Air terminal buildings

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Air terminal buildings
Physical Description:
26 p. : 53 sls. in preservers.
Language:
English
Creator:
Brown, Lewis Jr.
Publisher:
Lewis Brown, Jr.
College of Architecture, University of Florida
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, FL
Publication Date:

Notes

General Note:
AFA Historic Preservation document 605

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All rights reserved by the source institution.
System ID:
AA00004640:00001

Full Text





























Air Terminal Buildings


edited by

Lewis Brown Jr.


Architecture 672
Spring 1977











The growth of air transportation began in the 1930's.

Until then air transportation for commercial use was not

really taken seriously. The age of the barn stormer was

drawing to an end, and the intervention of the practical

business man was building air transportation to great heights.

The first regularly operated airway was opened in 1918 and

it was not until 1928 that passenger transportation had its

inception.

A report by the Aeronautical Chamber of Commerce covering

the first six months of 1930 showed a total of 10,725,335 miles

flown with 133,005 passengers carried by 29 reporting air

transport companies.

The above figures showed pretty conclusively that air

transportation was here to stay in 1930. In view of the extreme

youth of the aviation industry in those days, two basic possibilities

had to be appreciated (1) the normal growth in activity due to

increased patronage and (2) the possibility of radical changes

in aircraft types to accomplish greater capacities, flexibility

and security.

Obviousily the buildings necessary to serve commercial

aircraft had to reflect the growth potential, serve existing

needs and at the same time be flexible enough to be expanded to

an unknown size at an undetermined rate.

In planning a 1930's airport several things were important








considerations hangar, concession and terminal buildings had

to be close to roads and provision made for automobile parking

in their vicinity. The size of the area depended upon the

importance and location of the airport.

Terminal buildings or loading centers had to be centrally

located in relation to other structures. Building were grouped

in areas least effective as landing fields. They were placed

near the juncture of runways, but not at the ends, as there they

would constitute an obstruction.

Areas reserved for probable expansion were used temporarily

for concession space in which case they were separated from

other airport activities by a fence.

In relation to the general design of the airport buildings

it was necessary that the height of all structures be kept

to a practical minimum and requirements be met by horizontal

planning and where the terrain permitted the use of a basement.

Public area were separate from offices, control rooms, operatives

quarters and service areas. Private access to the last three from

the field was essential.

Buildings of this time were clear in plan and direct in

elevation. The view that the pilot had of these buildings

was completely different from that of the person on the ground.

For that reason it was important that non-essential bric-a-brac

which might confuse the pilot, be left off.

The desposition of building parts were clearly indicated

to aid the pilot in quick location of the terminal building and

loading center. Color and materials were chosen to increase









visibility and to avoid glare of dazzle in bright weather.

The December 1930 issue of "The Architecture Forum"

magazine outlines a general program for a 1939's air terminal.

"Though projects may vary in size, fundamental requirements
are similar. They include public space, waiting and check rooms,
ticket offices, toilets, restaurants, newstands and in some
cases a concourse with shops, offices of transport lines and offices
for airport operation. Public space should be centrally
located,light, airy and simple in appointments, planned for
freedom in through circulation. Waiting rooms and restaurants
should have a. clear view of the flying field. Administrative
portions should include executive offices, communications,
weather, control and observation rooms, grouped for ease in
circulation, in addition to pilot's quarters and first aid room.
The observation and control rooms should obtain an unobstructed
view of the entire airport, and pilot's quarters should have
accommodations for at least two."

The first effort at realistic airport design in America

was the Lehigh Airports competition held in 1930. Until this

time airports and air terminal buildings used expressly for the

aviation industry were almost unheard of.

The boom of the aviation industry after the New York to

Paris, flight of America Charles Lindberg and the inception

of Commercial passenger service in 1928 left America completely

unprepared as regards airports and airport design.

This was the condition of affairs when the Lehigh

Airports competition was first conceived and its sponsorship

undertaken on a purely non-commercial basis by the Lehigh

Portland Cement Company of Allentown, Pennsylvania. It was

recognized by those responsible for the competition that,

of the approximately 800 airports in wxistance in 1928 a mere

handful were anything more than flying fields consisting of a










reasonably large area of graded land with more or less

temporary structures in the form of hangars, a service shop

or two and possibly a Manager's office. Some of the older

fields were already becoming obsolete with rapidly depreciating

structures that would soon have to be replaced by permanent

buildings if the port were to serve as a real transportation

center. The problem therefore was not only to stimulate

airport development and to create standards to guide future

work, but also the encourage the establishment of permanent

structures and facilities and to plan for the future.

To achieve these ends, a committee of nationally recognized

experts in the four fields of Architecture, engineering ,city

planning, and aeronautics was organized and this committee was

given the responsibility for establishing the competition

requirements.

Among the architectural conceptions of greatest interest

are the provisions made for the comfort and convenience as

well as the safety of passengers; the frequent submergence of

terminal buildings so that a considerable part of their useful

areas are below ground level; and the indication that the

ultimate development of an airport will provide for many

profitable concessions, such as hotels restaurants, automobile

parking areas, airplane sales rooms and exhibition halls, and

various recreation structures. Attention should also be called

to the general appreciation of the importance of solidity and










stability which is architecturally expressed in the buildings

themselves. The designers recognized the psychological

importance of giving to air transportation that feeling of

permanency, reliability and dignity which is characteristic of

the great railroad terminals.

