Poultry and egg situation

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Poultry and egg situation
Physical Description:
v. : ; 26 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Agricultural Economics
United States -- Agricultural Marketing Service
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture. -- Economic Research Service
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture. -- Economics, Statistics, and Cooperatives Service
Publisher:
The Bureau
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Creation Date:
April 1942
Frequency:
quarterly
regular

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Poultry industry -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Egg trade -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
statistics   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )

Notes

Citation/Reference:
Bibliography of agriculture
Citation/Reference:
Predicasts
Citation/Reference:
American statistics index
Citation/Reference:
Index to U.S. government periodicals
Statement of Responsibility:
Economics, Statistics, and Cooperatives Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with PES 1 (Jan. 1937); ceased with PES-308 (Dec. 1980).
Issuing Body:
Issued by: Agricultural Marketing Service, Dec. 1953-Mar. 1961; Economic Research Service, May 1961-Dec. 1977; and: Economics, Statistics, and Cooperatives Service, Mar. 1978-Dec. 1980.
General Note:
Cover title.
General Note:
Description based on: PES-301 (Mar. 1979).
General Note:
Previously classed: A 93.20: and A 88.15/2:

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 000502977
oclc - 04506769
notis - ACS2711
lccn - 79643440 //r81
issn - 0032-5708
sobekcm - AA00005304_00011
Classification:
lcc - HD9437.U6 A33
ddc - 338.1/7/6500973
System ID:
AA00005304:00071

Related Items

Succeeded by:
Poultry and egg outlook & situation

Full Text










BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

RA


L:
Ig
':U..' .


* DREBS3D WEIGHT DATA FOR 1942 ARE ESTIMATED


U.9. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


NEG. 42108 BUREAU OPr AG ICULTURAL ECONOMICS


ALTHOUGH LARGE QUANTITIES 0 F EGGS WILL BE EXPORTED THIS YEAR UNDER
THE LEND-LEASE PROGRAM, DOMESTIC CONSUMPTION PER CAPITAL WILL BE ABOUT AS
LARGE AS THE AVERAGE FOR RECENT YEARS A N D SUBSTANTIALLY LARGER THAN IN
THE DROUGHT YEARS 0 F THE MIDDLE 1930's. PER CAPITAL SUPPLIES OF CHICKEN
AND TURKEY WILL BE THE LARGEST ON RECORD IN 1942 SINCE IT IS LIKELY THAT
FROM 6 TO 10 PERCENT MORE CHICKENS A N D TURKEYS WILL BE RAISED ON FARMS
THIS YEAR THAN LAST.


PES-64


SITUATION


PRIL 1942


PER CAPITAL CONSUMPTION OF CHICKENS. TURKEYS,
AND EGGS. UNITED STATES. 1909-42


EGGS
(NUMBER)



400




350




300




250




200










THE EGG SITUATION


EGGS
I DOZENS I

8


7


6


5


4
CENTS PER
DOZEN

30



25



20



15


NUMBER



16


NEAG 3332 BUREAu-OF AGRICULIlURL ECONOMICS


FIGURE I


CASES
( MILLIONS I



12


9


6


3


0
NUMBER
MILLIONS i

350


325


300


275


250


EGGS PRODUCED PER LAYER

1941-

0






Average \
19 40
1,. ,


JAN. APR JULY OCT.


U 5 DEPARTMENT or AGRICULTURE






PES-64 3-


THE POULTRY AND E & G SI TUATI ON


Smimm'ary

Egg production in April reached the seasonal peak for the :ear and

will decline seasonally from May to Iovember. The rate of output through

the summer, however, is likely to continue much larger than a year earlier.

Egg production in the first quarter of lq42 was 16 percent larger than in

the first quarter of 1941l. The number of layers on farms in March was 12.5

percent larger than in March last year and the rate of lay on Aoril 1 was

5 percent higher than a year earlier. The prospective favorable relation-

ship between feed prices and e.rg rices will encourage delayed marketing

of old hens and better feeding of layers during the spring rnd summer months.

The Department of Agriculture is now making contracts for delivery

of dried cees in designated months up to December 31. T'..- action is

encouraging private firms to store considerable qi .antitie'" of both shell

and frozen eegs for drying later in the year. During March, the total into-

storage mover nt of shell and frozen eggs was more than 70 percent (q00,000

cases) larger than in March lq4l. The demand for eggs will be further

strengthened in 1942 by increased consumer buying power and large purchases

for lend-lease, and egg prices are expected to continue favorable for egg

production throughout the year. Wholesale prices of eggs at Chicago recently

advanced somewhat and now are bout 33 percent higher than a year ago.

Farmers apparently are goi- sahepd with plans to increase chicken

and turkey production. The hPtchery output of bpby chicks in March was 25

percent larger than a year earlier, and the number of ers set was 18 per-

cent larger. The number of turkey poults hatched in March also was greater

than a year earlier. Comparable increases over last year probably will not






APRIL 1942 4 -

be so marked in coming months, but it is likely that farmers will raise

from 6 to 10 percent more chickens and turkeys this year. Total and per

capita consumption of these products, therefore, will be the largest on

record. Despite the large sup-ly, prices received by farmers for chickens

and turkeys may average higher in 1942 than last year because of the prospec-

tive stronger demand for all meats.

-- April 23, 1942

REVIEW OF RECENT DEVELOPMEENTS

Number of Layers 12.5 Percent
larger Than a Year Aro

Unusually large numbers of pillets were added to laying flocks after
January 1 this year and as a result the number of layers on farms declined
less than seasonally and much less thin a y-ar earlier. In March the number
of layers on farms of the United States was about 12.5 -ercent larger than
in March 1941. By regions the increases in numbers of layers were as follows:
North Atlantic, 7 percent; East North C:,ntral, 10 percent; West North Central,
16 percent; South Atlantic, 13 percent; South Central, 16 percent; West, 6
percent. The rate of lay nor bird a-veraxed 4 percent higher than in March
last year, so that egE production was about 16 percent larger than in March
1941. Froducticn of ezzs in the entire first quarter of 1942 was 16 percent
larger than a year earlier.

