A comparison of learning between mental defectives, mental retardates and normals


Material Information

A comparison of learning between mental defectives, mental retardates and normals
Physical Description:
v, 57 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.
Voerg, L. Marylyn Nuhn, 1927-
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Learning, Psychology of   ( lcsh )
Ability -- Testing   ( lcsh )
Psychology thesis Ph. D   ( lcsh )
Dissertations, Academic -- Psychology -- UF   ( lcsh )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )


Thesis - University of Florida.
Bibliography: leaf 54.
General Note:

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 000561632
oclc - 262085536737
notis - ACY7566
sobekcm - AA00004949_00001
System ID:

Full Text







April, 1964

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go pasent study represents a oonwvrger e of two liUs aof

interest att m, a oavpZaran of the pezkfmrUma of intellotua13w

subnrsmal and intelUsotually avwerp ohildeUwn in a n -test problem

solving situation and twos a ocn-ariacn of imlatng prooeses

between difenrmt cml a.l grSops of mentally subnooal obildt.la

Som of the availble lteamture seem to Indiatea that the

abitlty to solw prble may be better In a non-test situation then

in a test situation# here has also been evidence that the adult

lwli orf IabEtest problem solving pserfna os of nir Indivdu&la

whos, hn obidr& reoeid test ema isdioatlng etardtati,

is bette tha hvaw been predicted fn their test aeors,.

Ballr (1936) studied 206 siJreots *o, as cll&aln, wa re lagoaed

as mntally retarded and all i.th 1'a below 70. Tsey vem

indlildualy matolhd idth 206 controls a mrelatim to sex, nataioralty,
man apt. MSa trols all obtained IQ oom betSen I00 aid 120.

h i subtjeets all ad an awmcp agp of 27 yemrs at the tim of ta

atu* and had been out of asbool avpraimjately 9 yeas ralrw (3936)
fouwl that 83% of the meamtl retardateas, mw s eltf-apoirtigW. KI

narq of thm tended to mi f erequety fra m ight -b ood to
IeigitaR61U od m than the oamtrols, they newsd ithin a restricted

vraw*S *war mntal defbttives mK arrruied but whmn cnly
thoie difetiws outalide of the institution mre sanider4d,


tb mrtio for both oupa os the -aw* Siztyy-om pmEat of ta
Igntal dOafttivs *odad not bold staWd q rwy a, but, Ipiswy,
39% "i1 BMIw nfted alas that em with imtltumlmn obhildUra,
so&bal a, .qls mo tel a, (asa murzd by tm Vintland olal
Itari Baule) wtll ti o m. loidmal a, of 125 xm aliit a s11sof
tmi= uoe l a, ir 4 umllJ abotu a yewar hRISw tmn wtal a*.

MM&b (290) Io a fbouw-up stuly of matal df blt ll aft
18 yuMra m#ad ia ais tUSr lS MtdW by tam f e of mw6at idfto-
tlVW that ke us abl. to bUat1, it I blan td an of lBat.
Be fbit tatnt Bsolal omOlwny a u !ttliinfut y V ua latsd with tvm

daS t fraia m a froa a Urvlalcn by otbarhw s a teots *tilsMNd I
thm am ao* paialid, "S=tiwrd hioaymt, ItSwo t
adbM mand hPts a* I %a U eWsts ve Am bsom a e9 nafbol
ft ft1fa axo tx *9 im tapamd as mnftly -IfWstit In 1n 5o
has basU of a -and-i-ms lzjbellipsio teot$. 2a Nw all ou aid
to be eatiafloa1y wbra4d amd of Inhtfw mntel ability m m*i

Ms ab3f to tmas dom &Mm3y ait n* a.jeot, ad of trbia ger*, 4 we
faflnltely atamly talat amd 4 wan bdalln. fa results of
fthia '; a ini roed a timd In tha dirotim of a poauitleS ~bma to-
r lmps a e itn oi% otPs tt, rfmlmantng poaitiw bhas ia Bt l
al,, MI, ad aso"il eawi.tgemy. tis twmad ma flid ow iatLlmse
taet and not n mriadn tstsi as tha Wagm t a m fiatollI'liM
test ser.a aould not be attibAted to= a Aae aaimt in raadifg
ability. lmo sdildiuals wer all mr&idng a pod social amJumtmt-
in tha o ity in dabh tiay wr o'llallmy Iaatittliintlissd. All
but an of tha wm I pP a rw ad with a -rani, or fr= i to 14 yra

sad a an of 9 yam*, Omaarlly tery Uv Id r Interlr vwlg i imt A
but t Im a In eld and t)h suobjst with taS pOwert
-rglna prpoaUs emusd bis sm ho, slarlss owned d frro
30-55 a mk Sid the ehiw of ye Bmplar with the sam M4i*Mu
nrd &Ma -14 ymw anr d ub ah fMly Wd lujiumNoe. Mn bd a
esar r at fur a wmla orlt' in i at rAling adiat stats.
A stuwd owq"pis by Onasm and air (1953) gLw sedmo tuwt
a 3IwP stop of adults, was, mml thy om not diassmed as tiwbm b ilskqn, wmo iago ps as llter *tumatomumlly2 rotstd
or as tally datbotivw u adult an the basis of tewt iwup, yet

ma sab2 to lMAn at a rate bo d tOat psMastd by thlr test
ncsme wl.bwe ad Bxyr (1953) reports tbat dwaing wVrld war n
about 400,000 l1itrzts and 300,000 pocly eduated $sldsm anid
uith thb aiv after aPdPLmtay 700,000 wi Mres jeted aa thw basis
of =..*l dtflslusoy. An anvW speIal tnlsilang ait No st vp fir
tumniatg thou mR wim mi f~auSly dlassi f" d as ilultente wd
thmes O iwsoi Aow ma the AMw Omral daauifiootlan 2Wt* 2w
prpo of tiM tIsblftmw to tomb ten s M to be able to mad at
the fth Sum imsl, to btan ufftSi nmt abiliWty I Ila Immp Sdll
to wiamkl tu to udixtaIn day to day oas d mri ttenm i eeb- sa

to be abUi to d 4fh OSVA Witustiso. ft miaB tim aoeh mm
mmid I'wll In the special oerw 3b20 days. About 40 Vut&M
la Zlo thn 30 ds, 680i g grated la ln e thmu 60 day, aMd only
L1,000 =a prinmd ftr sms than 90 day. A total of 255.000 mn
PdLated t =s t "WOa** COrtaIn&y mwrl sWartiela of the
rmults ane walild Uwe l a no dubtta that umn of ths MU rmM


not aotUally rtrdd but were only Illiter te. Mb often brief

and Iasty daegostio pmroedues utilsed by the Ank to urmen

appllonts MaY hav re sulted in a mn~er of erro, Probably a

number of un did not ewn oplete tbh oaurst Ho r. one aspect

in this stdw is that, as mntianed abonw, the mte of 3aamning

was geat-er than could have been Indicated by the test soores obtained

frtm these Bn.

'o~f ae two points apparent frca tih abovw evidence. Ow is

that ind dals who awe been diaosed as mentally flboti w Ahen

ohildm en the basis of test socaes haw Ind iated tkat they can

Iam a 'esbrM' ate than their test scamw oould Law sugsted.

Malidng a sastisfatotr mocal and eoonaoed adjustmnt in the oaaam ity

requires the ability to solw problimn on a rather ocmplex lewl.

Apparmnty these inzdivdals mwore able to solve problem in e4ny
sit-ation other than those et in itell gme test a slbitSie.

o wsond point suspasted is the clear l bqa of amy

eamnuiains relating to mntsl retarzdation which have been based on

duta obtakimd solely fru intellione test msores. M statement r

ds above that such tests my measiue a narzowly listed rang of

problem solving sitatin. The studies of vis and Havlgurst (1948)

indicate that intelligenme tests eaegle oly a limited number of

Intellseotal prooesses and, of those processes sampled, no are those

which would be nsoaessry fr school perfoTa e. Alo, the wsel of
Davis and lhvighust (1948) indicates tbat oonwnstknaml intellience

tests acnsist of item related to a dddle slaas cunlt'e only and are
enlly validated on a middle class sample. aThe igiftiosme of


two- sooin" tosIs dlo by te mot tiat a Imp i PSImml ot te
-elly we at vr moosal sU lan taftt.
& atptSfie to bAd- a test tmt I ts so *ubu bg ll

*imeme t hoIs end N )aft* % M
"6t its val It it miri n OMiU GO to .*eee1Bl to. sw -1INs.
BaNM" Its l hw daved d Vnu so oWejtiw utter"A or lt
pwoi terst *ua %ar-utf tow tatd rao y ftb2 U n.2atldin
atf to*r o amwn ?Aft aire ." lon tle ftam ow their hSr2 '''
IoNd armm MMMS OrP CIsma ap poag Mto f1 NUldl awr aSR VW
"l -uaw" thob wet tetts wo astelofc I" SS O 1steWIM
*at all r sai f, -too iefwo Pal or pr*ss .3,o we" an m
aufk hamts msmentirn ImeLtIamsBs* bm m ie twbIsd d-Rsli to
eet-A ot*. Ia s llUttle esiditu twu tI ti. aUt

