Energy, protein and phosphorus utilization by poultry as influenced by virginiamycin

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Energy, protein and phosphorus utilization by poultry as influenced by virginiamycin
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Buresh, Robert Edward, 1958-
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Poultry -- Feed utilization efficiency   ( lcsh )
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Animal Science thesis Ph. D
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Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1985.
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Includes bibliographical references (leaves 51-56).
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by Robert Edward Buresh.
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Typescript.
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Vita.

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ENERGY, PROTEIN AND PHOSPHORUS UTILIZATION
BY POULTRY AS INFLUENCED BY VIRGINIAMYCIN






BY






ROBERT EDWARD BURESH


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN
PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


1985
















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


The author wishes to express his appreciation to his

major advisor and friend, Dr. R.H. Harms, for his

patience, knowledge and genuine concern which helped to

make this record a worthwhile undertaking. For his

encouragement, insight and wealth of ideas, this author

will always be grateful.

Appreciation is also expressed to Dr. F.B. Mather,

Dr. R.D. Miles, and Dr. R.B. Shireman for their comments,

guidance, and willingness to serve on the advisory

committee.

The author is indebted to the professors, graduate

students, laboratory technicians and farm staff of the

University of Florida Poultry Science Department for their

assistance in this and other research conducted.

Additional gratitude is extended to the SmithKline

Animal Health Products and its representative, Dr. S.M.

Free, Jr., for their support and assistance in the

projects presented in this dissertation.

Finally, the author Wishes to extend his deepest love

and appreciation to his parents and wife, Lisa, for their

invaluable support during this project. It is to them and

his daughter, Lauren, that he dedicates this work.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .........................................ii

LIST OF TABLES ..............................

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS...... .......... .... ..... ......... vi

ABSTRACT ............................. .. .............. vii

CHAPTERS

I INTRODUCTION........... ........ .............

II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE......................

Characterization of Virginiamycin.............3
Growth Promotion and Improved Performance....5
Energy Utilization ...........................8
Protein Utilization ......................... 9
Mineral Utilization........................ 10

III DETERMINATION OF THE VIRGINIAMYCIN LEVEL
FOR OPTIMUM PERFORMANCE IN TURKEY POULTS....13

Introduction................... ............. 13
Materials and Methods........................13
Results and Discussion.......................15

IV THE INFLUENCE OF VIRGINIAMYCIN ON ENERGY
UTILIZATION USING AN ENERGY DILUTED DIET....18

Introduction................................18
Materials and Methods...................... 18
Results and Discussion ......................20

V THE INFLUENCE OF VIRGINIAMYCIN ON ENERGY
UTILIZATION BY TURKEY POULTS WHEN AD
LIBITUM OR RESTRICTED FED...................24

Introduction................................24
Materials and Methods..................... 24
Results and Discussion......................25


iii









VI ENERGY UTILIZATION BY TURKEY POULTS AS
INFLUENCED BY FOUR ANTIBIOTICS...............28

Introduction................................28
Materials and Methods.......................29
Results and Discussion.................. ......30

VII PROTEIN UTILIZATION BY TURKEY POULTS AS
INFLUENCED BY FOUR ANTIBIOTICS.............33

Introduction............................... 33
Materials and Methods ....................... 33
Experiment One.........................33
Experiment Two.........................36
Results and Discussion......................36
Experiment One........................ 36
Experiment Two......................... 38

VIII THE INFLUENCE OF VIRGINIAMYCIN ON
PHOSPHORUS UTILIZATION BY BROILER CHICKS.....41

Introduction. .............................. 41
Materials and Methods........................41
Results and Discussion......................44

IX SUMMARY OF RESULTS ........................ 47

X CONCLUSIONS.......... ..................... 49

REFERENCES........... ...... .... ................. .... 51

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.......................................57















LIST OF TABLES


Table Page

3-1 Composition of the basal diet....................14

3-2 Body weight and feed efficiency of turkey
poults fed four levels of virginiamycin..........16

4-1 Composition of the basal diet....................19

4-2 Body weight, feed consumption, feed efficiency
and energy utilization of turkey poults fed
diets with three levels of peanut hulls with
and without virginiamycin........................21

5-1 Body weight, feed consumption, feed efficiency
and energy utilization when turkey poults were
fed ad libitum or restricted fed..................26

6-1 Performance of turkey poults fed antibiotics
according to two feeding programs................31

7-1 Composition of the basal diet....................35

7-2 Performance of turkey poults when fed diets
with two protein levels and with three
antibiotics (Experiment One) .....................37

7-3 Performance of turkey poults fed diets with
two protein levels and with four antibiotics
(Experiment Two)..................................38

8-1 Composition of the basal diet....................43

8-2 Performance of broilers fed various levels
of phosphorus for three weeks with and
without virginiamycin............................45















LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS


Celsius C
gram(s) g
International Chick Unit ICU
International Unit IU
kilocalorie kcal
kilogram(s) kg
microgram(s) mcg
milligrams) mg
parts per million ppm















Abstract of Dissertation Presented to Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

ENERGY, PROTEIN AND PHOSPHORUS UTILIZATION
BY POULTRY AS INFLUENCED BY VIRGINIAMYCIN

BY

ROBERT EDWARD BURESH

May 1985

Chairman: Robert H. Harms
Major Department: Animal Science

A series of studies was conducted to investigate the

influence of virginiamycin on the utilization of dietary

energy, protein and phosphorus by poultry.

The approach used to evaluate nutrient utilization

involved providing the animals with diets limiting in a

specific nutrient. This method allowed the ability of

virginiamycin to enhance nutrient utilization to be

demonstrated.

These studies were conducted in electrically heated

battery brooders, each consisting of experimental periods

of 21 days.

It was necessary to initially determine the level of

virginiamycin that must be used in the diets to obtain the

maximum responses in turkey poults. This level was found


vii









to be 22 ppm and therefore was used in all subsequent

experiments.

Two methods of limiting the energy intake of the

poults were utilized in the three experiments evaluating

energy utilization. Dilution of an adequate diet with

peanut hulls resulted in reducing the energy content of

the diet by 15 and 30%. The addition of virginiamycin to

the diluted diets resulted in increased body weights,

improved feed efficiency, and reduced amount of energy

required per gram of body weight.