Into-Storage Movement of ETggs Much
Larger Than Last Year

Large quantities of shell and frozen eggs rre being stored for use
in drying by private firms next fall and winter. In March the total into-
storage movement of shell eggs was 527,000 cpses larger than in March last
year and the into-storage movement of frozen eges was equivalent to an
increase of 400,000 cases. The total into-storage movement of shell and
frozen e=gs in ;M.erch was 74 percent larger than in March 1941l. Stocks of
shell eggs on Anril 1 were the largest since 1930 and holdings of frozen eggs
were the largest on record.

Egg Prices Strengthened During
the Past Month

Egg prices are continuing favorable for egg production, since
unusually strong storage demand is surplementinr strong demand from con-
sumers and from firms for drying. Wholesale prices of eaes at Chicago in
mid-Atril vere 1 to 2 cents higher than in mid-March. The price of fresh
firsts at Chicaeo was about 30 -ercent, or 7 cents, higher than in mid-
April 041l.









Prices of higher grade eggz are low relative to prices of other
grades, but average prices received by farmers for all eggs are continuing
much higher than a year earlier. The average nrice received by fari' _s for
eggs in mid-March was 25.S cents -per dozen. TI-is wa as'out 9 cents, or 57
percent, higher than a year earlier. The mid-Iarch parity price was 26.1
cents per dozen.

Farm Marketings of Fowl Smaller
Than a Year Earlier

Average weekly receipts of fowl at midwest primary nmrlrets in March
were about one-fifth smaller than in March lq41l, and continued smaller into
April. The percentage declines from a year earlier are less pronounced for
total poultry than for fowl. Data on "total poultry" for the midwest markets
include young stock and cocks as well as fowls. Receipts of dressed poultry,
fresh and frozen, at the four princiDal markets have been Fnaller in recent
weeks than a year earlier, but the total receipts since January 1 have been
a little larger than in the corresponding months of 1941.

Net Storaae Withdrawals of All Poultry
in March Largest on Record

The net out-of-storage movement of several clr-,-es of poultry in
March was the largest for several y;,'Ers, and thef net withdrawal of all
poultry for the month was the largest on record, e:-ceedir.n by about 2 million
pounds the previous record out-movement of .i-rch l037. Total stocks on
April 1, howc--er, were Fjout 10 percent inrer than a year earlier and were
the largest on record -cr that date. Increnrps in April 1 holdings over a
year earlier, by classes, were as follows: oilers, 52 percent; fryers, 19
percent; roasters, 6 percent; ,nd fo.rls, 11 percent. Stocks of turi:eys were
about 3 percent smaller than lrst yeTr and holdings of ducks were Pabout the
same as on March 1, 1941.

Wholesale Prices of Chickens and Fowl
Steady During the P st Month

Wholesale prices for live fowl at Chicago were steady during the
month ending in mid-April, continuing somewhat higher than a year earlier.
Prices of heavy young chickens ad- niced to new highs for the year in early
Akril, but prices of lighter weig'c young chickens were fairly steady.
Prices of young chickens in the East, in general, have be prices at Chicago, and, as a result, s.3lne live and ice packed chickens have
been shi-ped to Chicaao and other mid-restern cities from specialized produc-
ing areas of the East.

The average price received by farmers for chickens in mid-March--1S.0
cents per pound--was 25 percent higher than a year earlier and 7 percent
above the mid-March parity price.


PEs-64


- 5 -






APRIL 1942


OUTLOOK EGGS

BACYGROUIf.- In recently revised estimates of egg production the
levcl of0 output for recent years was raised somewhat. The esti-
mate of 1941 farm production was revised frrm 3,393 million dozens
to 3,490 million dozens. InasmTach as the whole level has been
raised, the 1942 production goal, which calls for a 13-percent in-
crease over the 1941 output, likewise is raised. The goal restated
on a basis comparable to the revised estimates is 3,932 million
dozens compared with 3,822 million dozens, the original goal for
farm-produced eggs. The goal for total egg production (includ-
ing nonfarm output) in 1942 is n4w 4,325 million dozens. National
and State goals, in terms of percentage changes from 1941, have
not been altered. Because of the revisions in estimates for in-
dividual States, of course, the 1942 State goals, in terms of
actual increases in dozens over the 1941 output, are changed
somewhat.

Pertinent aspects of the outlook for eggs as discussed in recent
issues nf this report are sun arized below:

1. Because of the favorable fcd-cgg ratio in prospect, it is likely
that the number of layers will continue larger than a year earlier and that
the total egg output for the year will be at least 13 percent larger than in
1941. This is the increase called for in the 1942 production goal.

2. Large purchases of eggs by the Department, primarily in dried
form, will s-prlemcnt thi stronger conE.um r demand, and as a result egg prices
probably will continue favorable for egg production. The equivalent of sev-
eral million cases of sh?ll and frozen eggs are bcing stored for drying next
fall and winter. This has r::sultci in a- strong storage demand. On August 1,
the usual tim- of peak holdings, stora.e stocks of eggs may be nearly twice
those of August 1, iS41l.

3. As a result of a 6 to 10 percent increase in the number of chickens
likely to be raised on farms this year compared with 1941, the number of
layers on farms at the beginning of 1943 probably will be about 5 percent
larger than in early 19'2.