- mrbli iXI bulg w wn4lr INIDs n Mto S al b 1 test s
is sieralit~sa erM1atd whdth tbe pum imeIN *3 a buelrf rsquHzd
Ia a o-.st uitwfrntS ft MY b*e a W ut ftbM *bia&h r,
Iup leperbat In 4et p m solving ft bI*Wa t ther ow so
be tombr"A tIn psliast *mioualf tests $ tb ta*f tt a

beft awd
Smoat -B06"g1 step at to lqpotieele Wet low present o0Mepts

or lnelllBa9e .7 fist be atTfneifit. Aotsai.f aot -" Is ve Ws
um Suabout sm peBhItEgIeaZ presmes, sad teir L atuwrtla orw
4o W wishy tav tm ash fastom as *uatin, tvsdnlng lim ton,
ot,. an Iftl etad An tia pUs uobg maa1 tpesM. Ner miMpts
bw wosiay bmr M6gpiteG. Oditubllr (196) has duurlbel 3 pipis
aof betors iAfh fAll mrf thme l w m]bdImn of tbIdn mognitomB

~I I~~____ ~ _C__ _____~__* _~__il___

Pr8r lf a-ltlons .m ftutm an ywto4 NO

fiwrsm rc oth oddoo*teI* Aft bla NU t to WSr-gn ob

mMte&t t ar it or ~ ftt* 9am MA l ra m u p9t wSe
VI)3YZ inktIoa ftwo sar ratio to mnala~raifir alS 3tw
~~ Is ttw aswm atMaw to~ ~ a" *3w
^^Ill^^'^l^"^*^^^^^^ ^^K ai -*^^^rrinl v^^wfl~iF ^ 'WMJ j^Q l MI rar ~ i^^w --lwmp9H ~D -- BUHri^B I

iftitoss ISI p4Imt or oai soemt a' ImSto*at wowlaft
Q~s) mi t #ml wss~ow~ac~~rr-s r tss .waltsa ~ oo~ wraswI

16 -L t toeS m of vtalor twa to ImM"dies

ad -rP.r Ilr~brr) wbtaP -p~rkih pwwr~b u.rrr f4;lrn ulratr' tOv
rSBiL t ^f~~gtrlMM^^ol wII- iltM+B 9 ~hdfmW~lfiSWeSII Xu~PI~~lf ^^jBIIUB tUI~f arh~iMfj~iii M|

Sado of Ito31sw 466gstlm evaOk .w
UMl, 40B'01RmMlli In** palialsooQ 9110-ite atom Insw
*6 **amM or NJ"dai Nowti t H< owfd fit MH ltrf

**Is a SRvesg "a a pNo ol3fMsi t w 5S i ad WIO ftb* t
lAU-dold~lwly tto %"raw*-M out" -="w a at
i a w t lo a td u sioaft, f twisg q*u Ia0~ ad fnmSR Int ts*

it a -i to be=Wnibs t In rUtmi to ifts *uls. AsoiUts to
fls Mad 4aia (WO), Ito u -all s Itap ItrU s* "ol
a tIw towu
1. ; tro nat.my "utua" mila"id $A am aw asft" *daiils
at o nti aottr
23. No*t Itleutial IM, -BUtfbs isa intfsl est sm


ditarmeosl wsbh prewt andividal aal solvlg
prw*ba toe r extmt th*t oth s eOf his as aie Wble to
3. Mw Bmtally retarded individual does now, and pm bab
ales winl reqrKA e assistance adl gAsd frm, Otbw.
4* mibcal zretadtien is pra'iawly li.noeabls.
tMmu the d41sios of liteSfletUal suRafOtlty Cais inL
miation to awL ztorsal OrIterSi of Uuntal mwmlty. S1I6on
m erf tmo rolling to tte Giftwanees usleh prtwmt a mtal3

retarded InbividrU m solving probm as well as othkms of his
ap has bewa Veusldabl ut1l3Md In 2b dai&iMs of antal rztar-
dat1on ALbu t total pewsonalty of ta Idividal nolodlin g
l6Xtuial m mtSonal, aid social ftotb a' s uld be arimatd,

mntrbate, masmur ant of mnts ability bau usall3 been te sola
ortarisn. lMPurttraWW, tbe readily available stam1 ibd'rd fxit2flips.
tsts sba t piam ly been sse ted as tn romans of sumh ntell
ea.atiaons. Altboayi it aiswtain that t0wse tests sonrwr3l
s4paifVfiaB with lksolastiS oppot-" and agldi-n1 0 it vu as50
be psooble takt Wsuh tests OW iRMau0e onlY a VOW m e xp of
Iebla, slvln SituAti .

Addition to Otmatrfiag tks a nnmallp reOtarrz w mtaUi
fte tiav as a rw'up dif ng fr tbe atfa3lr nesal, dlstintxntins
mmst be mbd within thbe Olasslfoatim of o atal 1si 0a- it0. Brasmm
am mamian (199) al" a dstisnation between the te mtal .teeiaa"my
and %-*al rItamdatim i.a abO tam .Mmtal treitadtiAn" pIwes Uta
no argie patb5olg oan be dotete aid tiat I thmie a IiOatl
of nvir al defl'ft as a basis fa' belMw ngosml umtal abliOt,


B- -HKA6 B BUmtn -r esom ow bura ob ar1gogsR palksbX vI11

10 MW lw I I ~ ~ se Is I= babo the two #aslm
IS VW WWO UH~sSrS-l A BIJAr IW RMllI-11 Ilp so wim~i
W^ WP---W W dlBWO1 II^V~w ^p^PH^B|^-^

W" Ilinstsi NOt MW tetsw i*smw as *srw '
"*t (B a oWiti- ) bm jw umws b th S3MtB Mls tBh

w t~IY lsa ui fUft" Wm fteu" Ia 0sm ad 6miat$ (31)
~~vl",P a~ um". la bo a ww"uIs i"Im 11i1*4k *
Ior No IM fattim oi otbrno w" tsd

a.m Lt wr V&aiauk3 so" u&*Mpm asib of I I

toim Itmrn muI O MWIlMSO MtIs *ffA iinmh UMt *A SIW
WH~rl CB~diK a. ItBL flbti tFll up2bw4 as^^B a of inins Urn W

bi am be "a m$fm 0ib #Ib l@1 5*35 ftt I3Lw lb
sm pwE to wuU ta0 oins WIts) 1ft a M~B 3amr $
arwi a ttdI Umh *a a in a tao shaftksi rah patim

em wIndo1n W tt d pi<- of tY o Pk"i ib10 st v"fIto s
*ir il r im riMul piilng1 tel1ftard (195<)18~ *]RI 1W)dt~ IBMIY

*!MilW|a tekBl tt^M --^ ^W i~art IMH l*afcI --UMMlftb IffIJ ttr 1CIO

to th i IM (J~tt'-r n- iD~rZnt I.* nte r~ IOXMU Mitt r29%) i*rs

to coPae thk p6erfoz tes of Rinb4te ually sanormal Ohil3den
with intell2stual awge childmn 1n a nn-test pmrblea solving
Within en Instituton far dsfemtive Ohldren, it Mn be oseuwud
e)11n1ily that ony children who obtain siallar IQ mores on.
intelligent tess osw qualitative diffwOercs In perfwar as.o. mid
is espeialy noticesble Nmmn cosar~ng bzrin damod children aM
these elasaiLed as "faimllUI or, in Sarason i-a Gaddin 's (3958)
olasflbcl fatia "Ot&ally retarded.* Vry often the retarded child
perftai inubh tim a nonal child, but at the lawl of a mUob yCqwPr
child Ch the aoher biend the pera o of the brain daeemd @hdd

is often Wa- I Wlabl3e, providing snOUqes of @od Oability with poor
ability*. tL mun (1954) describes a nuaor of disturbammes of
intellt and pewrmalUti iich ane onsded to be ohrwmterlstiom
of the brain mdapd chld and which a often reflected in behavior.
Sumh disturbaes a sr
l. D rbanoes of attention. Uw braIn dmarnd indtidmal
mart e0e3 effort to attend. FlAetig and o-relevmt
stiUal often intswftxre w1h v rlewOt atlimul.
2. wsturaanem of amarYs Xmdiate iemiom ftr the brain
dmrA i individal a y be deficient as a rtult of the pOWr
ability to attend
3. PrManemrnat Pareevratc isEe Eflnd by EISVaIen as
%"I tend nay fer an act or an idea to peuislt In vVriuM

situations, often eocIarie g wbI a brain dumPd idiviadl
has to eend g'ast effort to obtain a zrespnmse."' m e*l=i,

it omWrs ubm the irndivdlo Is fthoa irth Maw ultatlan
ad it my oomrw *An t hwi dis lt lt7 a augrl