A. C. Zimmerman and William'H. Harrison, asscociated

architects and engineers of Los Angeles, California, were un-

animously awarded the first prize of $5,000 by the Lehigh Airports

Competition jury for their design. Their "quadrant airport"

was particularly commended by the jury for its very logical

organization of its units, for the provision made for the comfort

and safety of passengers and fliers, for the excellent conception

of the relative scale of its various members, and for its

excellent architectural development.

Visitors and passengers reach the airport terminal building

through a broad plaza at the junction of two important

boulevards, or through extensions of lateral streets from each

of these two main highways. Provision has been made for an

underground approach of a subway or railway when the traffic

load is sufficient to warrant this feature. The approach

plaza is developed as a dignified park and is provided with huge

parking spaces for automobiles arranged in a great semi-circle

about the passenger terminal. This building has a waiting-

room very similar to that of booths, baggage-rooms, a large

restaurant and lunch counter, new-stands and similar facilities.










Provision has been made for mail, express and freight handling,

with offices for immigration, customs and public health officials

controlling all incoming passengers from foreign ports, as well

as for executives of air transport companies utilzing the port.

The passengers go down separate ramps to underground

passages leading to a. star-shaped structure at the edge of the

flying field, where telescopic steel tunnels may be extended out

on short tracks to reach the doors of arriving or departing planes.

These tunnels are retracted while the plane is maneuvering into

position. The purpose of this arrangement is tokeep passengers

protected from the weather at all times and also to keep them

away from the revolving propellers on the plane and absolutely

to control their access to the flying field itself. Thus

provision is made for maximum safety of passengers and planes,

which is further enhanced by arranging the runways on the flying

field so that take-off or landing can be made when the wing is

in any direction. These runways are joined by narrower taxi strips

and a broad seim-circular apron which gives access to either

end of each runway without interfering with other planes that

are arriving or departing.

The quadrant shape of the airport places all of the

buildings in a triangular a.rea. occupying one corner of the

field, except the hangars, service shops, fire stations, and

other field facilities which are grouped along the semi-circular

edge of the field. The triangular parking area. on either side









of the approach plaza is developed for the benefit of visitors,

patrons and the neighboring community, and swimming pool,

stores, shops, and room for such other features and profitable

concessions as may subsequently prove desirable.

Of particular interest is the ingenious manner in which

the loading point has been developed with underground foot

passage ways from the passenger terminal. The architectural

development of the passenger terminal building is also worthy

of special commendation, combining beauty, stability, and a

feeling of permanency with economy of construction.

The design submitted by C. Gifford Rich of the office of

Charles Wheeler Nicol, architect, of Chicago, won second prize

of $2,500.

This scheme employs a rectangular flying field with a

series of runways crossing each other at a point off the center

of the field and near to the passenger terminal building.

This structure and the hangars are within the limits of the

rectangular field, while other units including maintenance shops,

service buildings, a hotel, stores and other concessions are

arranged in a. triangular area adjacent to the field which is

G enclosed by two intersecting highways. Provision has been

made for the comfort and protection of passengers in a well-

planned terminal building which is flanked by covered loading

docks that may be extended to double their present size when

traffic demands added facilities. The administration building

is simple and modernistic in design. From its broad, outdoor



















terrace passengers and visitors may watch the flying activities.

The third prize of $1,000 was awarded jointly .to Odd

Nansen of East Orange, N.J., and Latham C. Squire of New York

City, both of whom are associated in city planning design with

the Technical Advisory Corporation. Their plan employs a

rectangular field with a series of parallel runways crossing each

other in four directions, and with all of the buildings required

for airport activities grouped within the limits of the flying

field itself. Adjacent to these buildings, provision has been

made for a great civic center and park which may be added

whenever airport traffic and demands of the municipality call

for its development. The passenger terminal building is largely

below ground level to prevent if from becoming a.s obstacle to

flying, with only a pair of loading docks on either side of a

central superstructure visible upon the field.











As a basis of design and a first step the Lehigh Competion

inspired the design of air ports for the next few years.

The Chicago Municipal Airport terminal building was a design

result of the competition. In addition visits were made to neigh-

boring airports and conferences were held with a. member of airport

managers.

The limited height of airport buildings a governing

factor in design, suggested the use of monolethic concrete.

Another consideration in favor of concrete was that greater

economics could be secured than with normal wall construction.

Both east and west elevations of the building, which

are on the street and field sides, received exactly the same

architectural treatment. The exterior walls had large

unbroken glass areas: Aluminum sash and mullions were used for

window trim.

The main entrance was finished in jet black vitrolite

with black enamel wood doors, in contrast with the light colored

concrete walls. Attached to the vitrolite above the doors was

an ornament made of stainless steel. The ornament had tlu seal

of the city of Chicago for its center, flanked on each side by

spread wings taken from the flying corps insignia. The letters

above the second story windows were also of stainless steel and

stood out in relief from the wall.

