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ABSTRACT INVASIVE ALIEN PLANT SPECIES OF THE BAHAMAS AND BIODIVERSITY MANAGEMENT RESTORING THE BAHAMAS BIODIVERSITY: STRATEGY FOR MANAGING INVASIVE PLANT SPECIES (PART I ) AND NON NATIVE INVASIVE PLANTS OF THE BAHAMAS (PART II) By Ross L. Smith The nation of The Bahamas is an archipelago vulnerable to plant invasion. Small island nations share characteristics such as isolation and high endemism, which make them the most susceptible to loss of biodiversity resulting from invasions of non native pl ants. Biological invasion is particularly prominent on islands because of reduced numbers of, and in some cases, extinction of native plants. Because The Bahamas is overrun by alien invasive plants, it is critically important to address this problem. The implement ation of innovative and dynamic management practices is ke y to controlling invasive plants and establishing stable ecosystems. This report examines existing laws, best management practices, regulations and protocols of the Bahamas as a background for establishing a management model. A model is proposed that may be useful to T he Bahamas, and issues related to effectuating this management model are discussed. This paper also examines several invasive plant species in the Bahamas archipelago. Using t he Bahamas Environment Science and Technology Commission categories (species recommended for eradication, species recommended for control, and other potentially invasive plants), this writer provides relevant information and pictorial images to make identi fication of plants easier for persons engaging in ridding the country of invasive weeds.
INVASIVE ALIEN PLANT SPECIES OF THE BAHAMAS AND BIODIVERSITY MANAGEMENT PART I RESTORING THE BAHAMAS BIODIVERSITY: STRATEGY FOR MANAGING INVASIVE PLANT SPECIES PA RT II NON NATIVE INVASIVE PLANTS OF THE BAHAMAS A Practicum Report Submitted to the Faculty of Miami University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Environmental Science Institute of Environmental Sciences by Ross L. Smith Miami University Oxford, Ohio 2010
ii Part I: Table of Content Title Page i Table of Contents ii Tables iv Figures v Appendices vi Introduction 1 Section I: Existing Laws, Regulations and Protocols 4 1.1 National Legislation 4 1.1.1 The Bahamas National Trust Act (1959) 4 1.1.2 The Physical Landscape of the Bahamas Act (1997) 4 1.1.3 Wildlife Conservation and Trade Act (2004) 5 1.2 Regulations and Protocols 5 1.2.1 The National Invasive Species Strategy (2003) 5 1.2.2 The National Action Plan to Combat Land Degradation in the Bahamas (2006) 6 1.2.3 The Bahamas National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (1999) 6 1.2.4 Other Legislation 6 1.3 International Agreements and Protocol 6 1.3.1 The UN Convention on Biodiversity 7 1.3.2 UN Convention on Biodiversity Cartagena Protocol 8 1.3.3 The Convention on Internati onal Trade on Endangered Species and Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES) 8 Section II: Planning for Invasive Plant Species Management 9 2.1 Management Techniques 9 2.1.1 Models for Predicting 9 2.1.2 Prevention Model 10 2.1.3 Early Detection and Rapid Response 10 2.1.4 Control 13 2.1.5 Use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Remote Sensing and Aerial Photography 18 Section III: A Proposed Plan for the Bahamas 20 3.1 The Bahamas N ational Invasive Plant Council 20 3.2 Structural Changes and the Family Islands: Island Councils 21 3.3 National Inventory 21 3.4 Research and Monitoring 23 3.5 Need for Additional Laws and Enforcement Guidelines 24 3.6 Institutional Support 24 3.7 Human and Financial Resources 25
iii 3.8 Training 3.9 Community Based Approach 25 Conclusion 26 Bibliography 30 Appendices 34
iv Tables Table 1: Relevant International Environmental Conventions and Protocols of Which the Bahamas is a Party 7 Table 2: General Information About Casuarina equisetifolia 15 Table 3: Sample Objectives and Control Options of Casuarina equisetifoli a 17 Table 5: Methods of Herbicide Applications 18 Table 6 : Possible Steps to Develop a National Inventory and Set Priorities 23
v Figures Figure 2: Key Stages of Ear ly Detection and Rapid Response Technique 11 Figure 3: Key Stages of Early Detection and Rapid Response Assessment 12 Figure 4: Management and Control of Alien Invasive Plant Species 14 Figure 1: Bahamas National Invasive Plant Council 21
vi Appendices Appendix A: Early Detection and Rapid Response Sheet 35 Appendix B: Education Poster 36 Appendix C: Wanted Invasive Poster 37 Appendix C: Education Pamphlet 38 Appendix D: Native Bahamian Plants 39
vii Part II: Table of Contents Table of Contents vi Acknowledgement v iii Introduction 41 Section I: Invasive Plant Species Recommended for Eradication 44 1.1 Trees and Shrubs 45 1.2 Vines 52 Section II: Invasive Plant Species Recommended for Control 56 2.1 Trees and Shrubs 57 2.2 Vines 72 Section III: Potentially Invasive Non Native Plant Species 78 3.1 Trees and Shrubs 79 3.2 Vines 91 3.3 Ferns 101 3.4 Grasses 102 Bibliography 111 Glossary 116 Photo Contribution 120