Rigidity: Rigidity is defined as a tdnurny to pmist ian

ap~aopriato ~or xmpsle, this My al mm *aa teh bheai
d r Saiiwo.1Is f oed wiYb a now sitvati. lb is dI
wuWbl to ahift hram the attitude or ap'aAe t Bairn
oa the slbatia11,
5. Oamtuiag hQlis chmeotewsoxl Is doaibend as a taodwA.
to pproet "ai SIVmin as a wul me m %ti tvh
Ini~r~~i il is satuat=on bol and u b difitfult in oaw-
-Iux ulMW in situatiWa.
1 seems p2aus to usMw that It 1data bUw iIome olmml

to be reta, rded as dh4dm mn pwrfm amatell ly and u daar3wy to
1.UInsrllfh 1 cl aduto In evmyday adjmcsnts In a oemu.y,
tha raoturdd oMhldw my a&lao pFtmI( slalrwly to Ilntelleotunly
imfl a*S &In a moo4t pmoblma sftlvin sliatSt Il awlMi Itbo
iatr lmp tost greso orn the reaxudd smy be s*u olr t"n *ew
of ta aml ohlusr. DI aiditkO*c, tSr aasMiUM 3dlhxt te aimb t at
Wefa Hdom eblddMw uoIld not apwfriu m aisLmtoy as ta rin It Et
abildmmn or ut ia]tInI i almumi aaNlfm bueause of tide wvolow
dlrimrbme at ite iast ad powimnlitby ofmt e sn 1la- g an
a l.at dmordw* If thbme austinur aye t o9n, t mr labgorMi or

mq pOrlUdslaa ad oal2u u ftntaontd ex tUe buua of itntonia
twsto eM p sf mue dbyrmu. Nnre ipsMiAf"Iay, tahe IiimqjuM of


a test so al as the basis of of c itmn t to an Institutin or as

a basis for rwsumval from the Rmmwity Is even m glaring.
20 purpmas of this study are an foll.: can, to test the

Mabo assTupti-ns tht children Judigd to be retarded an the basis

of Isllino test s om my p1r'ftZ mo $A dquatly I a In n-test

poblm soling situation, and two, that retrudd child&vn %ill
penima m i llak naranl dhldz In a a n est problem solving

situation, but brain daa chldran will perform Inadquately In
Smoh a situaMo

Ibw frst step me the mseltion of an a aprat nwo-test

prblsb saolvlng situation Wieh would enabl toe individul to utWise

an abiUty to evaluate Mis responses as nell as to proAge reupIAses,
and would enable bia to twitufr earned priniplss ftr one situation
to other srimaar suituati ns.
onsdrasdwble work has been doe by Harlo (195.) and others In

tha stiau of lamndng set*. earntng set is often refMwed to as

"larlng how to *learn*. Eta s aoxpl xy, it can be desmwr d as the
de1pimait of a hijar order habit fo a single cwplsunt loated

in meah of a series of problems wd c w sitently z'einftoed froa

probl to problem. re nfored ooapen is the response of

ahooating oa stif2 ad than haengMg this choie if it pfwi to

be Inesreet, or continuing Va original choee of stSinlma if it is
i~umd to be Coomet. In nati leaning set, thee Is a
Wadual It n the ability of a isubjet to molew suesaiw
diMrslrin tim problefi.
Sineos tVe dew3lo nt of the co=cept of learning met, there

mw bM a ram W fr O to 1* llb awmntmllmuio of tam plmmn>inu.
Bn a kWox tu* RMllW4 (1953) ftonpated tha mtmevpmklq of
uppamft of tnmatrl tirdn, bA luamgui psgf m, ta
is M I~m g oplonin ef mkuvw tmmsftr I mni fran
i bla to prblbai. bi mr wuan~, a m imb5t (a habit of tetisg
stlumloi Mdaets fl tIr to maly ow dMmsianm) whine 2 ps-s
R NM la mm uml?~ 1MUis of w pswtauMw mdw

wnlmmwd b tiy sS wStt Slawm the aQtdsit of Ofa u ll t
Iliw N arrtlmlw a a w wir w Am ab nomt -ONpt0 btm a
SWls. uf lgdi f4UWl pseblsn eh MutrMlNimia a e-pMtaft tfe UMR
ospto lonauSg w* parklm wuaa am to be appmatarpt. fta* rtu*asr
lodu mosun. Ia mimis tlbs Mm uw wmru ~a f mmres *

I. am e~1ati m bmn mls t=~0 mh u npt ms G *t"a*$
plso mtim an ild *tAt"a ft" bmw l rtwte fami
ua t1 ma t1t.* A bixulnset problem simavg sitstiom
fmIn *im tte *J*t Is Ma of thm me mau GMi Wo Slawi t UVem
w Of fm Im Xsms- mm m ome mm R t *" amm"

Wial oumd pwt.' ua obpey %46 a liuvitoVat m-t
2a UawlmmtalB 3" imu ulifU ftwidn a lwvae sitUtlPi In
illab Ull sahjeets a3 ilatlwly e2 miw d atlLJt Iitally. The
situtla isb a m al dflla to a **ll.t wmpzun of
their peast eftatim =al onwrleoo8, bEt In providagft a wslr"
Of psobbIns it $$I Sa ]Iiats Mi of th* at With I""ha
IjmadlX MOWS*

3. AlV, by pawrdft a mru ls ot m, illsMirraltIn
lomdng c a tm lndialm of th efftmts of Im-staw
mld gprmstit at mofar m by Indl oatin tim ef'rots of
.inpJIat -robl on prnevloal Imsrd rapimms, and
tim stfet& of p An IMrdIy fseurd A aS new lm inSda

In ot~K wiMds, a -inas of rila dIlawilztleon pvela ilU '
irvld a ntobe prob3M o tln altiatIs&m iawlvln a nmobr of ,
sw OMqlxz epLtiM ft~twn than wOMld rO fo in a Siagle omitow
pToblf Or In a Geri" of muwlatd poblaw*
2w *""poaMuss to be tobte arwe
1. taly retlW d dhlm wl& l pertwi silwly to
nt a11ot'eIlly auwwp obtllne n a non-tet problem

solving aIttll *ish glWs tihm %beaw an anpp tnoty
to wmaut t" aNpO 1o atm of thlr xqpo~i to

]a* XtmALW isftfstiw (imln dsMi ) and 3*kW wrtswde
(MnbIaIn w4) edoMs"m tl th o lamInllsml abWly
as. wtUad by *IrspWdhi4- lnt I l"ipm ttso uml pIotism
i1w 0bly SI a ft4.eb pw/lsq, alsi *ntm fI.ON it Is
-ilM bi tia So bImIn duMmpl o4ldml, bpOum of tiS
*uae lltax dlsbwrbmme. or y, attMEin ,
tUdttm9fllftJy, pussewmtism, sto. teyi4nal of mik ehllbma
wlU aoqrlz a ltadflse t at a mbh alumw xst. thm
A-ma or o-bndi dsaeW txldno
20 20 MpNiz v eft*eats of pruiowly lowifd rspoinss fB
aVr tarAl in wefwRd to as promtolu ibdwtZu. lbd

is prddiOtd tlht fe effbtes Of sahb protAWM1. i w-0vw

ill be grster ftr ths MAYtelrLy dWft w OhiU*l ta ftes
mtt a mtU xtardd atd amrap Ohlrn be"auMe of tht

diflet fcrw tt b aftjw obfltheyen ha shifting sCt fre
a nl elly Mawmd rmpoawm to alw atstaUl .
2u It Is pwedea that fti r wllX be no uifaMnt daitfefwm
betmm tto retrzdd and amwWspr ge iV n la3tif t o t he
efibets of pmeintw Snterbanoe.

3 Withe- I irOfttJc o IMtowpola em L a m* p i

of pmrviomsl uear d e stwlal in rftwd to as rtprmotiw
izBwaMa k 1 IS i prodnloted #at bat be wix be a vester

-go5I I t mio of v5ft'uMM @ imiqeow m the 4dofttiw lp
thma ttr tf i oLIa two poE p with =ate xpolsled p"bl=
6eesm of aB difficult in sbiuftia ftfRm se"t to anotiw
foe this gK"i. It is predioted *aat te dftotiw *Mldm
will mnnibft lasso Infrmaaet In pAiOrne aftew frt

intUrpolated probls besatM tay waold MMbe wle Ully
to kw ftrgot'a ndi0h blocks had orilrJUy been Iradbe'sd
3 It is p"Aed" te"it ttaip will b no -iaif Imit Atffi
hetiuma tM U xrMtax* and awaBp gpsp in relatina to ti
ofits* of ie trwuae intribia e.

a= mma

mlsnto. ti w ws uw tof tow iow IVM Ns ma t*ab
St fJt"M N nrald A* SIMbla 0UaS tn. *atai. I NremiMt
otf d ElMMOMa witl iaml saam, oi 4exlii wiss bkrt- W6*
mr- ms-i--v- prwi at Wo *sn LwI. am Ma t lew

ta Mow baew u)A um. ,b lu a Us tte tjlof ta owfls

la "a-m *kM in )A sum% 2Ia tfd CoE ImLd Imn th ausr
ft 00 yu "M. of "Usaaod No of thm "iWM "Mn

atISU, .t p aUs zew ua Mv I, th" en o
EM1*t biM.A mor -atan "DIue Istftn ior as tlnd Imess w

sil rljM,, oO uste"es.* u Oiwm Us W of aM
be abeashso UstC M .wUito x*ms% tie pnoa or mbme of

k-a tsc ths maid tbe (ius4e -k U srhi m f w h L a a sk -
amlete w a "Uw tth wtb As Us m *OEMa at sots otai a
vslwtwl tebra ft tiw Obl.iniAtW tof 5inlM
glOMdif CIIPIP MsrttcBtun Ofb 18 ghardmu