In the ground floor of the building the waiting room










was 40 X 60 feet in plan, two stories in height. The floor

was covered with Alabama marble. Walls were covered with

smooth plaster painted a pastel shade of tan. Fluted pilasters,

terminating in a cornice, broke the smooth wall surface at

intervals. Over each pilaster was a flying corps insigna in

plaster relief.

The lighting fixtures, designed to represent aerial

bombs, had three fins made of polished chrome nickel attached

to the sides.

In addition to the waiting room, the first floor had

a restaurant, two telegraph stands, a first aid room and a

ticket and baggage office. The ticket and baggage office and

the telegraph stands opened directly on to the waiting room and

were finished with marble counters. Space was allotted on

this floor for the accommodation of the airways division of

the Department of Commerce and the U.S. Weather Bureau.

A gas heating unit, selected because it required less

chimney height than any other type was installed in the port

basement.

On the second floor to the east the Inspection Division

of the Department of Commerce had offices. On the west, or field

side of the building was the office of the airport supervisor.

The entire field was visible from this office. Directly overhead

on the roof was located a control towers, constructed entirely,

including the roof of glass set in metal frame. An attendant










was always on duty in the tower and had full control of the

field, supervising such activities as the landing of incoming

planes, taking off of departing planes, and lighting the

field at night. The tower was equipped for receiving and

broadcasting radio messages a distance of twenty miles.

Previous to the opening of this building passengers

arrived at and departed from the hangars of the eight operating

companies. This was more or less confusing to the passengers,

especially when friends were meeting them.

The building was designed in the office of the City

Architect of Chicago. The total cost of the building was

$76,000.

Large cities found it difficult, sometimes impossible,

to provide adequate terminal facilities for air within or even

near the city limits. Until 1933 a too distant field hampered

New Orleans aviation growth. In the years between 1928 when

commercial air transportation began in New Orleans and 1933

the airport site had been shifted twice. The last shift

followed the completion in 1933 of Shushan Airport, thought

by flyers of the day to be the equal of any airport in the

country.

The airfield was built on reclaimed land taken from

Lake Pontchartrain. An elaborate system of bulkheads was

used to form the levee since soil borings revealed that conventional

reclamation methods would not work. The runways themselves








were laid out southeast to northwest, the direction of the

prevailing breeze and another laid out north to south to

intersect the first one. There were two other advantages of this

runway layout scheme. It reduced the amount of hydralic fill

necessary as the water got deeper and it offered the best

possible shape for resisting storms.

When the architects, Weiss, Dreyfous and Seiferth of

New Orleans, came to the lay out of the administration

building they motivated their plan on the same reasoning that

led to the original layout of the field as a result the Administration

and Control Building swept back from the central tower at an

obtuse angle. The angle was flatter than that of the runways

before it on the theory that more space was needed in the center

than at the ends. The lines of hangars prolonged the line of

the two wings of the main block.

The central building housed not only all the administrative

and control facilities necessary to a large airport, but, since

New Orleans was also a. large Port of entry, space for customs,

Immigration, Agricultural authorities, and a. post office

was included. Offices were provided for the transport companies

and allied interests. The passenger accommodations comprized

a two story waiting room with mezzanine gallery used as a. lounge,

lunch room, dining room, for more leisurely meals,ticket booths,

first aid station, and toilets. All were very elaborately

decorated and furnished. At first glance it seemed as if the

luxury note had been overdone, but on second thought we realized

that while we can put up with a. bare pier when boarding a.










luxurious liner the bareness is tolerable in light of the

luxury to come. The best airplanes of the day could not be

said to furnish so great a degree of comfort as a ship and it

was proper that the terminal should make up for this lack as much

as possible.

'/ The central tower was the control station for the entire

field. It was so designed that from it could be seen every

part of the field and the air approach in every direction. All

glass was of special composition designed to reduce heat

transmission and glare.

In the fall of 1937 the five major airlines of the United

States were approached with the suggestion that they participate

in the erection of a consolidated Airlines Terminal in New York

on the site of the old Belmont Hotel, on the west side of Park

Avenue extending from 41st Street to 42nd Street. The response

was immediate. From this start began two and a half years of

negotiations, the preparation of endless studies, and continuous

changes to keep up with the ever expanding air transport business

which showed a sudden spurt in 1938 that continued through the

1940's.

The Airlines Terminal's function was to handle all reservations,

either by telephone from the individual company reservation

rooms or at the ticket counters maintained by the several companies;

to receive all passenger baggage, weigh, check and transport it

to the airfields; to provide deluxe transportation from the









terminal to the airfields; and to receive within the terminal

all passengers from the airports who desired this as their city

destination.

The heart of this building was the complex transportation

system which brought passengers into and out of the building.-

Incoming and outgoing limousines ferried passengers to and

from the airport. The incoming limousine approached the building

on 41st Street, entered a ramp, and descended to the first

basement below 42nd Street, which was used exclusively as a

passenger and baggage unloading area. As each limousine was

unloaded the passengers ascended to 42nd Street or the Waiting

/ Room by escalator or elevator. The limousine, now empty, descended

to the next basement for storage and to be made ready for the

next outgoing trip. From the second basement to the loading area

on 41st Street for outgoing passengers the limousines were carried

on six safe, fast oil-hydralic lifts, upon which they remained

during passenger and baggage loading and from which they departed

via 41st Street to airports.

