Dimensions of juvenile delinquency and their relationship to sensation seeking, self-reported offenses, and frustration

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Dimensions of juvenile delinquency and their relationship to sensation seeking, self-reported offenses, and frustration
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Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 1989.
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by Terry W. Jefferson.
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DIMENSIONS OF JUVENILE DELINQUENCY AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP
TO SENSATION SEEKING, SELF-REPORTED OFFENSES, AND
FRUSTRATION












By

TERRY W. JEFFERSON


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


1989














ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to express my gratitude to the faculty and

staff of the Department of Clinical and Health Psychology

for their time and effort in making my tenure at Florida

productive and enjoyable. I would like to thank my

dissertation committee, Dr. Sheila Eyberg, Dr. Jackie

Goldman, Dr. Steve Boggs, and Dr. Ronald Akers, for their

constructive feedback and encouragement. I would especially

like to thank Dr. James Johnson for his guidance and

patience throughout my studies at Florida. His

encouragement and ideas gave me the enthusiasm needed to see

this project become a reality. I would like to express my

appreciation to the administration and teachers of the

Alachua County school system for their tolerance and

cooperation in the data collection phase of this study. I

would like to thank my parents for instilling in me the

concern for others that makes this field so rewarding. I

owe my biggest thanks to my son, Andrew, for his

unconditional love and smiles that always helped me keep

things in perspective, and my wife, Julie, for her love,

understanding and encouragement that persevered throughout

all the day-to-day hassles and rewards.















TABLE OF CONTENTS

page
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.. ............................... ii

ABSTRACT................................. ............. iv

CHAPTERS

1 INTRODUCTION.................................. 1

Overview of Delinquency........................ 1
Theories of Delinquency........................ 2
The Role of Frustration....................... 7
Dimensions of Delinquent Personalities.......... 9
Stimulation Seeking and Its Relevance to
Delinquency... ................... ...... 12
Nature of the Present Study.................... 20

2 METHODS.................................... ... .. 24

Subjects. .................................... 24
Measures ...................................... 24
Procedures......................... ......... 29
Analysis...................................... 32

3 RESULTS ..................................... 35

Self-Reported Delinquency...................... 36
Delinquency and Sensation Seeking.............. 46
Frustration ..................... .............. 47
Academic, Problem Behavior, and
Extracurricular Activities................... 48
Correlations ............................ ... 53

4 DISCUSSION ...... ................ ...... .... 57

APPENDICES

A QUESTIONNAIRES................................. 68

B RAW DATA....................................... 85

REFERENCES............................................ 96

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH................................... 105

iii















Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy


DIMENSIONS OF JUVENILE DELINQUENCY AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP
TO SENSATION SEEKING, SELF-REPORTED OFFENSES AND FRUSTRATION


By

Terry W. Jefferson

August 1989


Chairman: James H. Johnson, Ph.D.
Major Department: Clinical and Health Psychology


This study examines the effects of delinquent

personality dimensions and sensation seeking on self-

reported delinquent behavior in a sample of high school

students. Three major personality dimensions have been

delineated within the delinquent population; however, very

little research has been conducted to assess the influence

these personality dimensions may have on delinquent

behavior. Sensation seeking has been proposed as a

motivator for various stimulating or risk-taking behaviors,

one of which is delinquent behavior. The individual effects

and interaction of sensation seeking and delinquent

personality dimensions on self-reported delinquent behavior

iv








were examined.

The data revealed a strong relationship between

sensation seeking and self-reported delinquent behavior.

Analysis showed that specific types of delinquent behavior

were significantly related to the interaction of delinquent

personality dimensions and gender. These findings were

discussed in relation to previous research, implications for

future study and possible preventative measures aimed at

reducing delinquent behavior.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Overview of Delinquency

Juvenile delinquency is a legal term referring to a

person, under 18 years of age, who has committed a crime or

engaged in other illegal behavior not specified in the

criminal code which may potentially involve the individual

in the juvenile justice system. Delinquent behaviors can

range from status offenses that are illegal due to the age

of the offender (i.e. truancy, running away) to index

offenses which are illegal regardless of the age of the

offender (i.e. disorderly conduct, assault, burglary,

murder). Juvenile delinquency did not exist as a legal

entity until 1899, when the United States initiated special

juvenile courts to deal with young people who committed

crimes. Juvenile courts were heralded as a major social

advance where the welfare of the child became as important

as the crime committed (Stumphauzer, 1985).

Delinquency is quite common in America. Research has

shown that close to 90% of adolescents have engaged in some

type of delinquent behavior (Williams & Gold, 1972; Elliott,

Huizinga, & Ageton, 1985). In 1984, there were more than 2

million arrests of persons under 18 years of age (FBI,

1985). This figure is viewed as an underestimate, because

it is based only on reported crimes. Arrest rates tend to






2

increase with age, reaching a peak at 17 years for males,

and 16 for females (FBI, 1984). There has also been an

increase throughout the world in serious and violent crimes

by juveniles, such as armed robbery, murder, and rape

(Stumphauzer, 1981). These statistics suggest that

delinquency is one of the major problems facing the

behavioral sciences.

Theories of Delinquency

There have been many attempts to explain delinquent

behavior from different perspectives. Several of the major

theories include sociological, psychological, and

biological. Sociological theories of delinquency view the

behavior as a function of a complex interaction of variables

within the individual's environment, over which he or she

may or may not have control. These variables include sex,

race, socioeconomic status (SES), geographic region, family

characteristics, job opportunities, and subcultural norms

and values. Three of the major sociological theories will

be discussed.

Merton (1938) has developed what has been referred to

as anomic or strain theory, which has been elaborated on by

Cohen (1955) in the form of status deprivation, and Cloward

and Ohlin (1960) in the form of differential opportunity.

According to strain theory, success is prized by all

Americans, but opportunities for success by legitimate means

are not distributed equally among the social classes.

Adolescents feel pressure for deviant behavior when they







3

experience marked discrepancies between aspirations and

opportunities for achievement (Cloward and Ohlin, 1960).

This discrepancy or "strain" is primarily produced in lower

class youths who have conventional success goals, but due to

their social class have limited opportunities to achieve

these goals. This strain may produce lowered self-worth,

increased frustration, alienation, and ambivalence. It may

also produce attempts toward advancement through

illegitimate means, resulting in delinquent behavior and

often involvement in the juvenile justice system. This

theory was the motivating force behind several government

programs in the 1960's to help provide job opportunities,

better education, and community programs for juveniles of

lower income families. However, strain theory lacks

empirical support for several of its major premises and has

been criticized as being excessively complex in its attempt

to account for too much (Empey, 1982).

Another sociological theory of delinquency is the

Social Bonding theory proposed by Hirschi (1969). He

asserts that it is only the individual's bond to society

that deters antisocial behavior. The strength of this

social bond determines the person's degree of conformity.

This social bond is achieved through attachment, commitment,

involvement, and belief. Attachment is the tie of affection

and respect between children and significant others, such as

parents, teachers, and friends. Commitment is the extent to

which children dedicate themselves to conventional lines of






4

action for fear of the consequences of deviant behavior.

Involvement is the degree to which a person participates in

conventional activities. Belief is the degree that

individuals accept the morality of the law and conventional

values. Hirschi believes that these four factors are the

bases for conformity and that the lack of control from these

bonds is a major contributor to delinquent behavior. He

places much importance on the family in the development of

attachment, commitment, involvement, and belief.

Akers (1977) proposed a Social Learning theory of

deviant behavior, which has its origins in operant

conditioning research. He states that social behavior is

learned through operant conditioning, in which behavior is

shaped by its consequences. Behavior is strengthened by

reinforcement (presentation of positive stimuli or removal

of aversive stimuli) and weakened by punishment

(presentation of aversive stimuli or removal of positive

stimuli). The occurrence of deviant or conforming behavior

is dependent on the person's history of reinforcement and

punishment for the behavior and the reinforcement and

punishment associated with alternative behaviors

(differential reinforcement). He proposed that deviant

behavior will increase when there is greater exposure to

delinquent rather than nondelinquent models (imitation),

when delinquent behavior is differentially reinforced, when

there is more association with delinquent peers

(differential association), and when delinquent behavior is






5

framed in more positive than negative terms. This theory

has received empirical support for explaining drug abuse

(Krohn, Lanza-Kaduce, & Akers, 1984; Lanza-Kaduce, Akers,

Krohn & Radosevich, 1984) and aggressive behavior

(Neopolitan, 1981).

Some sociological theories have resulted in changes in

social policy and have led to the development of new

programs to address those areas viewed as being major

contributors to delinquency. The data on the application of

these programs to the problem of delinquency have resulted

in modest impact on the rates of delinquency (Empey, 1982).

One reason for the modest success rates in prevention and

treatment of delinquency may be the assumption of

homogeneity of the delinquent personality espoused by most

of these theories. Closer scrutiny of the delinquent

population may reveal that certain sociological theories are

more applicable to some types of delinquents than others.

The fact that some children from the same environment

engage in delinquent behavior, while others do not, suggests

that more than just broad social factors are involved. In

the development of delinquent behavior, psychological

variables have often been posited as influential. The major

psychological theories of delinquency are analytical,

operant, and familial.

One of the earliest psychological theories of

delinquency was based on Freud's work. Friedlander (1947)

stressed that the delinquent functions according to the






6

pleasure principle and cannot tolerate frustration or delay

gratification. Delinquents have an ineffective superego,

due to inadequate care during infancy, which makes them

unable to inhibit their pleasure-seeking tendencies.

Another analytically oriented theory has been proposed by

Stot (1980). He proposed that growing children have two

basic needs: self realization; and care, affection, and

devotion from an adult. Dissatisfaction of either need

leads to discomfort and efforts to resolve this frustration.

If the frustration is not resolved, anxiety mounts, leading

to the activation of an emergency reaction system. This

system activates feelings of resentment and delinquent

behavior, such as retaliation, "avoidance excitement" and

"inferiority compensation."

The application of operant theory to delinquent

behavior has been elaborated on above (Akers, 1977), but has

clear implications for psychological learning processes.

Patterson (1982) theorizes that delinquent behavior is

primarily due to a dysfunctional family process. Through a

lack of discipline, the juvenile fails to learn to

discriminate between criminal and noncriminal behavior.

Parents contribute to the development of delinquent behavior

by failing to label, track, and provide consequences

consistently for this behavior. Parents reinforce

delinquent behavior by modeling coercive ways of

interacting, which results in deficient social skills.






7

This lack of social skills results in difficulties at school

and at work, which may predispose juveniles to interpersonal

problems throughout their life.

Various biological explanations for delinquent

behavior have also been proposed. Mowrer (1960) suggests

that some children's responsiveness to external stimulation

is impaired, which leads to difficulty making associations

between behavior and punishment. Therefore, these children

experience problems inhibiting behavior that may elicit

punishment and fail to learn the consequences of their

behavior.

Various sociological and psychological theories cite

strain, social bonding, or failure to learn consequences as

factors involved in etiology of delinquency. One common

characteristic shared by these factors is their production

of or increase in frustration.

The Role of Frustration

Many delinquent behaviors may be in response to

academic failure, blocked vocational opportunities, or

feelings of entrapment in an aversive situation, which many

juveniles find very frustrating. Frustration may result in

aggressive acts. Strain theorists have attempted to address

this issue at the sociological level, but firm empirical

support is lacking. One of the most influential

psychological theories of aggression is the Frustration-

Aggression Hypothesis (Dollard, Doob, Miller, Mower, &

Sears, 1939). According to this theory frustration always






8

leads to some form of aggression, and the occurrence of

aggressive behavior always presupposes the presence of

frustration. Frustration results from interference in

attaining some anticipated goal. Aggression is defined as a

behavior, the goal of which is the injury of a person.

According to this theory, various factors influence the

occurrence of aggression: the amount of frustration,

effects of punishment, displacement of aggression, and the

catharsis of aggression. Aggression will be directed at the

source of frustration, unless the aggression is inhibited

(via punishment), which will produce more frustration. This

vicious circle of frustration-blocked aggression-frustration

continues and increases the probability that the person will

exhibit other acts of aggression not directed at the

frustrating object (displaced aggression). Attempts to

create experimentally different levels of frustration and

look for corresponding differences in aggression has

provided only limited support for the theory (Williams &

Geison, 1979). However, it has been found that the same

individual maintains the same tendency to experience

frustration in a variety of settings (Schachter, 1964; Lamb,

1978). Although most workers in the area would argue with

the view that frustration "always" results in aggressive

behavior, it would seem that experiencing frustration may

contribute to crimes against persons or objects which are

unprovoked and are attributed to the pathology of the

delinquent, rather than their situation.






9

Megargee (1966) distinguished between "undercontrolled"

delinquents, who are habitually aggressive, and

"overcontrolled" delinquents, who commit violent crimes, yet

have no prior criminal history. The undercontrolled type

are impulsive and respond to frustration with aggression and

are labeled psychopaths. The overcontrolled type rarely

respond with aggression due to strong inhibitions; only

after a long build up of frustrations will they exhibit

aggressive behavior.

While these broad-based theories have advanced our

thinking about delinquency, they are limited in their view

of the delinquent personality as a unitary concept.

Interestingly, in light of the varied behavior that can

bring a delinquent into the juvenile justice system, these

delinquents may be highly variable in their attitudes and

behavior.

Dimensions of Delinquent Personalities

The majority of delinquency researchers have viewed

delinquency as a unitary concept and have focused simply on

examining differences between delinquent and non-delinquent

samples (Quay, 1987); however, data suggest that the

delinquent population is a very heterogeneous group. This

notion has been supported by research initially conducted by

Hewitt and Jenkins (1946) and later in a widely cited study

by Quay (1964). Evidence from multivariate studies suggests

that juvenile delinquents can be reliably classified into at

least three major personality types: neurotic/disturbed






10

(ND), unsocialized-psychopath (PD), and socialized-

subcultural (SD) (Quay, 1964). The ND is viewed as

hypersensitive, with feelings of inferiority and depression,

having poor social skills, at times impulsive and

aggressive, but experiences tension and guilt over

misbehaviors. The PD is viewed as manipulative, defiant,

guiltless, amoral, rebellious, egocentric, distrustful of

authority, impulsive and without loyalties. The SD is

likely to come from lower SES, be a loyal member of a gang,

and cooperate with the gang in crime. The SD has no

motivation to change his behavior, except to avoid arrests.

In addition to Hewitt & Jenkins (1946) and Quay (1964),

other studies have attested to the reliable identification

of these dimensions in children and adolescents (Behar &

Stringfield, 1974; Conners, 1969; Kohn & Rosman, 1972;

Victor & Halverson, 1976).

In addition to differences identified through

multivariate research, other differences have been found

among the delinquent personality groups. Ellis (1982) found

that ND were less empathic than PD, who were less empathic

than SD. The ND scores correlated negatively with all the

adjustment scales of the California Personality Inventory

(Quay & Peterson, 1964). In a study measuring the three

dimensions, scores on the SD and ND scales were not related

to intelligence, but the PD scores were negatively related

to achievement and intelligence, which is consistent with

the findings obtained with adult psychopaths. The PD scale






11

correlated negatively with Responsibility, Communality, and

Achievement via Independence scales of the California

Personality Inventory, which is consistent with the view

that PD do not see themselves as lacking poise, or self-

control and do not seek to make a good impression.

Individuals classified as psychopathic delinquents have been

found to be more immature in their moral development and

role taking abilities as well as more concrete in their

reasoning than ND or SD (Jurkovic & Prentice, 1977).

The SD scores correlated negatively with Well Being,

Tolerance, Intellectual Efficiency, and Psychological

Mindedness suggesting that rigidity, and conformity are

characteristics of the high SD scorer (Quay & Peterson,

1964). Genshaft (1980) found the Minnesota Multiphasic

Personality Inventory (MMPI) profiles of ND, PD, and SD

delinquents revealed two personality types: a weak ego

delinquent with considerable intrapsychic conflict (ND) and

a more traditional psychopathic delinquent with little

apparent anxiety or neurotic symptoms (PD).

Although learning deficits have been found in

undifferentiated samples of delinquents (Zinkus & Gottlieb,

1977; Jerse & Fakouri, 1978; Lane, 1980), only recently has

it been found that learning problems correlated with the PD

scale of the Personal Opinion Survey, but not the SD or ND

scales (Jefferson & Johnson, 1989). These learning problems

may be due to a wide variety of reasons within the






12

individual's personality or a function of the their

behavior. These may include: missed opportunities caused

by disciplinary actions, disinterest resulting from

insufficient stimulation from the academic material, or

learning disabilities. Physiological evidence also supports

the existence of delinquent groups. Borkovec (1970) found

that psychopathic delinquents had lower initial reactivity

to a tone stimulus than neurotic delinquents. Others have

reported lower electrodermal reactivity in conduct

disordered children and antisocial adolescents (Raine &

Venables, 1984; Delameter & Lahey, 1983). Hare (1968) found

that adult psychopaths had lower resting levels of

electrodermal responding and less autonomic responses to

tones than neurotic psychopaths and nonpsychopath inmates.