Claatfloetkma of th loattitlmlul laed acildremn in rat$M
to d bmduana ta prenmc or ablsene of br 1a pt dolorg mu
mempellj4e ft. mv reml Vtpe of MwftC alo A moial BfhtaM*

sdSlu 0Iv ud A-etamws g wes ivtAW feIr aw
hMld and &Ul of ti es uwtslr3u1sMd lia dote!trdaL tin apZ prlas
e~a.10satffit All or tim lntettfaIl-sG etilwi M ed In Va
siad bad bow pl emd In tim natletumtin ma t1e hmaIs o)f lntfl onlp

tkt wm and a =ino to pwfom Mat aftetw'iy In an asamL

A pLU* *atW ma eaIaUw4 In caif to O inmdne the most

SrVfllr tS atlali to be wed In the lsual dIsa*rLtMne poblam
rmd to dmtermdn tm o.lsptima obwano-lsel and Imeal ap p P ann
within via b te AtiratuMtlmollcd ohil M 5old mdi sf"y
nolw tas problso. Tao Inaitit utmliu aI ehild of trying
kwanologosial se, umitel *us, and dia0xtl. asgQa .'ie WMP
ued* It ma fowuid OttM rapasila of nmtal app there wa a
tudMaaiy tra oltdr .aiaeift ahildeaaw to alvo tho probleBm faster
tiBm io-enr ehild mB may youn AaItitutIeumlised sohlhriw
(u'sr 8 or 9) food the problRm uo' too diffiLCult. P thi

iwaM, MAtitutctIl d *blarW betwmm ths ap of D 16
an walested* AnaUtI mr faa nCat maorsin yaogp, dldlrm
wma that than um ialatively ftwir children bolr the aP of 10
in thi fuimala or ImtallY retaded laeif uatiuas Iin mre a the
pihlatUM of the A-titution.
w msaual ae ensw seleted was M aes 5 to, and Inclutag 7.
] the pilo abtty, hblldrena with ental aps belon 5 fonA the

pWoblM too dlffiault to bolw Id taheo Oi&dra with na1tl
ap omw 7 solvd the prblm too quickly.
In None Werws finely selocotd ooaiftad of 41 Intatwtieu-I aiwd
Mhldren and is ] tmll awvf Oildmdn. ligtamn of the
lnstl atM d i olldmn 3 m inntally ritmed mi 23 mw brats
dad wp .SlaIy detWtlw. Ot ntaly dbefOtiw awd unialy
qt ard0 K i w matwally Oquitd oe6l y mtched In f Ztftial to
webal ablUity and ehrnlogtesal apa of 1347 ywr amd a man intal
or of 6.2 wra usatCalr retaird ho a a MB !ro Mloglomi
aP ofb. 35 jwrn -ii &MMa MO u a=W or 6.6 yeaO.* .tal apr
f-r thm uos 1r all obtlatid fwom Iatuimd ianWlrs tOa*
BLt-r Stan~frBInt op te Wohlr IZnts'l.in SmlOaab fr Odmna
iM adhlatd o aebt oMs d O i the xtuady. XM tat* bad all
bom wttmnltk d by qualified *amtws an ltd all bwe ad duir&tU
within thelS yew. of the proWn* std*y.
2 wepoup of nonas onn ldiW naa aeloeted ftoa the riatal
awa of two dfmlent oitLso. JPtow of the ohlldUw on ftim a
uilwv ity acty with a popqultimn of 29000, PoutMaen of tOw ehildUm
om fr a arpga mtrpoiten city with a pWpuataon of 700,000.
AU of t ohIdlfn wer betm b Utr age of 5 to, and Ineluflg T7
Itaml P for thaee dilWdi were also betmen 5 to, mad Inmwlulng
7 ye. asu etablJ.h d biy the aIbItnistatiam of the SfutaftI4'iwat
OtWllisgu tat by the aubkr of tbhe piment stuy fte weM
raMn, ap ftr tBe Zgop of naal ohaldrm mas 6.1 year am thN
maen hrmwoalbal ap ma 5.9 yeam.

2B, pilt study US alao ut1lUied to sa2aet th Bt app OCwate

rtLl t k 004 ftpW tOrhWe dw l dNWlWMMtloR pMrWbf yOur
4UdtaB typ" or flow" we" miabutall

U. AMIUar nN-- VAC u dorlla t%", IMrMO 4to
1 'A.."aw flaw" Oak an A"1 tfv.. "UNS~ oft*
I. MriA-sftwiat tirws wre h a ftee fta c, l te.

3 Jtaawtar~er -ri-tlr rem
9, Urartob am br1a1l ftinn

IndUat ntLgm we ftui to be too, al2y uaittngiraml
writh Ite uoui m of a prwUlm w t r ioh Ml* of almot

SMl W N4O llir fWlee Wm toe d4iffladt to 0Lgbrt14

-ktc thte Mi aa wh toe hGMM1. NIwtrlto ttw w e i
4iUdqPhl m wfar l nrtly rldlar s O wt. psirut to. quiak

a as POSS" umtb SOU w feat. t* Imno r, "IN '.b"
a*to- they unw -- iwiy~i d W|Ma ^ti

Ite mtsIu utIlhuu eomast of the ithr tip ,11ua
Glriasdvmrtiwnh mitouv. %OM uans a tWW wifth tmo *Npo ft
mady. As a eampr thov M qw, two wnomia bhili we plaeml* ft
th tope of the buLoeh utw 9Mto, ealoste mx-tr iteoo So
angil atilMsud asl Wffpg apsu oft "a*y eistod Iowseatw
Rlu Onoit ft ft b*0 Us ^, &t1MftIw la adto ma, Satsu0 b
aem rwsltat to MIlstAug
US pMW&m Utilimled VU dbitUoat to tMIt Wed toy Uiulbi

353). 11w vislu dirlsalaMi A pUNPI uN pRWOM d per
ask n. ftkh pn N -rwlsol u e .u1te with am bklsk a a pouitiw
am aMd alumv dth a pble ort amly belw it. % hblooka ow
nmud &i midt to "Ib In a psxo -t mtimd IWsa arter. As



emah pIoblI ms Iol.vntwd, ttwe x os pr ated wutil fl y uio
9q3wtd a& zl'tsra t r a susesfrl sltiona woo ir,
fw souswadve owrxwt rasposres audI/ a wrba-mltiaon of tIe
eluca ie., "C, t's ~lbms uner the an ame*" After fi
pbawm one oIpleo, either the front 'r the f*t pbloMo ui
orop-'isi"Mn with ta postiwV aend notiv t0io inwven r r
vepr eansmt the pysbna with trhe positiw end u atrw blodi
z rms4d, thr etlftt of tka osdlgma&U .azomd vi ae cm ote mw
ntowal an be allijrtt PEo*. IWtiW latwib oh mo a-t notpi
*aesrkz'* W intp"lating interial bUrnm fbt ftUmWgi7 Iszmod
,pow eand a m Mropmi (z!wwr tw fifst oP tB, e ftfi .
pisims) a mem of e4WtaTiw Anbwhwm is n4obtsin.
nfluirig tgo &wpSr wmtsd problab, suf Stbjet no pmomtodL
oif "rbM per fty fta period of fivw dqay. Al the fift bloka
oatmtl. I ntrder to bm trny-fiv se apazl"ee pgm, tet
blosks t' ssh s pimbl we. b1eood W at waiin.u Vitb eh
-ae tgw Blo oUo w u am t f1W ewh dhll fthe am i i =I t0
t9r flit dhUld blowing tme ft sit ftr tim "aond ObLd4 *toSo
frvidlUg eatrsol fslp ttem Powublo fiXftswes Inf difftSalwy
bern t*R mte of bloofa.
A iarm of the apmtw wsed appmws bel3 s

0 0

o ftut Na* lat ta bS3ftstw aS4 d
Sqt~i flMN WIite fml S Hinpin ft

Sib bmff Sfitria Ina fa *ft arBin 0at at a htfls
a- sea WWI mn 4142 "WI Owe. t a)..
*m tb* --me
bmAtoimi atc at s au o" ar, b lft ancd o sMt 1 astwai

ninthu" i to -s atf tt iiwalwlly xtM ftoI w Mir ow
tmat oh No ~T a d an ar, u tW a ptiaat mebo

lobb" 4lfltr s w lilrlm do*' ; boo atsbal IN i ill
Ni-"o I mW @ad *two totftX fu*Sti M~tw"**