viii Acknowledgement I am grateful to Dr. Mark Boardman, faculty in the Department of Geology, and Dr. Jerry Green, faculty in the Department of Geography of Miami University for your valuable suggestions and for reading the re port. Also, Dr. Michael A. Vincent, Curator, W. S. Turrell Herbarium, Miami University, whose extensive scientific knowledge about the Bahamas flora and fauna provided ed lists of plants to be included and his assistance with identifying specific plants were reasons for me completing this report that will hopefully change the Bahamian landscape as the country matures. In addition I am grateful to my daughter Jerusha and a friend Nakera for contributing several photographs for this project.
1 Part I: Introduction A drive around the island of New Providence in the Bahamas would perhaps lead one, who is knowledgeable about the natural vegetation of the island, to deem it an exotic plant paradise. Casu a rina equisetifolia (Casuarina), Albizia lebbec s T ongue) Delonix regi a (Poinciana), Leuc a e n a leuco cephal a (Jumbey), Termi nalia catappa (Almond Tree) and Ipomoea indica (Morning Glory) are among several ex otic invasive plants that dominate the lan dscape. Throughout many of the subtropical island s of the archipelago the presence of invasive plants is repeated. Many citizens and r esidents use these pla nts and proba bly do not know they are not native to the islands Residents in addition, hardly understand their impact on the ecosystems Invasive plant species are considered a threat to biodiversit y and ec osystem functioning (Underwood et al. 2002). It is widely accepted by scie n tists tha t the introduction of native plants especially on small islands is the reason for biodiversity loss. In addition, many native plants are threatened or have become e xtinct as a result of alien invasive plants (Davis 2003; Gurevitch and Padilla 2004; Pimentel et al. 2004 ) The major challenge, therefore, for land managers and ecologist s is how to effectiv ely manage invasive plants that seem to be spiraling out of control in places like the Bahamas. The Bahamas is an archipelago, made up of 700 islands and about 2,400 cays, covering an area of 5,358 sq uare miles (13,878 sq. km) ( Bahamas Government 2009). The islands are low lying wi th some rolling hills and ridges. The highest point is 206 feet, Mount Alvernia on Cat Island. There are no rivers but brackish (somewhat salty) lakes are found on several of the islands. The natural terrestrial vegetation consists of Caribbean pine fores t found on Abaco, Grand Bahama, Andros and New Providence and broadleaf evergreen forest locally called coppice forest (BEST Commission 2005; Seal e y 1994). Correll an d Correll (1982) described the broadleaf evergreen forest as coastal coppice, whiteland c ommunities and blackland communities. However, the Bahamas coppice forests are usually described as two types: blackland coppice and whiteland coppice (Bahamas National Trust 2008). This writer subscribes to the former classification of Correll and Corre ll (1982). The coastal coppice is made up primarily of shrubs nearest the shoreline where the soil is a combination of pure sand and fragmented limestone. Whiteland coppice is also near the shore and soils are comprised of packed, light grey, sterile coral sand soil. Areas of whiteland coppice further inland have loamy (sand, silt and organic matter) to black type soils. The blackland coppice forests are near the interior of the islands and the plant community is found in black to red loam soil which has th e greatest plant diversity of the three sub groups (Correll and Correll 1982). Each of the forest types are habitats for a variety of animal life forms, and are important in preserving the biodiversity of the islands (Bahamas National Trust 2008). The wetl and areas and mangrove forest are also important plant communities in the Bahamas. As an archipelago the Bahama Islands are mos t vulnerable to plant invasion. Islands are isolated therefore vulnerable and extremely susceptible to invasion of alien specie s
2 (Commonwealth Science Council 1996). This vulner ability leads to damage and biodiversity loss which is greater t han that of the mainland. Small island nations, shares characteristics such as isolation, vulnerability and extreme susceptibility which make it the most threatened to biodiversity loss because of invasive plant species. N ative species are also highly threatened because indigenous plants are unable to compete with these exotic alien plants (Wade 2005). A small percentage of native plants are en d emic (Correll and Correll 1982) therefore creates a greater threat to biodiversity loss. Norton (2009) stated that biological invasion is parti cularly prominent on islands because of reduced numbers of, and in some cases extinction of native plants. Is it possible that the Bahamas are overrun by alien invasive plants because of such factors? Many of the non native plants such as Casuarina equisetifolia have altered the landscape of the coast creating monoculture stands and have comple tely replaced native coastal plants (BEST Commission 2005). The Bahamas Environmental Science and Technology (BEST) Commission was established by the Bahamas Government in 1994. It coordinates all