The land upon which the Airlines Terminal was built was

valued at 4 million dollars in 1940. Because of the great land

value every effort had to be made to take advantage of every

inch of space which could be converted into income, particularly,

the 42nd Street level which commanded the greatest value per

square foot. This area was utilized to its utmost by the introduction,

not only of an excellently planned restaurant and two small stores,

but most particularly the use of practically dead area between










major levels for a 528 seat newsreel theatre. The Airlines

Terminal Building owed its existence to the income created by

the intensive study given to utilization and efficient use of

space. The land and building value created a required income

return and the completed building was a tribute to the solution

of space utilization.

The Washington National Airport, by Howard Lovewell Chevey,

was one of the first projects of its kind in which specialists

in "land use design" worked collaboratively with architects

and engineers in the adaptation of the site to its intended

function. The alignment of roadways, the profiles of roadways,

the design of parking areas, the moulding and grading of the

land, the locationof future buildings, the elimination of grade

crossings, and the general unification of all these factors were,

as a result, skillfully coordinated to take fullest advantage

of the site in adapting it to the proposes of the project.

The Terminal building and hangars were contemporary in

design spirit, functional and appropriate in form to modern form

of transportation they served. Evolved through a. long series

of studies, Cheney's final design was approved in model form by

more than 12 federal agencies directly as indirectly concerned.
Public entrance to the building was from the west, passengers

and visitors arriving at a large circular plaza whence they

pass under protecting canapies to either of two doorways leading

to the waiting room at a level one story above the field.










Sightseers would normally be directed from the plaza across the

foolbridges at either end of the building to the observation

terrace extending, at a lwvel several steps lower, the lenght

of its field side. Here they were able to see the arrival and

departure of all planes without interfering in any way with

passenger traffic or with view from within the building.

Along the west wall of the two story high waiting room were

located the ticket offices and counters. The east wall of this

room, toward the field, was all of glass, and expanse 200 feet

long through which people inside could see the major portion

of the field.

To the south of the waiting room on the first floor

were grouped various public conveniences while to the north a

large coffee shop (down a few steps) and a. spacious dining room

(up a short flight) were available to handle the problem of

adequately feeding the great numbers of visitors expected.

The dining room, continuously glazed along the side and end

toward the field commanded a magnificent view.

The south wing of the second floor was devoted to the

airport manager's suite and additional airline office space.

The third floor housed the Weather Bureau staff, the

Civil Aeronautics Airway Traffic Control, and communications

offices.

1'- i Above this story was the glass enclosed control tower

of a most advanced design which gave a clear, unobstructed view










of every portion of the landing area. and aprons as well as of

the entire 360 degrees of sky.

i The ground floor was devoted entirely to service facilities.

Throughout the building, the latest and best equipment

of every type was called for. Air conditioning was provided in

the waiting room, passenger concourse, coffee shop, dining

room, offices, and control tower. The building was of reinforced

concrete and completely protected from fire.

/, In the heyday of the railroads, travel empires were

monumentalized in New York's Grand Central and Pennsylvania

stations-great rooms that magnified the sensations of arriving

and leaving a great city. Architect Minow Yamasaki freely

admitted that Grand Central inspired his concept of the

St. Louis Air Terminal at Lambert Field, which took the form of

/4^ three pairs of intersecting barrel vaults. The form is as old

as the Baths of Cara.ca.lla but was rendered in thin concrete

shells 32 feet high and 120 feet across. And, whereas the

Caracalla vaults and most of their progeny are raised high

on walls or columns, these vaults sprung from the floor and their

actually mould the space of the great room. Big windows

open the room to the sky and field in all directions.

./< Sheathed in copper with strongly standing ribs and

seams, the shells were designed to create their first impact

from the air. Then, as the plane taxis to rest a, series

of new sensations awaits the visitor.










As one approaches the terminal from the landscaped

parking area, the entrance into the right and the exit

to the left of the central vault; the interior circulation is

based on this divided traffic. If you are an outgoing passenger

you leave the bus or taxi, step under the low sweeping canopy,

cross the 40 foot bridge and enter the building at the right

hand entrance. Turning once more to the right, you will then

face the ticket kiosks arranged beneath the eastern shell.

Each airline has a baggage conveyor (not a chute) which lowers

bags after weight-in to a truck pick-up on the floor below

(thence via ramp to plane). Having checked in, you may then

proceed through a waiting and concession area in the central unit.

As departure time nears, passengers take an escalator to the

lower concourse and out ot subwaiting rooms near the 16 active

gates along the fingers. When your flight is called you are

checked through the gate to a waiting plane.

The architects exploited the natural grade differences on

the site for their basic centralized plan arrangement; by

using elevators, escalators, and ramps, the complexities of

criss cross circulation were clearly articulated on three

levels: (a) the upper level connected directly to the parking

approach, for passengers, and general public, with waiting room,

tickets, dining etc. (b) the middle or "finger" level for

baggage pickup, ingress and egress of passengers to the planes

and (c) the bottom or apron level for complete separation of all










operations and services, planes on the field side trucks on

the other. Once the three level plan scheme was set up, the

program for the superstructure required two major mandatory

features: (a.) a great open concourse for maximum ease of

circulation, visibility and sense of space and (b) because

of the predictable growth of air travel, a means of harmonious

expansion as much as one hundred per-cent.