OUTLOOK CHICOETS

BACKGROUT D.- Production of chickens in the United States increased
considerably in 1941. if Total supplies last year were the largest
on record and a further increase is taking place this year. As a
result of these large supplies, prices received by farmers for chickens

1/ On the basis of information from the 1939 Census of Agriculture and. other
information, estimates of chicken and egg production on farms of the United
States have b'en revised frou 1934 to date. In the revised estimates, data
on farm production of chickens and on cor.nercial broiler production are pre-
cented separately. Copies of reports containing these estimates may be
obtained upon request to the Division of Economic Information, Bureau of
Agricultural Economics.









THE POULTRY SITUATION


POUNDS
( MILLIONS)


40



30



20



10



0
CENTS PER
POUND


18



16



14



12
MILLIONS


250


200


150


100


50


0


FIGURE 2


JAN. APR. JULY OCT.
* INCOLDES BROILERS. FRYERS, AND ROASTERS
NBI.3BU4 BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS


JULY OCT.
a 18T OF THE MONTH


4b. DEPUITMENT OGLAI1CULTUSE






APRIL 1942


have not increased as much as prices for some other products.
Increases in cash farn income front chickens, however, compare
favorably with increases in income from other sources. Cash
income fror farn chickens in 1941 was 2147 million dollars and
income fro.n broilers was S9 million dollars, making a total of
336 million dollars. This was aboe.it one-third larger than the
253 million dollars in 1940 and was the largest since the record
of 374 million dollars established in 1929.

March Hatchrry Output Lr:egst
on Record for Any Month

In March about 242 million salable chicks were produced by connercial
hatcheries in the United States. This was 25 percent larger than the output
in March 1941 and about 1 percent larger than the previous record monthly
output established in April 1939. The rnuiber of eggs set in the first half
of April was 18 percent larger than a year earlier indicating a new monthly
record output is likely in April. Th: largest increase in hatchery output
occurred in the West North Central States. Production in this area was 50
percent larger then in Mvrch 1941, and accounting for 28 million of the 4S
million increase in total number of chicks hatched as compared to the cor-
responding month last year.

A less favorable relationship between feed prices and chicken prices
in the East has resulted in sone weakening in the demand for chicks for
broiler production. Sonme hatcheries mi. eastern broiler areas' reported 40
percent fewer chicks hatched in 1 arch this year thrn last. In the South
Atlantic States as a whole, however, (including the Dolawaro-liaryland-Virginia
broiler area) the hatchery output was 21 percent larger than in March 1941.
Favorable prices for live chickens at Chicago in recent weeks have encouraged.
continued heavy production in the mid-western broiler areas. Although market
supplies of con -.rcial broiler will decline seasonally during the next sov-
eral months, the total output this year is expected to be fully as large as
the 175 million produced last year, if not larger.

Number of Chickens Raised on Farms This Year
i_.~. CL. *-._., -..-- :-". or Exceed Previous
-ecrre.z U L. -i guns

Ronuironents for flock repla.conent purposes have been largely responsi-
blo for the strong den-and for chicks in recent months. The favorable relation-
ship between fend prices and egg prices has resulted in a particularly strong
demand for chicks in the Mirdwest.

Comparative increases over a year earlier i,- the output of baby chicks
nay be reduced considerably in the ne.:t few weeks front that for the first
quarter of 1942. In lCL1 the A.crnan.d for chicks was stepped un considerably
aftrr A.. I:- 1 as a result of the a.vw.'ce in egi prices and the assuranco given
by the Dr.rri-no:t of '-',iculturo that egg -D-ices wo-ld. be supportci In the
late s:.ri;.,' :.nd car.y s',-.ic the dor.and for chicks riaz not be as strong as in
the ce'rrcc orioning period. la.. year. Ir.n l'4l the or.t-t;t of chiJcksn ta ,-ay and
June was arcr thvn 103 million larger thna in the corresponding months of
1940, aind the avcrazCe Latching date even in that year was later than usual.


- 9 -









Total hatchings in the first quarter of this year were 19 percent larger than
in the corresponding 3 months of 1941.

Number of chickens raised or fcr.s by regions, selected years

Number of birds raised : Previous :Percent-
record high : ag
S: : : previouss
Region : : : : : Year : record
1930 : 1940 : 1941 u : esteb- : is over
: : : raised: lishod : 1941
: : : : : : number
: Thou- Thou- Thou- Thou-
: sands sands aiM-s sands Percent

North Atlantic : 51,522 72,593 79,.23 57,235 1936 9.3
East North Central : 156,322 124,714 139,745 160,298 1933 14.7
West ITorth Central : 230,339 174,960 207,766 230,339 1930 10.9
South Atlantic : S1,258 71,483 Sl,609 39,397 1932 9.5
South Central : 152,571 124,420 151,064 160,82S 1927 6.5
Western 74,929 48, 35 5yg23 74,92G 1930 31.9
United States : 776,971 617,oo5 716,G30 3o03,016 12.0

I/ Record for the United States was established in 1930 wher. 777 million
birds were raised. This was 8.2 percent larger than the n-umibr raised in
1941.

The phenomenal increase i: cir'ncrcial broiler production in recent
years has supplenonted the supply of chicken neat originating on general farns.
The total supply of chicken neat in 1941 was the largest on record, and a fur-
ther increase is likely this yerr. Per capital consumption of chicken in the
United States in 1942 will be the lorcest on record. Because of the stronger
consumer purchasing power and the strong d&ennd for all neats, however, it is
likely that prices received by farmers for chic-ons will average higher this
year than last. With large supplies of some cuts of pork earmarked for lend-
lease purchases, a considerable shift to other nets probably will occur.
The index number of wholesale prices of neats in nid-March was 30 percent
higher than a year earlier.