national efforts associated with the management and the imp lementation of multilateral environment agreements. It also reviews environmental impact assessments and environmental management plans for development projects within The Bahamas. The BEST Commission also develops national strategies and proposes environm ental legislation for the protection of the environment. The comp lex nature of an archipelagic country makes managing invasive plants more problematic. The fact that the most islands of the archipelago are not close to each other, and are only accessible by boat or airplane make s managing any program difficult. H ist orical ly in the Bahamas a centralized approach to managing re sources compounds the problem Usually many projects are designed and initiation deadlines agreed to but very few of them every get started. The high cost fo r travel to various islands also complicates any management initiative ( BEST Commission 2005). The need to implement innovative and dynamic management practices (US Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management 2009) is ess ential in controlling and eradicating invasive plants and establishing stable ecosystems. Such a plan should be diverse in nature and responsive to current scientific knowledge on alien species invasion. The emphasis should be on preventing alien species from entering the islands and controlling (Wade 2005) and eradicating those alien species that have become invasive. According to the Invasive Plant Council of British Columbia, Canada (2009) several agencies have developed best management through multi agency consensus as a guide to managing invasive plants. A guide was developed in order to identify and manage various invasive pl ant species throughout the Provi nce. While there are specific management techniques for the management of individual plant species, a coordinated approach to managing all such species is essential. It is the opinion of this writer that the type of management model would probably depend on existing laws, reso urces, complexity of the count r y and degree of training. This paper will examine existing laws, regulations and protocols of the Bahamas a s a background for establishing a management model. A proposed model that may be useful to the
3 Bahamas, as well as is sues related to planning for the introduction of a management mode will also be examined.
4 Section I : Existing Laws, Regulations and Protocols The Bahamas is an independent democratic country with almost 300 years of parliamentary democracy. As a member o f the Commonwealth (previously known as the British Commonwealth) United Nations and several other international affiliates, it has signed a number of environmental agreements such as the UN convention on biodiversity and the UN convention on biodiversity protocol. As a party to the convention and protocol, the Bahamas have committed itself to reducing the rate of biodiversity loss in the islands. Examining existing laws, regulations sity loss. Such examination provide s valuable information to determine whether existing laws are sufficient, need strengthening or enacting additional laws is necessary. 1 .1 National Legislation Legislation is the for mal enactment of public policy into la w. The process of how a bill becomes law is important in understanding and using this process to advance environmental issues in the Bahamas. Parliament which consists of an elected body called the House of Assembly and an appointed body named the Senate along with the Governor General is commanded by the constitution to make laws in order to promote a peaceful and orde rly society (Bahamas Government 2009). A bill can be introduced in draft form by a member of parliament in the House of Assembly. The us ual procedure, however, is for a member of the governing party to introduce a bill. The bill then goes through four stages in the house of Assembly for passage. It is sent to the Senate for debate and passage, then on to the Governor Genera l who signs it i nto law. Laws passed in this manner are termed acts (Figure 1). While there are no specific laws dealing with invasive species, the following major environmental laws which allude to it. 1 .1.1 The Bahamas National Trust Act (1959) The Bahamas National Trust Act passed in (1959) was probably the most important legislation passed by the Bahamas parliament which allowed for the protection of native plants. The legislation established the Bahamas National Trust as a legal entity to pro tect land and sea areas for the sole reas on of preserving the natural beauty for the enjoyment of residents and citizens. The act does specify in generalities the powers of the trust and allows it to make provisions and regulations to protect flora and fau na in protected areas (Bahamas Government 1959). 1 .1.2 The Physical Landscape of the Bahamas Act (1997) A portion of this act provides for the protection of plants in the Bahamas. It requires that a permit be obtained in order for specific trees and rare plants to be removed from natural areas. However, such a request for a permit may be accepted or rejected by the relevant authority (Bahamas Government 1997).