Psychopaths have also been found to be less responsive to

aversive stimuli than nonpsychopathic offenders (Hare,

Frazelle, & Cox, 1978; Hare & Craigen, 1974). These findings

suggest that psychopaths may require a stronger stimulus to

evoke a response, and they may respond differently to

punishment than non-psychopathic offenders.

Stimulation Seeking and Its relevance to Delinquency

The physiological data on psychopathic delinquents is

consistent with the notion of the pathological stimulation

seeker proposed by Quay (1965). Quay theorized that the

psychopath has either an increased rate of adaptation or a

lessened basal reactivity causing a condition of stimulus

deprivation which the psychopath finds effectively






13

unpleasant. The psychopath seeks to change this affective

state by seeking stimulation. In this highly routinized

modern world, the need to change the level of stimulation

may be achieved either by changing the intensity of the

stimulation or the variability of stimulation sources, such

as listening to loud music, driving at high speeds, or sky

diving. Zuckerman (1979) defines sensation seeking as "the

need for varied, novel, and complex sensations and

experiences and the willingness to take physical and social

risks for the sake of such experiences" (p. 34).

Zuckerman, Kolin, Price & Zoob (1964) developed the

Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS), to measure individual

differences in sensation seeking. Various psychological

measures have been correlated with stimulation seeking. A

positive correlation has been found between high stimulation

seeking and the Mania and the Psychopathic Deviant scales of

the MMPI, the Extraversion scale (Zuckerman, Bone, Neary,

Mangelsdorff, & Brustman, 1972; Zuckerman & Link, 1968), and

Psychoticism scale of the Eysenck Personality Inventory

(Eysenck & Zuckerman, 1978). The Experience Seeking and

Disinhibition scales of the SSS correlated with the

frequency of situations in which emotions were expressed and

the intensity of the emotions expressed (Allen, 1976). No

correlation has been found between stimulation seeking and

anxiety (Zuckerman, Schultz, & Hopkins, 1967; Zuckerman &

Link, 1968; Kilpatrick, Sutker & Smith, 1976). Stimulation

seeking appears to be related to impulsivity, particularly,






14

the readiness to engage in activities which are physically

risky (Zuckerman, 1979). Zuckerman, Kolin, Price and Zoob

(1964) found a negative correlation with anxiety and a

positive correlation with scores on the Embedded Figures

Test. This suggested that the SSS is not a measure of

impulsivity, but of sensitivity to internal sensations.

Physiological evidence suggest that high stimulation

seekers are markedly different from low stimulation seekers

biochemically and neurophysiologically. Larger initial skin

conductance levels have been found in high stimulation

seekers than in low stimulation seekers under various types

of stimulation, such as the presentation of neutral (e.g.

landscape, clock) or loaded (e.g. boxing, mountain climbing)

slides (Smith, Perlstein, Davidson & Michael, 1986). High

stimulation seekers show a greater orienting reflex to novel

stimuli than low stimulation seekers (Neary & Zuckerman,

1976). Daitzman and Zuckerman (1980) found that subjects

scoring high on the Disinhibition scale had significantly

higher levels of testosterone, 17-B estradiol, and estrone

than low scorers on the Disinhibition scale. Higher

testosterone levels have been found in inmates with a

history of aggressive or violent tendencies (Rada, Laws &

Kellner, 1976; Ehrenkranz, Bliss & Sheard, 1974).

Zuckerman (1979) reviewed the physiological data

related to stimulation seeking and replaced his theory of an

optimal level of arousal mediated by the reticulo-cortical

activating system, with a theory concentrating on the limbic






15

reward system. He accepts Stein's (1978) theory that

dopamine pathways provide the general approach incentive,

and norepinephrine pathways control the expectancies of

positive reinforcement from the stimuli. High levels of

dopamine result in more activity and the increased

exploration of new situations, and high norepinephrine is

related to the expectation for positive reinforcement from

persons or situations, which would be part of the motivation

for risk taking behavior. SSS scores have been found to be

negatively correlated with plasma monoamine oxidase levels

(Murphy, Belmaker, Buchsbaum, Martin, Ciaranello & Wyatt,

1977; Schooler, Zahn, Murphy & Buchsbaum, 1978). Monoamine

oxidase (MAO) is the primary catalyst for breaking down

monoaminergic neurotransmitters (dopamine, norepinephrine,

and serotonin) and high MAO levels have been shown to be

related to depressive symptoms (Cotman & McGaugh, 1980).

The high levels of activity in these reward centers

result in a special alertness and responsiveness to novel

stimulation that can be related to stimulation seeking.

However, subsequent research has revealed that metabolites

of dopamine measured in the cerebrospinal fluid were not

related to stimulation seeking, but norepinephrine

metabolites in the CSF did correlate negatively with

stimulation seeking (Zuckerman, 1983). The relationship

between norepinephrine and stimulation seeking has more

recently been investigated with the primary focus on the

locus coeruleus, which contains 70% of the norepinephrine in






16

the brain (Zuckerman & Como, 1983). It has been found that

when electrodes were implanted in the locus coeruleus of

rats, novel stimulation produced habituation and

dishabituation similar to the responses found when measuring

the orienting response in humans (Aston-Jones & Bloom,

1981). This suggests that the norepinephrine system may

constitute another arousal system (Routtenberg, 1968). The

intrinsic reward or punishment may be related to the level

of arousal, with high arousal related to anxiety and

moderate arousal related to reward. This results in a

return to the optimal level of stimulation theory first

proposed, but with a specific biological system as its

basis. It may be that the high stimulation seekers have a

lower arousability in the norepinephrine system, which may

be the reason some high sensation seekers use drugs or

experiences that increase norepinephrine activity (Zuckerman

& Como, 1983).

It is noteworthy that these physiological findings with

stimulation seekers are very similar to those found with

psychopathic delinquents. It may be that the sensation

seeker will engage in behaviors that will result in a

relative increase in internal arousal such as high speed

driving, attending rock concerts, and sky diving, but if

these appropriate types of behavior are not available, they

may find inappropriate ways to increase their arousal, such

as truancy, fighting, using certain types of drugs, or

stealing.






17

The research on the relationship between sensation

seeking and delinquency has yielded some interesting

results. Male and female felons and delinquents have been

found to score higher on the SSS than psychiatric patients

(Thorne, 1971) and nondelinquent high school students

(Farley & Sewell, 1976). White, Labouvie, and Bates (1985)

found that delinquent adolescents scored significantly

higher on the disinhibition scale of the SSS than

nondelinquent adolescents. Farley and Farley (1972) found

that in 27 delinquent females, the ones scoring high on the

SSS exhibited more fighting, escape attempts, and were

punished more often for disobeying their supervisors than

those scoring low on the scale. This finding suggests that

there may be a link between stimulation seeking and

aggressive behavior. However, these studies address the

delinquent personality as a unitary concept, which is

contrary to the data presented above (see, Quay, 1987).

In contrast to these studies employing paper and pencil

measures of stimulation seeking, laboratory research on

stimulation and novelty seeking among the delinquent

personality groups has been successful in delineating the

theorized differences related to personality dimensions of

delinquency. Skrzypek (1969) supported Quay's theory in

finding that PD had lower pretest anxiety, and higher

novelty and complexity preference scores than ND. Orris

(1969) found that PD had a severe vigilance decrement when

compared to SD and ND. Unsocialized-psychopaths (PD) have






18

been found to have a higher level of stimulation seeking

than ND and normal children, as measured by decreased

viewing time of a monotonous sequence of photographic slides

(Whitehill, Demeyer-Gapin, & Scott, 1976). However, these

subjects were classified by subjective ratings and these

delinquent groups may be somewhat different than those

groups classified by Quay and Parsons (1971). These studies

suggest that stimulation seeking may play a significant role

in the psychological makeup of some delinquents, especially

the psychopathic delinquent.

The relationship between stimulation seeking and

aggression has received limited attention. Studying

undergraduates, Zuckerman (1974) found the Disinhibition

scale, for males and females, and the General,

Disinhibition, and Experience Seeking scales for females,

correlated positively with the aggression scale on the

Personality Research Form. This positive relationship has

also been found for the Experience Seeking and Disinhibition

scales in a VA psychiatric sample (Daitzman & Tumilty,

1974). High school students who scored high on the SSS

tended to engage in misbehavior at school more often than

low scorers on the SSS (Wasson, 1980). The biological

substrate for aggression is thought to rest primarily in the

limbic system, which is in the same region proposed as the

substrate for stimulation seeking.

Frustration may also play a significant role in the

behavior of the psychopathic delinquent. This group of






19

delinquents may become more frustrated given that they have

more learning difficulties, and have greater problems in

social situations, and because their attempts at stimulation

seeking may be blocked. These situations taken together

place the delinquent at risk for aggressive behavior,

resulting in difficulties at school, both academically and

socially.

Given the diversity within the delinquent population,

it is likely that individual delinquents have different

motivations behind their behavior and respond to situations

differently. For example, psychopathic delinquents may have

higher sensation-seeking needs than other delinquents and

this may result in more frustration if these needs are not

met. Their sensation seeking needs along with a heightened

level of frustration may put them at risk for more

aggressive and delinquent behavior. While not motivated by

sensation seeking needs, the neurotic delinquents may

attempt to overcompensate for received inadequacies by

engaging in delinquent behavior. Neurotic delinquents may

experience just as much frustration, but its origin may

relate to these feelings of inadequacy. The sensation

seeking needs of socialized delinquents, although not as

great as psychopathic delinquents, may be met through

interactions with their peer group. Frustration experienced

by these delinquents may be minimized by their group's

support and behavior. The three delinquent dimensions may

have a very different relationship with sensation seeking






20

and frustration. In general, this study attempts to examine

such relationships among dimensions of delinquency,

sensation seeking, and frustration such as those

hypothesized here and how these relationships relate to

different types of delinquent behavior.

Nature of the Present Study

This study attempted to overcome one of the major

shortcomings of prior delinquency research by considering

differences among the three delinquent subgroups, i.e

neurotic delinquent, socialized delinquent, and psychopathic

delinquent. A major goal of the present study was to

examine how the type and frequency of self-reported

delinquent behavior varied among high school students as a

function of delinquency personality type. In addition,

differences between high and low sensation seekers were

assessed so as to evaluate the relationship between

sensation seeking and self-reported delinquency. Also of

interest was how the combination of these two variables

(delinquent type and sensation seeking status) might relate

to the dependent measures. The resulting six groups were

the major focus of the study: High Sensation Seeking (SS)

Neurotic delinquent, High SS Socialized delinquent, High SS

Psychopathic delinquent, Low SS Neurotic delinquent, Low SS

Socialized delinquent, Low SS Psychopathic delinquent.

In terms of the interaction of sensation seeking and

delinquency group, it was predicted that high stimulation

seekers in the PD group would be found to have engaged in






21

more predatory crimes (e.g. assault, burglary, and auto

theft) and public disorder crimes (e.g. disorderly conduct,

drunkenness, and obscene phone calls) than subjects in the

low stimulation seeking PD group and the other four groups.

It was assumed that these differences relate to the

heightened frustration, resulting from unsatisfied

stimulation needs, as well as the learning problems

experienced by subjects in the psychopathic delinquent

group.

A second goal of the study was to examine the role of

frustration in delinquent groups and stimulation seekers,

especially in regard to aggressive behavior. Given the

assertions of strain theory and the frustration-aggression

hypothesis, a higher level of frustration should be related

to a higher frequency of aggressive behavior. The proposed

relationship between the PD and the high stimulation seeker

suggest that this group would score higher on a measure of

frustration if their stimulation needs are blocked, if they

are experiencing academic problems and if their social

interactions are ineffective. It was predicted that the PD

group would experience more frustration than the ND group,

who would experience more than the SD group.

The study also sought to examine other presumed

correlates of delinquent group membership and stimulation

seeking. Variables considered here included school grades,

school behavior, sports, self-reported arrests, and classes

taken. It was hypothesized that the high stimulation






22

seeking PD subjects would exhibit relatively poorer academic

performance than the ND or SD subjects. Because the

research with sensation seekers concerning academic

performance is equivocal (Anderson, 1973; Kish & Busse,

1968), this relationship was also be examined. This study

sought to replicate earlier findings that high stimulation

seekers engage in more misbehavior at school (Wasson, 1980).

Information concerning the subjects' favorite classes and

sports participation was obtained to determine if high

stimulation seekers participate in more stimulating and

risky activities and sports than low stimulation seekers.

The students who participate in these sports or activities

should report a lower frequency of delinquent behavior,

given that either their need for stimulation is fulfilled

and/or they may have less time to engage in delinquent

activities.

The relationship of socioeconomic status, sex, and race

to self-reported delinquent behavior was assessed by

inclusion of these variable in regression analyses or by

chi-square analysis. Official records of delinquency show a

disproportionate amount of crime is committed by members of

the lower social classes and blacks (Elliot & Ageton, 1980;

Brownfield, 1986). The occupation and education of the

parents was also examined among the six groups.

Given the use of multiple self-report measures, a

social desirability scale was given to measure and control

for the subjects' desire "to put up a good front." This






23

tendency may indicate self deception, a lack of insight into

one's own character or an unwillingness to accept one's

limitations (Anastasia, 1976). These scores were used in

the data analysis to help control for the variability this

tendency may contribute to the subjects responses.














CHAPTER 2
METHOD

Subjects

The sample consisted of 140 high school students, of

which 57 (41%) were male and 83 (59%) were female. The

sample was predominantly white (94%). The ages of the

subjects ranged from 14 to 19 years, with a mean of 16

years, 8 months. The median family income of the sample was

in the $30,000 to $50,000 range.



Measures

A Student Demographic Questionnaire provided

information on age, race, GPA, hobbies, favorite class,

participation in sports, focus of current difficulties,

frequency of disciplinary actions at school, criminal

history, and counseling history.

A Parent Questionnaire provided information on

occupation of the mother and father, their age, their

education, number of persons in the home, number of

siblings, income range, and history of diagnosis and

medication for hyperactivity.

The subjects were administered the Personal Opinion

Survey (POS)(Quay & Parsons, 1971) to classify them into the

delinquent personality dimensions. The POS is a 100 item,






25

true-false questionnaire. The POS was developed from a

series of factor analytic studies of the responses of both

institutionalized delinquents and public school students to

a large pool of items tapping attitudes, beliefs, feelings,

and behaviors (Peterson, Quay, & Cameron, 1959; Peterson,

Quay, & Tiffany, 1961; Quay, Peterson & Consalvi, 1960).

The POS yields scores on three personality dimensions:

Neurotic Delinquent, Socialized Delinquent, and Psychopathic

Delinquent. Test-retest reliability for the three scales

using 65 institutionalized delinquents over an interval of

90 days yielded a stability coefficient of .76 for Neurotic

Delinquency, .75 for Psychopathic Delinquency, and .61 for

Socialized Delinquency. The three factors of the POS have

adequate discriminant validity as suggested by significant

group differences on the Neuroticism and Well Being scales

of the California Personality Inventory, intellectual and

achievement measures, and cross validation with new samples

(Quay and Parsons, 1971). The POS has also been used in

research to differentiate groups of delinquents (Hundleby &

Ross, 1977; Genshaft, 1980; Raine & Venables, 1981; Ellis,

1982; Raine, Roger, & Venables, 1982; Jefferson & Johnson,

1989).

Each subject completed the Sensation Seeking Scale -

Form V (SSS) (Zuckerman, 1979) which consists of 40 forced-

choice items with two response choices per items (e.g., A. I

like "wild" uninhibited parties., or B. I prefer quiet

parties with good conversation.). The SSS (Form V)






26

(Zuckerman, 1979) was developed by factor analysis of

earlier versions of the SSS, which yielded four factors;

Thrill and Adventure Seeking, Experience Seeking,

Disinhibition, and Boredom Susceptibility. The Thrill and

Adventure Seeking factor consists of items expressing a

desire to participate in sports or activities involving some

physical danger or risk, such as mountain climbing,

parachute jumping, scuba diving, and high speed driving.

The Experience Seeking factor consists of items expressing a

desire to seek new experiences through the mind and senses

by living in a nonconformist life style with unconventional

friends and by travel. The Disinhibition factor consists of

items expressing a need to engage in uninhibited behavior in

social situations, such as excessive alcohol abuse at

parties, inappropriately loud or aggressive, and seeking

variety in sexual partners. The Boredom Susceptibility

factor consists of items describing an aversion for

repetitive experiences, routine work, or dull or predictable

people as well as restlessness when things are unchanging.

The SSS provides scores on the four factors, as well as a

total sum.

Scores on the SSS have been found to correlate with

drug abuse, particularly marijuana, hashish, amphetamine and

psychedelic drugs (Brill, Crumpton, & Grayson, 1971; Carrol

& Zuckerman, 1977; Kaestner, Rosen, & Appel, 1977),

cigarette smoking (Stanaway & Watson, 1981), gambling

(Zuckerman, 1974), sexual behavior and attitudes (Zuckerman,






27

Tushop, & Finner, 1976), skydiving (Hymbaugh & Garrett,

1974), scuba diving (Heyman & Rose, 1980), and volunteering

for hypnosis and encounter groups (Stanton, 1976; Zuckerman,

Schultz, & Hopkins, 1967). SSS scores have been found to be

negatively correlated with age (Kish & Busse, 1968).