A second energy utilization experiment utilized a

restricted feeding program to limit energy intakes. The

poult body weights and feed efficiencies were improved

following virginiamycin supplementation in both the ad

libitum fed and 25% restricted feeding programs. The

equivalent feed intakes of the restricted fed poults

resulted in the demonstration of an improved energy

utilization. Using this restricted feeding program to

compare the effects of four antibiotics, it was then found

that lincomycin and virginiamycin addition to the diet

improved energy utilization.

The influence of virginiamycin on protein utilization

was studied with a diet shown to be protein-deficient for

turkey poults. It was found in two experiments that the

addition of Flavomycin, lincomycin and virginiamycin to


viii









the protein-deficient basal diet resulted in enhanced

growth promotion and protein utilization.

Virginiamycin supplementation to chick diets

containing various phosphorus levels increased body

weights and bone ash, and improved feed efficiency

values. Numerical reductions in the amount of phosphorus

consumed per gram of body weight indicated an improved

phosphorus utilization.















CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION



In the modern production of poultry meat and eggs,

feed cost has been recognized as the greatest expense.

The attempt by the poultry industry to reduce this expense

has resulted in the increased use of feed additives in the

rations. These additives may demonstrate either therapeu-

tic or non-therapeutic qualities, but the ultimate goal of

their use is to obtain maximum production gains. Included

among these feed additives are antibiotics.

In addition to the direct relationship between

antibiotics and disease control, many have been shown to

influence the growth rate and utilization of dietary

nutrients. Although the knowledge of the mechanisms of

these actions is not complete, the relationship between

antibiotics and nutrient utilization is one of

considerable interest.

All of the experiments described in this dissertation

were conducted with virginiamycin, an antibiotic that has

been demonstrated as an additive capable of increasing

production gains in poultry. These experiments were

conducted to investigate what influence virginiamycin









would have on dietary energy, protein and mineral

utilization by poultry.

The first experiment was designed to determine the

level of virginiamycin inclusion in the diet to obtain

maximum responses in turkey poults.

The second and third experiments were conducted to

investigate what influence virginiamycin would have on

energy utilization by turkey poults. In the fourth

experiment, the influence of four antibiotics on energy

utilization was studied.

Experiment five was designed to study the influence

of virginiamycin and three other antibiotics on the

utilization of protein by turkey poults.

A final experiment was designed to study the

influence of virginiamycin on the utilization of dietary

phosphorus by broiler chicks.















CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF LITERATURE



Characterization of Virginiamycin

Virginiamycin is an antibiotic produced by a mutant

of Streptomyces virginiae, which was isolated from Belgian

soil (De Somer and Van Dijck, 1955; Van Dijck, 1969).

Virginiamycin, also known by the name Staphylomycin,

belongs to a class of antibiotics that share two basic

chemical structures that act synergistically to exhibit

their antibacterial action. The two major components of

virginiamycin are designated as factors M and S. Factor M

is present in a larger amount and is mainly active against

Micrococcus aureus, while Factor S is primarily active

against Bacillus subtillis (Van Dijck, 1969). Each of the

components individually demonstrates bacteriostatic

activity against gram-positive bacteria, but in

combination are bactericidal. The synergistic response of

the virginiamycin components has been attributed to Factor

S (Vanderhaeghe et al., 1957; Van Dijck et al., 1957; Van

Dijck and Braekel, 1969; Bycroft, 1977).

The antibacterial activity of virginiamycin is

expressed by the inhibition of the metabolic pathway which

controls protein synthesis. It has been shown that this









antibiotic interferes with the translation process at the

level of the 50S ribosomal subunit, thus inhibiting

protein synthesis (Parfait et al., 1978; Cocito, 1978).

The absorption of virginiamycin from the

gastrointestinal tract is extremely poor, thus limiting

the effects of the antibiotic to within the digestive

tract. Numerous investigations have been undertaken to

evaluate the possible mode of action of antibiotics

leading to their growth promoting responses. Research

studying the mode of action of virginiamycin is currently

being continued. There have been three basic hypotheses

in the literature that aid in explaining the growth-

promoting responses to virginiamycin. First, there have

been reported changes in the composition and distribution

of intestinal bacteria. This has been presented by Eyssen

et al. (1962) and Eyssen and DeSomer (1963a; 1963b).

These researchers proposed that the growth-stimulating

effect of virginiamycin was most likely due to the

antibacterial action against gram-positive microorganisms

which interfere with the absorption of nutrients.

Secondly, virginiamycin has been shown to depress the

breakdown of glucose and amino acids within the gastro-

intestinal tract, primarily in the small intestine. This

decrease in substrate breakdown results in a subsequent

decrease in the microbial production of lactic acid,

volatile fatty acids, and ammonia (Lindsey et al.,









1985). The third possible mode of action involves a

reduction in the rate of passage of nutrients through the

intestine and a thinning of the intestinal wall. Each of

these would result in an improved absorption of nutrients

(Madge, 1969, 1971). Additionally, a reduction in the

intestinal tissue would decrease the maintenance require-

ments of the tissue. This would result in an increased

amount of nutrients available for other tissues.



Growth Promotion and Improved Performance

The stimulation of growth promotion in domestic

poultry is perhaps the greatest factor in the feeding of

antibiotics. Chickens were the first animals in which the-

antibiotic growth effect was observed when Moore et al.

(1946) reported that chicks fed diets containing

streptomycin grew more rapidly than the controls. Since

the presentation of Moore's findings, numerous researchers

have been involved in the evaluation of antibiotics, in

particular, virginiamycin, in poultry feeds. The positive

responses resulting from virginiamycin supplementation

have been partitioned into improvements in the utilization

of dietary energy, protein, and other nutrients. Others

have evaluated virginiamycin supplementation on the basis

of improved growth, feed efficiency and enhanced

performance. The latter group will be reviewed first.









Eyssen et al. (1962) reported that virginiamycin (20

ppm) in a semi-synthetic diet improved the body weights of

21-day-old chicks by 26%. They concluded that the

response to virginiamycin may be due to an inhibition of

the growth of lactobacilli bacteria within the crop of the

bird. In later experiments, Eyssen (1962) reported a

growth response of 15-30% when virginiamycin was added to

the diet.

