 'rate or la4ve90ea g
,`tAn' offset t'he 3 percent feWer layers. on tfarms& As a result-f arm,
prduction for the month' at 4.,815 million eggps,, vas 2 percent ,larger
_Ibr r-946,, ThusL, 1949, egg production: exceeded 1548 levels'
usseoond,Coomeoutaiv-a at66 Prdcto during ihe: first half of,
qa ear, is likely to be -at le st'as large as, for the sume period of, 1948
Orge demand to date has: been negligible and in-iiovement pIoably will ntt_
(1 aterthan in 1948-

'I'Pice1s rpevdby farmers f or eggs., chickens,. and turkeys Ae
1- fsubsytantiallyt mbre from Jaiiuary 15 to February 15 than a year ago'
Ny
%aop vin farm egg prices wasz no greater than in, several. earlier years
th~e oen 'ts per,-p ound decline during the month on chickens vois the
on Leod Turkey prices also werep dovin significantly. The
end weakness in poulltry markets probably reflects the record broiler
lies and low~e -red. moat prices, 'With continued heavy marketings of,
"lpes and' earlier .volume sales of young farm. chickens and hens., total
Iekoei Supplies probably will be we'll above 1948 levels early in the
ond Ihal 1tof th e year*

Sales of 'farm chickens, in 19AD totaled 1.,770- million pounds, 18 per-
'e(below 1947:6: Sales 'of 'fArm chickens are likely to total larger this.
e thaa In. 1M4 because. of the expected increase 'in numbers of farm'
Ackens raised and also because there were more old hens In the January 1


An early hatch for flock replacement roses and a continued strong
andfor Chick& for commercial broiler production were reflected in the
bruary 1540 outptzt by commercial hatcherieis of 144 million ochickso A.
latively large 11arch. hatch- is in prospect and bo-okings of chicks for April
livery are substaxitiwlly larger than last-year.

An importantt factor In -he increasing. rate of lay since 1929 is the
eqnd -toward larger flock tize* Poultry-flocks of over 400 bird increased,
pm13 8 to, 90'07 percent of all flopka between 1929 and 1944,i By'the
er y;4r,, output per bird on the basis of potential layer's January 1
led from 97eggs" in flocks of under 50 to 150 ''g6 in Plooks* of ovrb


r n1949, United States egg. eicports are' likely to be smaller than
an viiaottesmo'oltyiprli'14 r-xet4


O= esalraAeprsabu hesm si 96





















earlier and culling of laying flocks was lighter in February Wtb
Earlier but, above average, Numbers of layers on March .1 were S
fewer than on February 1, compared with a reduction of abo 1.'2.l
last year, and anaverage of about 7 million layers, .. ..

Farm egg production in both January and Febrary. was lart
year, and aggregate output for the two months was 4-percent larl
January-February 1948 and 23 percent aboveaverzqge for-the perioiy
probable that production for the first half of 1949. will total ..a
large as for the same period of 1948. .Output' during the peak :p~
months of March, April, and .May may not be much 'different rd, .
last year because the rate of lay in those months is not likely ;,
much higher than a year earlier as it was in January. and FebrTia
is likely to be. in later months. The rate of culling during .the'
of the year is likely to continue lighter thap in the same peria 4

Egg and Poultry Prices Decline Mor. Than
Last Year From January to February

The price received by farmers. for eggs delmin5,5.3:AeatB
during the month endingFebbruary,15. At 41.8 cents, the farm, i
.*2 cents lower than a year earlier., While the. drop i. price* .a
than'-for 1947 or 1948, it was not much different from that. i.,.s6
years.

Although egg prices declined with seaaonallylarger pro
cases of shell eggs moved out of cold storage between February .na
bringing stocks to 148,000.cases. Last year, there was an into
movement during February of 105,000 cases, and stocks .on:Maroh. 1
cases, Commercial holdings of frozen eggs on March 1, 1949 total
lion pounds, 27 percent below a year earlier and. somewhat below':
Dried egg held in storage totaled 2603 million pounds,..5 .percem!
March 1, 1948, but slightly above Febrau ry 1. Host of the ..drio.'
were Government-owned. .

Although commercial oold-atorage holdings of absheU1 =A,% t
March 1 were already substantially.under the seasonal low" points of.,,:
1948, the out-of-storage movement continued into March. Store age: S, 0
T.4'-7;
vJ. s








al-, K wm
n,


114) i;y Im IlLt "0 0"
Year
'to O:r "Joy
tbo" P4artmerit, 6t
4,
suppO pir pro
Ae priice Chase
'U do zena tadbeen aaquir6
untl-, may le 0 to
4t"Oig'' "-attenipt
11110
'the toteZ 'I,
7,

will 6not -e-
'age ap 'JjOV, pi4ported, 1y the;
-'194-6 orage -,Dp I on bath'ah 111' eOl -frozet
1;zi the t 'ward l4rer, fa'11 r Oig,5 Pry-
g fa
pa L#qbra pe po vem
*)Oawi ti A ary),, cent6, v
0 'i2ian, a %6nth-carliet- but atill
r, 3 d6ht6 h 1 6'ev, ',than
wt4elO ts-per-p6und doclna'
-IL,gppt on record fot- thdtimonth,.- 'Shia pioba'Ij

11oultry, d"Ujr,e thLj a perx I& a-x*'
*OA'tb4y "Ueed ",to e'when Aoige a 6 r eke vere t6 m,Jpr
&4'ft` is Al't -e 6fthib year it _tri6es received -by,-fs*p'wLJ
he,:h.L.jgh-_dekpsp !o'f c'capetition
)stL,-ola'seh and. thp, -in
t
V j
P,5,a ry'mmt su#l*