TURKEYS

Number of Turkey Poults Hatched Lar:.er
Than IgLt Yerr

The strong demand. for turkey poults indicates that famrnrs rre going
ahead with their plans for exparnding turkey production. In early February
farmers indicated they intended to start S percent nore poults this year than
last. In the month of March, 87 hatcheries in the United States produced 39
percent more poults and set 16 percent more turkey eggs. Advance orders also
were larger than on April 1, 1941. Although the increase over a year earlier
may be smaller from now on than it has been so far, it is likely that from
6 to 10 percent more turkeys will be raised this year than were raised in
1941. This would result in the largest domestic supply of turkey on record.


PES-64


-9-







APRIL 1942


Despite this increase in supplies, it is likely that prices received by
farmers for turkeys this year will average higher in 1942. The increased
domestic consumer demand for all moats will be a strong factor tending to
bring about higher turkey prices.

FEED SUPPLIES AID PRICES

The disappearance of corn during the first quarter of 1942 was the
largest on record, 23 percent greater than in the corresponding quarter of
1941. Stocks of corn on April 1 were 3 percent smaller than the record
stocks on April 1 last year. If corn is utilized at this rapid rate, as
now appears likely, stocks of corn remaining next October 1 probably would
be between 500 and 550 million bushels or 15 to 20 percent below the 1941
carry-over.

Changes in prospects for 1942 crops will be a major factor influenc-
ing feed prices during the next few months. The loan rate on corn in 1942-43
may have less influanco on prices than it has during any of the past 4 years.
The price coiling on tankage was lowered $6.00 per ton and meat scraps $5.00
per ton effective March 26. The cost of a poultry ration based on Chicago
prices was steady during the month ending in mid--April, and the feed-egg
ratio continued more favorable than a ycar earlier and. more favorable than
average.

DOMESTIC DEWAIED

During the past few months, conditions directly affecting the consumer
demand for farm products have changed little, but it is expected that further
improvement will be noticeable shortly. This prospect is based on anticipa-
ted increases in industrial production and employment and the growing impor-
tance of Government purchases of fnrm products. Moreover, the increasing
scarcity of consumers' durable goods will tend to divert purchasing power to
those items in more adequate supply, including farm products.

Widening controls over prices and uses of scarce items arc moderating
the advance in both wholesale and retail prices. But continued expansion in
consumer income, declining production of consumer goods for civilian use,
and growing military and lend--lcaso needs combine to exert a strong upward
pressure on prices. Consequently, the moderate upward trend in the general
price level probably will continue.

CONSUMPTION OF POULTRY PRODUCTS IN THE UNITED STATES, 1909-41

Estimates of total and per capital consumption f poultry and eggs for
the period 1909-41 are presented in the acconparying tables. These estimates
for calendar years are constructed from available data on production, imports,
exports, nonfood uses, and stocks at the beginning and the end of each year.

Total production of eggs consists of the estimated farm output plus
10 percent of such production to allow for the nonfarm egg production. Data
on storage stocks at the beginning and end of each year include only United
States holdings of shell and frozen eggs. Data on year-end holdings of dried
eggs in past years are not available. Figures on imports consist of shell


- 10 -






- 11 -


eggs and the approxiucts shell eg: ecq.ivalont of ciricd a-nd frozen egg prod,-
r-ots, Export data incluc'.e shell mgs only. Heretofore, exports of egg
products have not boon reported scplratcly, i.e., dricc eggs rnd frozen eggs
have been reported in a composite figure, The quantities of egg products
exported, were small through lc!'0, so no large error is introduced ns a re-
sult of this omission. The Department of Commerce has begun to report these
products separately, so when the data are again published it will be possible
to determine the shell egg equivalent of all eggs expo-'ted from thz United
States. The quantities of eggs usid. for hatching wcrc estimated from the
number of chickens raised annually in the United States and the average number
of eggs required per bird raised. The total number of eggs used for hatch-
ing, therefore, includes eggs used by commercial hatcheries and the- quantities
used by farm and nonfarm poultry raisers who d.id not purchase their chicks.

The estimated total output of chicken in the United States is based on
the estimated quantity produced and consumed on fnrms and the quantity sold
from farms, with a 10 percent addition to those two items to allow for non-
fnrm production. Total output in recent years also includes the estimated
production of commercial broilers. The total quantity was converted to
dressed weight by assuming that blood and feather loss avcragos 12 percent.
Data on storage hol-lings include total stocks of poultry less ducks and
turkeys, ,'hen such classes wore reported scprratol-., Data on o:xports and im-
ports of chicken consist of the dr ssed weight of live and "dead" chickens.

The annual output of turkeys includes the quantity sold front ferms and
the quantity consumed on fnrrs. Dressed weight is determined by assuming
that the blood and feather less amounts to about 9 percent of the live weight.
Exports of turkeys have been nei;ligible, and the data of such shipments have
not been reported separately.

In estimating the consumption of poultry products no attempt was made
to estimate variations in waste. Since there probably is less waste by con-
sumers in a period of depression t'hn in a p-riod of oenr-ral prosperity, the
variations between periods in total and per capital consumption of poultry
products may not be as great as indicated by the estinates. Another source
of error lies in the method of allowing for the quantities produced by people
other than farmers. In spite of these and other possibilities of error,
however, the estimates probably ar.c raccurate enough to indicate significant
variations in the consumption of poultry products.

United States foreign tradc in poultry products has been relatively
unimportant and the quantity of poultry 'ind ci-s utilized annually in this
country has been about eq.:-ivalen:t to the quantity produced. Production of
poultry products responds more readily to changes in denn-.d end other factors
than most other livestock enterprises. Changes in doneand therefore are
largely responsible for the fluctuations in the level of per capital consump-
tion. This is particularly true for Oggs. In come ir.3tn ces, of course,
the influence of other factors predo.iinctes. During World. Wrr I, for exn-iple,
a strong demand for all foods prevailed, but as .a rcult of the unfavorable
relationship between food prices and erg prices and the limited supplies of
feed available, the total output of chickens and eggs did not expand.


rES-64







APRIL 1942


The largest annual per capital consumption of eggs occurred in the late
1920's. As a result of the decline in demand in the early 1930's and the
shortage of feeds in the middle of that decade, per capital consumption of
eggs then declined to the lowest level since World War I1 In recent years,
supplies of feed have boon more abundant, demand has strengthened, and egg
production has increased considerably. Very heavy lend-lease requirements
can be met this :ear without reducing per capital consumption in this country
below the average for the last few years. Stronger domestic demand will be
reflected this year in higher prices rrnther than in further increases in per
capital consumption.

