Poultry and egg situation

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Material Information

Title:
Poultry and egg situation
Physical Description:
v. : ; 26 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Agricultural Economics
United States -- Agricultural Marketing Service
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture. -- Economic Research Service
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture. -- Economics, Statistics, and Cooperatives Service
Publisher:
The Bureau
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Creation Date:
August 1939
Frequency:
quarterly
regular

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Poultry industry -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Egg trade -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
statistics   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )

Notes

Citation/Reference:
Bibliography of agriculture
Citation/Reference:
Predicasts
Citation/Reference:
American statistics index
Citation/Reference:
Index to U.S. government periodicals
Statement of Responsibility:
Economics, Statistics, and Cooperatives Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with PES 1 (Jan. 1937); ceased with PES-308 (Dec. 1980).
Issuing Body:
Issued by: Agricultural Marketing Service, Dec. 1953-Mar. 1961; Economic Research Service, May 1961-Dec. 1977; and: Economics, Statistics, and Cooperatives Service, Mar. 1978-Dec. 1980.
General Note:
Cover title.
General Note:
Description based on: PES-301 (Mar. 1979).
General Note:
Previously classed: A 93.20: and A 88.15/2:

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 000502977
oclc - 04506769
notis - ACS2711
lccn - 79643440 //r81
issn - 0032-5708
sobekcm - AA00005304_00011
Classification:
lcc - HD9437.U6 A33
ddc - 338.1/7/6500973
System ID:
AA00005304:00041

Related Items

Succeeded by:
Poultry and egg outlook & situation

Full Text




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
WASHINGTON

PES-32 AUGUST I, 1939


------------------------------------------------------M
THE P 0 ULTR Y AND EG G S I T U A T I O N





U. S. COLD-STORAGE STOCKS OF EGGS ON AUGUST -------------------------------- 1916-39
U. S. COLD-STORAGE STOCKS OF EGGS ON AUGUST 1. 1916-39


CASES
I MILLIONS I

14

12

10

8


6

4


2


0 -


U S DEPARIME


1916 '18 20 '22 24 26 '28 '30 32 '34 36 '38 40
ESTIMATED FROM STORAGE HOLDINGS OF JuLf I

NT OF AGRICULTURE NEC 26562 BuRAAu ,Fr IG),CULIUiAL ECONOMIC5


FROZEN EGGS AS PERCENTAGE OF U. S. TOTAL
STORAGE STOCKS ON AUGUST 1. 1916-39


18 20 '22 '24 26 28 '30 32 '34
ESTIMATED FROM STORACE HOLDINCl OF JULY I


36 38 '40


.1r, ]DE YIT BUREAU COr AFRICULTURAL ECONOMICS


PERCENT
OF TOTAL
STOCKS




30



20



10 -



0 --
1916


US DEPARTMEhT or AnGlCULTURE









THE POULTRY AND EGG SITUATION AT A GLANCE

EGGS I I I PERCENT I I I
,DOZENSi CHICAGO FEED-EGG RATIO NONAGRICULTURAL INCOME*
I 1924.29:100
7 --f ---Average-
1928-57rT

6 -95 1938M K
1939
1939


90 1--- -
4- \a 1 Average
4 3o0938-- 1928-37r


3 85
CASES CENTS I I-
I THOUSANDS 1939 RECEIPTS OF PER FARM PRICE OF CHICKENS
POUND I I I A IIPOUND -
D E EGGS ATT 4 PND
500 MARKETS

400 -
A average 1938 Aerage

300 -198-7 -6 -1928-37


200- 9 4


100 098- 1 1989


POUNDS I I| CENTS I
MILLIONS STORAGE HOLDINGS OF PER FARM PRICE OF EGGS
DRESSED POULTRY DOZEN
AT 26 MARKETS 30



1000
Average e1938
IV 1939 25 1921 -3 71

80 19-- 1938 1399


AvAverage 20 -
60 -1928-37-

15

40

JAN. APR JULN OCT JAN. APR. JULY OCT
AVERAGE FOR 19SB-IZIINSTEAD OF FOR 1928-B4. AS FORMERL7ISHOWN FOR PURPOSES OF COMPARISON
'INDEX NUMBER: ADJUSTED FOR SEASONAL VARIATION

U. S DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULruRE NES.35516 BUREAU OPA6RICULFURAL ECONOMICS


FIGURE I






PES-32 3 -

THE POULTRY AND EGG SITUATION




Between June 15 and July 15 prices received by farmers for eggs began

their usual seasonal rise, reports the Bureau of Agricultural Economics in

the current issue of the Poultry and. Egg Situation. The cent-and-a-half

increase was about the same as the increase between these two dates for both

last year and the 1928-37 average. Egg prices on July 15, however, were

about 3w cents below last year and more than 2 cents below the 10-year

average for that date.