Otrtont, Ma
go but- I broiler I qupplies are cbwldOxibly
oih r th n tu' ,aj
ofpoultry e rkeys an cl du c
14, phl" 43' pEr
;T41049 ttowltd to 8 til don 130un 13 -p- y. u4itAlb -10ee,"aa
5-hudlcs of beias Vero dow, 63 ercent, roastor8 oTf -64 p6*eob,
44'+ 6m d c) 13.'Pe dent from lAst, 1'.
ar L, vi
eZu y axart`chicen suppi
77
d betvien ZTWv- y 15
D& an
fii Ob a Olit -9 cen por poun
3f)r Prlk pjr,de Ce y
Rbooid 'f % Peoembel '25,)
While
+
aeho Er ot'Sd,,uiii o1a
ar b6t ie-r,
1" 'wore redured.,, in
'year.
y
roc aeit prioeb and largd:e. brq&;4r i tlngs.









Salve, of cqaee o farm ill '19 "64 4 *4i 7* ot
live weight aoxvared with 2815A4 rlllion paklads in d 47 ad
118 T ero aib* galete,Df-ofog. chU&W4n wet'e ot i, 3 apdrg
watake chi* pa -down p pero enb Of te td ta -'Ub& k .&A3 48
half-mre youUS-phiekpnt and aotathA4dtok
proportions aof -numbers, of young. wand ature ehice "s M,
48 pvrooatv, -reapativoly :

71VhA6_tAP:e~ Of feaDWe chiOWWsaW kgan al
slitirely 71row t2%e.poteialfla1 yiaAg tflOck"Oii hand JAt fo e,
year And-Srom-Male M.*ved '&rA? ree'diy prpos es,* Markpt"'iA P
ahicakep, _howevyerj,;are. *ostly from farm chipkenia ra'v ed: Aurip.
ealendat year plus small quan-bities cair is over from the previo
Bighdegfes p reltio"hip exist, between ,zales 'of jotur hd
andpotential, layeys J" ur, p. n ewenyugfn hicrkeha
fanchickens raiped *oen in~ventor'y chim it.at# included,'.4


Table q Salte of Ohickeos' from ~farm


Year -
aEmfe' Febj,:Mar4't 'May lJuneoJul `ug. + Spo Ot.

1943 .3*4 3e2 3*9 4,5, 603 %90_71 11* 19 13091
1944 4,_6 30A 4C15 iSo1, 703 9'6 10;$ 12.1 1208 ".4 k
1945, 3-09 503 3. 4,6. 8.6 844 10*6 12;4 14'D 1f5*Q
19q.4a7 -3.9 41 5 7 8 0 941 11't.312 5 139 13. 4
1947 t' ,3 :3,2 3j9 ;$*0 700 8:,3 1o.8 0 12 B: -13 1 *6
1940 .4133. 441- 541 4k. 0.0. 1051 U406 145: 1U.9
Exoluding commercial biroilerso

At 'thb eginning of. 19492 potalt ,ik Iae oh. f Arm=. hwAvei
413 2 million; paoecetleS~s than Ute _486 bilou on handJ
1948c. Chickens, otEhor.. than haqis and- plitle (inp1uding, natUr6e asG
birds) nuamber'ed, Z5*7 million on. January 1-. 1.949,, 2 perbeat, 10e
year earliero The dooline tn potential layers: ws less pert
thexx thpt5 percent declined in-salesz of. iwtupe chiokwiaa T0dkx*
over a somembt lArgi& number and broportton o0 .. heZs 3 1,9N
indicated by -the 144 9 millions heats an farms Januar 1 109
c ent more than on January Is 194 eA.
Lik ewi se a le fax rm er ta ised 14 pe o a t w r c iUed i
then In 194?, dy Irdbailed A, -agttahda rpri of 64,
raised~~' in14yq#awut ougtiksslswr of. 31
and pull ets ad farva. Jsanary 1,I 19ookit ta8 UiponaL. vre
c ent fmwe ithan a y(ar Aalp A dirollary,o:f operations of 'I
is that as. the -trend'toa~r4 groat;r and: greater" popo rt Ihaiji$9 1








7
e
,a
be' tl
14, 'o

All !P0
*4
AM
"Al f, -
,e, sm *f',,-;aes o*f' chl,*'.0ftq. 'from f6rd8,jnj!k,8
.4prjt' s.wil b6a-vl3r +
-!hv`year' tl= in, 4 an 1i ght r

plpr6Ent 'Ot' '7aW Vi totaJ,. co -t 7,
r t f, fi!at -4 ot 19483, the 'S'e4son
gt, 4 lk4
ed W P`

monh f. 11i tiar MV e,
than, i a 19-4j but dur'i4g, the hea-vy marketing, erlod, iA.:
6 r- mAr
'46wev ke t,-
Ay' io'- b e &ea Ve r. c espitq, 6u r e tly
I.. 1 w e .
,i5 taim ohldken is atO rAuced ge, is tb dk 3'.1 J.'=reas marketings Of
mal.1per -f4m. c4cken, in in
4-ye
Ii wt6h, 4.7, P r qsnt


