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WHY SHOULD A YOUNG WOMAN
CONSIDER A GOVERNMENT CAREER?
1. Because there's room to grow.-The Government is
the one employer with such breadth and scope that
it requires hundreds of varied skills from thousands
of different people ,
2. Becqise-4t's.4texi/e. --The chance to transfer from
one agency to another assures maximum opportunity.
3. Because the Government goodd boss. -Federal career
workers receive unusual "frInge" benefits, sick leave,
life insurance,, health insurance and retirement
4. Because you'll work." w/tl stimulating people.-The
issues of today are the r drson for Government's need
of so'manfy intelligent and responsible people. As a
Government worker you'll have a part in many of
this country's achievements and be associated with
men and women as interesting as their jobs.
5. Because skilled women are given a better chance to
prove themselves. -Although men in Government
service outnumber women about three to one, the
professional and scientific fields in Government gen-
erally afford women better opportunities than in
6. Because the Federal merit system lets you enjoy "the
best of both worlds." -After three years of satisfac-
tory Government service, the Government worker
has "career status." This means that a Government
career woman can feel free to leave her job and de-
vote herself to her home if she chooses. Later,
when she wants to return to Government work, her
former career status is an aid to finding a new Federal
A physicist at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory makes
measurements involving an earth satellite.
FEDERAL CAREERS FOR WOMEN
Anyone who still thinks that all Government career
women are girl-Friday types in Washington offices is in
for a big surprise. Women in Federal service have
rung the bell in every occupation from astrophysics to
From tropical shores to arctic snows, in all parts of
our country and in virtually all parts of the world,
women are distinguishing themselves-some providing
indispensable support to leaders of vital Government
programs, others as experts in their own right. Some
of them work in occupations traditionally thought of
as woman's special fields, but a great many are in fields
still generally regarded as man's exclusive province.
About 576,000 women are employed by the Federal
Government. Women in Federal white-collar jobs have
increased by 20,000 since 1954, notably in the fields of
accounting and budget, business and industry, the bio-
logical and physical sciences, education, law, and
mathematics and statistics.
Women predominate today in several occupations,
and in some bureaus of Federal agencies. They out-
number men in three broad occupational groups: per-
sonnel administration, mathematics and statistics, and
library and archives. There are also more women than
men working as nurses, dietitians, and social workers.
Sizable numbers are employed in accounting and bud-
get, and general administrative, clerical, and office serv-
ices. In the Children's Bureau of the Department of
Health, Education, and Welfare, in the Women's
Bureau of the Department of Labor, and in two divi-
sions of the Department of Agriculture-Human Nu-
trition Research and Household Economics Research-
many women workers are concentrated.
A Century of Progress
The history of women's progress in Government
employment is a story of slow but steady advancement.
Although there were a few women postmasters ap-
pointed before 1800, the employment of women by the
Government was generally looked upon with great dis-
favor until after the Civil War. Not only was it rather
widely assumed that office work was beyond Delicate
Woman's physical or mental capacities, the mere pres-
ence of women in public offices was regarded by many
as a gross affront to propriety!
Beginning in 1862 the Treasury Department pio-
neered in the employment of women. "Female clerks,"
declared their supervisor emphatically, "are more dili-
gent and efficient than males!" Following the success
of the Treasury experiment, a small number of "lady
clerks" gained a foothold in other departments. For a
long time, however, women were hired primarily as an
economy measure-they were usually paid about half
as much as men doing the same work.
The Civil Service Act of 1883 marked the real turn-
ing point in Government careers for women. The
merit system established by that Act made it possible
for them to compete for appointment on equal terms
with men-and they did. A young woman, a graduate
of Vassar, was the second person to be appointed from
a civil-service examination. Prejudice against them
A young student trainee alternates on-job experience in
an Army laboratory with academic training.
was broken down little by little, not by any theoretical
considerations of abstract justice but by the perform-
ance of the women themselves on the job.
World War I greatly increased their numbers and
gave them a chance to prove their ability in a variety
of occupations, although postwar reduction of the
Government work force showed that their permanent
gains were largely in clerical fields.