The. feed-egg ratio (based on Chicago prices) continues less favorable

to farmers than last ycar-but more favorable than the 1289-37 average.

Storage stocks are an important source of egg supplies for the large

cities during the second half of the year. On August 1 these stocks will

probably be about 7 percent larger than last year. Current receipts during

this period may be slightly larger than last year, since laying flocks arc

now about 4 percent larger than last year, and the number of pullets may

be up slightly.

Prices received by farmers for chickens on July 15 were 0.3 cents

per pound higher than on June 15. Last year prices declined 0.7 cents

between these two dates. On July 15 chicken prices were over 1 cent be-

low last year and about 2 cents below the 1928-37 average.

The number of young chickens per farm .flock on hand July 1 was 2.6

percent larger than a year earlier. A substantial increase in turkey

numbers of perhaps 30 percent over 1938 is indicated. Larger laying flocks

are to be culled. It appears, therefore, that market receipts of poultry








during the remainder of 1939 and early 1940 will continue larger than in

the corresponding weeks of the 1938-39 marketing season,

Feed sit-uation

Since June 3 the relationship between feed prices and egg prices (at
Chicago) has become more favorable to farmers, largely as a result of declin-
ing feed costs. This is in line with the usual seasonal change. the ratio
continues above the 1938 level brat since June 24 has been below the 1928-37
average. DuLring the 4 7eeks ending July 22 the ratio averaged 19 percent
abo-ve the snae weeks in 1938 but 9 percent below the 10-year average.

Feed-egg ratio at Chicago

(Dozens of eggs required to bty 100 pounds of poultry ration)
0Z Week ending as of 1939
Y mar : Jan.: Ar.: Jane: Jaly: July: July: July: July:Ang. :Aug.: Aug. :Oct.
: 28 : 29 : 24 : 1 : 8 : 15 : 22 : 29 : 5 : 12 : 19 : 28
:Doz. Doz. Doz. Doz. Doz. Doz. Doz. Doz. Doz. Doz. Doz. Doz.
Average :
1928-37 :5.32 6.S6 6.87 7.00 7.12 7.16 6.94 6.75 6.65 6.76 6.53 4.72

1938 :6.39 5.85 5.56 5.50 5.33 5.31 5.40 5.12 4.98 4.78 4.87 3.79
1939 :6.65 6.65 6.78 6.71 6.61 6.37 6.05


Young chickens on hand

The n-umber of young chickens per farm flock on hand July 1 was 2.6 per-
cent larger than a year earlier. This number is important because it affects
the size of next year's laying flock and hence egg production and egg prices,
and also the supply and prices of poultry marketed in the fall. The percent-
age ch-age in the size of lying flocks on January 1 is usually smaller than
the change in the number of yoir: ch-ickens on hand the preceding July 1.

Average number of chicks and young chickens per fanm flock

Year May 1 June : July 1
: Number Number Number
Average
1929-37 : 87.4 131.5 134.9

1937 : 82.4 117.8 117.4
1938 94.5 131.7 132.6
1939 : 99.6 135.2 136.0


- 4-


PFS-32









Turkeys

For the first time crop reporters have been asked to report the num-
ber of turkey poults in their own flocks on July 1. Since this is the first
inquiry on holdings of poults, there are no comparable figures for past years.
Some indication of the change in numbers may be gained, however, frdm com-
parisons with an inquiry on numbers of turkeys on hand in September 1938.
This comparison points to a substantial increase in turkey numbers, perhaps
30 percent above last year.

The above comparison can be used only as an indication of an increase
in turkeys in ordinary farm flocks. The returns do not include a proper
representation of large commercial flocks. For many years the number of
such small farm flocks has been decreasing. This docruuse appears, from
the present returns, to have continued in mont sections, but the average
number of turkeys in the remaining farm flecks is increasing.

Poultry marketing

Durirg the 4 weeks ending July 22, receipts of dressed poultry at
the 4 principal markets were 20 percent larger than in the corresponding
weeks of 195S and 22 percent above the 1928-37 average. Receipts during
the remainder of 1939 and early 1940 will probably continue larger than
in the corresponding weeks of the 1938-39 marketing season because of the
larger number of hens and young chickens on hand and the prospective large
increase in turkey production.