There have also been numerous reports published

comparing the relative effectiveness of various

antibiotics. Combs and Bossard (1963) found virginiamycin

(8.8 ppm) to be significantly (P<.05) more effective in

increasing broiler body weights than nine other

antibiotics chlortetracyclinee hydrochloride,

oxytetracycline hydrochloride, oleandomycin, spiramycin

embonate, zinc bacitracin, procaine penicillin, tylosin,

spontin and erythromycin). Additionally, the growth

responses were greater when "used" litter was placed in

the floor pens as compared to clean litter. In

comparisons utilizing chicks and turkey poults, Yates and

Schaible (1961; 1962) found virginiamycin (9.9 ppm) to be

comparable to terramycin and zinc bacitracin on the basis

of growth, feed utilization and livability.

Foster (1972) evaluated the effectiveness of two

antibiotics (including virginiamycin), a nitrofuran

derivative and two arsenicals to promote broiler growth.









Body weights and feed conversion values for birds fed

virginiamycin (5.5 ppm) were not significantly different

from the controls. However, it was reported that each of

these feed additives reduced the weight and weight per

unit area of the small intestine. In a later study,

Foster (1978) evaluated the four growth promoting feed

additives available in the United Kingdom (virginiamycin,

flavophospholipol, nitrovin and zinc bacitracin). Each of

the additives, except the flavophospholipol, demonstrated

the ability to significantly improve body weights.

However, none had any influence on feed conversion. In

addition to these growth promoting effects on poultry,

several researchers have made similar conclusions with

growing and finishing swine (Barnhart et al., 1960;

Griffin et al., 1961; Miller and Barnhart, 1961; Griffin

and Lidvall, 1962). In each of these antibiotic

comparison experiments, virginiamycin at various levels

was shown to improve the average daily gain and feed

efficiency values. Jones and Pond (1963) reported that

virginiamycin (44 ppm) significantly increased the average

daily gain of weanling pigs but had no significant effect

on the body weight gain or feed efficiency values when fed

to rats.

To extend the understanding of the growth promoting

qualities of virginiamycin, Leeson (1984) studied the

influence of virginiamycin (11 ppm) on growth and carcass








characteristics. The antibiotic improved weight gains,

feed efficiency, carcass weights, carcass yields and

carcass grading according to Agriculture Canada

standards. In addition to growth promotion, Miles et al.

(1984b) found that virginiamycin (10 ppm) enhanced the

utilization of dietary xanthophyll, resulting in an

increase in broiler shank pigmentation. Miles and Harms

(1984) also reported that virginiamycin inclusion in the

diet (10 ppm) resulted in an improvement in broiler

uniformity and litter quality.

The only research reported in the United States
evaluating the effect of feeding virginiamycin on the

performance of laying hens was conducted by Miles et al.

(1985). Improvements in egg production and feed effi-

ciency were found in one of two experiments, each lasting

five 28-day periods. However, in both experiments,

virginiamycin (10 ppm) significantly reduced egg size.



Energy Utilization
In addition to growth promotion, an improvement in

the utilization of energy has been associated with the
feeding of antibiotics to poultry. Nelson et al. (1963a;

1963b) concluded that the addition of several antibiotics

to the diets of chicks resulted in an increased efficiency

of absorption of calorigenic nutrients. A similar in-

crease in the absorption and utilization of carbohydrates


s








and fats was demonstrated by Eyssen and De Somer (1963a;

1963b). In a study involving virginiamycin, March (1978)

found that supplementation (22 ppm) to broiler diets

increased the metabolizable energy from the diets an

average of 7.2%. Ravindran et al. (1984) used growing

swine to demonstrate that virginiamycin (11 ppm)

supplementation improved dietary energy utilization of a

high fiber diet. In a related study with growing swine,

Gorrill et al. (1960a; 1960b) showed that the addition of

an antibiotic mixture to the diet increased the

digestibility of dietary energy.

In contrast, others have failed to show these

positive effects of antibiotics on energy utilization.

Sibbald et al. (1961) and Slinger et al. (1962), in

studies with chicks and turkey poults, found that the

addition of antibiotics to the diets had no influence on

dietary metabolizable energy. In a series of experiments

conducted over three years, Begin (1971) was unable to

demonstrate that chlortetracycline had any effect on the

metabolizable energy obtained from the diet.



Protein Utilization
There is a general agreement between researchers

regarding the influence of antibiotic feeding on the

utilization of protein. This was perhaps first

demonstrated by Cunha et al. (1950) with the conclusion









that the protein requirements of growing swine could be

lowered when aureomycin was added to a corn-peanut meal

basal diet. Machlin et al. (1952) reported that

aureomycin addition allowed the protein level of a broiler

diet to be reduced by at least 2 percent and obtain

maximum growth. A similar response was found by Stokstad

et al. (1953) who showed that aureomycin would stimulate

growth when added to a broiler diet limiting in protein.

More recent reports have demonstrated that virginiamycin

(22 ppm) supplementation enhanced the utilization of

sulfur amino acids by broilers and turkey poults based on

body weight and feed efficiency data (Harms and Miles,

1983a; 1983b; Miles and Harms, 1983; Miles et al.,

1984a). In each of these experiments, a basal diet was

utilized that had previously been shown to respond

significantly to supplemental methionine. Improvements in

body weights and feed efficiency values were also found by

Miles et al. (1984a) when virginiamycin (22 ppm) was added

to the diets of Leghorn-type pullets containing sub-

optimal protein levels.

Results presented by Gorrill et al. (1960b) offer the

only conflicting conclusions relating antibiotic

supplementation to protein utilization. In a study with

growing swine, they found that the addition of an

antibiotic mixture to various diets had little or no

effect on the utilization of protein.









Mineral Utilization

It has been recognized for three decades that

inclusion of antibiotics in the diet exerts an influence

on the utilization of dietary minerals and the subsequent

mineral requirement. Common et al. (1950) reported that

serum calcium was additively elevated following estrogen

injection when chlortetracycline was added to the diets of

pullets. Migicovsky et al. (1951) fed chicks a low

calcium diet supplemented with penicillin, and found that

the antibiotic increased the incorporation of 45Ca into

the tibia. They concluded that in this experiment,

penicillin enhanced the absorption of calcium. Pepper et

al. (1952) obtained a greater growth response to

aureomycin with diets deficient in manganese than with

those adequate in the mineral. The antibiotic also

reduced the incidence of perosis in chicks fed the low

manganese diets. This enhancement of manganese

utilization was confirmed by Pepper et al. (1953).