4ng- the tedord $0.9 TAITIo cklq hataa
an lxpr ea se, a t-'Ust.j r tc'-'Februa'
:54'.-j-erciant abov ry
Vll,ioi3 qhj-I s waq 47 Pdrdent;"abq lastFqbruary. 'Th
Ailflj> 'k iep Ja a
robably, be,': nger
iaA,'began. ear er.,,, and,,p
e pgg"fb6d a:dd- chick6h-A
va a #e
inbrd f 6 bl Jr-
A. the &aud fo hid for commercial ilo;rprc
trpng.,, xelative
flock, .2n.t 4.s' CUrroutlY ly
e'num "Of 1z, iiCUItpf
i's1nprospQct,,as th P.-Apn
&ntlarger tliai year cer. he f P.
27 xer. T _miber A q hi ks-
-UAelixer- vtjiJwls 33. Perdeirt 14.rgev -W e


4j, z E,(Xr Chicko in 7'60ntT,6cial h Ei4 6 Cohtjyjjd 0
A ni
M)Alion, Cb! k' 5 pe'rcent owre t ha .'in' Feb iii
ith '614ccii ents arxd'e gks:A jz)Jubatot t1hrough mid-
"'OdUA" ,4*h4t mark 6's p a will pont heavy$ atlea-st
J14C:ticn t 6ivy 'brc')lI le
i, t IQcondl' Volume'iaarket'
f o1949
4,ton Of likay to t ',t*
ti total aticken swplies pftbaly will bln Val' abo'e
'19-v



All
A,








"'98 thiUiedSat'
% niaes'f 7pret |
18[a]eid eea olos,,Nr4
Cetao4, a ,WstNrh etm.
VeimN u
Ini- do*am.frtmUi d'tte W
I-p
ii-iiiii:
la rbr nrae b6ta =hb9
nTh1,yor 44e 1 pdi i
-4ule o h rai at o h'
rein nohraes, n o h
vee&othal-a eten12
;rr, htteices'i'te rt fUhs,eme $0ro
ovr ie n.ta infcicags1,tl ,ejc
| 'teidsiinte1s fwy~
diese a
P, th rei1090
Pultm aig lcsuaay
1w S~uai )to he-ncredit raes f' aY ad, he Uep,',
thsechigs nth jjeioa dstibtinotbe Nai
duto Otbr14 city d iuto- otio
i/ h:rt f/,o core, -eutsfo ptge, 1%
floc Imgd~ixvt. Oo ofthe f ator~whch apeat t, 4'01
mprtn inlec steS!ttwr









loeThp South Atlantio region ah Owe =hprt at 0 lnajenaee
adfrom 00.99 pe theSogdjtyh QCntfaj: re gion 'from 100-19l9 upl,
ahv isbribution ty Plnok s ize, n ve Wsthen reg nraid


Wh1lo in mrost begi, bni thore 3i a ixicrease in- tho, Xato o lyi
edk16 sltes between 19,I29 and .1944; 'the rtate of linrease vti i
Sloc sie. claosv4 show conqidorble, vriatione,

hor p -s-r-thotnited Stgte dp.i ah Ole nd for th Hast N1orth.
So th tAnt$16v and Wcstern regious,, ,output po ao in I194k
pst 'n' I'eh c 400 bjiazs ad]4 pve if, w as haghes t in fj ecks, of
Ubir ds !a, the, -orth ltia and Wt Norfh lar' repions6
oftelttrteidate'Mis 0.-4lgte ift the,South Cant'ral
th aewshgetin 1-6ks of betwedn, 100 -and 399 layers
\ph akition~frm th avrag ptb'rn probably reflect, differeatea.
fugItV tanco. of. the poultry flock, inteidvdal farm pIan, in
-ragions aud, in the-typo of dare -they, receive. is apparcMt
tbvults, in. tvrms.: of egvgs pr b4 rd in backyard flocks or othci snall,
hihreceive considerable attrition on -Lhe rart.0f the family
1# MaY bo atleaq-t'a4s, ood as in commorcal: fliockaO Undui most
40h ho vri ou Pet r birdd is. likolyt incr oaseo with f lqol
paqd',huncoo i boodomes, an' important: factor )in helin to explain theo
9"od kL6.::of lay since: Mg*9
fisobyioup, Aldo that ani inareaso in flook .ize will notpouo
newauts' unes he lnore~aso is acqompaniod by an impovoyment in
.practies. This marny xla z in prt w~y' the r,~oo lyi
1f'00 bird, o 'inavor -doplined in so-Te regions b'otwe'cn'1939. and 1944
ef bnao o-fldok -in hat si e %class increased maturiallye
qhows anterint: this class irAY have failed toz adippt management
ia;"s compa~rable to. thoso ,used producers earoady having larger

Compuaiosgh to thoeo -poetd heorin for ,ooions nay also
< ()ofd 'rdv a SEt "t -eo by us ing -tho samo'muthodoc, Basic data, a-re
daiablo f) vmet blqs, 10 12' and:14 of the Statistical 'Supplopmant, to the
brua*y 10*9.{ Putry =4 Lkbatiq..- The poroentages of phiokens hdon' 414afi 1 -f ;the years 19 140.'and 1945 (ta-ble 10) werri
Psolmed to bq approximately, repposqutat'ive, of 'Januar~y 1,j 1929 1939,s and"
4 and w7era In turn Applied to the numTbor of potential la'ycrs' on farms
4(aduary 1 '(table 14) of those ycars to. caloulato numbers of birds ip
ki of edifforpnt zizos,, Percentages, of chicken eggs produced by~lo
b (fbe I'd ) 1 abaidOsjus tod: s o that their, otAl wouldequxal,100 persernt,
el~mnatdg otsdortio ofpioduction vwhero'Buroau of Canosuedata4
Md no lawyerss on hand at thf, time of the surveyed Theso adjusted~pon.
Kbs wcro appli,d to oGg production data -(tmbie'14) :to caloulaic
0gg Production in,.flocka of diff ,Oront *size%; ..Dividing total ogg















In most years between 1917 and 1941, Us. S liorts of eg'6g wr
soamewat larger than exports, bqt beginning with 1942, impor .a...:
negligible in relation tq domestico produdti.on and .have so ooait :
until the preseat\tiaie. ports are still substantially h1ighot'4
the prewar years, but have been declining steadily since the fla
In the prewar years, quantities of imports and exports each vC&' "Ad.
than 2 percent of domestic egg production .