Test-retest reliability of the SSS using 65 males and

females ranged from .70 on the Boredom Susceptibility scale

to .94 on Thrill and Adventure Seeking and Total scales.

When correlated with the Embedded Figures Test, Howard

Mazes, and the Multiple Affect Adjective Check List it

appears that the SSS measures sensitivity to internal

sensations rather than impulsiveness. A positive

relationship between SSS scores and field independence and a

negative relationship with anxiety have been found, which is

consistent with theories of sensation seeking (Zuckerman,

1979).

The Self-Report Delinquency Scale, developed by Elliott

and Ageton (1980), was administered to all subjects to

obtain information regarding the type and frequency of

delinquent acts subjects engaged in over the last year.

This measure consists of forty-seven items, which are a

representative sample of the full range of delinquent acts,

from "skipping classes without an excuse" to "attacked

someone with the idea of seriously hurting or killing him or

her." The drug use items include alcohol, marijuana,

hallucinogens, amphetamines, barbituates, heroin, and

cocaine. Respondents rated the frequency in which they were






28

involved in the delinquent act or used the drug in the last

year by selecting one of eight categorical responses: 1.

zero; 2. less than once a month; 3. once a month; 4. once

every 2-3 weeks; 5. once a week; 6. 2-3 times a week; 7.

once a day; 8. 2-3 times a day. This scale yields six

subscales: predatory crimes against persons (e.g., sexual

assault, aggravated assault, & robbery); predatory crimes

against property (e.g., vandalism, burglary, auto theft,

larceny, stealing, fraud & joyriding); illegal service

crimes (e.g., prostitution, selling drugs, & buy/providing

liquor for minors); public disorder crimes (e.g., carrying a

concealed weapon, hitchhiking, disorderly conduct,

drunkenness, making obscene phone calls); status crimes

(e.g., runaway, sexual intercourse, alcohol use, & truancy);

and hard drug use (e.g., amphetamines, barbituates,

hallucinogens, heroin, & cocaine). The research using this

measure has been found to be more consistent with official

arrest records than studies using other self-reported

delinquency measures addressing issues of race and class

difference (Elliot & Ageton, 1980; Brownfield, 1986;

Sampson, 1986).

Each subject completed the Trait Frustration Scale

(Bergandi, Williams, & Lamb, 1982) which is an eight item

Likert-type scale. The items are written in the first

person and each describes a frustrating situation along with

a response to that situation (e.g., If other people are

beating me in a game, I inwardly accept it.). Responses to






29

the items are on an eight-point Likert scale ranging from 1

(almost never) to 8 (almost always). The scale provides

three scores: Interpersonal score, Intrapersonal score and

Total score. Half of the frustrating situations are

individualized (e.g., Frustrating tasks make me feel

aggressive), resulting in the intrapersonal score, and half

are situations involving interpersonal competition (e.g., If

other people are beating me in a game, I inwardly accept

it.) yielding the interpersonal score. In a normative

sample of 162 college students, it was found that subjects

scoring high on this scale show greater aggression than

lower scoring subjects following frustrating experiences and

also greater relief following successful experiences

(Bergandi, Williams, & Lamb, 1982) suggesting that this is a

reasonably valid measure of frustration.

The Marlowe-Crown Social Desirability Short Form

1(10) (MCSDS) (Strahan & Gerbasi, 1972) was completed by all

subjects. This scale consists of ten items and yields a

general social desirability score. Reliability coefficients

for the 1(10) MCSDS range from .59 to .70 and correlations

between the full MCSDS and the 1(10) short form range from

.80 to .90.

Procedures

After receiving permission from school personnel,

subjects were recruited from study halls, where they were

given a brief description of the research and procedures

used. The confidential nature of individual results was






30

emphasized to each subject. Consent forms and the Parent

Questionnaire were sent home with each potential subject to

be completed by the parent and returned to the experimenter

prior to testing. Approximately 950 consent form/parent

questionnaire packets were given to volunteers at four high

schools in Alachua county.1 There were 169 completed

packets returned to the experimenter, resulting in a return

rate of 18%. The subjects were tested individually and in

groups of up to 8 subjects during their study periods. The

subjects were instructed to read the directions at the top

of each questionnaire and to request assistance if they did

not understand a question. When the subjects completed the

questionnaires they were given a free hamburger coupon and a

list of referrals for drug abuse and psychological services

available in the Alachua county area. Because the

questionnaires were coded and the subjects' names were not

directly associated with the codes, the list of

psychological services was provided to all subjects in the

event that they were experiencing emotional problems

orabusing drugs and had responded so on the questionnaires.



1High school students were be used for several reasons.
The POS has been used for classifying elementary and high
school students into the neurotic/disturbed, unsocialized-
psychopathic, and socialized-subcultural groups (Raine &
Venables, 1981; Raine, Roger, & Venables, 1982). Evidence
that official delinquency records tend to underestimate
delinquent behavior and that self-report measures reveal
undetected offenses suggests that many students in the high
schools participate in delinquent behavior (Quay, 1987).
Research has also found that juveniles who have been
arrested or convicted have a high likelihood of admitting






31

At two of the schools, the students' records were

inspected by the experimenter to obtain their official grade

point average, and school officials provided the number of

disciplinary actions taken by the school in the last year

for each subject. At the remaining two schools, school

officials were given the subjects' names and they provided

the official grade point averages and the number of

disciplinary actions taken by the school in the last year

for each subject.

Of the 169 subjects who completed the questionnaires,

17 did not report engaging in behavior which could have

resulted in them being arrested and 12 were judged to be

over-reporting delinquent behavior.2 These 29 subjects were

excluded from the analyses.



their offenses in a survey (Hardt & Peterson-Hardt, 1977;
Hindelang, Hirschi, & Weiss, 1981) and only a small number
(8 of 400) of unconvicted juveniles claimed to have been
convicted (West & Farrington, 1977). It was assumed that
subjects who engage in a minimal amount of delinquent
behavior and who have similar attitudes as incarcerated
delinquents, would also have less problematic, but similar
behavior patterns and need for stimulation as juveniles not
in the school setting due to their delinquent behavior.


2These subjects were deleted from the analysis on the basis
of several findings. There was a marked break in the
distribution of the frequency of total delinquent acts from
1088 to 1240. The individuals whose scores were above this
break were then examined to evaluate for possible over-
reporting. Each questionnaire was evaluated with the age
and sex of the respondent in mind and pattern of overall
responding. Examples of over-reporting include: having
intercourse, cheating, stealing $5-50, failing to return
change, smoking marijuana, taking hallucinogens, damaging






32

The POS raw scores were used to classify subjects with

regard to delinquent dimensions as in Genshaft (1980). POS

raw scores were normalized and converted to T-scores.

Subjects were classified on the basis of their highest T-

score, which resulted in 54 subjects classified as neurotic-

disturbed (M = 57.1, SD = 7.7), 42 as socialized-subcultural

(M = 57.4, SD = 9.4), and 44 as unsocialized-psychopathic (M

= 56.0, SD = 12.5). Duncan's Multiple Range tests revealed

that each group scored significantly higher on that POS

scale in which they were classified, than the other two

scales in which they were not classified.

The Sensation Seeking Scale total scores were divided

at the median to classify subjects as high and low sensation

seekers. The 11 subjects whose score fell at the median

were randomly placed in one of the two groups, which

resulted in 76 low sensation seekers (M = 14.8, SD = 4.5)

and 64 high sensation seekers (M = 25.5, SD = 3.3).

Combining the two classifications resulted in six

groups, shown in Table 2-1.

Analysis

Multiple regression analyses were performed to evaluate

the relationship between delinquent dimensions, sensation

seeking, income, and sex, as well as possible interactions




school property, running away from home, hitting other
students 2 to 3 times per day; failing to return change,
smoking marijuana, hitting students, lying about your age,
being paid for sex, skipping class daily.







33

Table 2-1. Delinquent Group by Sensation Seeking Group
Frequencies.

Neurotic Socialized Psychopathic

Sensation Seeking Total

High 22 15 27 64

Low 32 27 17 76

Total 54 42 44 140






34

among these variables in predicting type and frequency of

self-reported delinquent behavior, frustration, grade point

average and the number of disciplinary actions. Sex was

included in the model due to the sensation seeking

differences found between males and females (Zuckerman,

1979). Income level was also included in the model as

research by Elliott and Ageton (1980) has found a

significant relationship between SES and delinquent

behavior. Age was treated as a control variable and entered

into the regression model first. Again, the frequency and

number of different crimes from the Self-Report Delinquency

Questionnaire (Predatory Crimes against Property, Illegal

Service Crimes, Public Disorder Crimes, and Status Crimes)

were considered as dependent variables.

Separate analyses were accomplished for the three

delinquent groups and the two sensation seeking groups.

Although, these analyses would yield redundant findings as

the regression analysis, the specific relationships among

the different delinquent groups and between the high and low

sensation seekers were further examined via these analyses.

Here, several ANOVA's were conducted to assess the specific

relationships among the delinquent groups for various

dependent variables. T-tests were used to assess

differences between the sensation seeking groups on various

demographic and dependent variables. The categorical

variables (sex, counseling, arrests, family income) were

assessed by Chi-square tests.














CHAPTER 3
RESULTS

Inspection of the data revealed that several dependent

measures departed substantially from normality. As a result

a log transformation was performed on the following

measures: frequency of predatory crimes against property,

frequency of service crimes, frequency of public disorder

crimes, total frequency of delinquent acts, number of

different service crimes, total number of different

delinquent acts and stressors.

Two subscales of the Self-Report Delinquency

Questionnaire were scored categorically due to the limited

number of subjects endorsing items on these subscales (hard

drug use and predatory crimes against persons). Those who

had committed predatory crimes against persons and those who

used hard drugs were scored one on each scale, and if they

had not committed any of these offenses they were scored a

zero on the appropriate subscale.

The six delinquent by sensation seeking groups did not

differ with regard to age, family income, parent's age or

education, number of siblings, and number of persons in the

home.








Self-Reported Delinquency

Examination of the self-report delinquency Questionnaire

revealed that 90% of the subjects completing the

questionnaires had engaged in some type of delinquent

behavior. This finding is consistent with earlier research

(Williams & Gold, 1972) with self-reported delinquent

behavior.

The regression analysis revealed that the delinquent

groups did not contribute significantly to the model in

predicting any type of self-reported delinquent behavior.

Even though delinquent group was not significant in the

overall regression analysis the relation between self-report

of delinquent behavior and delinquency groups was examined

further (see Table 3-1). Here, it can be seen that the

psychopathic group reported significantly more illegal

service crimes than the other two groups. The psychopathic

group also reported significantly more delinquent acts than

the neurotic group, but neither group differed significantly

from the socialized group.

Table 3-2 indicates that these differences among the

delinquent groups may be primarily due to relative

differences in the higher frequency categories (>55 for

illegal service crimes and >250 for total delinquent acts).

At the lower end of the frequency range for illegal service

crimes, the ratio of neurotic to psychopathic is

approximately 1:1, but at the higher frequency ranges, the










Table 3-1. Differences between the Three Delinquent


Subtypes on measures of self-reported
seeking and frustration.


delinquency, sensation


Neurotic
N=54


Socialized
N=45


Psychopathic
N=53


Mean S.D. Mean S.D. Mean S.D. Rangea


Age (years)

Income*

Number in Home

Illegal Service
Crimes(number)


16.5 1.2 16.5 1.2


4.7 1.1

3.9 1.1


4.5 1.4

4.0 1.2


16.7 1.1

5.0 1.2

3.8 .9


.7 .7 1.1 .9 1.3 1.2 ND SD PD


Total Number 1.9
Delinquent Actsb


Official Grade
Point Average


2.9


.9- 2.1 .6 2.3


.6 2.2


.9 2.7


.7 ND SD PD


.6 ND SD PD


Official
Disciplin.


.7 1.4


Disinhibition 4.5 2.4
Scale (SSS)

Thrill and 6.8 2.6
Adventure Seeking
(SSS)

Experience 4.4 2.4
Seeking (SSS)


Boredom Suscep. 3.3
(SSS)

SSS Total Score 19.0

Intrapersonal 17.8
Frustration Score

Frustration 35.9
Total ?cnrp


2.1


6.7

4.3


2.9 4.0


4.4 2.9


6.6 2.6



4.0 2.6


3.1 1.9


18.0 7.3

14.3 5.4


6.3 30.9 7.6


1.9 3.0 ND PD SD


5.8 2.5 ND SD PD


7.7 2.0 ND SD PD


4.8 2.0


3.7 2.0


n.s.


n.s.


22.0 5.4 ND SD PD

17.3 6.3 ND SD PD


33.7 8.2 ND PD SD


n.s.

n.s.


n.s.


1 = < $5,000; 2 = $5,000 10,000; 3 = $10,000 20,000
4 = $20,000 30,000; 5 = $30,000 50,000; 6 = >$50,000
underlined groups are not significantly different at R <
.05; Dtransformed data.







38

Table 3-2. Percentage of Respondents Reporting Specific
Levels of Delinquency by Delinquent Group.

Illegal Service Crimes

Frequency Neurotic Socialized Psychopathic



1-14 77.8 64.3 61.4

15-29 11.1 21.4 11.4

30-54 3.7 4.8 11.4

55+ 7.4 9.5 15.9


Frequency


1-49

50-99


100-249

250+


Total Self-Reported Delinquency

Neurotic Socialized Psychopathic

% % %


31.5

24.1

24.1


19.0

26.2

28.6

26.2


22.7

18.2

22.7

36.4






39

ratio is approximately 1:2. These differences are similar

to those found by Elliott and Ageton (1982) with respect to

race and class differences, with blacks and lower SES

subjects over-represented in the high frequency categories.

The delinquent groups were not different with regard to

the frequency and number of predatory crimes against

property, public disorder crimes or status crimes.

T-tests revealed that high sensation seekers reported

more delinquent acts on the subscales of the self-report

delinquency questionnaire(as seen in Table 3-3). These

findings are consistent with earlier findings of Farley and

Farley (1972), that high sensation seeking scores are

associated with more delinquent behavior. However, these

findings go beyond earlier studies, showing that high

sensation seekers also participate in a greater number and a

wide range of delinquent behavior.

Regression analysis suggested that sensation seeking

and a delinquent group by sex interaction effect

significantly predicted the frequency of self-reported

delinquent acts, and this model accounted for 36% of the

variance (see Table 3-4). However, only sensation seeking

significantly predicted the number of different self-

reported delinquent acts and this model accounted for 39% of

the variance. Contrary to my initial hypothesis, regression

analyses revealed no significant interactions between

delinquent group and sensation seeking group membership (see

Table 3-4).






40

Table 3-3. Demographic and Various Dependent Measures for
the Two Sensation Seeking Groups.

Low SS High SS
N=79 N=64

Mean S.D. Mean S.D. p

Age (years) 16.6 1.3 16.6 1.2 n.s.

Income 4.6 1.3 4.9 1.1 n.s.

Number in Home 4.0 1.1 3.8 1.0 n.s.

Predatory Crimes 1.6 2.1 4.0 3.4 .0001
Property (number)

Illegal Service .6 .7 1.5 1.0 .0001
Crimes (number)b

Public Disorder 1.8 1.5 3.2 1.6 .0001
Crimes (number)

Status Crimes 2.5 1.1 3.2 1.2 .0002
(number)

Total Number 1.8 .6 2.4 .6 .0001
Delinquent Actsb

Official GPA 2.6 .9 2.6 .7 n.s.

Official 1.6 2.8 2.0 3.3 n.s.
Disciplinary Actions

Frustration 33.1 7.5 34.4 7.7 n.s.
Scale Total

% males 33 50 .05*

% arrested 1 14 .01*

% with prior 34 60 .005*
counseling

% who play school 37 55 .05
sports
al = < $5,000; 2 = $5,000 10,000; 3 = $10,000 20,000
4 = $20,000 30,0 00 5 = $30,000 50,000; 6 = >$50,000
transformed data; X







41

Table 3-4. Summary of Findings from the Regression
Analysis Using Delinquent Group, Sensation Seeking, Sex, and
Income in Predicting Self-Reported Delinquency.

Significant Variables
Variable in Rearession Model p* R2**


Total Delinquent Acts

Frequency


Number

Predatory Crimes/Property

Frequency


Number


Illegal Service Crimes

Frequency



Number

Public Disorder Crimes

Frequency


Number

Status Crimes


Sensation Seeking
Delinquent x Sex

Sensation Seeking



Sensation Seeking
Sex

Sensation Seeking
Sex



Sensation Seeking
Delinquent
Delinquent x Sex

Sensation Seeking



Sensation Seeking
Sex

Sensation Seeking


.0002
.04

.0001



.09
.003

.02
.0009



.004
.05
.05

.0009



.0004
.06

.0009


.36

.39




.33


.36





.37

.33




.33

.34


Frequency Sensation Seeking .0003
Delinquent x Sex .02 .38

Number Sensation Seeking .0001 .28

Total Frustration Score Delinquent .02 .29

Official GPA Delinquent Group .003
Income Level .04 .32

Official Disciplinary Delinquent .04
Actions Sex .07
DelinquentxSSSxSex .05 .30

*Variable significance level; **overall model R2






42

Regression analysis suggested a significant delinquent

group by sex interaction for the frequency of status crimes,

illegal service crimes and the total frequency of delinquent

acts. For these three variables, males in the Psychopathic

group consistently endorsed more items.