Similar reductions in the incidence of perosis in turkey

poults were reported by Slinger et al. (1951) and Scott

(1951) when penicillin and aureomycin were included in the
diets, respectively. Linblad et al. (1954) noted that the

more inadequate the diet with respect to calcium and

phosphorus the greater was the percentage increase in body

weights of chicks and poults due to chlortetracycline. It

was concluded that calcium utilization was enhanced by the









antibiotic but the results were insufficient to conclude a

significant reduction in the calcium or phosphorus

requirements. Similarly, Slinger et al. (1961; 1962)

demonstrated that antibiotics enhanced the growth of

poults on low calcium diets, but concluded that the

calcium levels employed were too high to appraise their

effects on the calcium requirements. Ravindran et al.

(1984) utilized and diets varying in their fiber content

for growing swine to demonstrate the influence of

virginiamycin on mineral utilization. Supplementation of

the high fiber diet with virginiamycin (11 ppm) resulted

in an improved absorption and retention of phosphorus,

calcium, magnesium, copper, iron, zinc and manganese.

This response was attributed to a slowed rate of passage

of digesta through the intestines and the influence on

large intestine microorganisms favoring enhanced plant

cell wall degradation. No response was observed with the

normal fiber diet.

Henry and others (1985) conducted an experiment to

evaluate the effect of virginiamycin (12 ppm) on manganese

absorption of broiler chicks fed a standard corn-soybean

meal diet. They reported that virginiamycin decreased

intestinal weights and increased weight gains and kidney

and bone manganese values. This indicated that

virginiamycin increased the absorption of manganese.















CHAPTER III
DETERMINATION OF THE VIRGINIAMYCIN LEVEL
FOR OPTIMUM PERFORMANCE IN TURKEY POULTS



Introduction

It has been demonstrated that the inclusion of

virginiamycin to the diet results in increased body weight

gains and improved feed efficiencies in various types of

poultry. The range of levels over which maximum responses

were obtained varied from 8.8 to 22 ppm. The Food and

Drug Administration currently set the maximum allowable

level to be 22 ppm (20 grams per ton) for the improvement

of body weight gain and feed efficiency in broiler

chickens and replacement pullets (Feed Additive

Compendium, 1985). The following two experiments were

conducted to determine the level of virginiamycin

necessary to obtain optimum performance in turkey poults.



Materials and Methods
Two experiments were conducted with day-old Nicholas

Large White turkey poults. A corn-soybean meal basal diet

(Table 3-1) was used. Four experimental diets were fed

which contained O, 5.5, 11 and 22 ppm of virginiamycin.

At day of age, the poults were randomized and placed into












TABLE 3-1
Composition of the basal diet


Ingredient


Yellow corn 48.58
Soybean meal (49% Protein) 43.17
Dicalcium phosphate (18.5% P & 22% Ca) 2.09
Limestone 1.42
Salt .30
Animal fat 3.71
Microingredients* .50
TM-50** .05
DL-methionine .18


* Supplied per kg of diet: 6600 IU vitamin A; 2200 ICU
vitamin D3; 11 IU vitamin E; 2.2 mg menadione
dimethylpyr.imidinol bisulfite (MPB); 4.4 mg riboflavin;
13.2 mg pantothenic acid; 59.6 mg niacin; 998.8 mg
choline; 22 mcg vitamin B12; 110 mcg biotin; 125 mg
ethoxyquin; 126.1 mg MnCO3; 300.1 mg iron citrate;
15.97 mg CuC12*2H20; 1.65 mg KI; 41.85 mg ZnO.

** Registered trademark for Terramycin (110 mg/kg), Chas
Pfizer, Lee's Summit, MO.


L








electrically heated, Petersime batteries with raised wire

floors. In both experiments, each diet was fed to six

pens, each containing four male and four female poults.

Poults were individually weighed at 21 days of age and

feed consumption was determined. Since there was no

treatment by experiment interaction, the data were

combined. Significant differences between treatment means

were determined according to Duncan's multiple range test

(Duncan, 1955) and the dose relationship was established

using linear least squares analysis of the log data.



Results and Discussion

The addition of 5.5 ppm of virginiamycin resulted in

a significant increase in body weight of poults (Table

3-2). An increase in weight which approached the 5% level

of probability, was obtained when the level of

virginiamycin was increased from 5.5 to 11 ppm. A

numerical increase in weight was obtained when the level

of virginiamycin was increased to 22 ppm. Least square

analysis of the log data indicate that 22 ppm was required

for maximum weight gain.

The addition of 5.5, 11 or 22 ppm resulted in

significantly improved feed efficiency compared to the

control. A numerical improvement in feed efficiency was

obtained when the level of virginiamycin was increased

from 5.5 to 11 and from 11 to 22 ppm.










TABLE 3-2
Body weight and feed efficiency of turkey poults
fed four levels of virginiamycin



Virginiamycin Body weight* Feed efficiency*
(ppm) (g) (g/g body wt)

0 417.5a 1.35c

5.5 458.8b 1.27b

11 477.2bc 1.26ab

22 485.9c 1.23a

* Means with different superscripts within a column are
significantly different (P<.05) according to Duncan's
multiple range test.










These data indicate that supplementing the diet of

turkey poults with virginiamycin is effective for

improving body weight and feed efficiency. The data agree

with those reported by Harms and Miles (1983b), where it

was shown that the addition of 22 ppm resulted in

increased body weight with turkey poults. These data

indicate that the level of 22 ppm is necessary to give

maximum benefit as measured by body weight and feed

efficiency.















CHAPTER IV
THE INFLUENCE OF VIRGINIAMYCIN ON ENERGY UTILIZATION
USING AN ENERGY DILUTED DIET



Introduction

There has been considerable data in the literature

indicating that the feeding of antibiotics to poultry

results in an improved utilization of dietary energy.

Virginiamycin is among this group of antibiotics. The

most common method to determine changes in energy

utilization has been with the use of diets in which the

energy levels are varied by altering ingredient

combinations. The two experiments reported herein were

conducted to determine the influence of virginiamycin on

energy utilization by the turkey poult when fed diets

designed to be less dense calorically than the basal.