With the Classification Act of 1923, which estab-
lished the principle of equal pay for equal work,
women at last gained equality with men on the payroll.
The manpower demands of World War II finally
opened the doors of all professional, technical, and ad-
ministrative fields to women-and they have kept those
doors open ever since by their own efforts and achieve-
ments. They are now found in four-fifths of all the
occupations in the Federal Government.
The Federal Woman's Award
The achievements of women in Government are
well known in Government circles. These achieve-
ments have made possible many of the advances by
which modern America defends itself and guards its
welfare. Yet, perhaps because men outnumber women
four to one in Federal positions, the achievements of
women have often not had the public recognition they
To spotlight the accomplishments of top-caliber
career women in the Federal service, a special award
for them has been established.
The new Federal Woman's Award has three major
purposes: to provide well-deserved public recognition
to the recipients and new incentive to others, to high-
light the important work that women are doing in
executive, professional, scientific, and technical posi-
tions, and to stimulate the recruitment of talented and
ambitious young women who might not otherwise
known of the many fine career opportunities offered by
the Federal civil service throughout the United States
From the thousands of women in professional, ad-
ministrative, and technical positions who serve with
distinction, Federal administrators were asked to make
up to three nominations, from their agencies, for the
Federal Woman's Award.
From those nominated, a panel of distinguished citi-
zens, on behalf of the Board of Trustees for the Award,
selected six outstanding women to receive the Award
at public ceremonies.
Among the women named by agencies for consider-
ation for the 1961 award were representatives from an
impressive range of occupational fields. They included
doctors, lawyers, scientists, and engineers; high-rank-
ing executives, foreign service officers, commercial and
/ ] ]
Running offices and helping administer agency programs
are tasks that many Federal career women do well and
industrial experts; and distinguished specialists in avia-
tion, space research, and nuclear-age weapons. Also
well represented were the traditional women's occupa-
tions such as social welfare, nursing, nutrition, and
Recipients of the 1961 Federal Woman's Award
Dr. Beatrice Aitchison, Director of Transportation
Research, Post Office Department. She originated,
organized, and directs research and training programs
in transportation economics and traffic management
which have modernized the movement of mail and
saved millions of dollars.
Miss Ruth Elizabeth Bacon, Foreign Service Officer,
Deputy Chief of Mission, American Embassy, Welling-
ton, New Zealand. An authority in Far Eastern Affairs,
she has made invaluable contributions to the formula-
tion and the successful maintenance of United States
Many young women begin their Government careers as
Miss Nina Kinsella, Warden, Federal Reformatory
for Women, Department of Justice, Alderson, W. Va.
As director of the only Federal penal institution for
women, she has set high standards of correctional treat-
ment and rehabilitation, preparing them to lead law-
abiding and useful lives.
Dr. Charlotte Moore Sitterly, Physicist, National
Bureau of Standards, Department of Commerce. In
the fields of atomic spectroscopy and astrophysics her
reputation is world-wide and her achievements are the
basis of our knowledge of the solar radiations in the
Mrs. Aryness Joy Wickens. Economic Advisor to the,
Secretary, Department of Labor. She has been out-
standing in developing and applying advanced tech-:
niques of gathering and analyzing economic and social
statistics to provide impartial and reliable data needed
by Government and the public.
Nurses and occupational therapists aid in the recovery of
patients in Veterans Administration hospitals.
Dr. Rosalyn S. Yalow, Principal Scientist of the
Radioisotope Service, Bronx Veterans Administration
Hospital, New York. She has developed an inter-
national reputation for outstanding scientific ability and
leadership in research and training in the medical uses
The Way to a Federal Career
Over 90 percent of Federal positions in the United
States today are filled through the competitive merit
system established by the Civil Service Act of 1883.
Nine-tenths of Federal positions are outside Washing-
ton, D.C.-in towns and cities all over the country-
so it is often possible for a woman to secure a Govern-
ment job near home.