Per capital consumption of chicken has fluctuated less during the last
3 decades than the per capital consumption of eggs. The largest average
quantity consumed per person was in 1930, when supplies of chicken came large-
ly from flocks raised primarily for producing eggs. In recent years, espoc-
ially since 1935, production of commercial broilers hns increased considerably.
With the additional outrut on general farns, domestic supplies of chicken in
1942 (total and per capital) will br the lrr;ecst on record. The importance of
chicken in the mcat portion of the average Ancrican's menu is indicated in
the following comparison of quantities cons.rmcd per capital.

Pcr capital consumption of uicats, United States, specified periods
(droescd weight)


Ith I10-14 1920-24
: Pounds P or.:Is


Beef ................... ........ ...: 66.1
Yeal ......................... .. : 6.7
Lamb and button ..................: 7.2
Pork (excluding lard) .............: 66.3
Total (above) ......... ......: 14.3
Chicken .................: 2C.0
Turkey ..............................: --
Total .... ............ .. .. 16 .3
___ ~m ~ W l O O @ D ~ l I e __ __ 0_ ____________________*______


193C-34. 1941
Pound. Pounds


58.7 50.3 63.1
?.o 7.0 7.6
5.4 6.8 7.0
6g.7 6s.o 70.
1l0.9 152.1 148.1
18.7 20.0 20.3
--- 2.0 3.6
159.6 154.1 172.0


Turkey production in the United States has increased considerably
since 1929 rs a result of the general adoption of highl-ly specialized produc-
tion mnthor.s. Per capital consus.ption has been incrcnsing for several years
and will establish a icw record high this year.


- 12 -






--13 -


Table 1.- Eggs: .Consumption in the United States, total
and per capital, 1909-41


:Total egg: storage :
Year produc- :stocks at: Imports : Exports
tioan./ :beginning: 2/ : J3/
| i of year : :
:Millions Millions Millions Millions

1909 27,830 --- -- 59


1910
1911
1912 :
1913
1914 :
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919

1920
1921
1922
1923
1924 :
1925
1926 :
1927
1928
1929

1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938 :
1939
1940
1941 S:


29,700
32,340
31,130
30,910
30,690
32,890
31,6:30
30,470
30,800
33,550

32,670
33, 880
36,300
38,500
38,051
38,466
40,973
42,490
42,525
41,713

42,974
42,385
39,923
39,065
37,872
36,970
37,987
41,320
41,092
42,727

43,544
45,943


m---
m---


543-
359
618
359

753
424
516
703
1,019
594
945
730
758
1,071

790
1,502
1,312
603
861
864
1,024
732
1,347
712

885
925


89
62
46
135
223
202
31$
2453
345
586

6ol
629
646
372
494
692
635
435
424
6240

534
403
120
110
90
270
320
330
77
59
85


6s
159
228
212
252
268
339
239
251
465

322
399
415
368
337
300
320

242
145

223
92
23
22
23
22
25
29
25
32

55


: GCold- : : : Col


:'ggs nsed: store
: for :stock


'age
:s at


:hatching : end of
: 4/ : year
Millions Millions

1,275 ---

1,392
1.343 ---
1,311
1,350
1,393 ---
1,3:8 ---
1.337 359
1.360 61$
1, 46 359
1.427 753

1,392 424
1,493 516
1,571 703
1,63k 1,013
1,632 594
1,665 945
1,7514 730
1,30o 738
1,671 1,071
1, 78 790

1,736 1,502
1,615 1,312
1,634 603
1,642 861
1,467 g64
1,4g7 1,024
1,6o6 732
1,377 1,347
1,S45 712
1,603 S85

1,497 925
1,776 3/


: Consumption

: Total : Per
Total canita
capitala
Millior.s 8gg

26,496 292


28, 329
30,900
29,637
29,483
29,268
31,456
30,506
29,095
29,707
31,850

31,886
32,520
3L,773
36,554
37,001
36,8 42
39,749
40,715
40,753
40,721

40,737
41,271
39,095
37,253
36,469
35,571
36,968
39,679
40,294
40,978


42,037
42,052


307
329
311
303
295
313
299
281
284
303
299
299
315
326
324
318
333
342
338
334

331
333
313
297
289
280
289
308
310
313

319
316


j7 Includes nonfarm production estimated at 10 perc
2/ Shell egg equivalent of eggs and egg products.
SShell eggs.
4/ Estimated from the total number of chickens rais
the average number of eggs required per bird raised.
5/ Complete data not published for 1941.


ent of farm production.


ed in the United States and


J







APRIL 1942


- 14 -


Table 2.- Chickens, dressed weight: Consumption in the
United States, total and per capital, 1909-41 I/

: Production : Cold : : Cold : Consumption
: : : : storage:* : storage!
Year Farm C Com- : : stocks I: portsExports: stocks : Per
: 2 mercial : Total : at be- r: r s at end :Total
: :broilers: ginning: : of year: : apita
:____:___ :ffyear3 /: : 3Z :_
:Million Million Million -Million Million Million Million Million
:pounds pounds pounds pounds pounds pounds pounds pounds Pounds


1909 :
1910 :
1911 :
1912 :
1913 :
1914 :
1915 :
1916 :
1917
1918 :
1919 :