Practically all. of the U. S. imports of tqgs prior toq t.,it... ,;
were in the form of egg products (largely.dried egg) from Cit :
Exports in the period prior to the war, on the other hand, w.rd.Ej ...,.p
shell eggs, mainly to nearby; regions of Latin Aimeroa COurren i|a|j:. 4:
United States is exporting larga quantitios of.-ogg products .fo .
feeding in Europe and substantial quantities of shell ogg~ to- ,
countries and t6 our pre-ar matrots in the Weustcrn.HXiwspheree *
negligible import are almost entirelyy from Canadam -:

Exports and imports of chickens =nd turkeys have eaoh beaB ll:W d
less than 1 porcowt of domestic production in practically all yes
record. In 1948, declines in domestic .farm chicken and turkey ",&. 0'
tion were accompanied by substantially larger iteports, lowo.Or, Cqp.4 XtjUs
this increase imports weoe only slightly over 1 peor cat as lan.g :, :...i:
domest~. production. In 1946, oxports almost reached the ti-h. ,
lcvel, primarily because of the sale of accumulated stocks of .ea :..
poultry to foreign Governments through U2WRRA,. '
Imports of live poultry, predominantly ohiokent, are chief
from Canada, Dressed poultry imports before the ,.ar. came moatlg. :.
the United Kingdom, Lithuania, EHungary, Canada, Poland-Danzigy *Agjgi
and Japana, Turkeys from Lithuania, Argentina, Canada and Jape'a w ..:
almost as important in terms of dutiable imports in 1957 as chtiek L4!,
Many of the prewar suppliers are for all practical pirpl6aEI, r. : oI :
U. S. market at present. Canada has been our important posw:br-a Sa*.,,;|'
plier of chickens, with Canada and Argentinn shipping turkeys,. a.
Canada also some ducks and goes. ,.i.,"

Exports ot live poultry from the United States consiat W-lf.l'
of breading stock. Dressed poultry exports before the..war weth*
to Latin America and the Wqest Indies, Canada, the Philippines#, a
United Xingdom* IA reoiot years, somo exports hav'-also gono, *..a
countries of Weatorn. Europe. ,
**' 4i


.. .. ......







R WN
h y
f
Y.
lid 6e, 0 *Ik I
10 qcIiirtiqn_
tA
WTVA __ du"O, t;fo
44
It
"T h commaroi4l Indiler; Pr6duartt
tt'nb-t, on rotulted'in Lnqr, a0irgly lqr-gat
this 3 e., bii
ha, 3 PP la's-do ourc
dA-7aI-JkQd-,s,_Of&ot an the rulattv"e': !,com o -a 7
"I! iokellf; rotl 0 at and
of C i SLAe qpari ties f h
'ih storage hPLV4 t m"ded to increase sin e 1924 IT-Owevisr..'
troljltioyi to':Pr6dicti'an In
'-6eu exit' nalig'e (NovatbrAji,.,,Zqt,mboj 3_5;4$,:.T tr and


It ifr sq,_Mifdan td 3dt e, th,, 1.01W d0nlstiftte. a Triuch la
lenge3ld qhiOkws than in the:
tela-F"Ve -h6idings' of.ktoasters have t' d ed to ." de a 11nqj, ad I d.
erj, to 'jneroast slightly:.dur'
ing.'-wost months of the yor, 11oldings of
'44&s, however., now inako, up' alnuch"sra ler s of'total h

ThQ,
productkon:has recad,
od-tor r3t6ring, sxia I hi k,nd& Tb a me it:mq Also M
er YbUM4 0 61P
opnsumpti on from h.riftvler ybu.n' chickens to fryers.0 -The clpportunit_j;
imded+ 'tion of y outg, ohitkens'has 4ils I cn
.4-t q: qf ay in 'fa ft ock si vh i s ZA, a J., pos ibla
tnbT 08, t; ing X ch. h*
th eAti oz'J a, bgg _CU.Pply.. With r e1atively fewor layo T)dia
maAnt that it. Is., nqceszAry "bo iraise, relativ'ely f fvrm
.tIOGk roplacerptit Jeneej relatively.fewei farm
M comorcial b.;roilura. are ina rke t ed. than former Iyo

-ft IX4RC ai 0,0 th6%quArititLy of broildrs in -doldst4age
444,Qs ftOIiA*6,d 8 i xin e, the+ late 192atz' Frers have increased,- roasters have
ra 6 but holdings.of hens have., lue d'
qh ri prp8bly on the aver

Jf
ting tot a or ruiapita basisw consurwra,;tod :et 6-f th
T my 0, on our
weig,
_p of tho.r chick,= -diipplies from-ocnmereially 13r
Of the r 3maincier, representing Rarm chi6kens., IYeno bn
Wlt&erag'e$r'obj 'adoount for,,. 66, sliditilly 'larger firmotion tha;!C in
1:Yoa'ro* *Uro &-,orago:: waghts: of both an&_Mat 'j
been' Udroutlngl t4ite ii.breased jp-uWtiro puillot 'Ajo6 being
fewar:yoiing chiokens 'bqiz:Z m kbted',, Wrtur e
v;D.IZ t p
Ms PO"ly account fo Trom one-ha.1f to. three-f iftho.'j h
farm thi;" Marlntede