Figure 3-1 displays the relation between delinquent

group, sex, and the frequency of status crimes. Female

neurotic and socialized groups reported more status crimes

than males in their respective groups, but this pattern

reverses with the psychopathic group. The delinquent group

by sex interaction for illegal service crimes is presented

in Figure 3-2. The pattern for illegal service crimes is

very similar to that found with status crimes, but with the

neurotic group displaying a more extreme difference as a

function of sex. The total frequency of delinquent acts by

delinquent group and sex is plotted in Figure 3-3. Here, it

is evident that both sexes in the neurotic and socialized

groups are essentially equal in total delinquent acts, but

the psychopathic group demonstrated a markedly different

pattern with males higher than females. These findings

support earlier research concerning psychopathic males, but

suggest that psychopathic females may be very different from

the hypothesized psychopathic group, at least in terms of

delinquent behavior.

Chi-square analysis suggested a significant association

between sex and both the frequency and the number of

predatory crimes against property and the frequency of


















Males


N Females


Neurotic
Delinquent


Socialized
Delinquent


Psychopathic
Delinquent


Delinquent Subtype



Figure 3-1. Frequency of Status Crimes as a Function of
Delinquent Group and Sex.


5-r


4.5-





4-


Status
Crimes


3.5+


3+


2.5-










Males






.* Females


I I I


Psychopathic
Delinquent


Delinquent Subtype

Figure 3-2. Frequency of Illegal Service Crimes as a
Function of Delinquent Group and Sex.


2.4+


2.2-


1.8


1.61


1.4-


Illegal
Service
Crimes
(freq.)


1.2+


0.8-


0.6.-


0.4-


0.2-


0


Neurotic
Delinquent


Socialized
Delinquent

























Total
Delinquent
Acts
(transformed
freq.)


. Males


Females


Neurotic
Delinquent


Socialized
Delinquent
Delinquent Subtype


I I


Psychopathic
Delinquent


Figure 3-3. Frequency of Total Delinquent Acts as a
Function of Delinquent Group and Sex.


5.6-


5.4-


5.2+


5-+


4.8-


4.6-

4.4-

4.2-


3.8-

3.6-


3.4-


3.2-






46

public disorder crimes, with males reporting more crimes

than females. This is consistent with previous self-report

surveys (Elliott et al., 1983) and surveys of official

records (Visher & Roth, 1986).

The six delinquent by sensation seeking groups were

different in their use of hard drugs with all three high

sensation seeking groups having more drug users (17) than

the low sensation seekers (3)(X2(5, M = 140) = 17.04, E <

.005). This supports previous research regarding more drug

usage among high sensation seekers than low sensation

seekers (Brill, Crumpton, & Grayson, 1971; Carrol &

Zuckerman, 1977; Kaestner, Rosen, & Appel, 1977).

The six groups did not differ in terms of predatory

crimes against persons. This is in contrast to earlier

findings of Ellis (1982), who found that psychopathic

delinquents exhibited more aggression toward persons than

the neurotic or socialized delinquents.



Delinquency and Sensation Seeking

Psychopathic delinquents were significantly higher than

the other two groups on the Thrill and Adventure Seeking

scale, Disinhibition scale and the Total score of the

Sensation Seeking Scale (see Table 3-1). These findings are

consistent with earlier findings concerning psychopathic

delinquents and sensation seeking (Whitehill, Demeyer-Gapin,

& Scott, 1976). There were no significant differences






47

among the groups on the Experience Seeking or the Boredom

Susceptibility subscales of the Sensation Seeking Scale.

The two sensation seeking groups were significantly

different with regard to sex, with more females in the low

sensation seeking group, and an even number of males and

females in the high sensation seeking group (see Table 3-3).

There were no significant differences on any of the scales

of the Sensation Seeking Scale (Form V) between a sample of

undergraduates and the subjects in this sample (Zuckerman,

1979).

Frustration

Overall, this sample scored significantly below a

sample of college undergraduates (n=162) on the total score

of the Frustration Scale (t(300) = 2.73, R < .005)

(Bergandi, Williams, & Lamb, 1982). The socialized and

psychopathic groups scored significantly below the sample of

undergraduates (socialized: t(300) = 6.14, E < .001;

psychopathic: t(300) = 2.66, R < .005) (Bergandi, Williams,

& Lamb, 1982). The neurotic group scored no differently

from college undergraduates on the total Frustration score.

As seen in Table 3-1, the socialized group had lower

total frustration scores than the neurotic group, neither of

which were different from the psychopathic group.

Additionally, the socialized group scored significantly

below the other two groups on the intrapersonal subscale of

the Frustration Scale. There were no significant

differences between the sensation seeking groups on any of






48

the frustration measures. The regression analyses confirmed

the above findings, with delinquent group being the only

significant variable in the model predicting total

frustration. The regression model was not significant in

predicting scores on the intrapersonal and interpersonal

subscales of the Frustration Scale.

Academic. Problem Behavior, and Extracurricular Activities

The relation between delinquent group and grade point

average was examined using an analysis of variance followed

by Duncan's multiple range test. These results are

presented in Figure 3-4. Here it can be seen that the grade

point average for the socialized delinquent group was

significantly lower than that for either the neurotic group

or the psychopathic group. This finding was unexpected

given that Jurkovic and Prentice (1977) found that neurotic

and socialized scores on the POS were unrelated to

intelligence, but psychopathic scores were negatively

related to intelligence and achievement. It remains unclear

if this lower grade point average for the socialized group

is sample specific or possibility that differences in

academic achievement may not be a stable characteristic of

the different delinquent groups.

The relation between the delinquency group and the

frequency of official disciplinary actions was examined










3.4-


3.2


3--


2.8


2.6



Official 2.4
Grade
Point
Average 2.2-


2-


1.8


1.6


1.4-


1.2



Neurotic Socialized Psychopathic
Delinquent Delinquent Delinquent


Delinquent Subtype


Figure 3-4. Official Grade Point Average as a Function of
Delinquent Group.







3.5-


2.5-


Official
Disciplinary
Actions


1.5+


0.5+


LI I


Neurotic
Delinquent


Socialized
Delinquent


Psychopathic
Delinquent


Delinquent Subtype








Figure 3-5. Official Disciplinary Actions as a Function of
Delinquent Group.






51

using an ANOVA, followed be a Duncan's Multiple Range Test.

These results are presented in Figure 3-5. The neurotic

group did not differ from the psychopathic group, and the

socialized group had significantly more disciplinary actions

than the neurotic group, but not significantly more than the

psychopathic group. This was unexpected given the

differences found with delinquent behavior ( i.e.

psychopathics engaging in more illegal service crimes).

There were no significant differences between high and low

sensation seekers on official disciplinary actions.

A regression analysis indicated a significant three way

interaction of sensation seeking group x delinquent group x

sex in predicting official disciplinary actions. This

interaction is presented in Figure 3-6. High sensation

seeking socialized delinquent males received significantly

more official disciplinary actions than any of the other

groups. Low sensation seeking males had a higher, but

similar pattern of disciplinary actions to high sensation

seeking females. Also, high sensation seeking males had a

higher, but similar pattern to low sensation seeking

females. This data, along with data previously presented,

suggest a complex relationship between delinquent group and

sex.

Of the ten subjects arrested, 6 were in the high

sensation seeking socialized delinquent group, 3 were in the

high sensation seeking psychopathic delinquent group, and 1

in the low sensation seeking socialized delinquent group.












4.5+


4+


3.5


3-
Official
Disciplinary
Actions
2.5


Low SS
Males




High SS
Females


High SS
Males


2+


1.5+


0.5+


\ Low SS
1 IFemales


Neurotic
Delinquent


Socialized
Delinquent


Psychopathic
Delinquent


Delinquent Subtype
Figure 3-6. Official Disciplinary Actions as a Function of
Delinquent Group, Sensation Seeking Group and Sex.






53

There was no difference among the six groups with regard to

prior counseling/psychotherapy experience.

Overall, the high sensation seeking subjects reported

more arrests, counseling experience and participation in

school sports.

Subjects in the six groups demonstrated a wide range of

academic and sports interests, though no significant

differences in the frequency of these variables between the

groups was found. Clearly, the most popular classes were

English, history, and science, and these were distributed

rather evenly across groups. Chi-square analysis of the

percentage of subjects within each group who played some

sport at school suggested no significant differences. The

most popular sports were football and basketball with these

distributed approximately evenly across groups.

Correlations

Pearson product-moment correlations were computed in an

attempt to further examine the strength of the relationships

between self-reported delinquent behavior and delinquent

personality dimensions, sensation seeking, GPA, and

frustration scores. These correlations are presented in

Table 3-5. Here it can be noted that the psychopathic scale

of the Personal Opinion Survey correlated significantly with

the predatory crimes against property, public disorder

crimes, and the total delinquent acts scales of the Self-










Table 3-5. Pearson Correlations for Self-report
Delinquency Questionnaire subscales (transformed
various measures (N=140).

Predatory Illegal Public
Crimes Service Disorder Status
Pronertv Crimes Crimes Crimes


freq.) and


Total
Delinquent
Acts


PD (POS) .35**

SD (POS) .27

ND (POS) .13

TAS (SSS) .26

ES (SSS) .05

DIS (SSS) .34**

BS (SSS) .23**

Total (SSS) .32**

Age (yrs)a -.05

Frustration .30*
Total

Off cial .04
GPA
*E < .05. **E < .01.
Correction (M = 55).


.23

.21

-.04

.18

.35**

.55**

.22**

.47**

.24

.13


-.05

n=137.


.37**

.27

.06

.22

.27

.54**

.32**

.49**

.13

.17


-.19

3n=135.


.27

.27

.05

.14

.20

.55**

.25

.42**

.28*

.12


-.18

Bonferroni


.43**

.30*

.11

.22

.29*

.59**

.33**

.52**

.21

.19


-.16


Pronertv Crimes Crimes Crimes cts






55

report Delinquency Questionnaire. The socialized scale

correlated significantly with the total delinquent acts,

while the neurotic scale had no significant correlations.

Additionally, the Disinhibition Scale and the Total score of

the Sensation Seeking Scale have significantly greater

correlations with the delinquent subscales than the other

subscales of the Sensation Seeking Scales. These findings

are consistent with earlier findings regarding the relation

between delinquent behavior and sensation seeking (Farley &

Farley, 1976) and the Disinhibition subscale of the

Sensation Seeking Scale (White, Labouvie, & Bates, 1985).

The correlations between specific delinquent behavior and

sensation seeking scores has never been reported.

It was also found that the raw scores of the

psychopathic scale of the Personal Opinion Survey correlated

with the Disinhibition Scale r(140) = .26,_n.s., the Boredom

Susceptibility r(140) = .36, R < .01, and the total score of

the Sensation Seeking Scale r(140) = .24, n.s. There were

no other significant correlations between the neurotic and

socialized scales of the POS and the Sensation Seeking Scale

subscales. These findings support and extend earlier

findings by Jefferson and Johnson (1989) concerning the

relationship between the psychopathic scale of the Personal

Opinion Survey and the Sensation Seeking Survey scores. The

strength of the relationship between the total frustration

score and predatory crimes against property was consistent

with the earlier predictions.






56

The correlation for the raw scores on the psychopathic

scale of the Personal Opinion Survey and the official grade

point average was r(135) = -.27, n.s., which yields a trend

in the direction as found in earlier studies concerning

psychopathic delinquents and intelligence (Jurkovic and

Prentice, 1977). The correlation for the raw scores on the

socialized scale of the Personal Opinion Survey and the

official grade point average was r(135) = -.50, p < 01.















CHAPTER 4
DISCUSSION

The present findings are consistent with earlier

research on self-reported delinquent behavior in that

approximately 90% of the subjects reported behavior which

could have resulted in their arrest (Williams & Gold, 1972;

Elliott, Huizinga, & Ageton, 1985). Although these

behaviors may have been as benign as loitering or skipping

school, most subjects had various types of behavior which

would be classified as delinquent. This high percentage of

adolescents engaging in delinquent behavior highlights the

need for more research in this area.

A surprising finding was the limited number of

differences among the delinquent personality dimensions in

terms of self-reported delinquent behavior. There may be

several reasons for this finding. One, differences in

delinquent behavior among the groups may be confounded with

sample bias. For instance, members of the psychopathic

group may have been less extreme members of this group and

thus engaged in less delinquent behavior. It may also be

due to one group of delinquents under-reporting delinquent

behavior, i.e. the neurotic group. It may also be due to

the method of classification, with statistical differences






58

on the scales of the POS not corresponding to differences in

delinquent personalities.

The relation between delinquent group and sex has

received very limited attention in the delinquency

literature. Yet, this interaction was significant in

predicting the frequency of illegal service crimes, status

crimes, and total delinquent acts, with female neurotic and

socialized subjects more likely to engage in these types of

crimes than the male neurotic and socialized subjects.

However, the male psychopathic subject is likely to engage

in more crimes of these types, as well as more total

delinquent acts than males or females in the other two

groups. Given the theorized traits of the psychopathic

dimension, it is not surprising that psychopathic males

would report more delinquent activity. Their manipulative,

amoral, rebellious and impulsive nature makes them more

likely to engage in delinquent behavior. The finding that

males reported more predatory crimes against property and

public disorder crimes is not surprising given the

propensity of adolescent males to engage in such behaviors

in response to peer pressure or to impress others. The sex

difference may also be due to the males having a higher

number of opportunities to engage in this type of behavior

or possibly to the females' ties to males who have an

inhibiting effect on their behavior. These findings suggest

that even within the delinquent dimensions, sex differences






59

need to be considered in order to fully understand the

delinquent adolescent.

Sensation seeking was found to be a major factor in

accounting for self-reported delinquent behavior. Such a

strong relationship between sensation seeking and self-

reported delinquent behavior was somewhat surprising, given

the sparse attention sensation seeking has received in the

delinquent literature. As part of a juvenile's personality,

sensation seeking may be a primary motivator for behavior in

general, given the finding that many subjects who engaged in

delinquent behavior also participated in extracurricular

activities at school. For example, among the 20 subjects

with the highest frequency of delinquent behavior, 12 or 60%

engaged in organized sports (either at school or away from

school).

In terms of sensation seeking scores, the results from

this study are consistent with theorizing concerning the

relation between the psychopathic delinquent group and

sensation seeking. The psychopathic group scored higher on

the Sensation Seeking Scale, especially on the Disinhibition

Scale, than the other two groups. These findings support

earlier research portraying psychopathic delinquents as

sensation seekers, even though most researchers failed to

differentiate this group from other delinquent personality

groups. It is unclear if this is the component of the

psychopathic dimension that drives the individual to engage






60

in delinquent behavior or if it is a general motivator for

behavior.

This study extends the laboratory research with

delinquents and behavior problem children, suggesting that

it is the psychopathic group which accounts for a large part

of the sensation seeking tendencies within the delinquent

population. In fact of all of the psychopathic delinquents,

61% were high sensation seekers. This is in contrast to the

pattern in the other two groups, with high sensation seekers

comprising 36% of the neurotic group, and 41% of the

socialized groups.

The results of this study provide no support for the

hypothesis that the delinquent dimensions and sensation

seeking groups would interact to result in more crime. This

may be due to several factors. The aspect of the

psychopathic personality that may motivate the juvenile to

participate in delinquent behavior may be largely accounted

for by sensation seeking. The relationship between

delinquent behavior and delinquent personality dimensions

may also be affected by the large effect of sex, with

females having a different pattern of delinquent behavior

than males. The lack of an interaction may also be due to

the method of recruiting subjects, with the students with

strong psychopathic and sensation seeking tendencies not

volunteering to participate.

When all the variables measured were included in the

model, sensation seeking was consistently the single best






61

predictor of the frequency and number of predatory crimes

against property, illegal service crimes, public disorder

crimes, status crimes, and total delinquent acts. These

findings support earlier findings that those who engage in

delinquent behavior tend to score higher on sensation

seeking measures. This study extends those findings to

adolescents who engage in all types delinquent behavior but

are not incarcerated.

Frustration did not appear to play the role among the

delinquent groups as was hypothesized. The higher scores

for the psychopathic and neurotic groups may affect these

groups in two very different ways. The psychopathic group

may be more inclined to act out or engage in delinquent

behavior due to their frustration, where as the neurotic

group may be inclined to internalize their frustration and

suffer the emotional consequences. The socialized group's

lower level of frustration, when compared to the other two

groups, may be the result of less concern with academic

matters, and more concern with their social circle. Their

peer group may produce stress, but also provides various

ways to cope with stress that may lessen the frustration

related to being an adolescent. It may be difficult dealing

with the stressors related to adolescence, but it may be

less difficult with a good social network.

The pattern for disciplinary actions was markedly

different from the pattern for self-reported delinquent

behavior among the delinquent groups. The relatively high






62

level of disciplinary actions for the socialized group may

be a function of the peer group the subjects associate with

or the socialized group's tendency to engage in behavior

that will result in being caught (i.e. tardiness, being

disruptive in class). This may also be due to the tendency

for the socialized group members to be easily influenced by

peer pressure.