5 1 .1. 3 The Wildlife Conservation and Trade Act (2004) The wildlife conservation and trade act of 2004 was passed in response to the convention on international trade in endangered wildlife and fauna. The reason for the legislation was for the protection of endangered plants from unsustainable exploitation. T his legislation, while addressing all wildlife types, gives specific guidelines for the import and export of non native and native plants and animals Plants in each of the categories are specified according to scientific names in schedule I, II and III of the act. The act provides for controlling trade of fauna as specified in the act. The issuing of specific certificates for the purpose of import and export as well as guidelines for inspection of imported plants is also delineated. The provisions for exc eptions such as seeds and cut flowers for use by florists (Bahamas Government 2004) do raise some concerns for possible escape of these plants and their establishment in the fragile ecosystems of the Bahamas. Some florists and residents carelessly discard plants in their yards or undeveloped l ots. Many of the plants have seeds that may grow and become so abundant that they escape into nearby property. Even if planted under controlled conditions there is the possibly of plants escaping and b ecoming establish ed 1 .2 Regulations and Protocol In the absence of legislation, several regulations and protocol s have been initiated by the Bahamas Environment Science and Technology (BEST) Commission. A part of the duties of the commission is to provide guideline and d raft legislation for consideration by the government of the Bahamas. The BEST Commission recognizes the inadequacy of present legislation as it relates to protection of native plants. It has, therefore, proposed national strategies and suggested specific l aws be enacted to address the same. 1 .2.1 The National Invasive Species Strategy (2003) This strategy is a broad overview of the national foc us on invasive, alien species. It suggested that prevention, early detection and response, eradication and control were most important in managing alien species. The strategy recommended training of customs officers, agriculture and fisheries officers and enforcement officers as essential to the success of the strategy. Areas proposed for regular monitoring were public places, protected areas and nation al parks. T he committee working on the invasive species document advised that an inventory of all a lien species be performed. I n addition, it categorized species and recommended them for eradication and others for contro l (BEST Commission 2003). The Bahamas government policy for ma naging invasive species includes the commitment to enact legislation, prepare and implement management plans for the control of invasive species, and the reestablishment of native species. The g overnment also promised to encourage research into best management practices and foster regional and international cooperation to assist in the
6 control and eradication of alien species. Voluntary codes of conduct for government and non government agencies were also included in this document (BEST Commission 2003). 1 .2.2 The National Action Plan to Combat Land Degradation in the Bahamas (2006) This plan cited invasive alien plant species as one of the main causes for land degradation in The Bahamas. It was suggested that the implementation of improved stakeholder participation, innovative projects to restore degraded land, funding, collaborative research, coordinated activities and added participation from a more informed public could assist in the process of reducing land degradation (BEST Commission 2006). This plan also opined that these steps could indirectly contribute to controlling and eradicating invasive plant species. 1 .2.3 The Bahamas National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (1999) The national biodiversity strategy and action plan focused on the generalities of biodiversity in the Bahamas. However, it recognized that alien species are a serious threat to biodiversity loss, therefore the need to control or eradicate these species are cri tical to ecosystems health. The plan further suggested that risk assessment be done on each alien species, implementation of a public education program and interregional corporation be utilized to reduce biodiversity loss. This dual strategy and action pla n also recommended an integrated ecosystems approach to biodiversity conservation because of the fact of interdependence of these systems. central to the management process (Ray 1999). 1 .2.4 Other Le gislation Several other legislations have been prepared in draft forms but have not yet been presented to parliament. The information contained in these documents will be useful to address some of the concerns relating to invasive plants control in The Bahamas. However, writers are prohibited from citing these documents at this time because they are in final draft form before being presented to parliament. 1 .3 International Agreements and Protocols The Bahamas, after obtaining its independence from Britain in 1973, became a part of the it signed on to several international agreements relevant to its sus tainability as a nation. Among the agreements were the UN Convention on Biodiversity, the UN Convention on Biodiversity Cartagena Protocol and the Convention on International Trade on Endangered Species and wild Flora and Fauna (Table 1). These conventions provide the framework for individual member states to develop plans to address the concerns outlined in the documents. In most instances, The Bahamas have complied with the various agreements and have produced its national action plans to address issues i n the UN documents on biodiversity and invasive species.