Tabl e 2,,- Potenfalk Ilayers ouf4
aad. peromhake Aitr-ibut on by


:numer :Percentage of ptevtilv a P

Region : of pe%6 lay er a ou farms JanV I sTotal i
and ztentialt in flocks of-,-egg
yea- :layers apr-
:on sUnder' 100- 1200. Over: etns
ifaryms : :60-919:23 S99 100 :tion. ISN50-

:Mil.r. Per- For- Per- Pe~r- Per.. Mi- erz Per--
i 41o o ent qemt cent p2mr cent lion cent cent

N, At l.
1929 z 41,j 12 6 17'3 20.6 19.2 30. 4-671.81.
19'39 : 16.2 917 10;5 14,8 1805 46,.5 62025. 863 809
19,44 6 6,0 6.4 6o7 10*8 1694 60*7 90026 7o1 601

ENCentv:
1-929, 8Z 82 10.2 25. 0 38.7 19,,5 6,,6 8, 058 10.16 24 7 9 9.
1959 :78'i 13.0 51 75 -18,1 6,,3 8' 511 119,5 23:3 ;Wil, 19 4j
1944 9:7B, 8.0 16,.7 36*6 26*9 11811,722, 700 167 ?44 f.

WQNfCent.t-
1929 ,119 1 50'0 15*9 410,1 32*3 6 7 10; 509 5'5 16o5 S9*$1 't
1939 :103e1 7*7 1996 41*4 26*8 44s5 10,p 18 71.1 18;1 41*,17
'1944 -152*5 3.5' 10.3- 33.9 40.5 11o8 17,200q Z., 10.0' 338 41 00

S6 Aths J2
192 :38.5 44,7 2106 .14,4 8;4 10'j,9 34.26S 409.9216l14.
1939 :36.6 4509 21j1 1-3 6 A ,8 10-7 5,326 4G.0 1,9.11 114"
1044 :49:8 36,4 23,3 1,6 10,3: 14.4 42685 3301 21.3 14, 6

3* Cent.
1929 :80.6 40.0 27.8 .19,7 8*6 -5,9 6v556 39-A. 27.1 R16 I
1939 :78.5 42,1 28,0 199.4 7,9 2.6 6' ,16 59'6 27A. 20A,
1944 :109*8 .28&5 V7o1 24,,2 13*9' 6o.310,,201 2.6tB 26*4, 26*Z 14

Western
S1929 41,2 13'0 12,8 12,,2 11-6 50o4 4#855 12 0.11,0. 0
1959 :33o6 1600 13e1 12.2 11:6 47.1 4,,114 13:2 1062
1944 4-5,9 13,,7 12.0 1209 1166 49.8 5$887 1206 1010


1M2 t40198 17-08 20;4- 28#9 ;9;6 18.3J S 78921 17,., 19.6 s
1939 :376*1 20.6 20p.9 a7, 4 16;b'9140'2 ",'843 1706 18;,T
1946 i52356 1309 .15,8 .25*8 23,8 20,7, 59$530 12.1 4.








1929,199arid 19)44,
Su bZr f ig 6pe potential:
ier Jtafpn' 1 lockso Regional

.ad' Und-5&9 10-9 200-399 Over:
Year 040

i-i4 o 0. 157 .113.4 125, P 114..0
199 115 104 188 127615 143.5 130,-3
$ 44$&2v 126,.2 13.1 4 13 .134-9

100.6 95;6 92.3 -98.35 1,4 9.
1999.4 111 109* 5 -116,8- 14.0,2 108.9
-3f4 A 103.8 ill,6 117o.8 120115 137,9 118*7

97.1 99.1 .86.5 85.8 96.1 88,2
& 9 0.5 93,j6: 9, 100.3 177 98.2
19 44 : 114-i7 -108,3 .111,2- 112.9 109,6 111,5

9 77.1, 82.6 87.5 96,9 104.8 84.6
1039 9. 2 95.6 -11-4.9 132.5 90.8
'#5 856 96.0o 92 105,2 121.0 94.2

1929 .75*3 80.9 86,1 100.2 8.
193 86 94*1 90.4 97.9 122,,5 85.9
1944,,;3 0. 98.7 98.9 92.9 92. 9

187 101..2 10Q5.1 1-20.8 1,26.6 117Y 7
193<3 11 95.5 10 122,5 143.2 122j6
118A1 107.0 1-12.4 115.0 143.5 1P8.3

1929.: "90.7 `90.2 88492 5 117.9 93. 9
1939 8P.2 92,4 99.9 108.29 141.8 103.3'
97'V.3 101.2 110. 1 11M. 129 6 111 8
r e fvom data of the Bur'eau of the Census., and the
thandi Ariciturl Eonomicso,





















Bls 5008 33003
11 23,276 13,278, 301: 92V
180962 28j962 gW 140 7"
17,669 17,669
410019 211020 Bss 6,1291 00 ''g
491 22*:575 32t 1,85 1 in