In terms of achievement, the results of this study

conflict with results from previous studies using the same

delinquent personality dimensions. In earlier studies,

subjects in the psychopathic group were found to score lower

on measures of intelligence and achievement than the other

groups (Jurkovic & Prentice, 1977; Jefferson & Johnson,

1989). However, no such relationship was found with this

sample. Indeed the socialized group had a significantly

lower GPA than the other two groups. This sample of

socialized subjects may not have academic performance as a

high priority in their peer group. With more emphasis on

looking good, having the right friends, or concentrating on

non-academic activities, this group may be less concerned

with their class requirements. These findings suggest that

the intellectual/achievement data related to the delinquent

personality dimensions may be sample specific and not a

major differentiating factor among the groups.

This study is not without methodological compromise.

For instance, this study primarily used self-report measures

and these types of measures have been criticized for their






63

questionable reliability and validity. However, the

reliability and validity of the questionnaires used in this

study demonstrated acceptable construct validity and test-

retest reliability, with the exception of the Frustration

Scale, which had no available reliability data. Likewise,

these measures are susceptible to response bias. In many

research situations it is essential to control for the

subjects' need to present themselves in the best possible

light. However, the personality dimensions measured in this

study may contain various amounts of social desirability.

Any attempt to control for this presumed confound may in

fact be removing some aspect from the analysis which is a

valid part of the dimension being assessed.

In an attempt to assess a possible response bias,

Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients were

calculated for the subjects' self-report of grade point

average and disciplinary actions taken at school in the last

year and official (from school records) grade point average

and disciplinary actions. The correlations of self-report

and official information were significant (grade point

average: r(122) = .77, p < .0001; disciplinary actions:

r(122) = .71, p < .0001). When the effect of social

desirability, as measured by the Marlowe-Crown Social

Desirability Scale, was removed (via partial correlations),

the correlations were slightly higher, though not

significantly so (grade point average: r(99) = .80, p <

.0001; disciplinary actions: r(lll) = .74, p < .0001).






64

These findings suggest that the subjects are reliably

reporting information that is highly susceptible to response

bias. The possible effects of social desirability were

assessed by examining differences among the delinquent

groups and between the sensation seeking groups on social

desirability, as well as including it in a multiple

regression analysis. There were no significant differences

among the delinquent groups nor between the sensation

seeking groups on the social desirability measure. The

inclusion of social desirability in the multiple regression

analysis had no effect on the significant findings.

This study used high school students reporting

delinquent behavior as opposed to adjudicated delinquents.

Some may argue that using non-incarcerated adolescents as

subjects would provide a limited amount of useful

information in understanding delinquent behavior. However,

consistent with our findings, research has found that

approximately 90% of adolescents report engaging in

delinquent behavior (Williams & Gold, 1972) and that

juveniles reliably report their offenses (Hardt & Peterson-

Hardt, 1977; Hindelang, Hirschi & Weiss, 1981). The use of

high school students reporting delinquent behavior provided

information about a less pathological sample of delinquents,

not typically considered in delinquent research and this

somewhat underutilized population in delinquent research

provided some unique information about the delinquent

personality.






65

The results from this study may have implications in

several areas of the delinquent literature. The

relationship between sensation seeking and delinquent

behavior in this sample was greater than has typically been

found. The strong association between sensation seeking and

different delinquent behaviors suggests that a more thorough

understanding of this relationship may provide some answers

concerning the motivations behind individuals engaging in

delinquent behavior and may provide insights into possible

interventions for delinquent juveniles. Whether this

relationship between sensation seeking and delinquent

behavior is consistent from high school students' reporting

delinquent behavior to institutionalized delinquents, needs

further examination.

The present findings provide several topics for future

research. No study has examined the pattern of delinquent

behavior among the delinquent dimensions with adjudicated

delinquents. Also, no prior research has examined the

percentage of each delinquent dimension that participates in

the different frequencies of delinquent behavior (as seen in

Table 3-2). Future research should examine if there is

consistency across the delinquent dimensions for self-

reported delinquents and adjudicated delinquents in their

pattern of delinquent behavior (e.g., whether psychopathic

delinquents engage in more illegal service crimes).

There is another concern in terms of delinquent

personality dimensions and sex. Quay and Parson (1971)






66

failed to differentiate between males and females in the

data reported on the development of the Personal Opinion

Survey. In fact, when there was an association between

delinquent behavior and delinquent group, gender was also

involved. As can be seen in Figure 3-6, the pattern of

differences between the delinquent groups is markedly

different between males and females. These differences

highlight the need for further research into these different

patterns of delinquent behavior for males and females and

whether the personality traits afforded to the socialized,

psychopathic and neurotic delinquents are consistent for

both sexes.

If replicated, this study suggests possible directions

for interventions and preventative actions that could be

taken to help decrease the probability of adolescents

engaging in delinquent behavior. Given the strong

relationship between sensation seeking and delinquent

behavior, changes in the classroom designed to maintain the

students' attention longer and increase their participation

in the learning process would seem likely to be useful.

Classroom changes may include: modification of course

presentation by using more visual aids and more stimulating

demonstrations of concepts, computer aided teaching, shorter

lectures versus typical one hour lectures, and smaller

student to teacher ratios. The availability of more

extracurricular activities, such as intraschool teams

competing against each other, which would facilitate






67

participation of a larger number of students and occupy

their time that may have been spent in delinquent activity.

The data from this study highlight the need for more

research into the delinquent personality. These findings

provide a glimpse at the motivations behind delinquent

behavior and the need for more specificity in delinquent

research. More precision in research, in terms of

delinquent behavior and delinquent personalities, would lead

to a more thorough understanding of the delinquent

individual and hopefully lead to successful treatment and

early identification for those juveniles at risk for

engaging in delinquent behavior.
















Appendix A
QUESTIONNAIRES










Interest and Preference Test

Directions: Each of the items below contains two choices, A
and B. Please circle the choices that most describes your
likes or the way you feel. In some cases you may find items
in which both choices describe your likes or feelings.
Please choose the one which better describes your likes or
feelings. In some cases you may find items in which you do
not like either choice, in these cases mark the choice you
dislike the least. Do not leave any items blank.
It is important that you respond to all items with only
one choice. We are interested only in your likes or
feelings, not in how others feel about these things or how
one is supposed to feel. There are no right or wrong
answers as in other kinds of tests. Give an honest a
opinion of yourself.

1. A. I like "wild" uninhibited parties.
B. I prefer quiet parties with good conversation.

2. A. There are some movies I enjoy seeing a second or even
a third time.
B. I can't stand watching a movie that I've seen before.

3. A. I often wish I could be a mountain climber.
B. I can't understand people who risk their necks
climbing mountains.

4. A. I dislike all body odors.
B. I like some of the earthy body smells.

5. A. I get bored seeing the same old faces.
B. I like the comfortable familiarity of everyday
friends.

6. A. I like to explore a strange city or section of town
by myself, even if it means getting lost.
B. I prefer a guide when I am in a place I don't know
well.

7. A. I dislike people who do or say things just to shock
or upset people.
B. When you can predict almost everything a person will
say or do he or she must be a bore.

8. A. I usually don't enjoy a movie or play where I can
predict what will happen in advance.
B. I don't mind watching a movie or play where I can
predict what will happen in advance.

9. A. I have tried marijuana or would like to.
B. I would never smoke marijuana.









10. A. I would not like to try any drug which might produce
strange and dangerous effects on me.
B. I would like to try some of the drugs that produce
hallucinations.

11. A. A sensible person avoids activities that are
dangerous.
B. I sometimes like to do things that are a little
frightening.

12. A. I dislike "swingers."
B. I enjoy the company of real "swingers."

13. A. I find that stimulants make me uncomfortable.
B. I often like to get high (drinking liquor or smoking
pot).

14. A. I like to try new foods that I have never tasted
before.
B. I order the dishes with which I am familiar, so as to
avoid disappointment and unpleasantness.

15. A. I enjoy looking at home movies or travel slides.
B. Looking at someone's home movies or travel slides
bores me tremendously.

16. A. I would like to take up the sport of water-skiing.
B. I would not like to take up water-skiing.

17. A. I would like to try surf-board riding.
B. I would not like to try surf-board riding.

18. A. I would like to take off on a trip with no pre-
planned or definite routes, or timetable.
B. When I go on a trip I like to plan my route and
timetable fairly carefully.

19. A. I prefer the "down-to-earth" kinds of people as
friends.
B. I would like to make friends in some of the "far-out"
groups like artists and "hippies."

20. A. I would not like to learn to fly an airplane.
B. I would like to learn to fly an airplane.

21. A. I prefer the surface of the water to the depths.
B. I would like to go scuba diving.

22. A. I would like to meet some persons who are homosexual
(men or women).
B. I stay away from anyone I suspect of being "queer."

23. A. I would like to try parachute jumping.








B. I would never want to try jumping out of a plane with
or without a parachute.

24. A. I prefer friends who are excitingly unpredictable.
B. I prefer friends who are reliable and predictable.

25. A. I am not interested in experiences for its own sake.
B. I like to have new and exciting experiences and
sensations even if they are a little frightening,
unconventional or illegal.

26. A. The essence of good art is in its clarity, symmetry
of form and harmony of colors.
B. I often find beauty in the "clashing" colors and
irregular forms of modern paintings.

27. A. I enjoy spending time in the familiar surroundings of
home.
B. I get very restlessness if I have to stay around home
for any length of time.

28. A. I like to dive off the high dive.
B. I don't like the feeling I get standing on the high
board (or I don't go near it at all).

29. A. I like to date members of the opposite sex who are
physically exciting.
B. I like to date members of the opposite sex who share
my values.

30. A. Heavy drinking usually ruins a party because some
people get loud and boisterous.
B. Keeping the drinks full is the key to a good party.

31. A. The worst social sin is to be rude.
B. The worst social sin is to be a bore.

32. A. A person should have considerable sexual experience
before marriage.
B. It's better if two married persons begin their sexual
experience with each other.

33. A. Even if I had the money I would not care to associate
with flighty persons like those in the "jet set."
B. I could conceive of myself seeking pleasure around
the world with the "jet set."

34. A. I like people who are sharp and witty even if they do
sometimes insult others.
B. I dislike people who have their fun at the expense of
hurting the feelings of others.

35. A. There is altogether too much portrayal of sex in
movies.








B. I enjoy watching many of the "sexy" scenes in movies.

36. A. I feel best after taking a couple of drinks.
B. Something is wrong with people who need liquor to
feel good.

37. A. People should dress according to some standard of
taste, neatness, and style.
B. People should dress in individual ways even if the
effects are sometimes strange.

38. A. Sailing long distances in small crafts is foolhardy.
B. I would like to sail a long distance in a small but
seaworthy sailing craft.

39. A. I have no patience with dull or boring persons.
B. I find something interesting in almost every person I
talk with.

40. A. Skiing fast down a high mountain slope is a good way
to end up on crutches.
B. I think I would enjoy the sensations of skiing very
fast down a high mountain slope.









Delinquency Questionnaire
PUT A CHECK IN THE APPROPRIATE BOX
HOW MANY TIMES IN THE LAST YEAR HAVE YOU:
less
than 1 1 2-3 1 2-3
1 X every X X X X
a a 2-3 a a a a
0 mth mth wks wk wk day day
1. purposely damaged or
destroyed property belonging
to your parents or other
family members.

2. purposely damaged or
destroyed property belonging
to a school.

3. purposely damaged or
destroyed other property that
did not belong to you (not
counting family or school
property).

4. stolen (or tried to steal) a
motor vehicle, such as a car
or motorcycle.

5. stolen (or tried to steal)
something worth more than
$50.

6. knowingly bought, sold or
held stolen goods (or tried
to do any of these things).

7. thrown objects (such as
rocks, snowballs, or bottles)
at cars or people.

8. run away from home.

9. lied about your age to gain
entrance or to purchase
something; for example lying
about your age to buy liquor
or get into a movie.

10. carried a hidden weapon other
than a plain pocket knife.

11. stolen (tried to steal)
things worth $5 or less.









PUT A CHECK IN THE APPROPRIATE BOX
HOW MANY TIMES IN THE LAST YEAR HAVE YOU:
less
than 1 1 2-3 1 2-3
1 X every X X X X
a a 2-3 a a a a
0 mth mth wks wk wk day day
12. attacked someone with the
idea of seriously hurting or
killing him/her.

13. been paid for having sexual
relations with someone.

14. had sexual intercourse with
a person of the opposite sex.

15. been involved in gang fights.

16. sold marijuana or hashish.
("pot," "grass," "hash").

17. cheated on school tests.

18. hitchhiked where it is
illegal to do so.

19. stolen money or other things
from your parents or other
member of your family.

20. hit (or threatened to hit) a
teacher or other adult at
school.

21. hit (or threatened to hit)
one of your parents.

22. hit (or threatened to hit)
other students.

23. been loud, rowdy, or unruly
in a public place
(disorderly conduct).

24. sold hard drugs, such as
heroin, cocaine, and LSD.

25. taken a vehicle for a ride
(drive) without the owner's
permission.










PUT A CHECK IN THE APPROPRIATE BOX
HOW MANY TIMES IN THE LAST YEAR HAVE YOU:
less
than 1 1 2-3 1 2-3
1 X every X X X X
a a 2-3 a a a a
0 mth mth wks wk wk day day
26. bought or provided liquor for
a minor.

27. had (or tried to have) sexual
relations with someone
against their will.

28. used force (strong-arm
methods) to get money or
things from other students.

29. used force (strong-arm
methods) to get money or
things from a teacher or other
adult at school.

30. used force (strong-arm
methods) to get money or
things from other people
(not students or teachers).

31. avoided paying for such
things as movies, bus or
subway rides, and food.

32. been drunk in a public
place.

33. stolen (or tried to steal)
things worth between $5 and
$50.

34. stolen (or tried to steal)
something at school.

35. broken into a building or
vehicle (or tried to break in)
to steal something or just
look around.

36. begged for money or things
from strangers.

37. skipped classes without an
excuse.









PUT A CHECK IN THE APPROPRIATE BOX
HOW MANY TIMES IN THE LAST YEAR HAVE YOU:
less
than 1 1 2-3 1 2-3
1 X every X X X X
a a 2-3 a a a a
0 mth mth wks wk wk day day

38. failed to return extra
change that a cashier gave
you by mistake.

39. been suspended from school.

40. made obscene telephone calls,
such as calling someone and
saying dirty things.

HOW OFTEN IN THE LAST YEAR
HAVE YOU USED:

41. alcoholic beverages (beer,
wine and hard liquor).

42. marijuana hashish
("grass," "pot," "hash").

43. hallucinogens ("LSD,
"mescaline," "peyote,"
"acid")

44. amphetamines ("uppers,"
"speed," "whites").

45. barbituates("downers,"
"reds," ludess").

46. heroin ("horse," "smack").


47. cocaine ("coke").










Personal Opinion Survey

1. The best teachers are the ones who are very easy.
2. I would be a happier person if I could satisfy all my
parent's wishes.
3. Sometimes I wonder if I'll ever grow up.
4. My folks usually blame bad company for the trouble I get
into.
5. In this world you're a fool if you trust other people.
6. Before I do something, I try to consider how my friends
will react to it.
7. We ought to pay our elected officials better than we do.
8. I never used to steal little things from the
neighborhood stores.
9. My teachers have given me lower grades than I deserve
just because they think I am a trouble-maker.
10. I don't worry about the future; there's nothing much I
can do about it anyway.
11. I often say mean things to other people and then feel
sorry for it afterwards.
12. When I think I am right nobody can change my mind.
13. I don't mind hurting people who get in my way.
14. Most people are squares.
15. I am always hurting the people I love the most.
16. I am so touchy on some subjects that I can't talk about
them.
17. You have to get the other guy before he gets you.
18. Most boys stay in school because the law says they have
to.
19. Policeman are friendly and try to help you.
20. You have to admire somebody who has enough guts to talk
back to a cop.
21. One day I will get even with everybody who has done me
dirty.
22. I have never seen a policeman yet who cared about anyone
but himself.
23. I feel tired a good deal of the time.
24. People seem to like me at first, but I have trouble
keeping friends.
25. When a group of boys get together they are bound to get
in trouble sooner or later.
26. You gotta fight to get what's coming to you.
27. I never wish that I were dead.
28. Only a fool would spend his life working a 40 hour week.
29. I never worry about a thing.
30. It seems as if people are always telling me what to do,
or how to do things.
31. I do what I want to do, whether anybody likes it or not.
32. At times I have a strong urge to do something harmful or
shocking.
33. I think people like me as much as they do other people.
34. Even when things go right for a while I know it won't
last.