(Data on receipts at New York, Chicago, Philadelphia and Boston
combined have been substituted for data on receipts at New York alone
since it is believed that receipts at the 4 markets are more representa-
tive of receipts throughout the United States. A table will be found on
the last page of this report giving weekly data on receipts at the 4
markets for 1938, 1939 and the 1928-37 average.)

Receipts of dressed poultry at 4 markets
(New York, Chicago, Philadelphia, Boston)

: _Week ending as of 19q39
Year June : July i July : July : July : July : Aug. : Aug. : Sept.
S24 : 1 : 8 : 15 : 22 : 29 : 5 : 12 t 30
:1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000
:pounds pounds pounds pounds pounds pou.ids pounds pounds pounds

Average
1928-37:5,039 5,195 4,s14 4,704 4,787 4,627 4,707 4,798 6,351

1938 :5,240 5,349 4,678 5,304 4,506 5,405 5,656 5,999 6,981
1939 :6,515 6,139 5,357 6,300 5,942
_


- 5 -


PES-32






PES-32


-6-


Poultry storage

Storage stocks of frozen poultry are now near their low point for
the year. By September the net into-storage movement will be well under-
way. United Itates storage stocks on July 1 were 26 percent above stocks
a year earlier but 13 percent below the record high stocks on Juily 1, 1937.
The larger total stocks this year than last are.chiefly a result of increas-
ed stocks of turkeys, fowls and broilers.

Storage stocks of frozen poultry at 26 markets


I.
Year


|torage
stocks
July 1


July
S


Week ending as of 1939
Out-of-storage movement
i July : July a
* 15 : 22


July :
29


Storage
stocks
July 29


: 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1 1,000
s pounds pounds pounds pounds ound pounds
I k
Average a 8
1928-37 i 34,530 102 120 203 191 a 33,914
I
1937 54,971 4o6 353 1,574 1,506 51,132
1938 a 37,014 1/ 679 5 414 177 a 37,097
1939 I 4s,a4s 430 1,079 252
1 1
I/ Into-storage.

Chicken prices

In contrast to the 0.7 cents per pound decline which occurred last
year, prices received by farmers for chickens increased 0.3 cents this
year between June 15 and July 15. On the average, prices decline slightly
between these two dates. On July 15 chicken prices were over 1 cent be-
low last year and about 2 cents below the 1928-37 average. Prices were
the lowest for the month since 1934.

Price per pound received by farmers for chickens

Year a Feb. i Apr. a May a June i July : Aug. i Iept.t Oct. : Dec.
a 15 a 15 : 15 15 : 15 : 15 : 15 a 15 : 15
a Cents Cents Cents Cents Cents Qents Cents Cents Cents

Average a
1928-37 15.4 16.4 16.3 16.1 15.8 15.7 16.0 15.4 14.4

1937 13.6 15.2 14.8 14.8 15.3 16.8 17.4 17.6 16.4
1938 a 16.0 16.2 16.1 15.7 15.0 14.2 14.3 13.6 13.6
1939 s 14.2 14.4 13.9 13.4 13.7
____ L______________________!_








Donestji demand

Conditions effecting the consumer demand for farm products have
improved since the middle of May. Industrial production has recovered
sharply from the low reached, in April and early May. Some additional
improvement during the remainder of the year is indicated by conditions
in the important industries. Those changes in business activity and
consumer purchasing power probably will not be great, however, and
prospects continue for relatively stable domestic demand conditions
during 1939.

Index numbers of nonagricultural income
(192.-29 100, adjusted for seasonal varin.tion)

Year I Jan. Mar. I Apr. May T Ju:.e July 2 Aug. l Sept.: Nov.
-i a a p I ; I :

Average
1928-37 t 86.9 86.7 86.3 86.5 86.4 86.6 86.6 86.4 86.1

1937 : 92.6 94.; 95.7 96.8 96.8 97.9 98.2 96.9 94.6
1938 : 91.2 89.5 39.6 87.5 87.3 87,6 89.0 90.1 91.9
1939 1 92.4 92.2 90.4 91.1 1/92.6

1J Prelinin.Vry.


Laying flock size


from
22.6
this


The size- of the laying flock usually declines by about 25 percent
January 1 to-Septenber 1. The decline to July 1 this year has been
percent, which is about-the sene as the 1928-37 average decline for
period.