2 0,986i 109M88 12= 2 "
9 3,789 f 3 8,1789 1,24 2,lo 4,4 ,
2 6,848 39,4 ,0 26,849 1,04 p
a3j' 5.215423,063 .29 ZO
192 34,600 u.4194- 1,019 7
a450'5m 328 80a921 594: 12 55 3D96 U
r2 28,117 ID5 38,622 $47 20,14 al
248,996 0 25,30D0 OD 53,98
S26,6s" U2 27,156 290 26;73e 4, G k.
192 28&707 Gel 291368 25D 15,341 r= on
1928 W,162 SD8 80,70D ISO -23,474 4 j
2 2,675 '320 12,U64 308 201,050f6
1930 Is"79 129. 18,730. 317 16,166 072
93 \7,684. 260 79848 309 To 661 9P6 6
I% 2,534, 43% 29664 3,0866 1,3
Im 1,866 49 1,906 m5 3,6" 964
Is 1,928 'B 1991 1L97 15,178
-15 go..8 99,891 43t 7r, an221
IN, 2,098' 'm214 && ,9
IA 2 3f7 217 2a,50 50 10:350 uv69
s ,02 '2092 V8 ,4
s2,697 52,69t 329 2,271 ,8
UW 4,6n1 4,722 227. .2l,8671.
1" 31,016 75,442 14,5 ,8 ,5
IM 5,190, 150,810 461,477 1,373, "N2 o.
19" I'm 234,017 Ma97,9 sea, InsP1
aI 4 O09y 245,229 731),796 175 50
i* j,474 142 748 429*d4t 1i459 10 49
s 55,02 28,02i $64,294: 87
l a S8,157 62,829 22D,042 SS 718606 ,
19 26,951 40,665 132,625 1IST 36 &

%gproduote in #omuns, 1922-40 converted to shella"#xo qltwbbymiMrse *
mtpiror.*80*
avil~ables :-c
Beed on shell eg ny
Leess than onewtouth of I obroento






































.E,. afenaonB--ent. or one percent. ... ,
6 -.ggs and poultry: Shipments to Territories, calendar years,
.... ..- 1 1941.-48 ".

S" ; : Total :: : :Canned : Total as
Shell :-gg : shell : Live as: Dead as: as : dreeued
eggs prodst: '.iegg :: live : dressed: canned : weight .
:equivalent:: weight : weight:weight : equivalent
000 1,00000 po 1,000 1,000 1;000 1,000
S. doz. : doz. :*: lb. lb. lb. lb.
4 ... 7'785 :: 57 5,579 .- 75,9 79
..23.i:357 562 5, 37 : --- 5,35 5,345
...3 764 3,167 :: 2 3,294 324- 4,593
1ki- $*~'853 1,459 10,013 '::29 5,739 261 .6,784 -
l .: ", : iy2o 9,629 :: 106 .5,771 2' 39 6,819
S.: 3 584 9,810 : 299, 5,560 240 '6,780
i:, .a,6 9,276 : 47 4,638. 67 5,-125
i.. :. .. V 7.. 142. 3 28 2 050
.E: 19 4 50 .p : 4 3::. ".














S meat : :
*:.. : : :produced: :. :
.. S .:. *... **..
:1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 .1,000
A; : pounds pounds pounds Percent pounds ounds ds
9910: 590 116 635 2/ ""
.1911: 412 255 618 ../.. ..
-1912 381 354 689 /.
"1913: 842 446 1,187 2/ .
1914: 2,682 1,791 4,151 0.2 ..
: 1915: 2,488 820 3,009 0.2
1916: 1,134 625 1,623 2/
1917: 1,691 610 2,098 0.1
1918:. 677. 392 987 2/. .
.1919: 1,326 412 1;580/ ,:: ;
'1920: 1,593 2,867 4,269 0.2 .'
1921: 1,780 4,027 5,593 0.3 **"..
1922: 1,086 3,420 4,376 0.2 .
1923: 1,250 2,155 3,255 0.1
1924: 1,781 2,137 3,704 0.2 T ..
1925: 2,073 3,163 4,987 0.2 .
1926: 2,108 6,408 8.262 0.4
1927: 1,630 4,144 5,578 0.2 .
1928: 1,505 6,018 7,342 0.3 A. .
1929: 1,503 5,924 7,247 0.3 .,
1930: 143 1,476 1,602 2/ 67 1,167 1,228 .... :."
1931: 74 877 942 2/ 135 5,194 5,307 "
1932: 30 586 612 3/ 46 492 534 ...
1933: 22 ,11 430 2/ 1 154 '.155 /
1934: 24- .-- -499- 511 2/ 4 294. .298 .O
1935: 42-. 467 504 2/ 6 250 256 J :
1936: 1,205 '687 1,748 2/ 30 544 572 .-
1939: 4,783 1,204 5,412 0.2 59 269 323 *-
1938: 1,273 747,. 1,867 2/ 148 280 415
1939: 709 859- :1,484 2/ 1i8. 70 177
1940: 1,400 635 1,867 2/ 39 75 110
1941: 1,731 .287 -1,811 -.- / 147 408 .542
1942: 3,364' 183 3,143 0.1 .429 881 1,271. .
19,3: 212 2,273. 2,460 3/ '7 2,854 .-4 61
194 : 2,533 19,884 22,112 0.6 14 4-4492 '_505' ..
1945: 93 21,676 21,758 0.5 2 3,522 *3,5Z '
1946: .. 183. ... 300 460. 2/ .
1947: 12,355 1,449 12,322 0.4 1.677 49 : '$ ""
1948: 27,286 11n408 35,420 11 '4.,938 2,574. 7,6 'I
S/Includes other birde, Z Less than -onetenth'of one .percent.:
4 0 Owsna.











S: Tariff rate in
Item Unit : : 2 : : Tariff
:Act of 1922:Act of 1930: 1945 : 1948 : ar.