35. I can easily "shake it off" when I do something I know
is wrong.
36. I never have the habit of shaking my head, neck, or
shoulder.
37. A person is better off if he doesn't trust anyone.
38. The best way to get ahead in the world is to be tough.
39. It is very important to have enough friends and social
life.
40. All this talk about honesty and justice is a lot of
nonsense.
41. There is something wrong with a person who can't take
orders without getting angry or resentful.
42. I am doing as much or as well as my parents expect me
to.
43. When I see people laughing I often think they are
laughing at me.
44. The only way to settle anything is to lick the guy.
45. It's dumb to trust older people.
46. I just can't stop doing things that I am sorry for
later.
47. For all the things I have done I should have been
punished more than I have.
48. I usually feel well and strong.
49. I sometimes feel that no one loves me.
50. When I was going to school I played hooky quite often.
51. My future looks bright.
52. I find it hard to "drop" or "break with" a friend.
53. Sometimes I think I won't live very long.
54. It doesn't matter what you do as long as you get your
kicks.
55. I wish I had not been such a disappointment to my
family.
56. The most important thing is to win no matter how.
57. Everyone should be required to finish high school.
58. I owe my family nothing.
59. My feelings are never hurt so badly I cry.
60. The only way to make big money is to steal it.
61. In school I was sometimes sent to the principal for
cutting up.
62. I have never been in trouble with the law.
63. The worst thing a person can do is to get caught.
64. I don't think I'm quite as happy as others seem to be.
65. I sometimes wish I'd never been born.
66. A guy's only protection is his friends.
67. A person who steals from the rich isn't really a thief.
68. I have had a real fight.
69. My way of doing things is apt to be misunderstood by
others.
70. If you're clever enough, you can steal anything and get
away with it.
71. The average policeman is not strict enough about the
law.
72. The only way to get what you want is to take it.








73. I must admit I find it very hard to work under strict
rules and regulations.
74. Success in this world is a matter of luck.
75. I often get nervous I have to get up and move around to
calm myself down.
76. Nobody has ever called me "chicken" and gotten by with
it.
77. I just don't seem to get the breaks other people do.
78. I get so angry that I "see red".
79. It's hard to get others to like me.
80. I don't really care what happens to me.
81. No matter how hard I try I always get caught.
82. My eyes often pain me.
83. Women are only good for what you can get out of them.
84. My life pretty boring and dull most of the time.
85. I have been expelled from school or nearly expelled.
86. The only way to make out is to be tough.
87. It is harder for me to just sit still and relax.
88. Once you've been in trouble, you haven't got a chance.
89. Hitting someone makes me feel good inside.
90. Being successful usually means having your name in the
paper.
91. Even when things go right I know it won't last.
92. I'd like to start a new life somewhere else.
93. If you don't have enough to live on, it's OK to steal.
94. It is important to think about what you do.
95. I can outwit almost anyone.
96. On my report card I usually get some failure marks.
97. I feel that I have often been punished without cause.
98. Whenever I do something I shouldn't, it worries me.
99. It's alright to steal from the rich because they don't
need it.
100. Sometimes I have stolen things I really didn't need.









Answer Sheet

Date of Birth:


CIRCLE T (TRUE) OR F (FALSE) FOR EACH QUESTION.
1. T F 26. T F 51. T F
2. T F 27. T F 52. T F
3. T F 28. T F 53. T F
4. T F 29. T F 54. T F
5. T F 30. T F 55. T F
6. T F 31. T F 56. T F
7. T F 32. T F 57. T F
8. T F 33. T F 58. T F
9. T F 34. T F 59. T F
10. T F 35. T F 60. T F
11. T F 36. T F 61. T F
12. T F 37. T F 62. T F
13. T F 38. T F 63. T F
14. T F 39. T F 64. T F
15. T F 40. T F 65. T F
16. T F 41. T F 66. T F
17. T F 42. T F 67. T F
18. T F 43. T F 68. T F
19. T F 44. T F 69. T F
20. T F 45. T F 70. T F
21. T F 46. T F 71. T F
22. T F 47. T F 72. T F
23. T F 48. T F 73. T F
24. T F 49. T F 74. T F
25. T F 50. T F 75. T F


76. T F
77. T F
78. T F
79. T F
80. T F
81. T F
82. T F
83. T F
84. T F
85. T F
86. T F
87. T F
88. T F
89. T F
90. T F
91. T F
92. T F
93. T F
94. T F
95. T F
96. T F
97. T F
98. T F
99. T F
100. T F


Name:










Frustration Scale

PLEASE CIRCLE THE MOST APPROPRIATE RESPONSE


1. If other people are beating
me in a game, I inwardly
accept it.


ALMOST
NEVER
1 2


2. When I work at a task, and things
keep going wrong, as a result I 1
feel as if I could smack someone,
somebody, or myself.

3. When a problem seems very difficult,
I try that much harder and work
that much harder to solve it. 1

4. If I am losing while playing my 1
favorite sport, I get frustrated.

5. When I'm involved in a competitive
activity, I am able to remain 1
inwardly calm.

6. Frustrating tasks make me feel 1
aggressive.

7. Even if unsuccessful, I enjoy the 1
challenge of a difficult task.

8. When I lose out in competing with
somebody else, (ie. a job, in 1
school, cheerleader, etc.) I
become moody.


ALMOST
ALWAYS
3 4 5 6 7 8


3 4 5 6 7 8





3 4 5 6 7 8

3 4 5 6 7 8
345678


2 3 4 5 6 7 8


2 3 4 5 6 7 8


2 3 4 5 6 7 8
2345678


2 3 4 5 6 7 8










Social Desirability Scale

PLEASE CIRCLE TRUE (T) OR FALSE (F) TO EACH QUESTION.

T F 1. I'm always willing to admit it when I make a
mistake.

T F 2. I like to gossip at times.

T F 3. I always try to practice what I preach.

T F 4. I never resent being asked to return a favor.

T F 5. There have been occasions when I took advantage of
someone.

T F 6. I sometimes try to get even rather than forgive
and forget.

T F 7. I have never been irked when people expressed
ideas very different from my own.

T F 8. At times I have really insisted on having things
my own way.

T F 9. There have been times when I felt like smashing
things.

T F 10. I have never deliberately said something that
hurt someone's feelings.









Parent Questionnaire

Relation to Child: Father Mother Step-Father


Step-Mother Foster Parent

Phone Number:

Date of Birth: Spouses Date of Birth:

Spouses Relation to Child: Father Mother

Step-Father Step-Mother

Foster Parent

Number of other siblings: Total number in the household:

Your Occupation:

Spouse's Occupation:

Education: High School H.S. Graduate College

College Graduate Post Graduate

Spouse's Education: High School H.S. Graduate

_College

College Graduate Post Graduate

Family income level: <$5,000 $5,000-10,000

$10,000-20,000 $20,000-30,000

S$30,000-50,000 >$50,000

Activities you participate in with the child:



Has your child ever been diagnosed as hyperactive?Yes No

Has your child ever taken medication for hyperactivity?Yes

No









Student Questionnaire


Date of Birth: Today's Date

Grade: Grade Point Average:

Number of times in the last year you have been disciplined
at school (sent to office, put in detention, suspended,
expelled):

Favorite Class: Favorite Sport:

Sports played at school:

Organized Sports played away from school:

Hobbies:

Have you ever been arrested: Yes No
If so, what for?

Have any of your brothers/sisters ever been arrested? Yes
No

Have you ever talked to a counselor or psychologist about
something that was upsetting you? Yes No

If so, what prompted you to talk to
someone?

Where does most of your stress come from: home school

friends other















Appendix B
RAW DATA









Variable List: subject number, age, school(l-PK Yonge, 2-
Gainesville HS, 3-Buchholz HS, 4-Newberry HS), POS-SD, POS-
ND, POS-PD, SSS-TAS, SSS-ES, SSS-DIS, SSS-BS, SSS-Total,
sex, Frustration-Interpersonal, Frustration-Intrapersonal,
Frustration-Total, SRDQ- frequency of pred. crimes against
persons, SRDQ-frequency of pred. crimes against property,
SRDQ-frequency of illegal service crimes, SRDQ-frequency of
status crimes, SRDQ-hard drug use, SRDQ-frequency total,
SRDQ-number of different pred. crimes against persons, SRDQ-
number of different pred. crimes against property, SRDQ-
number of different illegal service crimes, SRDQ- number of
different public disorder crimes, SRDQ-number of different
status crimes, SRDQ-number of different hard drugs used,
SRDQ-total number of different offenses, social desirability
score, self-reported GPA, official GPA, self-reported
disciplinary actions, official disciplinary actions, number
of arrests, had siblings been arrested (0-no, 1-yes), prior
counseling or psychotherapy (0-no, 1-yes), origin of stress
(1-home, 2-school, 3-friends, 4-others), mother age, father
age, number of siblings, total number in the household,
father education (1-HS, 2-HS grad., 3-college, 4-college
grad, 5- post grad.), mother education, income (1-<5000, 2-
5-10,000, 3-10-20,000, 4-20-30,000, 5-30-50,000, 6->50,000),
ever diagnosed hyperactive(0-no, 1-yes), ever had medication
for hyperactivity(0-no, 1-yes), race, do they come from a
single parent home (0-no, 1-yes), delinquent group (1-SD, 2-
ND, 3-PD), overall group number (1-low SS SD, 2-Low SS ND,
3-low SS PD, 4-high SS SD, 5-high SS ND, 6-high SS PD),
sensation seeking group (1-low, 2-high), participate in
school sports (0-no, 1-yes), participate in other organized
sports (0-no, 1-yes), grade.

Raw data:
001 15.7 2 11 12 4 4 1 1 2 8 1 9 10 19 1 0 0 0 20 21
1 0 0 0 1 0 2 3 3.0 1.3 0 0 0 1 4 45 47 1 3 1 1 4 0 0 1 0
2 2 1 0 1 10
002 17.7 1 15 9 10 3 6 7 5 21 1 16 10 26 5 35 135 162 483 5
825 1 6 2 4 5 1 19 5 2.0 2.1 7.5 9 0 0 1 1 47 57 4 5 3 3 6 0
0 1 0 2 5 2 0 1 12
003 16.0 1 11 21 4 8 3 8 7 26 2 23 14 37 12 87 17 11 61 0
188 1 7 2 6 4 0 20 1 3.2 0 1 0 0 1 1 36 34 2 5 2 4 4 1 0 1
0 1 4 2 0 0 9
004 14.2 1 9 23 2 5 1 3 0 9 2 20 16 36 10 22 5 22 17 0 76
2 3 1 3 2 0 11 0 2.5 3.0 0 0 0 0 0 2 41 45 2 5 5 3 5 0 0 1 0
1 1 1 0 0 9
005 17.0 1 12 16 22 9 8 9 6 32 1 25 18 43 62 353 162 629 87
650 1943 2 14 2 9 5 5 38 3 2.0 2.2 5 7 1 0 1 2 37 39 1 4 3 3
4 0 0 1 0 3 6 2 1 0 10
007 17.5 1 5 9 9 10 7 6 3 26 2 21 15 36 0 5 0 10 32 0 47
0 1 0 2 2 0 5 6 4.0 3.6 0 0 0 0 1 2 38 38 1 3 4 5 6 0 0 2 0
3 6 2 1 1 12
008 17.0 1 12 15 12 1 2 2 0 5 1 14 9 23 24 10 25 5 20 0 84
2 2 2 1 4 0 11 8 3.0 1.4 3 0 1 1 6 32 4 6 3 1 1 0 2 1
2 2 1 0 0 10









009 16.1 1 7 24 18 10 9 8 5 32 2 14 16 30 0 24 20 15 135 735
929 0 2 1 3 2 3 11 5 2.0 2.9 1 1 0 1 1 9 42 46 2 3 6 0 0
1 0 1 4 2 0 0 10
010 18.2 1 17 20 7 9 4 5 3 21 1 23 12 35 10 20 10 5 25 0 70
2 4 2 5 3 0 16 6 3.0 2.2 2 0 0 0 1 1 47 47 2 5 5 5 6 0 0 1 0
2 5 2 1 1 12
011 16.5 1 6 12 13 9 10 4 4 27 1 13 15 28 0 15 77 140 168 12
412 0 3 3 3 4 1 14 9 3.8 3.6 1 4 0 0 0 1 38 39 1 4 4 4 5 0 0
1 0 3 6 2 1 1 11
012 16.8 1 6 4 3 6 5 2 4 1
7 2 7 12 19 0 0 5 17 20 0 42
0 0 1 1 2 0 4 3 2.2 0 0 0 0 1 1 48 47 1 4 5 5 5 0 0 1 0 3
3 1 0 0 11
013 15.6 1 4 4 2 8 4 3 0 15 2 13 18 31 0 5 0 10 5 0 20
0 1 0 2 1 0 4 7 3.0 3.1 0 0 0 0 1 5 36 35 1 4 1 2 3 0 0 1 0
3 3 1 1 1 10
014 17.0 1 8 18 6 9 9 3 5 26 1 20 26 46 5 10 0 5 5 20 45
1 2 0 1 1 1 6 2 3.7 3.6 0 0 0 0 5 37 38 0 2 2 3 4 0 0 1 1
1 4 2 0 0 11
015 16.2 1 12 23 12 9 6 7 3 25 1 20 20 40 5 56 5 745 277 0
1088 1 7 1 5 4 0 18 4 2.5 2.8 2 2 0 0 0 5 47 48 1 4 5 5 5 0
0 1 0 1 4 2 1 0 10
016 15.5 1 10 16 18 5 2 5 3 15 1 14 19 33 917 168 0 46 150 0
1281 2 6 0 5 2 0 15 4 2.6 2.0 4 0 0 0 0 2 34 1 2 3 3 0 0
2 1 3 3 1 1 1 10
017 15.0 1 9 17 2 8 6 5 3 22 2 18 17 35 0 37 5 5 29 0 76
0 6 1 1 3 0 11 0 3.8 4.0 0 0 0 0 0 1 41 43 1 4 4 3 4 0 0 1 0
142 119
018 15.1 1 9 11 16 8 10 8 8 34 2 7 14 21 5 151 50 275 102
447 1030 1 9 4 5 5 5 29 5 2.5 2.1 10 0 0 1 1 45 41 1 4 4 2
4 0 0 1 0 3 6 2 0 0 9
019 16.5 1 13 26 18 8 1 2 4 15 1 23 23 46 5 87 5 15 57 0 169
1 8 1 3 2 0 15 3 2.0 2.9 1 1 0 0 0 1 41 58 1 3 2 2 5 0 0 1 0
1 1 1 1 1 10
020 15.9 1 4 24 11 2 3 3 0 8 2 16 16 32 0 20 0 0 10 0 30
0 4 0 0 2 0 66 3.8 0 0 0 0 1 1 47 51 0 2 5 5 2 0 0 1 0 1
1 1 0 0 10
021 15.8 1 8 8 7 8 5 7 3 23 2 6 10 16 0 10 17 74 145 0 246
0 2 2 4 4 0 12 2 2.0 2.4 0 2 0 0 0 4 45 53 1 2 5 5 5 0 0 1 0
3 6 2 1 0 10
022 14.8 1 10 16 3 4 4 4 1 13 2 26 15 41 0 20 5 12 17 0 54
0 4 1 1 2 0 8 5 3.6 2.7 0 0 0 0 1 2 40 53 2 6 5 5 5 0 0 1 0
1 1 1 0 0 10
023 17.1 2 3 8 3 10 7 2 3 22 2 10 8 18 0 0 12 0 10 0 22
0 0 1 0 2 0 3 7 3.0 2.9 1 0 0 0 2 47 1 3 5 3 0 0 1 1 1
4 2 0 1 11
024 17.6 1 10 18 7 9 9 6 4 28 2 16 15 31 10 32 20 6 37 0 105
2 5 1 3 5 0 16 2 3.3 3.7 1 1 0 0 1 1 38 40 2 5 4 5 5 0 1 1 0
1 4 2 0 1 12
025 14.4 2 6 2 2 9 5 9 7 30 2 16 11 27 0 0 5 36 5 0 46
0 0 1 3 1 0 5 6 3.0 2.7 0 0 0 1 2 45 41 1 4 5 5 6 0 0 1 0
2 5 2 1 1 9
026 16.8 2 15 17 8 8 6 2 4 20 1 17 17 34 0 34 12 37 10 0 93