1920 :
1921
1922 a
1923 :
1924
1925
1926 :
1927
1928
1929

1930 :
1931 :
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936 :
1937 :
1938
1939 :

1940 :
1941y:


1,774
1,904
1,955
1,896
1,885
1,907
1,928
1,878
1,857
1,896
1,976

1,932
1,952
2,076
2,172
2,226
2,280
2,341
2,474
2,417
2,442

2,626
2,426
2,465
2,572
2,307
2,189
2,373
2,211
2,108
2,288

2,200
2,296


85
108
134
172
211
258

320
426


1,774
1,904
1,955
1,896
1,885
1,907
1,928
1,878
1,857
1,896
1,976

1,932
1,952
2,076
2,172
2,226
2,280
2,341
2,474
2,417
2,442

2,626
2,426
2,465
2,572
2,392
2,297
2,507
2,383
2,319
2,546


29
GO
100

82
73
96
91
83
138
105
134
108
99

131
100
106
93
103
110
87
148
92
110


1
1
1
4
3
2
2
1
2


29
60
100
82

73
96
91
83
118
105
134
108
99
131

100
106
93
103
110
87
148
92
110
109

140
161


2,520 109
2,722 140


1,774
1,905
1,956
1,897
1,886
1,911
1,931
1,851
1,828
1,857
1,996

1,945
1,935
2,079
2,177
2,190
2,292
2,316
2,501
2,429
2,414

2,656
2,418
2,478
2,560
2,384
2,319
2,447
2,442
2,301
2,545

2,489
2,701


19.5
20.6
20.9
19.9
19.4
19.3
19.2
18.1
17.7
17.8
19.0

18.2
17.8
18.9
19.4
19.2
19.8
19.7
21.0
20.1
19.8

21.6
19.5
19.8
20.4
18.8
18.2
19.1
19.0
17.7
19.4

18,9
20.3


88 percent of live weight.
2/ Consumption on farms and sales, plus
production.
/ Total poultry less turkeys and ducks
July to December.
Less than 500,000 pounds
Preliminary. Dat8 on foreign trade J


10 percent of same to allow for nonfarm

when reported separately.


for first 9 months only.






PES-64


- 15 -


Table 3.- Turkeys, dressed weight: Consumption in the United States,
total and per capital, 1929-41 i/


: : Cold :
Turkey : storage :
Year :productionstocks at: irpor
: 2/ :beginning: 3/
_: _: of year :
: Million Mijllion Milli
: pounds pounds pound

1929 : 213 10 --


1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939


1940 :
1941 j:


on
s


216
214
264
298
284
267
361
346
355
422

482
474


: Cold :


: storage :
:stocks at:


ts


Conslmnotion


; Total
ii


end of
year
Lillior.
pounds

10

5
10
15
16
19
17
35
26
23
52

61
50


:Per ospita
:


Pounds

1.8

1.8
1.7
2.1
2.4
2.2
2.1
2.7
2.8
2.8
3.00

3.59
3.64


I91 percent of live -ieight.
Sales, plus consumption on farns.
Exports not reported separately.
Less than 500,000 pounds.
Preliminary. Foreign trade data available for first 9 months only.


Million
pounds

213

222
214
260
297
281
269
344
355
358
393

474
485









Table 4.- Egge: Production, storage holdings, purchase by the United States
Department of Agriculture and commercial hatchery operations

Storage stocks. fir, t Eggs purchased by the USDA C ercial hatch.

Number Average Total of the month ery operations
Tear of number farm Privately owned Owned by USDA Shell ggas
and layers of egg@ produce. Blue
month on farm laid tion of Shell Frosen Shell Fraozen Direct ,t 3 Froenj Dried Begs Chicks
per ien egis pur- na tamp s rgg3 set bitched

i I I s I :__ *-- KUM:;._ _


aiiiionsl uurIMk~~r


8.7
10.3
15.0
16.9
17.4
15.1
13.8
12.2
10.0
8.2
6.5
7.3




9.2
10.6
15.5


8.0
9.3
13. I
14.2
13.8
11.4
9.9
8.7
7.6
6.9
6.0
7.3




9.4
10.6
15.2


1,000 1.000 0 000 .000 1.000 1.000 1,000 1.000
caes comae cases cases casesI coase pmoda poundaP


313
272
291
1.065
2.816
4.960
6,100
6.402
5.512
4,846
3,271
1,278




298
138
401
1.743


1941

Jan.
Feb.
Mar. .
Apr.
May .
June
July .
Aud. .
Sept. .
Oct. .
Nov. .
Dec. .


1942

Jan. .
Feb.
Mar.3 .
Apr.4 .



Percentage
of year
earlier




Jan.
Feb.
Mabr. .
Apr. .
lay .


July .
Augd.
Sept. .
Oct.
Nov.
Dec. .


1,955
1.435
1,206
1,691
2.654
3,788
4.372
5.156
4.661
3,977
3.373
2,756




2.187
1,663
1,643
2.543





150


Ten-year averages, 1931-40


301
25
16
25
215
415
327
239
619
595
586
392




251
193
128
96





384


0
0
0
0
0
0
391
47
S52
781
729
698




361
372
324
315


4
173
72
387
399
38
317
97
88
92
16
72




142
175
83






115


0
0
0
0
15,527
6,240
42,218
2.205
0
0
0
0




0
0


0
0
0
0
840
735
4.750
6.25
5,546
12.687
4.247
9.284




10.550
18.121
26.684


Millions





91.8
192.9
334.4
356.0
272.1
126.3
37.6
30.6
30.2
32.0
34.8
38.9




93.9
244.1
393.4


chicks




41.2
88.0
193.7
237.8
224.2
131.1
29.6
19.2
19.1
23.5
22.6
24.6




46.9
95.1
242.2


-- 118 125


Comparable data, 1940


I 4 Y I


6.8
8.9
14.2
16.5
16.7
14.2
12.7
11.1
8.9
6.9
5.2
5.5


6.3
8.1
12.4
13.8
13.2
10.6
8.9
7.5
6.3
5.3
4.3
4.9


819
270
182
1,257
3.886
6.516
7,719
7,855
7,338
6.169
4.256
2.128


1,916
1,.616
1,386
1,540
2,157
2.872
3,363
3,440
3.250
2.929
2.573
2,.217


0
0
0
58
25
318
933
1.068
1.025
901
717
545


160
71
0
0


I 0


27
37
51
66
71
72
77
g0
89
96
92
104


(6) 1 (i)