Materials and Methods

Two experiments were conducted using day-old Nicholas

Large White turkey poults. A corn-soybean meal basal diet

(Table 4-1) was used which was calculated to contain 2719

kilocalories per kg. Two additional diets were formulated

by mixing 85 and 70% of the basal diet with 15 and 30% of

ground peanut hulls, respectively. The ground peanut











TABLE 4-1
Composition of the basal diet


Ingredient


Yellow corn 48.63
Soybean meal (49%) 43.17
Dicalcium phosphate (18.5% P & 22% Ca) 2.09
Limestone 1.42
Salt .30
Poultry oil 3.71
Microingredients* .50
DL-methionine .18


* Supplied per kg of diet: 6600 IU vitamin A; 2200 ICU
vitamin D ; 11 IU vitamin E; 2.2 mg menadione
dimethylpyrimidinol bisulfite (MPB); 4.4 mg riboflavin;
13.2 mg pantothenic acid; 59.6 mg niacin; 998.8 mg
choline; 22 mcg vitamin B12; 110 mcg biotin; 125 mg
ethoxyquin; 126.1 mg MnCO'; 300.1 mg iron citrate;
15.97 mg CuCl'2H20; 1.65 mg KI and 41.85 mg ZnO.








hulls diluted the nutrient density of the diet and were

assumed to have no metabolizable energy value for poults

(Ensminger and Olentine, 1978; Cullison, 1979). Thus,

these diets contained approximately 2311 and 1903 kilo-

calories per kg, respectively. Each diet was supplemented

with either 0 or 22 ppm of virginiamycin. The latter

level was demonstrated to be optimum by the experiments in

Chapter III.

The poults were sexed at one-day of age, and four

males and four females were randomly assigned to pens in

electrically heated Petersime battery brooders with raised

wire floors. Six and nine replicate pens were fed each

diet in experiment 1 and 2, respectively. The

experimental diets and water were offered ad libitum

throughout the 21-day experimental period.

Body weights were obtained at 21-days of age and feed

consumption was measured at this time. The data were

subjected to the analysis of variance and significant

differences determined by Duncan's multiple range test

(Duncan, 1955). Since the sex by treatment and the

treatment by experiment interactions were not significant,

the data have been combined.



Results and Discussion

The 15% peanut hull dilution in nutrient density

resulted in poults with greater feed consumption and









poorer growth rates than the poults fed the undiluted

control diet (Table 4-2). Also feed consumption was

slightly increased with the 30% dilution with supplemental

virginiamycin. And yet, better energy utilization was

found in the smaller poults.

The addition of virginiamycin to all diets resulted

in increased body weight (Table 4-2). The increase in

weight was greatest in poults fed the diet with the lowest

energy level. Feed consumption as grams per bird was not

influenced by the addition of virginiamycin to the two

diets with the higher energy levels. A significant

increase in feed consumption along with the largest weight

increase was obtained when virginiamycin was added to the

diet with the lowest energy level. Thus, feed efficiency

was improved significantly in all diets by the addition of

virginiamycin. The increased body weight and reduced feed

efficiency resulted in reducing the amount of energy

required per gram of body weight (Table 4-2). This

improvement was significant when the diet contained no

peanut hulls and numerically improved in the diets

containing peanut hulls.

The improvement in the body weight and feed

efficiency of poults from the addition of virginiamycin

agrees with the data previously reported by Harms and

Miles (1983b). The improvement in energy utilization in

the energy-diluted diets used in this study would indicate












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that virginiamycin is possibly increasing the utilization

of all calorigenic nutrients. The present data agree with

those of Heuser (1951) who reported that when the energy

level of the diet was decreased, the response to

antibiotics was increased.

Virginiamycin supplementation in this study resulted

in a greater growth response and improved feed efficiency

in diets designed to be less calorically dense than the

basal diet.















CHAPTER V
THE INFLUENCE OF VIRGINIAMYCIN ON ENERGY UTILIZATION
BY TURKEY POULTS WHEN AD LIBITUM OR RESTRICTED FED



Introduction

It was demonstrated in the previous chapter that

virginiamycin enhanced the utilization of energy through

the use of adequate and energy diluted diets. The energy

intake was restricted in the following experiment by

restricting feed intake, and the influence of

virginiamycin was then determined.



Materials and Methods

An experiment was conducted using day-old Nicholas

Large White turkey poults. A corn-soybean basal diet was

used (Table 4-1). The poults were sexed at one day of age

and randomly assigned to 36 pens in electrically heated

Petersime batteries with raised wire floors. A 2 x 2

factorial arrangement of treatments was used comparing

full and restricted feeding program with and without 22

ppm of virginiamycin. Nine replications, each containing

four male and four female poults were fed each of the four

experimental diets. Two groups were fed the diet ad

libitum. The other group received only 75% of the average









amount of feed consumed by the poults fed the non-

supplemented ad libitum diet. The allotment of feed for

the poults on the restricted program was calculated daily

using the previous day's consumption for the ad libitum

birds.

Individual body weights were obtained and feed

consumption by pen was calculated at 21 days. Feed

efficiency (g feed/g body weight) and kilocalories of

metabolizable energy required per gram body weight were

calculated. The data were subjected to the analyses of

variance. The sex by treatment interaction was not signi-

ficant, therefore, the data for sexes were combined.

Significant differences between treatment means were

determined by Duncan's multiple range test (Duncan, 1955).



Results and Discussion

A 25% reduction in feed intake resulted in a signifi-

cant reduction in body weight in both the presence and

absence of virginiamycin (Table 5-1). The addition of

virginiamycin resulted in a significant increase in body

weight. This improvement was approximately the same for

the ad libitum fed and restricted treatments. Feed

consumption was not significantly different for the two ad

libitum fed groups (Table 5-1). The addition of virginia-

mycin to the diet significantly improved feed efficiency

for both the ad libitum fed and the restricted groups.











TABLE 5-1
Body weight feed consumption, feed efficiency
and energy utilization when turkey poults
were ad libitum or restricted fed


25% Feed
Ad libitum fed restriction

-vm +vm -vm +vm

Body weight (g)* 440.2c 463.8d 309.9a 334.5b

Feed consumption
(g/bird)* 559.5 553.5b 419.Oa 418.7a

Feed efficiency* 1.26b 1.20a 1.36c 1.28b

Kilocalories/g body
weight* 3.41 3.26a 3.68c 3.46

* Means'with different superscripts within a row are
significantly different (P<.05) according to Duncan's
multiple range test.