0 4 1 2 2 0 9 3 3.7 3.7 0 0 0 0 0 2 49 48 1 4 5 4 6 0 0 1 0
2 2 1 1 1 11
027 17.0 2 8 13 9 9 7 6 2 24 1 23 17 40 0 27 5 154 50 5 241
0 4 1 3 4 1 13 3 3.3 2.8 3 7 0 0 1 5 46 51 1 4 5 4 6 0 0 1 0
3 6 2 1 1 11
028 16.3 2 6 1 4 10 9 7 3 29 1 13 15 28 0 5 30 45 62 5 147
0 2 3 3 5 1 14 8 3.0 3.2 4 9 0 0 1 2 38 3 2 4 2 5 0 0 1 1
3 6 2 1 1 11
029 16.9 2 10 8 7 7 1 8 6 22 1 18 20 38 12 216 20 557 140 0
945 1 11 1 5 3 0 21 3 2.9 1 0 0 0 0 5 39 1 3 4 2 0 0 1
1 2 5 2 1 1 11
030 14.5 2 6 4 1 8 2 3 2 15 1 9 19 28 12 0 0 0 0 0 12
1 0 0 0 0 0 1 8 3.5 3.0 0 0 0 0 2 44 48 2 5 4 5 6 0 0 1 0
2 2 1 1 1 9
221119
031 16.3 2 13 21 25 10 5 9 5 29 1 18 23 41 5 1993 5 1189 15
0 3207 1 12 1 5 3 0 22 1 2.3 3.0 0 2 1 1 0 1 45 54 4 6 3 5 5
0 0 1 0 3 6 2 1 1 11
032 15.1 2 9 11 7 8 2 4 5 19 2 14 11 25 5 30 5 41 30 0 111
1 6 1 4 3 0 15 6 3.5 3.5 2 0 0 0 0 9 44 44 1 3 5 4 5 0 0 1 0
2 2 1 1 0 9
221109
033 16.2 2 7 8 16 8 5 8 4 25 1 21 15 36 0 0 12 12 89 0 113
0 0 1 1 4 0 6 4 3.0 2.7 1 0 0 0 0 2 39 41 2 5 5 3 5 0 0 1 0
3 6 2 1 1 11
034 17.8 2 4 5 5 10 5 4 0 19 2 16 20 36 10 0 12 15 17 0 54
2 0 1 3 2 0 8 3 3.6 3.6 0 0 0 0 0 2 43 44 1 4 5 5 6 0 0 1 0
3 3 1 0 0 12
035 17.3 2 12 18 9 6 8 7 5 26 2 9 16 25 5 0 135 121 64 10
335 1 0 2 4 2 2 11 4 2.4 0 1 0 1 1 10 43 45 2 4 2 2 5 0 0
1 0 2 5 2 0 0 11
036 17.0 2 14 22 3 8 8 5 3 24 2 13 25 38 0 10 25 400 69 5
509 0 2 2 5 3 1 13 1 1.8 10 3 0 0 1 14 38 34 0 3 5 5 4 0 0
1 0 2 5 2 0 0 10
037 15.3 2 9 6 18 7 4 6 5 21 1 26 21 47 5 35 10 17 15 0 82
1 8 2 1 2 0 14 3 2.5 1.5 0 0 0 0 0 4 40 40 1 3 3 4 3 0 0 1 1
3 6 2 1 1 9
038 15.9 2 9 17 10 3 4 3 0 10 2 16 12 28 0 0 0 5 130 0 135
0 0 0 1 1 0 2 6 2.0 1.9 0 3 0 0 1 14 36 1 3 4 0 0 2 1
1 1 1 0 0 10
039 16.3 2 16 17 19 6 5 4 6 21 1 29 15 44 105 1200 140 119
591 402 2557
7 9 4 7 6 4 37 2 3.0 2.5 4 0 0 0 0 14 35 43 0 3 5 4 6 0 0 1
0 2 5 2 1 0 11
040 18.0 2 7 13 1 9 6 0 1 16 1 16 18 34 0 0 0 5 12 0 17
0 0 0 1 1 0 2 6 2.8 2.6 1 1 0 0 1 4 39 46 0 3 4 2 6 1 0 1 0
1 1 1 0 0 12
041 16.8 2 10 13 3 7 6 2 2 17 2 19 12 31 0 0 5 0 5 5 15
0 0 1 0 1 1 3 6 3.0 2.9 1 3 0 0 0 1 37 43 0 3 3 4 0 0 1 0
2 2 1 0 0 11
042 15.6 2 18 5 3 10 4 7 0 21 1 12 7 19 12 27 5 17 37 0 98
1 4 1 2 4 0 12 3 3.4 3.1 1 1 1 0 1 1 40 40 1 4 5 3 4 0 0 1 0
2 5 2 1 1 10
043 17.4 2 10 20 6 8 2 6 4 20 2 27 13 40 0 0 5 0 42 0 47
0 0 1 0 4 0 5 2 2.0 2.2 1 1 0 0 1 14 38 38 5 2 1 2 0 0 1 0
1 1 1 0 0 12









044 17.9 2 17 25 18 6 4 9 5 24 1 26 23 49 168 1523 377 288
259 5 2620 4 13 2 8 5 1 33 2 1.2 1.7 0 0 0 0 1 1 32 32 2 5 1
4 4 0 0 1 0 2 5 2 0 0 12
045 17.5 2 7 8 5 7 8 7 2 24 2 20 20 40 0 18 64 30 147 5 264
0 3 2 2 3 1 11 2 3.5 3.2 0 0 0 1 1 5 43 2 2 4 4 3 0 0 1 1
3 6 2 1 0 12
046 16.8 3 11 10 1 6 4 5 4 19 2 13 8 21 0 10 17 10 57 0 94
0 2 2 2 4 0 10 5 2.7 2 6 0 0 0 1 49 48 0 3 2 1 4 0 0 1 0 2
2 1 0 1 11
047 15.6 2 5 17 6 10 7 3 2 22 1 19 16 35 5 27 0 15 10 0 57
1 4 0 2 2 0 9 2 3.9 3.7 0 0 0 0 0 2 48 46 0 3 5 4 6 0 0 1 0
1 4 2 1 1 10
048 17.2 2 5 7 8 7 3 8 2 20 1 19 15 34 12 10 0 5 44 0 71
1 2 0 1 3 0 7 3 3.5 2.6 13 5 0 0 0 1 5 5 5 0 0 1 0 3
3 1 0 0 10
049 17.3 2 7 8 2 7 0 3 3 13 2 20 15 35 5 15 5 5 10 0 40
1 3 1 1 2 0 8 5 3.5 3.5 0 0 0 0 0 2 43 56 1 3 3 5 5 0 0 1 0
2 2 1 0 1 12
050 16.0 2 6 11 2 10 5 1 0 16 2 13 18 31 0 0 5 0 10 0 15
0 0 1 0 2 0 3 3 3.9 3.8 0 0 0 0 1 2 42 1 2 5 4 0 0 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 10
051 17.2 2 18 23 28 7 6 5 5 23 1 26 18 44 42 64 104 1406 50
12 1678 4 7 2 6 4 1 24 3 3.0 2.4 6 2 1 0 0 12 50 2 4 4 3
0 0 1 1 3 6 2 0 1 12
052 18.4 2 10 15 6 6 2 2 3 13 2 18 19 37 5 0 0 17 44 0 66
1 0 0 1 2 0 4 3 2.0 2.1 0 1 0 0 0 1 37 42 2 5 1 1 3 0 0 1 0
1 1 1 0 0 12
053 18.1 2 9 17 12 9 4 4 2 19 2 11 23 34 12 0 0 24 52 0 88
1 0 0 1 3 0 5 2 2.0 1.8 0 0 0 0 1 4 54 50 1 3 1 3 0 0 1 0
1 1 1 0 0 12
054 15.7 2 12 15 6 10 7 10 4 31 2 23 14 37 0 10 37 77 57 5
186 0 2 3 3 4 1 13 4 2.5 1.6 0 0 0 1 0 8 47 49 3 2 4 3 4 0 0
1 1 2 5 2 1 0 10
055 15.7 2 11 10 4 9 9 9 6 33 2 19 16 35 0 20 22 52 69 0 163
0 4 3 2 3 0 12 5 3.0 0 3 1 0 1 4 46 48 2 3 5 5 5 0 0 1 0 2
5 2 0 1 10
056 15.6 3 7 6 9 10 5 7 7 29 1 18 18 36 57 266 12 1021 89 0
1445 2 8 1 4 4 0 19 3 2.7 3.0 0 0 0 0 0 2 38 1 2 3 3 0 0
1 1 3 6 2 1 1 9
057 16.9 2 16 22 6 3 3 1 2 9 2 24 11 35 0 0 0 17 62 0 79
0 0 0 2 5 0 7 3 .6 0 0 0 0 0 6 37 40 1 4 2 5 0 0 1 0 2 2
1 0 1 11
058 15.2 2 11 16 2 4 2 7 3 16 1 19 19 38 5 12 5 17 29 0 68
1 1 1 2 3 0 8 3 3.2 2.5 1 1 0 0 0 2 42 42 1 4 5 5 6 0 0 1 0
1 1 1 1 1 10
059 17.2 2 6 5 2 9 8 2 2 21 1 16 7 23 5 0 5 157 10 140 317
1 0 1 5 2 3 12 3 2.5 1.4 1 2 0 0 0 2 27 37 0 3 3 5 3 0 0 1 0
2 2 1 0 0 9
060 17.0 2 14 15 5 8 10 6 5 29 2 10 17 27 10 0 57 36 290 0
393 2 0 2 3 5 0 12 5 2.5 2.3 2 1 1 0 1 1 40 43 1 4 5 3 5 0 0
1 0 2 5 2 1 0 11
061 15.8 2 7 8 7 9 7 8 3 27 2 19 12 31 0 25 12 42 37 0 116
0 5 1 4 3 0 13 2 3.2 3.2 1 0 0 0 1 1 43 47 1 4 5 5 6 0 0 1 0
3 6 2 1 1 10









062 14.7 3 5 6 4 8 7 6 5 26 2 7 17 24 0 0 0 22 10 0 32
0 0 0 3 2 0 5 6 2.8 0 0 0 0 1 2 34 03 3 2 0 0 1 1 3 6
2009
2 0 0 9
063 17.1 2 9 14 4 8 4 6 0 18 2 22 18 40 0 25 10 30 57 0 122
0 5 2 3 4 0 14 4 3.5 3.0 1 0 0 0 0 2 44 2 4 3 4 0 0 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 11
064 17.5 2 15 27 31 2 6 9 5 22 2 21 28 49 171 164 64 153 69
25 646 5 12 4 8 5 2 36 1 .75 .9 19 10 1 0 0 7 30 1 3 3
0 0 2 1 3 6 2 0 1 11
065 14.8 2 9 10 8 9 4 3 4 20 1 11 7 18 17 25 0 15 10 0 67
2 5 0 3 2 0 12 1 3.0 3.0 2 1 0 0 0 2 41 36 2 5 3 3 4 0 0 1 0
3 3 1 0 1 9
331019
066 17.0 2 13 22 15 10 5 3 7 25 1 16 22 38 15 69 0 20 42 0
146 3 11 0 3 4 0 21 3 2.5 2.4 2 1 0 0 1 5 37 1 4 3 4 0 0
1 1 1 4 2 0 1 11
067 14.9 2 12 11 3 6 1 2 4 13 2 17 15 32 5 25 5 10 15 0 60
1 5 1 2 3 0 12 5 2.2 3 4 0 1 0 2 49 11 8 4 4 0 0 1 1 2
2 1 0 0 9
21009
068 17.0 2 6 21 13 4 2 6 6 18 1 27 26 53 25 72 20 377 147 0
641 2 5 1 3 3 0 14 1 3.5 3.0 5 3 0 0 0 14 41 44 1 4 2 3 5 0
0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 11
069 14.9 2 9 7 3 8 3 6 5 22 1 21 28 49 10 40 5 10 32 0 97
2 5 1 2 2 0 12 2 3.0 2.7 0 0 0 0 0 2 38 41 0 3 5 4 5 0 0 1 0
2 5 2 1 1 9
252119
070 15.2 2 11 12 8 10 4 6 5 25 1 23 32 55 370 402 5 747 740
0 2264 2 6 1 5 3 0 17 3 2.5 2.0 2 2 0 0 1 4 39 42 0 3 5 2 5
0 0 1 0 2 5 2 0 0 9
0010252009
071 15.1 2 6 16 8 4 3 4 6 17 1 23 16 39 0 0 0 10 5 0 15
0 0 0 2 1 0 3 2 2.5 2.9 0 0 0 0 0 11 49 50 4 3 2 2 5 0 0 1 0
1 1 1 0 0 9
111009
072 16.7 2 6 12 1 0 3 1 3 7 2 15 17 32 5 0 0 5 5 0 15
1 0 0 1 1 0 3 5 4.0 4.0 0 0 0 0 0 9 38 39 2 5 4 3 0 0 1 0
1 1 1 0 0 11
073 18.3 2 14 17 19 8 4 7 4 23 1 20 16 36 5 22 25 382 82 0
516 1 3 2 3 4 0 13 4 2.0 1.6 2 2 1 0 1 14 34 40 1 4 4 4 4 0
0 1 0 3 6 2 0 1 12
074 14.3 2 11 22 6 4 2 6 4 16 2 20 20 40 0 20 20 94 50 0 184
0 4 1 5 4 0 14 2 2.6 2.6 0 0 0 0 1 8 43 0 2 5 4 0 0 1 1
1 1 1 1 0 9
111109
075 14.5 2 6 6 4 9 4 6 3 22 1 17 8 25 5 5 0 17 5 0 32
1 1 0 2 1 0 5 4 3.0 2.4 3 3 0 0 1 8 38 42 1 4 2 3 4 1 0 1 0
3 6 2 1 1 9
362119
076 16.8 3 11 5 2 3 2 1 0 6 1 9 4 13 5 0 0 0 22 0 27
1 0 0 0 3 0 4 8 2.0 1.4 0 0 0 0 0 2 55 61 4 6 3 2 4 0 0 1 0
2 2 1 1 1 11
077 17.8 2 3 3 1 9 2 0 0 11 2 19 13 32 0 0 5 0 5 0 10
0 0 1 0 1 0 2 4 3.03.0 0 2 0 0 2 40 50 5 5 4 4 6 0 0 1 0
3 3 1 0 0 12
078 15.9 3 8 16 10 5 6 8 4 23 2 16 22 38 365 0 12 60 121 0
558 1 0 1 3 3 0 8 3 2.7 2.4 13 6 0 0 1 4 45 44 1 4 4 4 5 0 0
1 0 1 4 2 1 0 10
079 17.5 3 6 6 2 8 7 4 2 21 1 17 17 34 0 5 0 17 42 0 64
0 1 0 2 4 0 7 5 3.6 3.4 2 4 0 0 0 2 45 47 1 4 5 3 0 0 1 0
2 2 1 1 1 12









080 17.3 3 4 16 3 2 0 4 2 8 2 20 16 36 0 0 5 64 124 0 193
0 0 1 2 3 0 6 4 3.4 3.2 0 0 0 0 0 2 43 44 2 5 5 5 6 0 0 1 0
1 1 1 0 0 12
081 17.8 3 5 10 4 8 4 5 4 21 2 23 9 32 0 0 5 0 69 5 79
0 0 1 0 3 1 5 5 3.5 3.6 0 0 0 0 0 2 41 0 2 5 5 0 0 1 1 1
1 1 0 0 12
082 18.1 3 7 9 5 6 4 5 1 16 2 16 17 33 0 0 0 5 45 0 50
0 0 0 1 3 0 4 5 3.1 2.3 0 0 0 0 1 2 42 48 4 4 5 0 0 1 0
3 3 1 0 0 12
083 17.7 3 11 17 5 6 3 4 2 15 2 28 20 48 0 0 52 10 129 0 191
0 0 1 2 4 0 7 6 3.1 2.7 1 3 0 0 1 14 43 44 1 4 4 4 0 0 1 0
1 1 1 0 1 12
084 18.1 3 8 12 4 7 4 3 7 21 2 14 16 30 0 0 5 0 64 0 69
0 0 1 0 0 2 3 3 2.3 0 0 0 0 1 44 49 2 4 4 3 6 0 0 1 0 1
4 2 1 1 12
085 16.0 3 4 15 4 6 3 1 2 12 2 11 18 29 0 0 0 5 5 0 10
0 0 0 1 1 0 2 4 3.53.2 1 0 0 0 0 2 ..0 3 4 5 5 0 0 2 1
1 1 0 0 10
086 18.2 3 4 8 2 9 6 10 3 28 2 13 19 32 5 27 142 114 442 0
730 1 4 2 4 4 0 15 3 3.2 2.8 2 1 0 0 1 1 39 40 0 3 5 5 6 0 0
1 0 1 4 2 0 0 12
087 15.7 3 13 4 2 10 6 3 0 19 1 18 14 32 5 35 5 15 10 0 70
1 7 1 3 2 0 14 4 2.9 2.3 0 0 0 0 1 9 42 47 2 5 5 4 6 0 0 1 0
2 2 1 1 1 10
088 17.7 3 7 12 3 8 7 4 6 25 2 18 15 33 0 0 5 0 10 0 15
0 0 1 0 2 0 3 6 2.5 2.9 0 0 0 1 1 38 39 1 4 3 3 5 0 0 1 0
1 4 2 0 0 12
089 3 8 13 8 8 2 6 2 18 1 20 15 35 5 32 0 25 10 0 72
1 4 0 5 2 0 12 7 2.7 2.8 1 0 0 0 0 2 40 40 2 5 3 3 3 0 0 1 0
1 1 1 1 1 9
111119
090 18.4 3 4 6 18 4 3 6 3 16 1 21 17 38 20 67 12 52 912 0
1063 1 4 1 3 4 0 13 2 3.1 2.5 0 3 0 0 0 2 42 50 1 4 5 3 5 0
0 1 0 3 3 1 1 0 12
091 18.2 3 10 21 9 7 7 3 2 19 2 14 23 37 0 0 12 5 44 0 61
0 0 1 1 3 0 5 6 3.3 3.1 0 0 0 0 1 5 48 56 3 6 5 4 5 0 0 1 0
1 1 1 0 1 12
092 18.3 3 6 2 14 9 4 7 4 24 1 18 13 31 0 0 5 17 417 0 439
0 0 1 3 2 0 6 6 3.6 2.4 0 0 0 0 0 1 42 46 2 4 3 2 6 0 0 1 0
3 6 2 1 1 12
093 16.4 3 12 14 2 5 4 8 3 20 2 16 11 27 0 0 20 34 155 0 209
0 0 1 4 3 0 8 3 3.6 3.4 1 1 0 0 0 2 43 43 1 3 4 4 6 0 0 1 0
2 2 1 0 0 11
094 16.7 3 13 15 2 7 2 1 4 14 2 25 17 42 0 15 5 10 22 0 52
0 3 1 2 3 0 9 4 3.0 2.9 1 1 0 0 0 2 52 51 2 5 5 2 4 0 0 1 0
2 2 1 0 0 11
095 16.6 3 9 6 6 7 8 9 3 27 1 7 26 33 0 0 140 155 124 10 429
0 0 3 3 3 2 11 9 3.0 2.3 4 10 1 0 0 2 41 42 1 4 4 4 5 0 0 1
0 2 5 2 0 1 11
096 18.1 3 12 3 23 10 6 8 4 28 1 8 14 22 0 54 370 735 244 5
1408 0 8 2 3 5 1 19 6 2.0 1.0 3 4 1 0 0 4 33 43 4 6 4 4 3 0
0 1 0 3 6 2 0 0 12
097 18.0 3 14 18 16 4 1 4 4 13 1 16 7 23 0 0 0 135 5 0 140
0 0 0 2 1 0 3 9 2.7 1.4 0 0 0 0 1 1 .. 1 2
2 1 1 1 12