57.2
154.4
308.0
319.8
194.4
70.9
28.1
19.3
20.1
22.1
22.5
32.3


A L I L S I I.............i .L.....................J I. I


30.1
54.7
165.9
236.5
178.6
77.8
22.3
12.3
12.6
14.4
14.5
17.1


Case equivalent.
2Adjusted for wastage in distribution.
alociudes purchases for future delivery.
preliminary.
5Applles to lost month for which data are available.
ONo purchases during 1940.


112 I 103 1 116 1 164

















Table 5.- Poultry: Receipts and storage holdings


Receipts Receipts of live poultry Storage stocks first of the month

dressed Mid-went. average weekly
Year poultry receipts per plant Miscel-
and i New lneous
month n Tl Fol Yorkl Broilers Fryers Roasters Fowle Turkeys Ducks and un- Total
pal poultry stock clasi-
markets fied


Million 1.000 1.000
pounds pounds pounds


26.8
18.5
18.4
19.2
29.2
27.3
28.3
32.7
34.4
48.5
74.9
80.7





25.2
16.8
19.2







104


1,000 c
pounrade Cre


Million
Com pounds


MJillion million Million Million Million Mhlllon Million
pounds pounds pounds pounds pounds pounds pourfds


14.3
12.9
10.8
8.0
6.0
4.3
3.6
3.6
5.3
8.9
14.0
17.6





18.1
16.1
12.8
9.:5


112 I 121 152 I 119


24.3





106


41.5
35.2
29.0
22.0
18.0
14.9
13.8
14.7
18.0
20.6
29.6
37.7





44.2
37.5
31.7
24.4





Ill


Average Nine-year saveregm Five.year averages 1936-40
1931-40 1932-40


7.2
7.7
7.2
8.1
10.0
10.8
8.8
7.8
8.3
10.4
10.8
10.8


2.8






2.9
5.1
9.0
14.3
16.9
18.3
10.7


644
618
764
761
676
705
661
661
827
695
786
830


14.4
12.5
10.6
8.3
5.8
3.9
2.6
2.2
2.7
5.2
9.3
12.9


32.4
29.5
24.8
19.1
13.5
9.6
6.7
5.0
4.4
6.7
14.7
25.7


25.0
22.2
19.4
14.4
10.7
10.1
12.1
12.5
13.2
14.2
18.0
24.6


30.5
36.6
34.4
28.9
23.4
21.6
20.1
16.0
11.4
6.0
6.6
22.9


97 I 100 1 30


5.2
3.7
2.4
1.4
1.2
2.4
4.8
7.6
9.6
9.7
9.0
7.9


23.2
22.3
18.8
14.5
11.4
11.2
12.8
13.5
14.8
16.1
18.8
24.6


1941

Jan. .
Feb. .
mar. .
Apr. .
May .



Augm .
Sept. .
Oct. .
Nov. .
Dec. .


Jan.
Feb. .
Mar. .
Apr. .
May ..
June ..
July .
Aug. .
Sept.
Oct. .
Ne. .
NOW.,


'Car equivalent of receipts by freight, truck *nd espreae.
7Data for young stock are for less than a month. For this reason total young stock end fewl Is greater than total poultry.
3Preliminary.
4Applies to last month lot which data are available.

















Table 6. Poultry and eggs: Prices, wholesale and farm with percentages of parity


Average prices received by farmers Average wholesale prices at Chicage
Index number
Year Actual prices Percentage of parity (Aug. 1909.July g, Poultry, live
end 1914 n 100) fresh r Roaters white
month fir H y DBroeilera
Eggs., Chickens turkey s Chien Turke. All car- Chicken:s He Bay Darred Rok
person. per lb. per lb. C kensTurkey dites and eggs r r lb. Rck Light Heavy
IIperlb ____ ___per lb. per lb. per lb.


Cents I Cents Cents [Percenti Percent Percent


19.7
16.8
16.4
19.7
20.1
23.2
25.6
26.8
30.3
31.8
35.5
34.1



31.3
27.5
25.8






157


13.7
14.0
1.4.4
15.7
16.3
16.3
16.8
16.3
16.3
16.0
15.5
15.8



17.0
17.4
18.0


15.5
15.1
15.2
15.5
15.4
15.4
15.8
16.1
17.5
18.8
20.2
20.9



20.5
20.0
19.9


1941

Jan. .
Feb. .
far. .
Apr. .
Haby .
June
July
Aug. .
Sept. .
Oct.
No. .
Dec. .


1942

Jan. .
Feb. .
Mar.
Apr .



Percentage
of yeOf
earlier




Jan. .
Feb. .
U-r. .
Apr. .
May .
June .
July .
Aug. .
Sept. .
Oct. .
Nov. .
Dec. .