The addition of virginiamycin to the diet

significantly reduced the amount of energy required to

produce a gram of weight gain (Table 5-1). This

improvement in energy utilization was greater with poults

in the restricted groups (7.4%) than with the ad libitum

fed group.

The improvement in feed efficiency and energy

utilization from virginiamycin supplementation agree with

the findings presented in Chapter IV. However, in this

study the energy intake was the same for those poults in

the restricted group receiving the diets with and without

virginiamycin. Therefore, the improvement in weight gain

observed in this study was a result of more efficient

energy utilization.















CHAPTER VI
ENERGY UTILIZATION BY TURKEY POULTS AS
INFLUENCED BY FOUR ANTIBIOTICS



Introduction

Following the completion of the previous two sets of

experiments, it was concluded that virginiamycin can

effectively enhance energy utilization. Although several

antibiotics have been reported to influence energy

utilization by poultry and swine, there have been no

direct comparisons between antibiotics in terms of this

response. The following two experiments were conducted

with turkey poults and the restricted feeding procedure

presented in Chapter V to determine the influence of four

antibiotics on energy utilization. The antibiotics

utilized were Bacitracin MD,1 Flavomycin,2 lincomycin and

virginiamycin. Each of these feed additives has been

shown to promote growth in poultry and swine.





1Bacitracin MD is a registered trademark for bacitracin
methylene disalicylate, A.L. Laboratories, Englewood
Cliffs, NJ, 17632.
2 Flavomycin is a registered trademark for bambermycins,
American Hoechst Corp., Somerville, NJ, 08876.









Materials and Methods

A total of 880 day-old Nicholas Large White turkey

poults were used in two experiments. A corn-soybean meal

basal was used (Table 4-1) that has been shown to be

adequate for optimum poult growth. The basal diet was

calculated to contain 2719 kilocalories of metabolizable

energy per kilogram of diet. The following four

antibiotics were added to the basal at the respective

levels: Bacitracin MD (50 g/ton), Flavomycin (2 g/ton),

lincomycin (4 g/ton) and virginiamycin (20 g/ton). Each

of these experimental diets plus the unsupplemented basal

was fed according to one of the feeding programs. The

programs required that the diets be fed ad libitum or 75%

of ad libitum. The latter was determined daily by

measuring the feed consumed by the poults fed the

unsupplemented basal diet.

The poults were sexed at one-day of age and randomly

assigned to pens in electrically heated Petersime battery

brooders with raised wire floors. The ten experimental

treatments were fed to a total of 11 pens, each containing

four male and four female poults. Water was offered ad

libitum throughout the experimental period.

Poults were individually weighed at 21-days of age

and feed consumption was determined. The data in both

experiments were subjected to analysis of variance and

significant differences between treatment means were









determined using Duncan's multiple range test (Duncan,

1955). There was no significant treatment by trial or sex

by treatment interaction; therefore, the data were

combined for presentation.



Results and Discussion

A significant response in body weights was observed

in each of the antibiotic-supplemented poults when the

diets were offered ad libitum (Table 6-1). However, when

the feed intake was restricted by 25%, only the

virginiamycin supplementation resulted in significant

increases. Additionally, poults fed virginiamycin had

significantly greater body weights than those fed

Bacitracin MD. There were no significant differences in

feed consumption with the ad libitum fed program. The

actual feed consumption of the restricted program was 72%

of the ad libitum intake. When the feed efficiency is

calculated in terms of the intake of kilocalories required

per gram of body weight, significant differences between

the antibiotics became evident. In the ad libitum

program, feeding the control and Bacitracin MD resulted in

less efficient conversion of energy to weight gain than

Flavomycin, lincomycin and virginiamycin. When the energy

intake was restricted by 25%, both lincomycin and

virginiamycin were different from the other antibiotics.















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The results of this experiment indicate that the

utilization of energy can be enhanced by the feeding of

various antibiotics to turkey poults. A feeding program

which limited the energy intake was used to demonstrate

that both lincomycin and virginiamycin enhanced energy

utilization. The results concerning virginiamycin and

energy utilization agree with those previously presented

in earlier chapters.















CHAPTER VII
PROTEIN UTILIZATION BY TURKEY POULTS
AS INFLUENCED BY FOUR ANTIBIOTICS



Introduction
The most expensive macro-nutrient in formulated

rations for poultry is protein. This is a major reason

for the interest in the influence of feeding antibiotics

on the utilization of protein. It has been demonstrated

that virginiamycin has the ability to enhance protein and

sulfur amino acid utilization in turkey poults,

replacement pullets and broilers (Harms and Miles, 1983a;

1983b; Miles and Harms, 1983; Miles et al., 1984a).

The two experiments presented here were conducted to

compare the effect of virginiamycin and other antibiotics

on the utilization of sulfur amino acids by turkey

poults. Each experiment was conducted in successive years

and consisted of two trials.



Materials and Methods
Experiment One

A total of 704 day-old Nicholas Large White turkey

poults were used in the two trials of this experiment. A

corn-soybean meal basal diet containing sulfate-free trace








minerals and no supplemental choline was used (Table

7-1). Supplemental sulfate and choline were removed from

the basal diet to increase the stress on the poults in

order to obtain maximum responses to the antibiotics.

This basal diet was calculated to be deficient in protein

for the growing poult (26%) and has been shown to respond

to supplemental methionine and virginiamycin (Harms and

Miles, 1983a; 1983b). An arrangement of treatments was

used which included zero and .18% supplemental methionine

and Bacitracin MD,1 Flavomycin2 and virginiamycin at 50,

2, and 20 grams per ton, respectively.

At one-day of age, the poults were sexed and were

randomly assigned to pens in electrically heated Petersime

battery brooders with raised wire floors. Each of the

eight experimental diets was fed to a total of eleven

pens, each containing four male and four female poults.

The diets and deionized water were offered ad libitum

throughout the 21-day experimental period. The poults

were individually weighed at 21-days of age and feed

consumption was determined.





SBacitracin MD is a registered trademark for bacitracin
methylene disalicylate, A.L. Laboratories, Englewood
Cliffs, NJ, 17632.
2Flavomycin is a registered trademark for bambermycins,
American Hoescht Corp., Somerville, NJ, 08876.