Form inside, the ceiling appears as a 412 foot long barrel

vault intersected by three cross vaults at right angles.

However from above one sees three identical domes each forming

an light sided figure, and they are joined (or separated) by a

skylight kept flush inside and out. The reinforced concrete

shells are 4 inches thick; the edges have peripheral and

the grorins diagonal rib stiffeners (18"X20" and 18"X45" at the

crown respectfully.)

These ribs were kept above the shell and are not visible

from the inside. Hinged steel bearings receive the rib thrust;

and structural steel ties (two 18"XI" plates) were inserted in

the upper floor spandrel beams around each 120' square. At

the center of each arch is a 13' triangular roof overhang

which is the natural geometric form of the domical unit and

lends the structure a unique esthetic effect. Reinforced concrete

is used for the floors and framing of the rest of the structure.

A 7' wide concrete deck is cantilevered out from the upper

floor level, serving as a window washer's access, and giving a.









strong horizontal to set apart the shells from the lower story.

The terminal building and utilities cost approximately

5.9 million dollars in 1955.

r The $80 million Tampa, Florida air terminal, claimed to

be the first terminal specifically designed for the age of the

jumbo jets, opened for business in April 1971. The first phase

of the terminal is expected to serve 8 to 10 million passengers

a year; expansion will boost that by 50 per cent.

! 3 The 30 million dollar landside building provides 500,000

square feet on three levels for major terminal functions;

bag claim on the first level, ticketing on the second level

and transfer on the third level. Three structural levels above

this provide 700,000 square feet for automobile parking. Three

future levels of parking may be added to provide for a total of

4600 cars. Adjacent to the bag claim level is a. service

building with mechanical equipment and storage facilities.

The four airside satellites (15 million) contain holding

and loading areas. Airside 3 also has customs space. These

buildings vary in configuration depending on the tenant

airline requirements, and they-are sufficiently removed into the

apron space to be surrounded by as many docking points as

may be required.

At the time -le Landside/Airside scheme was adopted it

was not certain that a suitable shuttle vehicle existed to

transport passengers Airside to Landside and back. It had to

be safe, foolprood and easy to board- with no attendants present.














Its capacity was based on the unlikely event that four DC-8's

would arrive at one airside at the same time; that called for

moving 840 people to the Landside building in 10 minutes.

For enplaning passengers, frequency of service was critical;

a two minut wait is too long when you are rushing for a plane.

The system that best met these needs is an adaptation

of a Westinghouse transit car. Each shuttle link has two

cars, of 100 passenger capacity, making the 1000 foot trip in

40 seconds. Allowing about 60 seconds at the end of the line

for unloading and reloading, one car should leave either end

every 100 seconds.

Much of the open space within Landside's matter of fact

structural frame is used for sheltered drop off and pick up platforms.

And some of it may be eventually be enclosed, when ticketing

and baggage claim areas are expanded by 50 per cent.

Expansion plans- which involve adding two more airside

buildings and three more decks of parking on top of Landside-

a.re based on projected needs for the year 2000 when 12 to 15

million passengers per year are expected. Present facilities

will handle up to about 8.5 million, more than double the current

volume of 3.1 million.












Bibliography


1. American Airport Designs, Lehigh Portland Cement Company

Taylor, Rogers and Bliss, Inc., New York, New York.

2. Chicago Municipal Airport,"
Architectural Record," Volume 71, February 1932

3. "Planning for Airport Buildings," Architectural Forum
Volume 53, December 1930

4. "Shushan Airport, New Orleans, Louisiana,"
"Architectural Forum," Volume 61, October 1934.

5. "Development of Airports,"
"Pencil Points," Volume 21, October 1940.

6. "Washington National Airport,"
"Pencil Points," Volume 21, October 1940

7. "Airlines Terminal, New York,"
"Pencil Points," Volume 22, March 1941

8. "Washington National Airport,"
"Architectural Record," Volume 90, October 1941

9. "Grand Central of the Air"
Architectural Forum, Volume 104, May 1956

10. "Terminal Building, Lambert-St. Louis Airport"
Architectural Record, VOlume 119, April 1956

11. "Landside/Airside Traffic: Studies in Directed Motion"
"Architectural Record" Volume 148, August 1970

12. "Tampa Opens Jumbo Jet Air Terminal"
"Progressive Architecture" Volume 52, June 1971

13. "Transfer at Tampa, Florida Airport Terminal"
"Architectural Forum" Volume 135, October 1971

14. "Tampa International Airport; A Fresh Look at Man and Machine
in Transit" "Architectural Record" Volume 152, October 1972





Slide List, source numbers refer to bibliography.


1.


2.


3.


4.


5.


6.


7.


8.


9.


10.


11.


12.


13.


14.


15.


16.


17.


18.


19.