The number of-layers- per farm flock on July 1 was 4 percent larger
than on the same date last year but 4 percent smaller than the 10-year
average. On the -basis-of the change in the number of.young chickens per
farm flock on July 1, it -appears that the number of hens in farm flocks
on January 1, 1940, nay be little, if any, larger than on Jaenury 1, 1939.

Average number of laying hens per farm flock on the
first day of the month

Year Jan. Apr. :ay June : July Aug. Sept. Oct.
:Number Number Number Nuuber Number Number Number Number
Average :
1928-37 1 86,0 79.7- 75.1 70.9 66.8 64.2 63.5 68.6

1937 s8&4 7T5 "73.1 68.5 63.6 62.1 59.9 64.3
1938 : 77.6 '3f$ 6s.6 65.0 61.6 59.3 59.8 65.6
1939 a 82.8 76.8 72.2 68.5 64.1
A


PBS-32


- 7 -







Eg production

The average number of eggs laid per 100 hens continues high. Although
the rate of lay on July 1 this year was not quite equal to the rate in the
past year, it exceeded the July 1 figure for any other of the 15 years of
record and was 7 percent above the 1928-37 July 1 average.


Total egg production per farm flock
last year and the 10-year average for that
ber of hens on hand, production during the
slightly larger than last year.


on July.1 was 2 percent above both
date. Because of the larger num-
fall of 1939 may continue


Eggs laid per 100 hens and pullets of laying age in farm flocks
on the first day of the month

Year Jan. Apr. May :June :July : Aug. Sept. ; Oct.
Number Number Number Number Number Num Nr umber Number
Average :
1928-37 : 17.9 53.0 55.5 90.1 42.8 37.1 32.7 25.5

1937 : 22.0 52.8 57.8 52.5 44.4 40.4 36.1 28.8
1938 9 22.7 57.9 58.1 52.9 46.5 41.2 35.3 28.2
1939 : 24.6 56.3 57.6 52.4 45.9

Egg marketing
Receipts of eggs at the four principal markets combined are declining
from the seasonal peak reached in May. Tor the 4 weeks ending July 22, re-
ceipts were 15 percent above receipts a year ago but 6 percent below the
1928-37 average for these weeks.

(Data on receipts at New York, Chicago, Philadelphia and Boston comn-
bined have been subatltuted for data on receipts at New York alone since it
is believed that receipts at the four markets are more representative of
receipts throughout the United States. A table will be found on the last
page of this report giving weekly data on receipts at the four markets for
1938., 1939 and the 1928-37 average.)

Receipts of eggs at four markets (New York, Chicago, Philadelphia,
Boston)

Week ending as of 1939
Year :June 1 July : July : July : July : July : Aug. : Aug. : Sept.
: 24 :1 8 : 15 22 : 29 : 5 8 12 : 30
: 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1.000 1,000 1,000 1,000
: cases cases cases cases cases cases ases cases calse
Average:
1928-37: 351.4 324.7 28.T 28R.1 2862e 236,9 220.3 210.2 175,1

1938 303.9 260.8 229.5 231.9 216.8 215.4 190.6 189.0 136.0
1939 : 318.5 291.3 269.3 273.5 245.8


PES-32


- 8 -






PES-32


- 9 -


Egg storage

The number of eggs in cold storage on August 1 is an important factor
affecting fall and early winter egg prices. Stocks this year will be above
those on August 1 in 1938 but below the 1928-37 .average stocks.


Cold storage holdings of shell eggs in the United
were 11 percent larger than a year earlier and of frozen
cent larger. Combined holdings of shell and frozen eggs
1938.


States on July 1
eggs were 1 per-
were 8 percent above


Storage stocks of eggs at 26 markets


Year
*
*


Storage
stocks
July 1


Week ending as of 1939
Into-store-e movement
r8 Juy 15 July 22


July 29


Storage
stocks
July 29


: .1,000 1,000 1.000 1,000 1,000 1,000
: cases cases cases cases cases cases
Shell -
Average :
,1928-37 : .5,793 103 71 49 12 6,028

193 : '4,516 49 20 31 l4 4,630
1939 : .4,868 56 16 2
Frozen :
1938 : 2,241 23 37 iJ 11 I/ 30 2,260
1939 : .2,345 52 -44 13
I/ Out-of-storage.