098 16.9 3 18 16 10 7 4 9 5 25 2 18 20 38 0 5 12 92 525 0
634 0 1 1 3 5 0 10 3 1.2 1 1 1 0 1 2 37 38 1 4 4 4 6 0 0 1
0 2 5 2 0 0 11
099 16.0 3 9 11 10 6 3 6 4 19 1 24 20 44 10 0 0 10 10 0 30
2 0 0 2 2 0 6 1 3.2 3.0 0 0 0 0 0 2 46 0 3 5 4 6 0 0 1 0 3
3 1 1 1 10
100 17.4 3 5 15 5 8 5 5 6 24 1 13 22 35 5 10 0 52 10 0 77
1 2 0 1 2 0 6 3 3.6 3.6 0 0 0 0 1 1 60 60 3 3 1 3 4 0 0 1 0
1 4 2 0 1 12
101 15.7 3 3 3 8 9 3 0 4 16 2 17 16 33 5 17 12 15 10 0 59
1 2 1 3 2 0 9 2 3.8 3.8 0 0 0 1 0 2 43 3 4 3 2 0 0 1 1 3
3 1 1 1 10
103 16.6 3 5 13 3 10 9 3 3 25 2 24 22 46 10 25 10 22 52 12
131 2 5 2 3 6 1 19 3 3.2 1.7 2 0 0 0 1 4 41 44 1 4 5 3 6 1 0
1 0 1 4 2 1 0 11
104 17.7 3 12 12 16 10 5 6 3 24 1 22 25 47 10 192 130 382
512 0 1226 2 8 1 3 3 0 17 5 3.5 2.9 3 3 0 0 0 1 43 53 4 3
3 5 0 0 1 0 3 6 2 1 1 12
105 19.4 3 12 6 9 5 1 0 1 7 2 15 8 23 0 32 20 50 204 0 306
0 2 1 5 5 0 13 3 2.3 1.6 1 6 0 0 1 12 3 5 3 3 3 1 0 2 0
2 2 1 1 0 12
106 18.2 3 14 14 18 6 3 6 5 20 1 24 47 41 30 241 69 17 57 0
414 4 7 3 3 2 0 19 7 3.1 2.3 6 7 0 0 1 1 39 40 2 3 5 5 6 0 0
1 0 3 3 1 1 0 12
107 16.7 3 5 5 4 8 4 9 6 27 1 22 18 40 5 60 25 15 89 0 194
1 9 2 3 4 0 19 2 3.6 3.7 0 0 0 1 1 1 41 44 3 5 5 4 6 0 0 1 0
3 6 2 1 1 11
108 17.5 3 9 10 3 9 4 0 1 14 2 21 10 31 0 5 0 5 140 0 150
0 1 0 1 3 0 5 4 2.0 1.4 0 0 0 0 1 5 39 0 2 3 0 0 1 1 2
2 1 0 0 11
109 15.9 3 14 23 15 9 3 8 4 24 2 21 18 39 52 377 52 104 284
20 889 1 2 1 4 4 1 13 3 2.0 0 0 0 1 1 37 2 5 3 4 0 0
1 1 1 4 2 1 1 10
111 17.6 3 12 12 16 10 5 6 3 24 1 22 25 47 0 25 17 67 77 5
191 2 8 1 3 3 0 17 0 3.0 2.4 0 1 0 0 0 1 45 50 1 4 5 3 5 0 0
1 0 3 6 2 0 0 12
112 17.7 3 7 5 10 10 3 10 5 28 1 12 19 31 15 420 40 82 474 0
1031 3 11 3 4 4 0 25 1 3.3 3.2 0 0 0 0 1 2 36 33 1 4 6 2 5 0
0 1 0 3 6 2 0 0 12
113 18.0 3 7 2 10 9 5 9 7 30 1 17 14 31 0 30 5 34 246 0 315
0 6 1 4 4 0 15 4 3.1 2.9 1 0 0 0 0 2 38 38 1 4 4 4 6 0 0 1 0
3 6 2 0 1 12
114 17.7 3 6 11 12 7 6 3 1 17 2 22 23 45 0 5 12 12 62 0 91
0 1 1 2 3 0 7 2 3.0 3.4 1 0 0 0 1 14 41 45 2 4 4 4 6 0 0 1 0
3 3 1 1 0 12
115 18.0 3 9 12 1 9 4 5 3 21 2 16 15 31 0 12 20 64 280 0 376
0 1 1 2 4 0 8 7 2.0 1.7 0 0 0 1 0 1 45 46 3 4 5 5 4 0 0 1 0
2 2 1 0 0 12
116 18.4 3 14 24 12 8 5 3 6 22 2 22 16 38 0 0 0 10 27 0 37
0 0 0 2 4 0 6 3 2.1 2.8 1 1 0 0 1 9 39 41 1 4 5 5 6 1 0 1 0
1 4 2 1 0 12
117 18.6 3 9 13 13 8 4 5 1 18 1 15 11 26 365 39 12 442 175 0
1033 1 5 1 4 4 0 15 4 2.5 1 0 0 0 1 43 52 4 4 2 2 6 0 0
1 0 3 3 1 1 0 12









119 14.7 3 4 2 4 9 3 7 3 22 2 12 11 23 0 0 0 5 22 0 27
0 0 0 1 3 0 4 8 3.4 2.7 0 0 0 0 1 53 53 2 4 3 3 5 0 0 1 0
3 6 2 0 1 9
121 16.2 3 14 13 0 10 3 6 4 23 1 19 16 35 5 52 20 64 84 0
225 1 6 1 2 2 0 12 3 1.5 2.1 3 3 1 0 1 14 42 2 3 4 4 0 0
1 1 2 5 2 0 0 9
122 15.1 3 8 7 13 9 5 7 2 23 1 22 22 44 5 237 52 406 154 0
854 1 9 2 5 3 0 20 1 2.0 2.1 2 0 0 0 0 1 44 48 1 3 5 3 5 0 0
1 0 3 6 2 0 1 9
123 14.6 3 15 16 12 2 2 1 4 9 2 15 15 30 6 0 5 5 11 0 27
2 0 1 1 3 0 7 5. .2 5 1 0 0 1 41 42 0 3 4 4 6 0 0 1 0 2 2
1 1 1 9
124 3 5 14 7 4 1 0 0 5 2 13 14 27 10 0 0 0 0 0 10
2 0 0 0 0 0 2 5 2.6 0 0 0 0 9 39 1 3 3 2 0 0 2 1 1 1
1 0 0 .
125 14.6 3 11 24 4 2 1 3 4 10 2 15 24 39 0 5 0 0 22 0 27
0 1 0 0 3 0 4 3 1.5 1.7 0 1 0 0 1 1 37 39 1 4 4 3 5 0 0 1 0
1 1 1 0 0 9
126 14.8 3 13 21 8 5 4 3 4 16 2 16 22 38 10 10 0 10 10 0 40
2 2 0 2 2 0 8 4 3.5 3.2 0 0 0 0 1 1 39 40 1 4 5 5 6 0 0 1 0
1 1 1 0 0 9
127 15.2 3 14 14 7 2 2 2 0 6 2 22 21 43 0 57 0 0 44 0 101
0 2 0 0 3 0 5 3 1.7 1.7 14 0 0 0 8 38 34 2 4 3 5 5 0 0 1 0
2 2 1 1 0 9
128 15.6 3 14 12 8 8 5 3 3 19 1 19 12 31 12 12 0 397 22 5
448 1 1 0 6 3 1 12 3 1.5 1.3 9 10 0 0 1 2 40 44 3 6 4 4 6 0
0 1 0 2 2 1 1 0 9
129 15.7 3 6 19 29 3 5 2 8 18 1 17 21 38 32 0 0 15 5 0 52
2 0 0 4 1 0 7 2 3.0 1.8 1 1 0 0 0 5 .. 1 3
3 1 0 0 9
130 16.2 3 12 21 4 10 4 5 3 22 1 17 9 26 10 35 12 394 27 0
478 2 8 1 4 4 0 19 3 3.7 3.0 1 0 0 0 1 2 36 37 3 6 2 2 5 0 0
1 0 1 4 2 1 1 10
131 17.8 4 6 5 3 4 2 2 2 10 2 18 15 33 0 5 5 5 15 0 30
0 1 1 1 3 0 6 5 2.7 2.8 0 0 0 0 0 9 1 3 4 4 6 0 0 1 0 3
3 1 0 1 12
132 17.6 4 9 15 2 4 1 2 1 8 1 14 12 26 0 0 0 5 25 0 30
0 0 0 1 2 0 3 3 2.7 2.0 3 6 0 1 0 4 43 0 4 2 3 0 0 2 1 1
1 1 1 0 12
133 16.7 4 9 21 3 10 9 9 2 30 2 24 15 39 0 0 64 39 72 0 175
0 0 2 5 2 0 9 6 3.6 3.5 0 0 0 0 1 5 0 3 3 3 3 0 0 1 0 1
4 2 1 1 11
134 14.5 3 10 21 6 10 6 6 8 30 2 16 26 42 5 62 0 82 74 0 223
1 3 0 4 4 0 12 1 1.5 0 0 0 1 2 38 40 3 6 5 5 6 0 0 1 0 1
4 2 0 0 9
135 15.4 3 8 9 16 7 4 8 6 25 1 16 17 33 0 20 0 64 52 0 146
0 4 0 2 1 0 7 4 2.5 2.3 2 0 0 0 2 40 42 2 5 3 5 6 0 0 1 0
3 6 2 0 0 9
136 15.1 3 10 23 4 8 6 5 1 20 2 19 14 33 0 5 0 15 22 0 42
0 1 0 3 3 0 7 6 3.3 3.5 0 0 0 0 1 10 42 41 1 4 3 5 5 0 0 1 0
1 1 1 0 0 9
137 4 13 25 7 8 9 7 7 31 2 22 18 40 0 20 17 174 152 0 363
0 3 2 4 4 0 13 1 2.7 2.4 0 0 0 1 1 41 41 4 6 1 2 4 0 0 1 0
1 4 2 1 1 11









138 14.4 3 8 9 3 6 1 3 1 11 2 19 11 30 0 0 0 5 10 0 15
0 0 0 1 2 0 3 5 2.0 1.8 1 1 0 0 0 14 32 39 3 4 5 5 3 0 0 1 1
2 2 1 0 1 9
139 17.6 3 5 10 1 5 2 2 3 12 2 16 17 33 0 5 0 0 67 0 72
0 1 0 0 4 0 5 7 3.4 3.3 0 0 0 0 1 2 46 48 1 4 5 5 5 0 0 1 0
1 1 1 0 0 12
141 14.8 3 7 9 2 7 3 3 5 18 2 12 13 25 0 0 0 0 730 0 730
0 0 0 0 2 0 2 5 3.5 3.0 1 1 0 0 0 2 41 39 1 4 3 4 5 0 0 1 0
1 1 1 1 0 9
142 15.2 3 11 12 25 10 7 7 7 31 1 11 17 28 10 208 52 89 656
0 1015 2 4 1 4 4 0 15 1 2.8 2.8 1 1 1 1 1 1 56 61 2 4 4 2 6
0 0 1 0 3 6 2 0 0 9
143 14.9 3 5 4 1 3 3 2 3 11 2 14 15 29 5 5 0 5 5 0 20
1 1 0 1 1 0 4 3 3.4 3.6 0 0 0 1 0 2 42 43 1 4 5 4 5 0 0 1 0
3 3 1 0 0 9
144 14.5 3 9 22 6 8 5 1 0 14 2 19 16 35 5 135 0 0 10 0 150
1 2 0 0 2 0 5 5 4.0 3.7 0 0 0 0 0 6 35 4 4 4 0 0 1 1 2
2 1 1 1 9
145 16.5 3 11 16 10 9 7 8 5 29 2 15 25 40 5 15 104 29 109 0
262 1 3 2 3 3 0 12 3 3.2 1.9 0 0 0 0 1 1 64 72 0 3 4 4 5 0 0
1 0 1 4 2 1 0 11
146 17.7 3 6 9 5 8 4 8 4 24 1 21 16 37 12 25 24 49 29 0 139
1 5 2 6 3 0 17 2 3.2 3.1 2 0 0 0 0 2 46 45 2 3 4 4 6 0 0 1 0
3 6 2 1 1 12
147 16.0 3 11 17 17 6 4 5 3 18 1 21 18 39 17 12 12 74 64 0
179 2 1 1 4 2 0 10 2 3.2 2.7 8 7 0 0 0 3 36 38 1 4 4 4 6 0 0
1 0 3 3 1 1 1 10
148 18.6 3 12 12 12 9 3 9 5 26 1 26 23 49 10 30 5 47 77 0
169 2 6 1 5 3 0 17 2 2.9 2.4 10 14 0 0 0 1 42 43 1 4 5 2 6 0
0 1 0 2 5 2 1 1 12
149 18.1 3 9 6 11 7 5 7 6 25 1 22 19 41 10 62 69 84 207 17
449 2 11 3 6 4 2 28 2 3.0 2.2 5 6 0 0 0 2 50 50 2 5 5 5 6 0
0 1 0 3 6 2 1 0 12
150 17.2 3 12 13 17 10 6 8 4 28 2 12 18 30 5 22 77 282 677 0
1063 1 3 3 5 4 0 16 5 2.5 2.2 2 0 0 0 0 8 40 0 2 4 5 0 0
1 1 3 6 2 0 0 11
151 19.2 3 8 6 10 6 2 2 5 15 1 25 23 48 15 35 5 370 32 0 457
3 7 1 2 5 0 18 2 3.0 2.7 2 2 0 0 0 2 39 38 5 3 4 0 0 1 0
3 3 1 1 0 12
152 18.3 3 7 19 4 6 4 4 3 17 2 14 18 32 0 0 0 20 5 0 25
0 0 0 1 1 0 2 4 2.8 2.8 0 0 0 0 0 1 42 42 3 5 4 2 5 0 0 1 0
1 1 1 0 0 12
153 18.2 3 9 14 21 5 4 7 5 21 1 21 18 39 365 39 25 429 382 0
1240 1 5 2 3 3 0 14 4 3.0 1.3 5 10 0 0 0 2 46 48 1 1 3 0
0 1 0 3 3 1 0 0 12
154 15.2 3 7 9 4 3 5 8 3 19 2 22 23 45 5 0 130 69 199 0 403
1 0 1 3 4 0 9 3 3.5 3.1 0 0 0 0 0 2 46 41 2 4 3 2 5 0 0 1 0
1 1 1 0 0 9
155 18.2 3 10 9 3 3 2 5 3 13 2 18 14 32 0 0 32 24 44 0 100
0 0 2 2 3 0 7 4 3.3 3.7 0 0 0 0 0 1 38 32 0 4 5 4 6 0 0 1 0
2 2 1 0 0 12
156 19.4 3 8 9 11 9 3 7 3 22 1 15 17 32 130 237 142 174 154
0 837 1 6 2 4 3 0 16 6 2.5 1.8 6 1 0 0 1 1 40 45 3 5 3 3 5 0
0 1 0 3 6 2 1 0 12






95


157 18.1 3 8 20 7 5 4 6 2 17 2 17 20 37 0 17 5 12 154 0 188
0 2 1 1 3 0 7 4 3.8 3.7 0 0 0 1 0 2 34 46 3 3 5 5 6 0 0 1 0
1 1 1 0 1 12
158 16.0 3 13 10 3 1 1 4 4 10 2 10 14 24 12 5 5 20 159 0 201
1 1 1 1 4 0 8 5 1.5 .6 2 11 0 0 0 9 29 30 1 5 2 2 1 0 0 2 1
221019