TABLE 7-1
Composition of the basal diet


Ingredients


Yellow Corn 48.81
Soybean meal (49%) 43.17
Dicalcium phosphate (18.5% P & 22% Ca) 2.09
Limestone 1.42
Salt .30
Animal fat 3.71
Microingredients (choline and SO4 free)* .50


* Supplied per kg of diet: 6600 IU vitamin A; 2200 ICU
vitamin D3; 11 IU vitamin E; 2.2 mg menadionine
dimethylpyrimidinol bisulfite (MPB); 4.4 mg riboflavin;
13.2 mg pantothenic acid; 59.6 mg niacin; 22 mcg
vitamin B-2; 110 mcg biotin; 125 mg ethoxyquin; 126.1
mg MnCO0; 100.1 mg iron citrate; 15.97 mg CuC12*2H20;
1.65 mg KI; 41.85 mg ZnO.









Experiment Two

This experiment was conducted the following year and

consisted of two trials utilizing a total of 1120 Nicholas

Large White turkey poults. The basal diet used was the

same as that in Experiment One (Table 7-1). Lincomycin (4

grams per ton) was included in the arrangement of treat-

ments in Experiment Two. Each of the diets was fed to a

total of 14 pens, each containing four male and four

female poults. In both of the trials in this experiment,

the poults were subjected to similar procedures as de-

scribed in Experiment One. This included a random assign-

ment of poults to pens, free access to feed and water, and

methods for body weight and feed consumption measurement.

The data collected from both experiments were

subjected to analysis of variance and significant

differences between treatment means were determined using

Duncan's multiple range test (Duncan, 1955). There was no

trial by experiment or sex by treatment interaction;

therefore, the data were combined for presentation.



Results and Discussion

Experiment One

A significant increase in growth was obtained with

the addition of all of the antibiotics to the methionine

supplemented basal diet (Table 7-2). There was no differ-

ence in body weights among the individual antibiotics. In























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contrast, only virginiamycin significantly improved body

weight gains when the antibiotics were added to the

protein deficient basal. Additionally, poults fed diets

containing virginiamycin had the only significant increase

in feed consumption. Feed efficiency was significantly

improved with the antibiotic supplemented diets as

compared to the protein adequate basal, with the largest

improvement observed with virginiamycin. With the

protein-deficient basal, the addition of Bacitracin MD,

Flavomycin and virginiamycin each significantly improved

feed efficiency values in a progressive manner, with

virginiamycin being the most beneficial.

Experiment Two

The addition of lincomycin or virginiamycin to the

protein adequate basal diet significantly increased the

growth of the poults (Table 7-3). Without supplemental

methionine added to the basal, Flavomycin and lincomycin

significantly improved body weight gains compared to the

control and Bacitracin MD, and virginiamycin fed poults

showed an additional increase in growth compared to

Flavomycin and lincomycin. There were no significant

differences in feed consumption between antibiotics within

each of the basal diets. In a manner similar to the body

weight gains, the supplementation of either the protein-

adequate or protein-deficient diet with Flavomycin,










lincomycin and virginiamycin significantly improved feed

efficiency values.

The results from these two experiments indicate that

the supplementation of basal diets with one of several

antibiotics improved poult body weight gains and feed

efficiency values. The magnitude of this growth response

was greater in the diets deficient in sulfur amino acids

indicating that the antibiotics enhanced the utilization

of these components in the diet. In the protein-deficient

diets, Flavomycin, lincomycin and virginiamycin each

resulted in enhanced amino acid utilization.














CHAPTER VIII
THE INFLUENCE OF VIRGINIAMYCIN ON
PHOSPHORUS UTILIZATION BY BROILER CHICKS



Introduction

The previous experiments have established that

virginiamycin has the ability to enhance energy and

protein utilization by turkey poults and that this effect

is comparable to those responses found with other antibio-

tics. Antibiotics have also been shown to influence the

utilization of minerals in the diet. The enhancement of

mineral absorption by virginiamycin has been reported in a

study with growing swine (Ravindran et al., 1984). The

minerals these researchers evaluated included calcium,

phosphorus, magnesium, copper, iron, zinc and manganese.

An improvement in the absorption of manganese was reported

by Henry et al. (1985) following the addition of

virginiamycin to the diets of broiler chicks.

The experiment reported herein was conducted to

determine the influence of virginiamycin on phosphorus

utilization in the broiler chicks by feeding diets

containing three levels of phosphorus.









Materials and Methods

A total of 768 day-old Cobb feather-sexed chicks were

used. Four males and four females were randomly assigned

to each of 96 pens in Petersime battery brooders with

raised wire floors.

A corn-soybean meal basal diet (Table 8-1) containing

.40% total phosphorus was used. Three additional diets

were formulated by adding .07, .14, and .21% supplemental

phosphorus from dicalcium phosphate (18% P and 22% Ca).

Each of the diets containing 0, .07, and .14% supplemental

phosphorus was fed with 0 and 22 ppm virginiamycin. The

diet with .21% supplemental phosphorus was fed only with 0

supplemental virginiamycin. The calcium content of the

diet was maintained at .7% by varying the amount of added

ground limestone and using builders sand as a filler.

Fifteen replicate pens were fed each of six diets with the

lower phosphorus, and six pens were placed on the diet

with the highest phosphorus level.

After three weeks on treatment, the birds were

individually weighed and pen-feed consumption was

determined. Feed efficiency was also calculated for this

period. Bone ash was determined on the right tibia from

eight males and eight females randomly selected from each

treatment. The determination of bone ash was with the

method accepted by the Association of Official Analytical

Chemists (AOAC, 1975). The tibias were cleaned of meat











TABLE 8-1
Composition of the basal diet


Ingredients %


Corn 59.4
Soybean meal (49%) 36.0
Animal fat 1.0
Microingredients* .5
Salt .4
Variables** 2.7


* Supplied the following activities per kg of diet: 6600
IU vitamin A; 2200 ICU vitamin D3, 2.2 mg menadione
dimethylpyrimidinol bisulfite; 4.4 mg riboflavin, 13.2
mg pantothenic acid; 39.6 mg niacin; 499.4 mg choline
chloride; 22.0 mcg vitamin B1; 125 mg ethoxyquin; 60.0
mg manganese; 50.0 mg iron; 6.0 mg copper; 198 mcg
cobalt; 1.1 mg iodine; and 35.0 mg zinc.