Egg prices

Prices received by farmers for eggs increased 1.6 cents per dozen
between June 15 and July 15. This is about She same as last year and as the
usual seasonal increase between these two dates. Egg prices on July 15 were
about 31 cents below last year and over 2 cents below the 1928-37 average for
that date. Prices this year were the lowest for the month since 1934.
Price per dozen received by farmers for. eggs -


Year : Feb. :
: 15 :


Apr. :
15 :


May :June :July :Aug. :Sept. :
15 : 15 : 15 :- 15 : 15 :


Oct. : Dec.
15 : 15


Cents Centb Cents Cents Cents Cents Cents Cents Cents
Average :
1928-37 : 21.6 17.4 .17.5 17.4 18.7 20.6 23.9 27.0 30.3

1937 : 20.1 20.1 17.9 17.6 19.4 20.4 22.9 25.2 26.0
1938 16.4 15.9 17.6 18.2 19.9 21.0 24.9 27.1 27.9
1939 : 16.7 15.5 15.2 14.9 16.5


SJul




FES-32


Receipts of dressed


uressea poultry


number tAv.1928-37 :
:1,000 Ilb.
1 6.U74
2 s 5,699
3 5,415
4 : 6,252
5 u 6.112
6 s 5,258
7 s 4,648
8 s 4,231
9 a 4,094
10 a 4,012
11 a 3,988
12 a 3,631
13 a 3,545
14 a 3,634
15 5 3,453
16 s 3,638
17 a 3,766
18 s 4,185
19 a 4,152
20 s 4,224
21 a 4,269
22 4,250)
23 a 4,497
24 a 5,041
25 5,039
26 s 5,195
27 4,814
28 4,704
29 a 4,787
30 a 4,627
31 a 4,707
52 a 4,798
33 3 5,130
34 s 5,153
35 s 5,437
36 5 5,332
37 s 5,662
38 a 6,161
39 s 6,351
40 a 6,733
41 s 6,980
42 a 7,366
43 s 7,479
44 a 7,597
45 8485
46 a 12,841
47 s 28,385
48 9 15,627
49 3 9,754
50 a 14,101
51 s 27,487
52 a 11.942


~


week :


1938 a


3,655
4,228
3,814
4,050
3,106
3,191
3,278
2,686
2,243
2,613
2.541
3.552
2,747
3,407
2,536
3,117
3,848
4,129
4,145
5.341
4,389
5,174
5,054
5,240
5,349
4,678
5,304
4,506
5,405
5,656
5,989
4,567
4,684
5,005
5,382
5,972
6,668
6,981
7,676
8,050
8,558
8,817
8,855
9,515
33,364
17,101
8,596
10,217
24,618
17,291
6,835


3 1262 08903 9597
poultry and eggs at 4 markein


1939 IAv.1928-37 1958 ]
1 000 -ib. 000 cases 1 000 cases 1 000 w
4,159 175.8 168.56 2 11S 05
4,418 187.2 198,5 206.8
5,380 200.4 231.8 235.6
6,020 212.2 220.1 229,2
4,657 218.4 231,6 212.6
4,186 229.8 215.9 212.9
3,685 218.5 200.2 232,8
3,585 246.1 239.2 2478
4,066 284.6 281.8 264.4
3,528 317.6 297.4 2857
3,937 367.2 320.9 3505
4,308 405.5 412.1 418.6
3,868 458.2 449.5 437.0 I
3,750 485.4 466.9 460.4
3,480 505.0 464.4 4689
3,759 495.2 381.7 47.95 i
35,640 507.4 422.9 501,6
4,688 499.1 444.5 498,7
5,672 498.0 414.9 5211
5,600 502.1 426.8 521.5
5,749 483.9 424.9 4T4.9
5,668 433.2 374.8 404,2
6,823 411,8 369,3 401.2
6,436 3807 3352.5 357,5
6,515 351.4 30359 318.5
6,139 324.7 260,8 2915
5,357 284.7 229,5 269.3
6,300 281.1 231,9 273.5
5,942 262.8 216,8 245.8
236.9 2154
220,3 190.6
210.2 189.0
211.4 176.3
202,6 168,9
201.6 158.4
188.8 144.8
187.5 163.7
186.4 160.9
175.1 136.0
172.1 142.5
152.6 145.1
.. 0.3 135.4
136.6 123.1
126,8 1256
118.9 104.3
122.9 116.8
125.8 113.9
116.7 136.8
130.8 130.9
134.8 145.0
146.0 173.9 1
134.1 171.1


m