Air Transportation Buildings
Source 3., page 701

Early Airport Drawing
Source 1, page 6

Early Airport Drawing
Source 1, page 6

Jury of Awards
Source 1, page 8

Ist Prize, American Airport Designs
Source 1, page 14

1st Prize, American Airport Designs
Source 1, page 15

2nd Prize, American Airport Designs
Source 1, page 16

2nd Prize, American Airport Designs
Source 1, page 17

3rd Prize, American Airport Designs
Source 1, page 18

3rd Prize, American Airport Designs
Source 1, page 19

Chicago Municipal Airport
Source 2, page 117

Chicago Municipal Airport
Source 2, page 119

Chicago Municipal Airport
Source 2, page 120

Chicago Municipal Airport
Source 2, page 118

Shushan Airport, New Orleans, Louisiana
Source 4, page 237

Shushan Airport, New Orleans, Louisiana
Source 4, page 237

Sh ushan Airpot New Orleans, Louisiana
Source 4, page 238

Shushan Airport, New Orleans, Louisiana
Source 4, page 239

Shushan Airport, New Orleans, Louisiana.
Source 4, page 239





Slide List, source numbers refer to bibliography


20. Shushan Airport, New Orleans, Louisiana
Source 4, page 239

21. Shushan Airport, New Orleans, Louisiana
Source 4, page 240

22. Shushan Airport, New Orleans, Louisiana
Source 4, page 242

23. Airline Terminal, New York
Source 7, page 147

24. Airline Terminal, New York
Source 7, page 150

25. Airline Terminal, New YorR:
Source 7, page 151

26. Airline Terminal, New York
Source 7, page 162

27. Airline Terminal, New York
Source 7, page 146

28, Airline Terminal, New York
Source 7, Page 144

29. Washington National Airport
Source 6, page 603

30. Washington National Airport
Source 6, page 603

31. Washington National Airport
Source 8, page 149

32. Washington National Airport
Source 6, page 607

33. Washington National Airport
Source 6, page 606

34. Washington National Airport
Source 6, page 608

35. Washington National Airport
Source 8, page 54

36. Washington National Airport
Source 8, page 55

37. Washington National Airport
Source 8, page 57

38. Washington National Airport
Source 6, page 610











Slide List, source numbers refer to bibliography


39. Washington National Airport
Source 8, page 52

4)0. Washington National Airport
Source 8, page 53

41. St. Louis Airport
Source 10, page 195

42. St. Louis Airport
Source 9, page 113

43. St. Louis Airport
Source 9, page 107

44. St. Louis Airport
Source 10, page 197

45. St, Louis Airport
Source 10, page 198

46. St. Louis Airport
Source 10, page 196

47. St. Louis Airport
Source 9, page 111

48. St. Louis Airport
Source 10, page 201

49. Tampa Airport
Source 13, page 34

50. Tampa Airport
Source 11, page 129

51. Tampa Airport
Source 13 page 35

52. Tampa Airport
Source 11, page 128

53. Tampa Airport
Source 13, page 37









AIR TRANSPORTATION BUILDINGS
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A glunce into the future, vrt.s\ull.ng the modern .\merican airport as ,on-
ceived by the uithor.s of the de.Min grinning first prize in the Lehihh A.irports
Competition. See the plun. on page.% 1- and 1 ) Druut ing prepared bh\ /FrOants
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THE JURY OF AWARDS LEHIGH AIRPORTS COMPETITION


Scluted, eft to right jt < ( l ( ,,I t ,( O I), city planner and airport consultant to the War I )eCprt t-
rnent IKi.,Y ) o I ) architect, (:hairmnim n of the Jury; ni [)K. ) ;i: ,;I: \\'. L. :\wis. I)ircctor
of Kesc-arch of the National Adiisory\ ( omnmittce for .Aeronautics of \\ashington, [). (C.

Standing, left to right: l. P. (jooD )II civil engineer and airport consultant to the Chinesc
National Government; MAJOR JoriN \V. B KlRRY, Manager of the Cleveland Municipal A\irport;
(:C ARLES S. (Casey) JONI.s, noted flier and President of Curtiss-\Vright Flying Service;
C(:LONLL. WILLARD W. C:HLva'VUIR, publishing director of Engineering \ News-Record: PARKI.R
Moiws.. -HooiiR, architect and editor of The Architectural Forum; PROFESSOR \VW..I.\1 A\.
IBRIN(, director r .of the School of Architecture of Columbia University; and Francis Kcally,
architect and professional- advisor to the competition.


Page 81


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First Prize $5,000. Designed by A. C. Zimmerman and 'illiam II.
Harrison, Associated Architects and Engineers, Los Angeles, California

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I LEHIGH1.I AIRPOIB T C\ 1PET TON


Second prize of $2,500 in the Lehigh Airports Competition awarded

to C. Gifford Rich, Architectural Designer, of Chicago, IllinoiS

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Third prize of $1,000 awarded jointly to Odd Nansen. I ast (Orange.
New Jersey, and Latham C. Squire, New York, N. Y; City planners

Page 181






































































Double runways separating landing and departing planes,a partly submerged
terminal building, and provision for a future civic center feature this plan
I Page I 9







CHICAGO


MUNICIPAL AIRPORT


By PAUL GERHARDT, JR.
City Architect, Chicago


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Waiting Room--Field Entrance at Left, Street Entrance at Right


A 'MINISTRAIITI ON BUILrDING OF THF CHICAGO MUNICIPAL AIRPORT
PAUL GI.RHAR[T, JR, CITY ARCHITECT




































Detail of Entrance
ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, CHICAGO' AIRPORT
PAUL IGERHARDT, JR., CITY ARCHITECT



















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llitiitir doors opejti 1o oln ,r tofot picres to 2:f/ ., o; ft. TI/i,' oftretiionli/i:td (liriltiite efv',1,d .i:#,.. stress (tns


SI l' Si A N Al IIPOI T.