S I Cents Cents Cents Cent. Number


Eggs of poultry in the shell:
Eggs of chickens .............:
Other ........................:

Dried whole eggs, dried egg yolk, :
and dried egg albumen, whether :
or not sugar or other material :
is added ......................:

Whole eggs, egg yolks, and egg :
albumen, frozen or otherwise :
prepared or preserved, and
n.s.p.f., whether or not sugar :
or other material is added ....:

Birds, live:
Chickens, ducks, geese, turkeys:
and guineas ................:

Baby chicks ......................:

Birds, dead, dressed or undressed,:
fresh, chilled or frozen:
Chickens and guineas .........:
Ducks and geese ............... :
Turkeys ....................... :
Other ......................... :

Birds, dead, prepared or preserved:
in any manner:
Turkeys .......................:
Other .........................:

Birds, live, n.s.p.f.
Game birds l/la:
Bobwhite quail, valued at :
$5 or less .............. :
Other:
Valued at $2.50 or
less ....................:


DoS. :
Dos. :



Lb. :




Lb. :



Lb. :




Lb. :
Lb. :
Lb. :








Each:

Each :
Each :


Valued at more than $2.50 :
but not more than $5.....: Each :
Valued at more than $5 each :Ad.vaL:


3

2/


6
6
6
8



2/35
3/35



50


50


50
12/20%


10 1/5
10 10



18 &/27


713
2/5 713


/17


LI 11 2/7


8 b/4 3/2

4 4 2/2


2/3
9/3
10
2/24


10 10
10 2/5


50 10/25


25 711


50 2/25


50 50 2/12/10% 711
ag/20% 12/20% 2 10l% 711


/ Trade agreement with Canada, effective January 1939.
/ Geneva, 1948.
Geneva, 1948; rate not made effective on January 1, 1948, pursuant to article 27 of the Geneva
agreement, but became effective on May 22, 1948.
y Rate established by Presidential proclamation, effective July 1931, under section 336, Tariff
Act of 1930.
I/ Increased to 7j cents per pound by Presidential proclamation, effective March 1929, under
section 315, Tariff Act of 1922.
/ Trade agreements with Canada, effective January 1936 and January 1939.
Sot separately provided for; dutiable as poultry at 3 cents per pound.
Trade agreement with United Kingdom, effective January 1939.
2/ Act of 1922 rate was 3 Percent ad valorem; other rates cents per pound.
1Y Trade agreement with Mexico, effective January 1943.
_l/ Game birds for stocking are duty-free.
Rates in terms of percent ad valor.







* Table 9.- Fowl as a percentage of total cold storage holdings of fowl and chicema,
United States, by months, 1926 49 "

Tear Jan.l1 Feb.1 Mar.l1 Apr.l May 1 June 1 July 1 Aug.l 'Sept.1 Oct.1 Nov.1 Deo.1l
.Percent :Percent :Percent -Percent iPercent :Percent -Percent Percent :Percent sPercentsPercentsPercent
--:P;et:PwetiPretseca_ eensecn


. 1926 : 20.8
1927 : 21.5
1928 : 25.5
1929 18.3

1930 19.8
1931 24.9
1932 : 18.1
1933 : 17.2
1934 : 21.7
1935 : 26.7
1936 : 22.8
1937 : 27.4
1938 : 34.0
1939 28.2

1940 33.6
1941 40.6
1942 36.3
1943 40.3
1944 47.2
1945 : 61.5
1946 45.4
1947 57.0
1948 63.2
1949 : 59.7


22.2 21.6 19.3 16.4 18.3 23.4 31.0
21.5 21.4 20.6 18.8 20.5 26.3 28.2
24.5 25.4 26.2 24.6 28.2 32.8 36.8
16.0 14.5 12.7 11.3 12.7 27.6 27.5

19.1 20.5 19.7 20.4 22.3 28.4 28.7
25.8 29.1 29.3 27.3 29.0 33.5 38.3
16.5 14.8 14.5 15.4 20.4 27.6 30.4
16.4 16.1 15.3 17.1 22.1 38.6 47.9
20.4 18.5 15.7 11.4 18.9 33.4 43.1
24.2 22.8 19.0 17.7 21.1 31.4 35.5
23.3 22.5 19.6 18.6 24.5 35.3 36.4
26.0 26.9 25.4 27.2 32.7 43.5 46.9
34.5 36.2 34.4 34.1 34.9 40.3 39.2
27.2 27.8 27.1 28.1 34.7 43.3 44.8

35.0 36.2 38.8 41.3 49.6 59.1 61.0
39.3 38.0 37.5 38.7 39.8 40.1 42.4
35.5 3b.3 36.6 39.9 49.3 62.6 60.5
39.4 37.0 37.9 43.6 38.0 44.8 52.2
47.5 4b.7 47.4 49.0 52.9 62.1 60.8
58.5 54.9 53.5 44.2 38.4 34.8 24.6
44.6 45.6 44.8 46.0 53.8 59.7 61.0
54.8 51.6 48.9 49.4 48.8 49.6 56.2
65.0 64.8 61.5 59.8 57.1 58.3 59.0
57.7


29.2
26.8
30.2
25.0

26.2
32.2
25.6
43.9
39.4
34.2
34.6
44.4
34.6
43.1
62.0
43.0
51.6
46.2
56.8
26.5
57.3
61.9
53.4


21.5 17.0 19.4
22.3 20.1 22.7
19.6 14.6 17.0
23.0 21.1 19.9

21.9 20.1 21.9
22.7 18.5 15.6
18.5 18.3 16.9
34.5 28.5 23.6
31.1 25.6 25.4
26.0 21.1 21.4
30.9 28.5 27.2
37.7 32.7 32.3
31.0 28.0 27.1
36.3 34.3 33.2