IF an. anm>j wi i Ci ts awat a a.r ae-- ftr a@ *55nvi 1
#a* a" or e"Ruda* a"~# botma of a# hI",us lu
pmwaabri pH tq Sadsr at flhissw 'l, 1b- ibt at sb s
rt re lb at It l flat Bb~ ra to ~b*w o
en se Wifnsaw bsU a Ms stinln otam
It aL b3 tat tb b*lI atn^ of wnZMU 'papab olaftls
^tans US~ftl ffilu*tMsMwi fK .X4Me anteU asf is emaM~ar
Na...am~i ff^^X-- fl^hBHSXi VM mbs-- ian- g--asB-H~tebb
at itiMCMsr. aInna 4l .tai~ttas a atuh wauirtit WtiM *
^i^^^tk^^ &k ^^M ^^^^^^ ^|A~IIDX ^^bu^A~ahftA^^k II*A&&u DICk Cbl ^Jf^jK^^ ^^h'-i^.jt- ^
*5~i -0 W OS9 5af~wl Shin'B~~lw ms*u~Ljmn usM swuMI '-rw
^tlllrfc~lMI*i 'ay Sur~ mft~lt>tnii )ftIW f to~dII tw thtll IllNQYt '
seance us imr ae bainmty as ft 0551 tatmmlb Wflh
at~~ eY mbs~ a ra aaesaana m- uS. S

lo m I
AM^i~. WA W-u^^^^^ ALI#^J~a,^ T^ 0.^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^
^^^- ki^^^^^ ^^.& "mum^ ^_^^^^^^^

nunet nnn^^a rinJaren ^^^^mm

) iU. 53.12 5.A
W9N b*l 1.l 3616
non a.# 0" 1.96
aEM, a ,M3
rn99 3.Ml .3 1*


.61 iz.a



mkftibpp --


saoh r s, dat fa the fIve pr oblem prem*e erd we pooled
and the midam nredr of erroar obtained (See able 2). *i nrAib of

Ues In the sauple fallang above and belov the adlam of the oorldne4

obeerivtimaM d etealred, The resulting data were analyzed In a

.it slzosy table and ts hbyposaa Mas rejected if the bmrevd

b.i sqrme a mM e ttan the oItIoal val ftr am dlqee of ftwdam
Usgi ti mag di a t S the first W1ypmotels ma tested r

n btMaltned by each p' re opard t to the ea s obtained

by esab of the otbMr g.map. At all levls of training, te b rin

dmnagd pm1 ided rpl flatly m evro taen the nm-brin
dd ,and ndm l gP e (See Flare 1, p~^ 23). suh adim, es

re all WiOWliat at ts .001 leml of oanflme. It amn be Mns
from Plapm 1 land 'ble 2 tiat the non-brain dam d hilUrn a"ouid

a learning t at a fster and ams oe lstmt rat. tha the brain

dameMd gsrp* Ie nA-br in daagd or retarded oq p .hwd a
demres n eI n from the tint five problem to the se nd flwv
publiw. a'mMwa then remained stable util the end of the

merel esaept fto a mml ris in e la on the foth day of

M bWn&a dampd SoUp obtined em ermor an the second

day of trainin then were btained O tsh firmt dy y Ftr this
Ep p 1 t nber orf I then dropped cO t td td4 day, rome
on the fbwAtr day and fl2U deemed 6 & dd al y n t fitth day.

rae mas o alpfimF snt dtifTerwno betmsL tVse n-brain

dwap and namal V omps at ay staps of training idieatluug that
they asquired a learning et at about the s" rate, It is Intereting

-23- 1



5 610 1-15 16420 21-25

SOU of PreblUM

at tm .m 2ul of ootflnemo at a m31 Ola of txdsif.s

____ Lda DamWd
a- jmrJn D~ ~ pd
I a~i br

* 0 o Norm"
~ r
m m I

_ _r _~__


7hbl 2

Brtn boagpd





fbn&Broln Dnmr




bet== thtwn Asiw ai otbew two gar a, un floazt
at t.he .00 2wl st all a sabM.











t oom IN$ g" r- ft o-r -W- was

nus emd" a* e A~p sW a aws oh bNoem
weftl em, aIg *a f Up lion 4r fw ftabd ab oaft

hl rb M MbI sawn*, I. WmUI ImooIN .wwe

Usaf soUl vuBHm sl 1 OBllv l
bt P tW MA Sdbft* ft MOMvs SaSWI. am Ow
atmw matw a O Ur,.n gms, *a INwo am f U n&
OhN I uI" I m woos -ib soU* Mu a as-.
aaf l *p ft .h qirM ausM *umuMH at

n tti w. s arn a ms ~a tsIm qr
Wel h61 ss Wem, 1a Urn1 puul, em. wuins2 I.
-<-31--p im^^i^^-iy w1~wui vb, pl^^wll wwwMwHi ^**^^^^^*p^ tllfyw^^y^^^LllQ CII

jlnteNZf-nig4. OWO th* mj6sts bel M aW that tlher r fl t

reapoames we mm imnorrcwt, they ould pwy quickly opmup to the

armw t Wpo eams

3b mipiflemee of the difftharmes on peifnVAue betmm

ariglnal pmaritetions ain preewfatl0atm of paobi n distelld.
Sine -ah ubjoSt m birnwim Miwr tIwo osnaitimns, ter riinma1
plumsntstim amd the emwml of a pI im uW, test wd be Invavid.

ibose tu n-1 1pa emi W tAftiAti, tbl siaP test, M ir imfeUi

0 B96M of postl w iMd MintLw diftar roe bewwm te .w

btalt madi ta two tmditna ran o sbtalP t md ad e manll Ipotmbsis
IM a rjetd *M 0 MnW of posttIW Mand neam tlw asips dlft d

sloifmtay Ir quo l Qli. ftn di'ffimmns betora mro ma
raasml mad xovwrsd pir-statl arn prsaoited In TbOU 4.p

fp the ~ftstiv gop, the meow of pspq* dhtalding ma

-wme tan Mft M a- mm the IMwi als aldiBfis"atl gsreaow

at th *01 lavml of gmodftldo aPp tbi proqp, pai esal ivteUf.

nao rAa iwusftd at On last staps of training, but wnaftn

opmttivo at te InItal stWap ft r the na-bman daMld m mmlp

stop* of training.* Ir Jtat, theo dbanmae In tVi rnar of emarroC

*am probla ma tmwd at th id tof first fi w pgsbia
is sip1itast Uf s tV avsw swop at the .*01 lal of omafldmoe.
ile li bvsm tt prcosotlve -a-twemae woul be
psatrw ffor the btif dhupa po s cn partially sorted Lw

It is ialy a" the last Usel of t training fat suc*h i slnaro e is



1able 3


Main Dimapd

1-5 13 8

6-10 0.105 5
11-15 9 5
16-ao 3 5
215 2 4


Znbk.ftn Dd Asmxa

OrSinavl Riuwal ClBglml Rmrn l
10 2 5 1

1 2 1 1
1.5 1 1 1
1 1 1 1


S2h third hypothesis stated that there would be a greater

suppression of perfonrSnce efficiency with oneam interpolated problem

(fourth problem reversed) then with fur Interpolated problem

(frset problem reversed) for the brain dgd group It was

stated that the brain dmresvd group, because of poor lamudiate

wm=7o poor attention spen, distractibillty, ete., would mmniftst

less interf"rene, after four Interpolated problem because they would

be more likely to fort the block which had been originally

reinforced. It was further ~lt. that there would be are inter-

fernce in perfbrnaoe after ow interpolated problem due to the

fact that these subjects would be less likely to shift from respond-

ing to oe block as positive to responding to the previously negfr

tive block as now positive. Such a shift after only one interpolated

problem should be difficult because of the trait of rigidity

hawreateristio of the brain dindividual. Table 5 presents

the median eirrt obtained by eaoh p at eaoh lnevl of training

for both the orignal and reversed problem when the frtWi

problem are reversed.

abIe 6 presents the amdian errors obtained by esh group

fbr bot th te original and reversed problem when the firt problem

are reversed,

Mhe data presented in Tables five and six are portrayed

raphioally In Fipre 2, 2a, 3, 3a, 4, and 4a.
a sIP test was main utilied to detenas the sipfloW f es

of dif-r-e- s between pwtwamepaoe on rignal and revrsed

preemltation of the problem.. TOble 7 present the poiive and

AI sm or Oa ,mm

enu a otIbtm: il 1 o.a MOMINK
scDbtlw) (HtaUss)
as + + +

S 8 2 5 10 6 20
3 7 n 8 3 2
13 1 7 3 19
2 .1. 1 1* 2 2 6 5

, sgeilfiaun 4irmmow at t Ol 1,wl of rldainm.


Table 5


amin duLnafLp

SQrlginl fevuwd

1-5 15 6

6-10 4.5 4,5

11-15 7.5 8,5
16-20 2 2.5

2r-25 1 7

PBanm-&%n DrMnpd AwMMV

Original *Vormd QrigBizal Roamrsd

9 3 1
1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1


MLble 6

m1ln -Dagnad

Crlglnl Revwued

12 12.5

5 11

7.5 3.5
14 9

2 3

17 1
2 2

1 1.5

1 1

1 1

8 1

1 1

1 1

1 1

1 1







- w., so ii:X I

h / \


X34 6409 n415 1646

Sof pwrbl

Wpftm 2. bullui of ftb 3pfro fbar L rr t dnlB VS ad PM.