N\El O1 LEA NS.


Usually ai airport miust he fitte(d t() tle grouii(1 here ilte groun 1(1 as iiade to lit tlhe aipr-
port. Six Miles f'rom tli, business (center old o ster shells solved a problems and saved mionev

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GENERAL PLAN OF AIRPORT
The direction of the runways gave this plan its character-
istic shape. The aviator can always land against the wind
islie shrape. The arrialor can always land against Ihe wind




Firs. floor p)lun. below. lAt iilerestinq ,(i'l;phliof of romren
tiotal raill'way' station pla. \ote pirc'hi!e well from fl/or borne


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FIRST FLOOR PLAN


TH E A C H ITECTU RA L FORUM OCTOBER 1 934


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SECOtND FLOOR PLAN

OCTO B E R 1 9 3 4 .T E A I C lI I T E C T t A L F ) HIJ U M 239






























LA N 1)1N FIELI) F IONT
This front seems more intie'reslin j than the other on account of
the domitnitinl lower. The lotijtias hel- reduce mass of w'imlis





























I., N RIA N C. i." M) \ !"
li.ht fl n cr'ntl' fin is/ih n'ilh alrn initllul trim (ronlmil en'raince
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oh ,r n (li*lln'vntal pl ster c'eill isc ,,oI'dh
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heilily a1t' a 'fi ll chaitt lifr. 'airp'
aili r1 s1 ) aou1N I t iIlw't Z itl ill~0 iii r ar

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l rious sect ions ofthui world invaded iz

th-l walnut. ,l- v t als i the ci' lihil has

. 'ltilnd lIfl of elst glass


240


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MAIN ENTRANCE
The sculptured ornamental panels which relieve the sharply shadowlined
facade were done by Enrique Alferez, William Proctord and John Ladin,
wiUh.doersThe architecs suggested the subjects and supeised the work



















































42ND STREET rPA'ADIE
DESIGNED BY JOHN B.


SA t C I 94 I


SCULPTURE BY RENE CHAMBELLAN
!PETERKiN, ARCHITECT; OF NEW YORK
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TERRACE APPROACHED ACROSS FO(OT BRIDC)ES FROM THE TRAFFIC CIRCLE AND EXTENDING COMPLETELY

AROUND THIE FIELI) SIDE OF TIE I'UILDING WITHOUT CROSSING( TIHE PATH OF INCOMING OR OU'COIN('

PASSENGERS, GIVING SI(;GTSEERS AN UNOBSTRUCTEI) VIEW OF THE ENTIRE FIELD. NOTE ALSO THE )IN-

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SWASHINGTON NATIONAL AIRPORT (continued)

PASSENGER FACILITIES

JUST as the di,-'i.PlrAat Iti iti.. the Terminl |l i i a1
oll,. idl. been lhai li/'tI ll .., .ti lt ,'1 ) Ithe' f.1e l it,
of ir11(1di idua ar a have lcin ,r ..'.ii/d il tI' ,,- ,l t
li.' i f travel. I t l-v ers I.I~ ,'t frnll ohlere tIllt, are 1t,
,heref' they t, 1 I I, e t i r- u.ti-ll ticket lcouni r l or f l .lli1
it.,, ill r-.r itl, ul ,t I, '- 1 1 theI 111.1l .it' o hth 'r 1,
T it .1 ti it, is .All, '. in tl. i/'l in ,nhill hit '1 .1i it ii T
its IJ l ft..l i ,, ,,1111 1 ,1111 ..0 1111 n 1 ,11 1 ,T I, O f
the, tie l n 1111 k .r ti it A .-1 ,11"1.Id I" 1 1' '
a plate hl, hal. t .i- i l-. 1i"" l' I- 1 1 t (' f t- '
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MAIN DINING ROOM

4A STA I witit a Shaii -rad< i of rarvr" i airuij,, f ,.n Vlz- ,i I ,;.
ass l Iead tl I" ( tol t i tWint J .v ,!ifi!.. ;..:: r,~>f< whlf.re ae
uni ni ken wall 'f windiow, prlovidk ,;,xr.,.i!t,<.ni i a, -
... .. view. !,, te.rrazzo i; ., is o um' ur~n,-i,',:, m ar
tl i w ii arj e f m!,i i-back..id ri.ft- -awn ,ak v l. rvri


wei arm is. ae f 1p han i p d ip", it ti.,
WIii in u nu if-t> (.di r vi ,,f lX w i i
Noi" t ''wn e fir e mi tornif mt