50.5 43.9 39.9
38.0 36.2 35.1
42.3 40.9 40.9
41.4 41.5 45.5
55.3 56.9 59.2
35.2 44.0 45.1
56.0 55.9 56.6
60.7 62.1 63.6
55.5 59.4 61.4


Table 10.- Roasters as a percentage of total cold storage holdings of fowl and chickens,
United States, by months, 1926 49


year : Jan.1 : Feb.1 Mar. :1 Apr.1 May 1 : June 1V July 1' Aug.1 : Sept.1 Oct.1 : Nov.1 D: ec.1
:Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent

1926 : 49.8 50.4 51.1 52.6 55.0 55.1 47.7 34.1 23.1 22.3 33.3 41.2
1927 : 45.3 46.6 46.2 45.4 45.9 44.4 40.1 33.8 24.8 21.5 29.1 38.8
1928 : 43.3 45.6 45.7 45.9 46.8 43.5 35.6 24.0 18.4 19.8 32.0 39.1
1929 : 45.1 48.2 49.7 51.7 53.7 54.5 43.0 30.3 19.4 19.1 29.1 36.0

1930 : 41.9 44.7 43.8 42.7 43.2 41.2 33.9 27.7 22.2 21.1 30.5 37.5
1931 : 42.1 42.8 41.6 .0.7 39.5 37.9 29.2 18.1 14.7 20.6 30.1 43.1
1932 : 48.2 :9.2 4Q.4 48.3 49.0 45.2 38.9 32.0 24.2 26.1 36.7 45.7
1933 : 49.5 50.9 50.7 49.3 45.6 42.8 33.0 24.3 17.1 18.1 26.4 36.8
1934 : 45.0 47.6 50.0 53.5 60.4 58.0 43.6 27.8 20.0 19.5 24.6 31.5
1935 : 34.7 36.5 37.7 39.1 40.X 38.4 30.6 21.6 16.5 23.1 32.8 40.0
1936 : 43.0 44.8 45.3 47.0 46.8 44.1 32.3 17.6 10.2 11.8 19.5 28.1
1937 : 32.8 33.9 33.5 33.9 33.7 31.7 25.3 20.2 17.4 19.4 29.9 35.0
1938 : 37.1 36.4 35.1 35.6 36.0 34.1 28.9 23.6 19.9 24.1 33.0 37.8
1939 : 40.2 40.8 40.5 40.6 40.0 33.0 24.7 20.6 17.1 22.0 28.3 35.9

1940 : 37.5 38.2 38.0 35.7 33.2 26.0 16.8 12.1 10.5 15.9 25.1 32.4
1941 : 34.4 35.4 37.8 39.2 38.8 37.4 35.1 27.1 21.2 23.8 30.4 35.3
1942 : 37.3 37.4 36.6 36.3 35.7 29.2 17.6 14.2 17.4 28.5 33.7 36.5
1943 : 37.9 38.1 39.0 36.9 31.6 32.9 24.4 18.4 21.5 25.7 29.5 29.1
1944 : 28.9 28.4 29.8 2Q.7 29.2 26.5 19.8 19.8 21.4 23.7 25.2 24.0
1945 : 22.7 25.3 26.8 28.8 41.7 44.2 42.8 47.4 45.9 40.6 33.5 33.3
1946 : 31.9 32.7 31.9 34.0 33.9 27.0 22.9 20.2 19.8 20.7 22.1 23.4
1947 : 23.6 25.2 26.8 28.8 28.3 29.5 25.2 22.1 18.0 19.5 19.3 19.5
1948 : 18.3 18.9 17.7 19.1 19.9 20.9 19.7 16.7 15.3 17.0 18.8 18.6
1949 : 18.1 16.6




































Table 12.- -rollers as X parcMntage of total colA tore holoaip of fowl
4 .. .i. l ated States, by months, 1926-49


a'F .T6.1 '"b. I Nr. I 1 : Apr. I1 I 1 Ju 1 July 1 i.Aiug. 1 : Sept 1 Oat. 1 i aw. 1 : .
'J3a Ie set Purest roam=t Parent arenut PvCent Paraut urest PPercent Paent erSeat Par
4 M26 0o.1 18.3 17.9 18.4 17.9 17.2 20.3 28.0 41.7 48.5 10.0 0.2C3
2::: .9 1.8 '22.2 23.2 24.1 23.6 24.4 29.4 40.0 o 7.7 4o.3 A9j
.4 -20. 28.3 17.3 26.6 17.2 17.7 52.1 31.6 44.6 51. 41.5 3 .7?
.: 9I 3.1 22.4 22.2 22.1 21.8 80.9 19.6 35.0 49.8 50.3 39.4 32.5:


. J,


1~



IC


I I 25.8 i3.6 82.8 23.0 23.6 23.9 94.7 ?3.5 42.6 46.2 36.3 0i
L, 9.6 18.3 17.2 17.- 19.i 20.2 25.8 34.2 43.6 44.5 37.6 q
r i .1 21.6 22.3 23.3 22.3 91.0 21.8 T73 39.7 37.0 24.4 .1
| a 14.8 14.3 14.4 25.4 16.4 16.9 17.5 21.6 32.1 37.6 32.1 .t
S317.8 16.9 16.2 15.7 15.2 12.7 15.0 22.5 34.0 38.7 34.0 U9
..t .22o 2O.2 32.6 23.8 23.9 24.2 25.6 32.3 39.3 36.2 26.5 IS
I t 1.* 13.3 12.7 12.6 13.2 14.7 21.3 37.2 -..8 42.8 31.3 ~1
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