7 Table 1 : Relevant International Environmental Conv entions and Protocol of Which t he Bahamas is a Party Conventions/Agreements/Protocols Objective Concluded In Force Convention on Biological Diversity To develop national strategies for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity. 5 June, 1992 29 December, 1993 Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety To protect biological diversity from the potential risks posed by living modified organisms resulting from modern biotechnology. It establishes an advance informed a greement (AIA) procedure for ensuring that countries are provided with the information necessary to make informed decisions before agreeing to the import of such organisms i nto their territory. 29 January 2000 29 January 2000 Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES) To protect certain endangered species from over exploitation via a system of import/export permits. 3 March, 9 1 73 1 July, 1975 Source: Bahamas Environment Science a nd Technology (BEST) Commission 2005 1 .3.1 The U N Convention on Biodiversity (UNCBD) The need to en courage conservation efforts through the sustainable use of resources in order to ensure biodiversity is a critical aspect of the convention. The establishment of protected areas within national jurisdictions was encouraged as a means of attaining this goal of sustainability and biodi versity. The development of national plans and policies which incorporated the ethical components of biological control measures and modern research is encouraged. Private sector involvement is also advised to ensure a policy is a reflection of the entire country (United Nations 1993).
8 1 .3.2. UN Convention on Biological Diversity Cartagena Protocol This convention deals with safety issues as it relates to the handling, transportation, use, transfer and release of any living modified organism. It mandates that signatories to the protocols initiate measures to insure safe movement or prohibit movement of living modified organisms. Such measures are important to reduce the risk to biological diversity. To further strengthen the protocol, an advanced informed agreement procedure is provided so that each participating country can make informed decisions before importing genetically modified organisms into their country (United Nations 2000). 1 .3.3 The Convention on International Trade on Endangered Species and w ild Flora and Fauna (CITES) This international agreement sought to regulate the import and export of endangered plants within member states of the United Nations. The agreement focused on species threatened by extinction and possibly affected by trade. Par ties to the convention agreed not to participate in trade except under special circumstances as specified in the agreement (United Nations Environment Programme 1973).