CONCOURSE

DooRs at either end of the room (depending on ide-tinatimn)
open onto passenger concourses immediately above exits to
the ground-level loading platforms. It is worth noting that
this elevated concourse is part of the.airport's long-range
plan for future needs. With the large transport planes of the
future with cabin floors nome 10 ft. above the ground, it is
anticipated that access to the planes will he provided directly
from this upper level. Walls of the concourses are surfaced
in peacock blue-green terra cotta units. Doors and trim are
aluminum. With the aggalge trucking concourse located back
of the building line (see ground floor plan), the paths of
passenger. and baggage never cross. i


- --













CONTROL TOWER

F i.T OsE\RVATiON. the keyvnot of thIe
t e- terminal, is nowhere mort impptr.
Stln in th] contri] t,,w r atop the CONTROL
"I .,. al Budldliig. Frolmn this lofty perch.
fi 1 i- Clear viilility-of the hiori/,,,, illn
1 -t1,1 .. of e-ei\. plane Iloadlig .ta-
.an1 I he .entire .length of ta<-h run-
S n;'l the 'hangar apion. S'iit-ifiit l\l
.'rilin collaboration with the Air- D&CK
:- rtion of -the Civil Aeronautics
S';ritv. the shape& and size. angle
t ::,,ent of the glass andt layout of
fi.,pmtent approach the ultimate in
t'! i,,nal integration. The tower is con-
- iruted of stainless steel frame with alu-
iitn im muntins and trim. The glazing is
a !iluish-green heat-abh-orbent gla.s whictl
eliminates actinic rays and keeps reflec-
tions to a minimum. Large windshield
wipers clear the glass in inclement
weather. The room is air conditioned and
fitted with the most advanced radio
equipment for airway traffic control.




























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THE CONTROL TOWER OF THE WASHINGTON NATIONAL AIRPORT IS CONSIDERED BY THE CIVIL AERONAU-
TICS AUTHORITY TO BE THE BEST ARRANGED AND MOST WORKABLE YET DEVISED. ENGINEERS OF THE
AUTHORITY DETERMINED BY TESTS THE MOST ADVANTAGEOUS ANGLES AT WHICH TO SET THE GLASS TO
INSURE CLEAR VISION IN ALL DIRECTIONS AND TO ELIMINATE REFLECTIONS SUCH AS HAVE BEEN FOUND
TROUBLESOME ELSEWHERE. THEY THINK THAT HERE THEY HAVE FOUND THE ANSWER. NOTEWORTHY,
TOO, IS THE COMPACTNESS OF THIS CONTROL ROOM, ACHIEVED BY CAREFUL REDESIGN OF THE REQUIRED
INSTRUMENTS AND APPARATUS WHICH MUST BE ARRANGED AROUND THE ROOM WITHIN EASY VIEW AD
REACH. O THE OPERATOR. SIX LARGE HANOAR. EXTENDING IN A STRAIGHT LINE RUNNING NEARLY
w'Tr FROM TWE SOUTH END OF THE TERMINAL BUILDING ARE SHOWN WITH DOOR DETAIL OOO


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LI6HT
I DiREC dome lighting (see detail
above) is used in the main waiting
oom. Flush ceiling units occur in
entrance lobbies, public corridors
and other public spaces. Fluores-
cent units are used in continuous
flush fixtures over the ticket coun-
ter and in the coffee shop. The
main restaurant is lighted by both
indirect ceiling units and by fluor-
escent tubing concealed in a cove.
The entrance loggia is floodlighted
by units conct-ai: i in the columns.


SOUND
A COMPLETE
address syst,-
of the Term'
of sound is
ally treated
room and entr
tic tile ceilir
course, field
line offices ,
acoustical p.:
of the dining


extensive public
:. i'es every part
iilding. Control
',-d by acoustic-
gs in waiting
lobbies; acous-
passenger con-
ice lobbies, air-
iher areas and
f on the ceilings
adjacent rooms.


ATMOSPHERE
A VACLUM si .\i heating system
is used throu.:.,ut with concealed
radiation in all public spaces. Unit
heaters are used in the hangars.
In the Terminal building, the wait-
ing room, dining ropms, passenger
concourses, public spaces and con.
trol tower are air conditioned. Pro.
,vision has been made for later
extension of air conditioning
throughout the building,


TER AZZO I t i
MLOOR AND BAS
"i ~- ", ". "." .. "-: f: .2 ... :'<


'4'


Ali., OF iTHE M:HI 1,iG) s arc of fireproof
S rln-tlll tion rinlllll inlg reinforced' I con-
, rct anrid structural steel. .Pile founda-
t it arc u sed lud(er the'Termninal build-
in .1d portion-, of the hangar block;
'Pt I 'aid fo, t iin, cl'., l-hre. Exterior finish
,t TrL, rnn al building and hangars is
;' i tirii l on rct w in which h plywood
I itlIth were employed
.,-',.n .ii- 4, r c:,rnices and orna-
I : x i t iing partitions are of
r ,f o i<'cer are-as etc. ---of
'. t\p, '. 'rojecte'l steel
,.;haut tthe Iuiltdirgs.
". ,' I :.(diJ n roof dicks oi the
S': ;1 -i u r.ced with
1 ., il, i !t i- r 'razz; in

1 uni ; ialt tile.


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AND O E -'T" ICN


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fWinner of a lirst Honor A a4rd, the
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