4il0 143 146-0 21a5
ar& ofr bIJi

adtal nmmftp
..,,1, l Iwmti

I --- .





1S6- t Us dsmpsi ad.fs

wo 40A4w 4uw 4

P ____



t \

0- m- ** *rb

So" Of Pvebum

of rlah prob3m fr 4t=4 n. 4un duo* VJP.

S-- U -, NMai"J
Im 40 O ob 4, lovtwua

_ i___ _~_ _1



I; \

14 646 1145 IM0 t1145
duatg heb

Nomm a-wo an isa wt now ON I'doikloS
":r,= No bta Borica G

Jbjf^ amalma UNR





saw or mNWx-

rel e. pmaIR Ws JNo slump oMII*M

-1OL fi blWt i
O a a Or tgl- XmiMU lb


bIt 7


raoup lRmwlw of First Rmuml of fbwrtl
Probli Prsblum

+ + .

Min Dowd 15 23 22 29

Am-alftn hue d 16 15 10 21

awrg 11 4 9 8

r* aLm 'lewat at t .01 3lwl of oanflmoe*.

1SF~T r- .

mSdiw IfmwOs etuinm on o o. esigIsl me NeWvad

aM rowrmals of br Pl a fad~ bufth Pin, atbo wwnn a

inuimi lDkjsts In smIbh of h gnps at SeI p b o tI dime to
piaswl xa u sA o mata dof 1rtfuoa oifft-. Btrn0 m

to dtha ftr iU tlw st lps of training wm 6lmd wUmhn Mh

rfoSkmg of fort O fouth mmlar.ss
lwr AU tbHM #Iwepo Wf ki 1X1 mileX--nOO b -gaOl

Vamrs ar lla dmm, V.4n a Snm atwrsw. bu
us bisra bou &mod at not w a dSmsg at tNo JI

love! -0 tmws wgblein MdaR Wd fmh m

m3 tmasslows k opls ss aba pvstk B ti twfSte lut Bnp

m it I$ St at wtM Ut" Uhk Ot thsisg t *Aqp 8"atly

ma %m beg af t f -tii& otan st 1r0Q, i Nolis pp I p1s

Ida o sulef -- 0" pvbUml

id sP m13rp m -now mp vemna i Itm fP teIm hkr

p--- e M W

-~~~F- ---- -7;i----- --~. ;-i~~I.-q

lM im poosr oft pMi Olb m sImw bso IXm*o a

Sr-h lx~dMBa aw orf aopi.t- pvrobrim #1* mlrtr -t -tl
i~~~4 Uunia ua t2tw promus bowa to t0hr

*a tdwo b I ob" that (a) wa s"WNW"
Wbm 'tUl f wuMI af M aa'f I-taMo IM~ftW e11r* w

%f m mom alill ts .Nbat. U wv.sm at
O" gs)*ftn w %U "is uspw* tUM) fit WL a*M, Am

to*s UMW pX- I MCA 1u i1usw to hr a=*inntast 0063i mufI
iwn claWr Urr3n defittw irMf2taP~1a a mt ilsg B at

ftcu~l, fbln* boy MRIMI NblmurI, 1"001100~~ldr 111
a b3*o sm ta~ 39*61*4 M*AWMO *a
~whi ws UwH
Is a r~ rbat ~R Vinl~ dU;wwiM.~tIesJ rmb3 uslag
ft H^^ni- ilbl) i HI^ty4RH~Rl aIb~alWb 48111 *Hm'jXJM~ httB t

~is. aie~tfu 0t~lamslr tbet Nirsa n maI
^^llf f y jkXftl~OtI *femt ftlBY *MUNNI taf *ta~LUff1n JI^IU

r4i10 "an aw pnn. l lag tbmwi XM a"

of IONm. Ins *WIN" stp bins fte ftSMS
4lqMi rtu to tO~ft" wma IOlW a" -'WIbud i ms t1l 2Uw
(lll~rT itf UHI br Bffrg d> ^Md irrSP~a oy ftq th fljg .

thoaiW tOe rIziUAW of the 000 at probUMo AMlly, 'at
e finrt tim a tar ft tntai 9i ewu atod eldwa em iA
frw mioo ta tam am"&Vn* abi, aLoum tei dia f4tenmm
W not MrbSs1rtstt~y 1dMt. &sh a lf mf a 3tBm
in this di&ratim m w pbly to theft Vat theo S t tt td
h6ibrIr iad a3tll b1wr mstael pas thmn tio awiep *hkUd
ad the fbe Vtt thte xrtn d v M* W m nauu1ml lteh "M a tIP
awslip -M1 M1wrty d wA a n Phr wm, the Paa im fwtam iaowlvkU 2w
pmltwmwsl 9l aim *to IMslato te't om3 du d3dm uiMnrnI
MM Qdeli thoIS ies ~eIsNDCe e beth B s OmW
rewxan4 Ist no ftewtly nodw rag thi pas. md
Musrta*y thot the dMW a naz* Mu *eftetu dMiae mma
tuely a,' to Ma *Ariow andl*mvw m tr a Irn
MISIw MI mVI abft I alU wOs. w, 8 a 6e W ,l IMt
loIwif of t#0 ..*^ le. tpt uirdow ett byI ex ixudiw'S
E Ms Ur wa %*U tht M& of tVe *malbW' baft *ebeW, Mi Utr
dNTsSa 1 rn inih -UK the Sbar of th9 o0 5.11g pbela ISt
woso9 srvaod mi 5dmf (X9s) ziSmd tut uttaim or as
w1iop-a* of mwlrbrlw ttdlakia Wish lasmestag in3 q(lall
&aW EN WW* kt tt N AbLUO fle dC" 00 LU d
(10) ut5. toe vsMatw a-hid2g *Add a hrib r la fty
dlm No as a *& a paiam omw, heo s abw ft autam Il
lotwb lM* xw'S ut am* ft soluft pF&bamd -f sUntesaoSisw.
*rno, tUs eflisAoay r mip wih rus he iw sbuta
hiM Lbrs h daW ith uWif ap, % oar lngma4 YO

IlpSoM, bhb oould d..o so *gaby Mazm 1UaI Iso, i.,., t
fts1wd ma t hi bt k, the top, and the o* ,, m ao mmin oaf
On mm 4IatS gui..
2uw aqiutacmn orr fb the deboftrw grVa kV oldteo tfat
a IN&lXAt Bt Is aoqadz at &a AOh sloiwr -a aWm Iamnnctd
rate Mw sati wlmabllty or pnzFiwarmus awn thifs wep
4s to.bll strw daim otaer w emm of twn bxla 4=""
@hdalUd avwai tba pribsm VW qUiasdy iMWU dton 1M It
eatmiBy diAUoUlt. Agtrb3 9t1" of ithn wrMa Wi.O to "i'm Wy of tho prkabin aai e atW xspwsaini tUMn"s

wsob1M aof thb p v aupas lf at r a ftw im nr
askb uwlablllty. ibist fr tbfldx In tie uesotiw sp vn
asfetecl a tUs bsis o@ *raft Injwy dorn xtoo" lsra.m*
Iinsior OP atbobU disordsw, eftilAlvy ta Uiw of baft
Ijlw un l wNO" y fMnr sjet to sj6st Sow of ta No n
aw hpw b" dtftiUlwtV In p vim misa" *UI* Olno ms *m
bm ber wnbi to ftm and Iutl oImIr aoh- st a
rah as. I# ths &I S"t a',l's intdr tbe am WLok StU
ug-e -r bhaw have 4WAli1 Ian -m pw vi a tt oft* u

ow pat-r g Inaw~ In apa puing thb ONa In ite Iw=Ma oup.
'Mr pepw pBbwLM"nm M Lftsteid fe SiN re t tmo dBildt.w
oMidbm dldA msa to a*to=m fwam Wr iliUty to owQsto Into
wpsstqpx su of' a tbair urospNs. A11 *mpt fiw tof teo
edlam 4id t to rnUmft it t u mm qiago. SW Mtwniu

ImBms ItMI tIHduwB aib the iJt"UM snssW aMi, fM tgo not
pu-b, on abU to abw lypoebfls in ttrhm aw it th At tNafr