** Includes washed builders sand, ground limestone, and
dicalcium phosphate (18.5% phosphorus and 22% calcium).








leaving the cartilage cap intact and were extracted for 24

hours with methanol, then 24 hours with methanol and then

24 hours with petroleum ether in a Soxhlet extractor. The

tibias were finally dried at 95 C for 12 hours and ashed

in a muffle furnace at 600 C for eight hours. Because the

sex by treatment interaction was not significant, the data

were combined for both sexes. Significant differences

between treatment means were determined by Duncan's

multiple range test (Duncan, 1955).



Results and Discussion

The addition of virginiamycin to the diet resulted in

a significant increase in body weight (Table 8-2). This

increase was only significant (P<.05) with the chicks fed

the diet with .47% phosphorus; however, the difference

approached significance with those chicks receiving the

basal diet and was numerically greater with those fed the

diet containing .54% total phosphorus. The phosphorus

level by virginiamycin interaction was not significant,

indicating that the response from virginiamycin was

present at all levels of phosphorus.

Although feed intakes were slightly higher with

chicks fed the diets containing virginiamycin (Table 8-2),

these differences were not significant. Feed efficiencies

and milligrams of phosphorus consumed per gram of body

weight were numerically reduced with virginiamycin at all














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phosphorus levels (Table 8-2). The improvements in feed

efficiency and the reductions in the amount of phosphorus

consumed per gram of body weight reflect a trend

indicating that adding virginiamycin improved the utiliza-

tion of phosphorus. When all levels of phosphorus were

combined, the addition of virginiamycin to the diet

numerically increased bone ash values (Table 8-2). The

response, as measured by bone ash, was similar to the

response obtained with growth. The largest and only

significant response from virginiamycin was obtained when

the diet contained .47% phosphorus, as evident in the body

weight, feed efficiency and phosphorus intake values.














CHAPTER IX
SUMMARY OF RESULTS


1. The optimum levels of virginiamycin supplementation to

the diet of turkey poults was 22 ppm as determined by

body weight and feed efficiency.

2. The addition of virginiamycin to diets in which the

energy was diluted with peanut hulls resulted in

increased body weights and improved utilization of

feed and energy.

3. The use of a restricted feeding program was used in

additional studies on energy utilization.

a. Virginiamycin supplementation resulted in

increases in body weights, improved feed

efficiency and energy utilization.

b. Virginiamycin and lincomycin produced similar

results in terms of body weights and energy

utilization. Bacitracin MD and Flavomycin did

not improve the energy utilization when compared

to the control.

4. The addition of Flavomycin, lincomycin, and

virginiamycin produced improvements in body weights





48


and the utilization of protein when poults were fed a

diet known to be limiting in protein.

5. The addition of virginiamycin to diets containing

various levels of phosphorus resulted in numerical

improvements in body weight gains, feed efficiencies,

bone ash, and phosphorus utilization.














CHAPTER X
CONCLUSIONS


The results and interpretations presented in this

dissertation reveal information about virginiamycin that

have previously been unpublished for poultry. This in-

cludes both the studies evaluating the antibiotic alone

and studies conducted to compare the relative efficiencies

of various antibiotics.

It was the underlying purpose of these studies to

develop assays to effectively evaluate the influence of

virginiamycin on various nutrients. These assays were

initially adequate but rendered deficient or limiting in a

specific nutrient by several methods. The energy value of

the diets was limited by either diluting the diet with

peanut hulls or the use of a restricted feeding program.

Restriction of the sulfur amino acids in the diet was

accomplished by the formulation of a diet free of

supplemental methionine with a vitamin and trace mineral

premix free of choline and sulfate. In the final

experiment, the phosphorus levels of the diet were varied

by adding different levels of dicalcium phosphate. It can

be concluded that each of the diets was successful in










evaluating the effectiveness of virginiamycin to influence

the utilization of specific nutrients.

It has been demonstrated that virginiamycin supple-

mentation to the rations of poultry reduced the amount of

energy, protein, and phosphorus required per unit of body

weight gain. These results were obtained with rapidly

growing young poultry, whose requirements for specific

nutrients are generally greater than those of more mature

birds. This relative increase in requirements allows the

nutrient utilization effects to be shown.

The interpretation of these results is not to indi-

cate that nutrient levels in commercial diets should be

reduced in the presence of virginiamycin, but to demon-

strate the various specific nutrient effects resulting

from the supplementation of the antibiotic. It can be

hypothesized that the addition of virginiamycin to the

diets of poultry increases the margin of safety associated

with the particular diets. This would be of importance to

commercial producers using ingredients with nutrient

specifications below the expected values. More detailed

research is required to understand the relationship

between the proposed mechanisms of action for

virginiamycin and the effects on nutrient utilization.

Additionally, it can be concluded that virginiamycin

is comparable to Flavomycin and lincomycin on the basis of

energy and protein utilization, and superior to Bacitracin

MD in both of these parameters.














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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH


The author, Robert E. Buresh, was born August 9,

1958, at Pasadena, California. He graduated fifth in his

class at Tampa Catholic High School in 1976. He entered

Clemson University in the fall of that year and obtained a

Bachelor of Science degree in animal industries in the

spring of 1980. As an undergraduate, the author was a

member of the varsity swimming team, Kappa Alpha Order,

Alpha Zeta, Gamma Sigma Delta, Phi Eta Sigma and Alpha

Lambda Delta.

The author entered the Graduate School of Clemson

University in the summer of 1980 and was granted the

degree of Master of Science in animal and food industries

in the spring of 1982. His master's thesis was entitled

"Passive Solar Energy for the Brooding of Broilers."

He entered the University of Florida in 1982 and was

awarded the Ruby V. Voitle Outstanding Graduate Student

Award in 1984 and 1985.

He married the former Elisa M. Sierra on May 17,

1980, and presently has a 20-month-old daughter, Lauren.











I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.




Robert H. Harms, Chairman
Professor of Animal Science




I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.




Floyd B. Mather
Associate Professor of Animal
Science



I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.


Associate Professor of
Science











I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.




"Rachel B. Shireman
Associate Professor of Food
Science and Human Nutrition



This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of
the College of Agriculture and to the Graduate School and
was accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements
for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.


May 1985
Dean, college of Agr4 culture


Dean, Graduate School












































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