People without experience usually take a written
test. The examination for people with experience or
with some kinds of technical training may simply re-
quire submitting applications, which are all graded
under the same standards on the basis of the informa-
tion in them, subject to verification. Applicants with
the highest grades are given first consideration in filling
Gateway to career opportunities in Government for
college-caliber people is the Federal-Service Entrance
Examination. Open to college juniors, seniors, and
graduates regardless of major, this examination is used
to fill trainee-level positions in all but a few highly
technical occupations. The objective of the examina-
tion, given throughout the college year, is to bring into
Government highly qualified, career-minded men and
women who have the potential to grow and develop
and become the Government's career managers, tech-
nicians, and professional leaders of tomorrow. Annu-
ally the Government makes about 6,000 appointments
from this examination to fill its requirements for a con-
tinuing supply of able men and women interested in
challenging and responsible positions with a future.
Approximately 40 agencies fill positions from this ex-
amination. Thus one application can open the way
for consideration in many agencies.
Scientists and engineers entering the Federal service
have unprecedented opportunity to participate in re-
search and development work of vital importance.
Appointments to these positions are usually made, not
from the FSEE, but from separate examinations. For
most of them, no written test is required.
Other examinations for specific professions, such as
accounting, are also announced from time to time.
Education and experience requirements are lower for
many positions such as stenographer, typist, office ma-
chine operator, technical aid in the physical and
biological sciences, and post office clerk. Most of them
require a written test.
The positions of typist and stenographer provide an
open door for women who lack higher education.
Many women enter Federal service in these positions,
complete their education after hours, and progress to
more responsible, specialized positions.
Electronic data processing is an expanding field in
A Road Map to the Job You Want
Prepare yourself well for the occupation of your
choice. A college education will help!
Get in touch with your local post office, a near-by
Federal establishment, or one of the offices listed
on the back of this pamphlet, to find out whether
the Government is accepting applications for your
occupation. Some examinations are open all the
time, others periodically, according to the vacan-
cies Federal agencies anticipate.
If you are a college student, get in touch with your
college placement officer. He has information
about open examinations and a reference copy of
Federal Careers-A Directory for College Students,
which matches college majors with different kinds
of Federal jobs.
Apply for the examination that interests you and
for which you believe you are qualified.
Men and women should remember that civil-service
examinations are open to every American citizen re-
gardless of race, creed, or politics. Appointments are
made on merit, and advancement is on the same basis.
Thousands of employees-men and women alike-
are making successful careers in the Federal service.
They work in programs of national and even world-
wide importance. Many of them feel that sharing in
work that is of such vital importance to so many mil-
lions of people is the most attractive and exciting
feature of Government employment.
CIVIL SERVICE REGIONAL OFFICES
First Region-Post Office and Courthouse Building, Boston 9,
Mass.: Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachuetts, Rhode
Island, and Connecticut.
Second Region News Building, 220 East 42d Street, New
York 17, N.Y.: New York and New Jersey.
Third Region -U.S. Customhouse, Second and Chestnut
Streets, Philadelphia 6, Pa.: Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland,
Fifth Region-Peachtree-Baker Building, 275 Peachtree Street
NE., Atlanta 3, Ga.: North Carolina. South Carolina, Georgia,
Florida, Tennessee. Alabama, Mississippi, Puerto Rico, and
Sixth Region-Post Office and Courthouse Building, Cincin-
nati 2, Ohio: Ohio, Indiana, Kentucky, and West Virginia.
Seventh Region-New Post Office Building, Chicago 7, Ill.:
Michigan, Wisconsin. and Illinois.
Eighth Region-I 114 Commerce Street, Dallas 2, Tex.:
Arkansas, Oklahoma, Louisiana, and Texas.
Ninth Region-New Federal Building, Twelfth and Market
Streets, St. Louis 1, Mo.: Missouri, Kansas, Iowa, Nebraska,
Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota.
Tenth Region--Building 41, Denver Federal Center, Denver,
Colo.: Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, Wyoming, and Arizona.
Elerenib Region-302 Federal Office Building, First Avenue
and Madison Street, Seattle 4, Wash.: Montana, Oregon, Idaho,
Washington, and Alaska.
Twelfth Region -128 Appraisers Building, 630 Sansome street,
San Francisco 11. Calif.: California, Nevada, and Hawaii.
U S GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 1961 OF-582888
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
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