77-11 1 -. -

zompanse vr no t Ouflxdzg tHim hwuSw13 the pvow pIIlrmoai at
the daB.fbw chbldnm seud to be da to Ilntol2afl tauo pem1t
ftitwo ei1rsied to be tthea1 at'n mb d{h IM ; i.e., rlgtditt,
pam1w JA~MS pOW setttaflcn NplW& poew iMY# Msd eMnt QIMUlM
hus. I*,fibiis utia sesen ft pml tim OZWUW ebTflbrB
ftoB xwd1y Pa@tsg Otblsiai to tho io2swut muopbt of tao pF&INB*
Althou ta Mr faWmd lgpotimw awlatfng to pesi=ai or apt etv of

p a -II' of t1w bhis, a few of tih ohl&m we Mabla to MMft
to thr onft blNo oavOn* ie the bncmorrt (bt pnfham) belo m
amilS00mtly o*S i1lro1*d ITheb ohldsns en*lmud to vsrp uki
nlanwotly tfLal aftwp tfral* n1w ddilt norm PoIwI alwl of
#ow plPobm AotmL13 aftv two of tbm w*aetds bed A Ioopltd tNo
ntlrm awlws of prd-i vwitIbot alvifg wBg the ismretr, a* of
s a oriObl, o.nd to prma-t tb he iUl wltb idm mewlngu-
of Ot1*p blodc* 2hw eaubjsto eadld to ueIwt tiM pomnfo
baa* mWlI timw w tlod. Uows Undo UO blahe" m not
i3tosted fn. aQids to aid, tt ssJsests gamBli to 2.t2o tb

loerftawefd blok* r Ia nothing Mnta in in the hrsus#ar W,
O tort sua i th nolOm Oktepa to Mem ibarlatod or pxtgtod* tSmtr
aUimu to bmn Ftr im'ae, t"e tlaes of bkia dn (fl24d
fsep, et*.) =6 bt vat Obyugsalm whe *"&ate the Mr s %ai tdi
AM ~to eblid. X t mm- matsh mp a womidu -|i br1 I ^ ad n
s~crflWa Xa ftaqwuhM with o of the brafn tamod 4ii3um *
-1- qdwt That gow for tlsu ehildx wam a&I" NeaI

to *s.w of the otbw bmtla fdn and Mhe anm-rtwa On""
-oMI Hi3*amo

' ':"

A IWMb of tBe hidre, bOft Unb bzlta rdl Mi rtrte, d$d
n- W Pe the met p-f. the we able to shift to u0uwb Iwampme aflw
ptiaslld MwbeirstIe,*mm of tre appwep1fce bleUSc

DaIMtisIa rSM displayed by aw OhlbiU& w A on ble to w1I0s
es Bemopt of sm blookt betig IauisLsktly relabMd fto sh

nrdirlvA MbuaM bwat M nabl, to GoanW this lMPot Or to twe
n*xb diftet but sIdn p"U*,lem. TM fee aUgWmg e mmak gsf
probl-s a am ad tf~Iawr =m.0
trma, it I t tbe IptlMd thtt rN of t"I baln demigd
Ghilr3 (wrWa nbjmts) did SOlE Vhs pMbUM W qiakly, 8u11iMly
to te ntmer n ftmalpda end Si muw gprou, mn able to aoeiua a Isarn
lag et eary ia th .rft, and odie d O aW y Uhe O at w to the
- Iprdb~Lm.

Ippetimsis -ntee U. pmdfistlfg s rater psosatiW 1Me~rser
ftp r t thbbhte t IV hin ftp either the retrdeimd an mi v

wr me aaISly parmally Mppred. o reaUlt" at the slp toat
incubated atm at all lemeb of trningm f the retUe wa4 wuq

cpeam t ee m men algifiunat MiIWrm1e betmrin tgo B-w at o-%%u
obtalng re vws a d these obtaining ftiw avow an xvwram
of problm-.0 A wqaswla of the median wmae of aew obstalid
by Vmee Vemp mie both obe* *UW (rgImaml ad imgwrn purgje-ta.m)
readily idUats tiat after tihe ffrt fIe pvbwlew, bath wt&l4al amd
uremu 1 a1i1a10 or prsablism uem quiakly soed In ab* the
wm 'Amber or ta'inls
BPr at deftlbve irVw it 1i ala at the fial step of tnuftlaa

Wat mae ts6 Bodr mom tin nwr Wa" w. anX X"Wmma"X
1Iu' th"a gap, preOtiw intmmrn. Inrasmwd ntluer tlWa W rmi r-W
Ml 1smnlam PImAk TLwS t gneem ui e- md aml amsrn tbnam
U o-i-k0n0b* Idlmer iraloatring *tst In, l ul, as lsbialm

gt loss #W Saba be oWefiuwd with oWaN a*tiibO (oaodm 1NS)*
heam fmtsw L Jawsm-1 la %iwfwema mwlw tnb l a OmSZ m -
eijmng womsu for the

b- M4 pswhsas- aftftnw htw IntpifptAutd O iIs Rabft*
Tnhis --Lama nvU be AWEabIld i$ tim iqubuoua of tcwotuh"i taee

Mar sawn fm aw Amaarmof shaim W v.laW Lmm we
JiMs thee ste tM f o e < the bInsi e eamfeW
to the tiMr p'mP., at'Pfrzw eold 6be gP it at tor ems hates'pS4 -
-orPAWIb t ff atte ftw Stou e PnxbUa beMAM ti0 *kiVWU
sml wObe Ito "ba to "lnft fr*= rzEpndia to r0 buk ag
pI"tiw Ja taw mipma ppwustiatm to iepesitnff pssL*I
to go pmw usly pvtie bloa* at the Zwwi psrwsltrtina, ftts
pmfdtlmmuo rmu sipWbsi am. froraFt 3 mm w mi (am
itupoaAted piobtMh), t)e urr ewor sab* It tI go bista Mid

tv so masi ft WO""M um as Wt trlsa N1 1 puumm we
NIplem3O gesIow (.OX Iol .of Osflf-m) tab so in* x n aL
sAbjOM M*ftg ftMr wera* 0'*a tir aip 4tst oem Met to
WtA1m1d 4 at eh sUateO rtgepr of tMlatslg, a amve Of IMtdl"
uaw at orv aen tainin an evIgbual d aMiva z Sri pmieasot
BIstibe a"t wSndh iWu1 vowbpaol"eG pz'Blum, tn r Wm a b*elflt tA ns
haew to shiMf sfmily i to r poalla po itiwF y to on Ainfile


peeding namtiw stimliU at th ftl a stae n of tinAing ftw op

about tha -I n-wi of wm we ombtaid on wwmma as n wmb
obtailnd on Ota s.gal, pzmentations of problem. AppamutV, as
original lan g4 povpssd and thi problem baeam -mile e.lry

d.raimiaSead, tbilital.on o uawl,4 as mu be ievwted ap*ordtng
to Omaod (2953). WiM tiMbh aa only am inB polated prObim befbm
a sift in both stlaura sad zdaqpome is xeqUd, oaeaim en murd
prwrlily botaua of sauh dif.oulty In shifting ixepmns s st ausklby
frP the bmea Ulm*pd VPvW UMms, tih pasntmidal landing ftr thIs

Sttp Isam bto eat and fbw itrpolatsd prblna ar oawidwa i ,
that as e4l1al lMini g pgrwaid to tme last sta. ofa twilng&
fitanmin bmm dinas and sai mt. As poblans boom =
olwrly ditea1a tsd, it Is thb nm tadflioulZt fir tim btai n dtinrd
ohlad to shif to a mnw and diUrtly* rwqrWd mpaas tham num the

P&oblmKB an, Ias clarly diorslnlmted.
In samry, tih aboiw results of tih ouiart stbwu Indiesto that,
as pVdsltd,, Intollaot y snomal ohild arnd lnbslaetkmU.ly

a&wsp ebllha with equwlntfu mental a, ap an am qul wl. m
lan aonsswt psWoblm olvlnSg mtutmtiuas sush as the aerls of
vrlPj.alw_-Mo-tico l amrnngS pa'obnag H Vowr, it is the Inatlleti34y

rtairdid (nmabialn dRpad) who pwfca aas fft ae n in sauh situAtia
a s ttie tflttnSwku awinm nUta3ll dtefbtiw (brao n dwmgd)
dhlkdrs fdintwod sigifIsantlv poor thm *it wr tih awigB or
nzta4sed eiilr In olving suah pcbl Although, as a grBo, the
dutbstw ohilden Lsamwd alwoiy and at an inonsuistunt wvt. the
rziabil.lty wthin the groa aa m strldng Sam dilrn lasmed to


t7 *S IS

-um so lb w n awilnoomp b

mi 0m imaf O lb lb W a iMf poftMi
doaaftl, I' wlln swap Oll ##I"UI a

isnatm innM usbii o m oV oi" ui #Nam Imu

um *-mt lW to1 m n 1I,

bs e-a* ot mi .uwmpm atab ifl am. is

of "mmsmm$ s" a a um gm I d

t1io d am"s a. tim eam sp w ".e powI im 4a

-go mi M-Mn wI, O N8 fataum Iam adN

ad Ma0 dmib. s*l- i
r !mm, m pu m a1 ,s.. mn,,m is tm! ui.u

mi .aMi am ^.
^Jth^^ ^k^ ^^^ LBJ U 1 iiirflcdmci^ii.m_>.k j k._JkjALt.k^ J ^il^_.-^.^^ ^

As a rlmt of tihe eumr t stdr> srmvel poullities f.or

1A study betM MwstS

1. b bain diNmd oebl s of aerame Itzletual ability

wmre nlude in the sr beaseot the pturpos ot this sndy we to
aapR aOblin of @t ast nl ntelllnwm wi4U v h3 ot aownl