75
69
72
87
89
104
100
95
90
83
82
89



105
99
99


84
82
82
83
82
81
82
82
88
93
98
101



98
94
93


142


100
90
90
104
107
118
127
130
141
146
157
153



147
135
130






144


Cents



18.5
16.8
18.0
21.8
22.6
25.6
26.5
27.7
29.0-
31.0
36.0
34.5



33.4
28.8
28.2
28.5


Cents



16.9
16.7
17.4
19.4
18.7
19.0
19.4
19.
20.3
18.9
18.4
19.8



22.9
21.8
22.3
21.0


157 I 128


& I & I


Ten-year averages 1931-403


20.8
17 6
15.6
15.4
15.4
15.3
16.8
18.4
21.5
24.4
27.7
26.3


Cents Cents Cents


18.0
18.8
21.1
21.9
19.6
18.8
20.0
19.8
20.4
21.2
20.2
19.8



18.6
20.8
24.5
25.7





116


19.0
19.5
21.2
21.4
19.3
18.2
20.2
19.
18.4
18.5
18.1
18.6



18.6
22.2
24.9
26.2


117 118


Comparable data, 1940


I r I 11 I I r 11


13.3
13.4
13.7
14.1
14.0
13.8
13.7
13.6
13.9
13.3
12.0
12.7


16.8
16.4
16.1
15.8
15.1
14.5
14.4
14.5
15.3
15.8
16.3
16.4


70
69
70
71
72
72
71
71
71
71
71
72


90
91
93
96
96
94
94
92
94
91
89
87


91
88
87
85
81
78
78
78
, 82
85
88
89


95
94
93
93
92
91
94
95
97
95
95
95


14.9
15.0
15.1
15.8
14.9
14.1
14.6
14.9
16.0
15.1
14.9
15.5


16.3
17.7
19.1
21.2
23.1
18.5
17.3
17.6
17.2
18.0
18.7
17.9


16.2
18.0
19.7
21.6
24.4
20.2
17.8
17.7
16.2
15.8
15.9
17.7


16.5
19.3
22.0
24.0
27.0
24.7
20.3
18.6
16.5
15.6
16.1
18.1


IAverages of prices in first hall of month.
2Applies to lset month for which complete data are available.
3Five-year average. 1936.40 for turkeys (actual price and percentage of parity).


125 I 131












Table 7.- Poultry and egga: Cash income, price ration. cost of feeds used
in poultry ration and index number of related series


C oah far. Price ratio Index numbers Retail prices

Whleale prices... Farm prices. edof Indicated base period = 100
Year from Poultry T used an Prices Chickens E"ls
and farm and Fd Feed. farm Whole. Reil paid by Non-asri- (Roasters) strictly

Ings (Elrred aster turkey chicken eg| ration food prod include. employees
Rock) (Whits (per prices n* in n- compene-
ck Rock) 100 lb.) (BLS) ( ter t tion
& taxes


Million Millien Pounds Pounds Pan Pounds Demon
dollars dollar chicken chicken turkey chijen eagg


667
550
610
665
747
773
889
1.101.
1.298
1.442
1.233
1.152


987 95
810 0


147 1 178 117


6.5
6.2
5.9
6.2
7.1
7.7
7. 1
7.7
8.4
7.9
8.3
8.7



9.3
7.7
6.8
16.5





115


Five-year svesrges 1936-40


8.4
8.1
8.0
7.9
7.9
8.1
8.2
8.5
9.0
8.7
9.0
9.3



9.3
9.4
9.2
29.2


Dollars




1. 15
1.14
I. 16
1.24
1.29
1,33
1.37
1.39
1.47
1.40
1.39
1.47



1.58
1.64
1.66


111 115 900 143


93.2
92.9
95.1
98.5
100.5
105. 2
107.1
110.2
Iu. I
112.4
112.9
114.4



118.5
119.6
121.5






128


97.5
97.9
98.4
100.6
102.1
105.9
106.7
108.0
110.7
111.6
113.1
113.1



116.2
116.8
118.6






121


935-3 1933-J31 1910-.14 1924-29 C nt.


I15.2
117.5
119.9
121.9
126.7
130.6
128.1
130.6
134.9
138.0
137.9
142.6



140.7
141.8







121


31.1
31l.9
32.1
33.2
33.9
33.8
33.5
32.9
32.9
32.4
31.7
32.1



34.2
35.2
35.7






II1


I4J


Ten-year averages 1931-40


-. r p ,.~4 p p p p


603
492
527
515
547
577
699
733
865
1.001
839
721


49
43
48
61
65
66
75
74
72
67
82
71


6.9
6.5
6.0
6.1
6.2
6.7
7.3
7.7
7.7
6.9
6.8
7.5


7.3
6.4
5.1
4.9
5.5
5.6
6.4
7.3
8.1
8.0
8.0
8.0


8.6
8.5
5.2
8.3
8.5
8.5
8.9
9.0
8.7
8.4
8.4
8.8


1.13
1.14
1.13
1.18
1.20
1.17
1.22
1.21
1.21
1.11
1.05
1.10


93.0
92.3
91.7
91.3
90.7
91.2
92.6
93.6
95.4
94.0
93.8
92.9


96.7
95.9
95.6
95.7
95.7
96.1
97.0
97.0
98.2
97.2
96.3
95.7


129
129
128
128
128
128
128
128
128
128
128
128


IPssed an averages for first half of month.
2s t listed.
3Applies to last month for which complete data are available.


194

Ja .
Feb.
Her.
Apr.
Aby
Iss
July
Aug. .
Sept. .
Oct. .
No. .
Dec.


Percentage
ot yar,
earlier







Jan.
Feb.
MNr. .
Apr.
May .
Junam
July
Aug. .
Sept. .
Oct.
V .
Dec. .


Cents
per dos.




34.9
30.0
29.4
32.5
33.3
36.9
40.6
42.7
46.9
48.7
51.9
49.0



46.4
42.2
39.7






135




UNIVtMI-Il Y U LORIUA
S..II 111111 11 liiili.UlM111111
3 1262 08904 0645




-

























*::







1 '5
"H i


:


f..:














I


























Aj-
:**:
























-*^