Ijerll Bows and to OaeM ohild c of mtab-ca4 IrlAm1 ability

with difftvest a0llim elamuisfi.atiuna. whoee eshimte1wsrl
typical aof brain owr oebiien suo as drtets n i*nmry', attetia

pn, o, SWr. probably also atfot the persfanommm of brain dw pd
ehildmn of amermg ntLumi9n.e. An evaluation oe tth eftimot of
sub ohewetwritia on t01 prfti mmsoo of t1ae Obi aM in a

non-test problem solvfg situation NS$at prow mumbl,.
2, Purther st y of the wid.e viability betwet brain dt mjd

hlda mi seems wuavetsd. *Al the locd of da and ti extn t of
dua e an Important fetorst, it Is often dWifioult to stiMndimi thes

ma atelys Pwasps the db wlqrp m of tests isuh as the new lleni s

3.t of Psyo Eliysinstie Abilities wisbh is not yet widb y aiamsbl.
(Kirk, 1961) my rnm imwaluable. Subh a test parpats to dterllmne

the apeiti pasyhia and linguistic faution affected by the brain

daep. trhqm tImem is a relatimship between the type of fntion

dturbed I r the nua of ftnstion diskttbed and the ablity to
effisitly solve pobla*

3. Saw it seeMIS evident tiat learning ftr nmy brain dMapd
ebildren is iairawd by certain distwbsames of pe-rosality and

inteset, an wmsdes whether approwiate traniing ethods an be
dimelped to overcom or to amInlbta the effects of suh disturbaness

tUms eabliag these ebilren to learn ame effisieatl$

G1oam 5

t twmw Pro" NVs ago a aownlu om at lt me ia
liMtnt"M Ia I-M-a- of tae ptnI a ,. oof Uasl aW..of
0M-0l" Cm, iltot o a o bila ft a mONO* prebtm

*a&n t me mtrll a f osumto u 1*o m a*m w M Nm
toi Mm .Uisel OWM b of-te SA aso4af Six O

$0-a4 k swi aI, y 1i ,No %m to aitof tt0 No tft
3awr ofs itO pswam mg et bstew Ills frt amt *U1a th

mua, toa am*Sm. Ni aeS ala. os mwt amiN to, th e
toaa an be si fto fwuias tt toet so$ es Se ios bay

MS p(iMt sn is thet) vrkodr M i piM i trL if p-
*~dlil bns!t) i a amatollt, ii bi h tsera t tbp "

Isaf tft iHmStalrf w oltUsw an be ovt -al ftta
es.-iitn wafte tI umai Mvhk dyiiiiia to e bmf bton

so-INt g1st&hu NortiInttr Msi lo 1iae m OtlL thI %e stwey a3



-fi of lots aatt No e% a o1 pMsuaity =it -

..in1. b ha hs LBswatlO S tb bwsla Sol M14 aIt fls"
I-.MW tor~LP blD1 Omtrb~tto of~~r Vbar dSbnaDnIium 1 *h~ll[ld flr

I nsotIW. ah beUveit aei s'suaso at* bs ft

-- pussw of r my m e 1ft at o-ft -M*ul souHnn

mMau 196 WONO db wa's WM POW OMsi Lt SmNfli has3
ft, atpawom ^lCu to Wi tatd -a .io kura o mpHma .t ftftWMS

*MM *y #rirft- Iaifr 1dkgl touna. *r aortBl p
la ft m rw nL- nt M*a wItidl -a ft sitB 0i a0 "
purMta IIn~n ha a sibtulbgs. bt> in4 frt SpMiSan ilSt

atbUs iaisrsi St aq~m srwis S iumat-tuli bL
tia oL ~ o a oaf as m stll 1 a3w, pu-ftL wtimo

a Pluv nW Piw pmbu v" Puos e" IN^ Pt *a& ft w f
ssiwM a". As at 4" st sub pf* See"sl go mot flw

BM#t&W9 rMr~ teh C5>1 flfI WteLII A1tMMB *tlOT ^
flow u pumm as ve |imis to* idft Ow wSh to peMAtw NdM
uliu. mms Sm e bsl mam" ast p"Wbiw

34 *Oul 18611 aqlAMs. t Wloft priit i a

ft avssail was~u BON wimul hata *9~It
us t flo~ifegnuKta cr* &Nvoa =fuitlo
Iularzir M l iep eMItt s laa a 0e1^i ->
ahX~a ISuW hish 5l1w Nmlr n oas .wkSr~Lta
to *wMisah te *ppuopriftmMs St tbaiw rvpawM to

I.. astfii uiny (hMUtrobla omp) ua m mly ftmaiM

(ggmubgsia ~~us UM PS~ lhN ismoaSWS
usI an am S4padlxd hto Ul O.Od toft SiU pftsUJ
4Ufitsitljr an a oiwmLst P ..w. gI*lffwiMs. ZIi i

- -~ -- '"~


Ilu &ioe a lofmnt at a w > UM g tfa m

a.istw w tI te *nvlto as o Me lid ismi f f r m2
wm be CulTs f tui "t"I aOf SU m msM ftsr
io m iaw I asml -d amwm 1arrn. biMwr at 0hs

vetea wi r tti MUtr falwn whUnnCs Mubmin ftl

tlciMror ibaan dBr E kLti M Ift Ir 8" M

Ut* IU pdi tat Om vUi beL so s sr
nna ~th rIrOrdoA avawa 6v la 1 ft.l~lio to to
um Ow I,'Mtl-W t ffte lWt af sa a

-a m 3wal Y Ithme atia. aU Iftimw tro ae 'r$ItN
ms fswait tmbIt te pnoef" ttwu um to a Mwe

lhue ww I r otim *i nrnxCa m l2 do t ear Meft o stmls

bwiof a vtsUpmty I ts n &M =8 mt to owlwla
ftr tJis Vap* UIs prthiea t&a wi b dbfteowe s a ildfrM
el amut 1or0tfteww ft an t A- alot fa. ~ r
Of pswlsrn palsMz bmoowm Us wasd& to as UWtIw
to law faorpe lbdf boei d b"oltrat Unawl I i heaW
3I ft Us puedlWtNodt tbee wdo bill "a so ipifrnub 4If Sim

FTO- -----

W-IOm N& tJW VOUPW Wd 4VO04 8FS 1Ar 103 A IA Ift

PIjrBlB. r*3wb.1 w ut1i1m In *b. .uIv. ? i o
tb Aijete nMta I dt& rll I ztticiwallnd sa a Isa4 tto 0-lwl

4hstl00 ""soft arn atu1fm in *12kmm oir
(bosla kmi). UjuMR of the Iu3milit mo ftlullmra *rlup
rtd (mw &nod) aa !:mm*Y4m umn r a* Uy dteftool

(WO 1a60s1esRlly UamOs.M

arlyUs of t w dati tsvftkr tsa tblldUag an*saiarin
1. Ow first bpoaMUls tatt mentally wfsWia *kau m pofat
a miul Mia11 mulla *Or1ema ina ismtmb PMOrMa
wving uiaattian to solq.lt auwsi. hw. a s au to
uliift t stitm s betamlm tam *ape o alasi dwy to
YOU~M ad a-Mwev VNKI4
It w also 'lyp11o1r ui twta tas mmawi d4ttstw m

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wvth tnom r d 4edb ll amoqirng a Isuidg t at a & fts
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pwftnuMm oV tin tro gm WijIs srprltlaM at tnr .0*1 lwi

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List of RefUsns
BlU.h V* it A shy of the preamnt aoslal sfttu of a geoWS of adults
whop, Wt= wn In 1aimnt nbar ho, wr1 olauifod as tael yu
defloanto SIMQ t PZWohl sIteiog. 1936, Z 2054244.
Davas, A., Eu, 1 K. D4sp te Of nEiMlIn op-oi

q e2kL. New Yor~~ Wold Boka 953.
Dav1s, A., I hi uwrst, Re J* 'M Mi1,m t of Mental qyOtem (Con
lnteUllfne be NuaSidt). Xe. *., 198, 6,6301"316.
iuMwa.m J. i Mar (Ibv. d.) NEw tlr, Pqholos."lal
Goapcp't, 195i.
UJMMf I. B, Z D. &. 3m DoaWO New Yr Colmbfa t td3v.
PnsM1, 1953
Oullftbd, J P. 2w esnturme of Intatllct. Poyhl B., 1956, 53,
HuWLw, I. P. Ayaaljsi of dlSrsrt natlcn I2srisg b"y mMimys M. Ea
Pa 1950, 4. 26-39.
Kik bami A., & NMkaxtl, Jaias J. 2I* 1llwnid 'MBSt of Pyobslidtio
Abllltes an arppzoh to difLar"ntal dla9Wlse a JAM n Mp.

QCftrd Univ. PieS., 1953.
IqpOll, J*. Bnmfter -Upo iasn and Imarnld sets. Cb
Phyol POchol..- 10953a 46p 08-114.
nars on, B. & G Ql&bLn T. Pohalogioal end oultuml problems In
intalu mxiontys A review of zreseazo nt POm ffl
1958, a7 3-a90*

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