9 Section II: Planning for Invasive Plant Species Management Most non native plant spec ies are legally imported or smuggled into The Bahamas as food sources or ornamentals. While some of the alien plants such as mangoes and pigeon peas are beneficial as food crops, many are economically or environmentally damaging or pose health problems to humans. The Bahamas have begun to address the issues of invasive species threat by developing a national strategy document (BEST Commission 2003). R egional cooperation has also allowed for sharing of relevant information to pilot projects in some island st ates of the Caribbean (CAB International 2009 ) The Bahamas government contributed $500,000 of the $2M it ple dged to contribute to the Caribbean challenge. This is part of the Bahamas contribution as party to the United Nations Convention on Biological Div ersity to conserve at least 10 per cent of the terrestrial and marine habitat by 2010 and 2012 respe ctively (Bahamas Government 2008 ). T he Bahamas National Trust has also embarked on removing invasive plants from all of its properties and the protected lan d parks. The Nature Conservancy has provided regional leadership to coordinated biodiversity efforts withi n protected areas. T he Ministry of the Environment has formed partnership with these environmental bodies to promote efficient management of the envir onment. The Bahamas government through the Ministry of the Environment has also increased funding to the Bahamas National Trust to assist with improving the management of protected areas and national parks (Bahamas Government 2009). However, despite the efforts by the Bahamas government and environmental agencies, a coordinated approach to the management of invasive plant species has not yet been put into effect. 2.1 Management Techniques The BEST Commission (2003) in its national invasive strategy document outlined several measures that can be used to manage invasive plants. These include prevention, early detection, eradication and control. Each technique depends on whether a plant species has been prevented from entering the country, smuggled into the country and identified at an early stage of introduction, is abundant but not widely established or is established. In order to employ a suitable management strategy it is essential to know where alien invasive plant species are found and the potentia l for additional invasion. 2.1 .1 Models for Predicting An important aspect of managing alien invasive species is being able to predict locations favorable to the invasion of specific plants. A study of alien invasive plants conducted by San Luis Obispo County Agricultural Commission Office used CLIMEX, a software data model to determine the effects of climate on specific plant species. The software model was also able to predict species that had not yet infested the area. The model is dynamic in nature b ecause it is an objective tool which takes into consideration the multidimensiona l nature of ecological systems (Period 2001).
10 T he San Luis County Agricultural Commission Office also used Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to collect data of major species in the county. An invasive species database was developed which specified site characteristics and areas where alien invasive plant species were successful. The study found that this model allowed for improved predic tive accuracy of biotic and abiotic information. Population size could also be traced over time, thus contributing to more effective management strategies. The information provided helped with better understanding of ecological and biological ecosystems an d what constitutes successful invasion as well as the strength and weaknesses of a site (Period 2001). 2.1 .2 Prevention Model Prevention is considered the first line of defense against alien invasive plants entering a country or a region. It is considere d the most cost effective means of managing alien invasive species (Moncrieff 2006). It simply entails preventing entry of such plants at the borders. Prevention requires that there is legislation and regulations in place to prevent the entry of such plant s in the country. This is an area in which the Bahamas is rather weak because, while a plan exists as the bases for addressing the issue of invasive plant species, it is not enforceable. It is imperative that laws be enacted specifically to deal with indiv iduals who attempt to import alien plant species that are known to threaten the biological diversity of the islands of The Bahamas. The laws should list those species that are recommended for control and eradication by the Best Commission as well as other (Appendix A). Additionally, the legislation should include an import risk analysis such as pathways for introduction and quarantine and boarder control. Custom officers should be trained to de part of the detection process a booklet or manual should be provided for the purpose of identification and quarantine of such plant species. As new information be comes available, additional training should be provided along with identification materials. The Department of Agriculture may be an essential part of the training process. 2.1. 3 Early Detection Rapid Response (EDRR) Despite the best effort to prevent alie n invasive plants entering a country many will enter an area undetected. It is important that there is a plan in place to manage such conditions as well. Early detection and rapid response must be the next step in helping to arrest the problem. It is the second most cost effective method for managing alien invasive plant species. For this program to be successful there must be a direct and clear protocol in place. Such protocol should have a specific agency or group responsible for this aspect of the proce ss. The Department of Agriculture is better suited to carry out this task, since trained personnel are already in place in several of the islands of The Bahamas. In addition, botanists working in the country may also be u sed to assist with the training
11 Ke y components of an early detection, rapid response system may vary from one country to another; however, most agree that it should include surveillance, reporting, identification, collection, risk assessment and response to ensure a timely implementation o f effective, management of the environment (Moncrieff 2006; Welch 2007). If this approach is to be effective it requires that one pay attention to detail. This should involve initial reporting and a quick response protocol. If the Bahamas is to adopt a str ategy for early detection and rapid response, each aspect of the strategy should be adhered to. However, such strategy according to Moncrieff (2006) should be part of an ecosystem wide approach rather than a focus on individual alien invasive plants. As a result the response should not focus on the area where the alien invasive plant was initially found but areas beyond that border. Because of the dynamic nature of such plants, they spread rapidly and may affect other areas near the infested locality. An early detection program is not easy; the components suggest it is multifaceted. It therefore requires that planning must be an integral part of this process. It must start at pre implementation and carried through to implementation and beyond. Both Moncri eff (2006) and Welch (2007) agree that early detection requires that one pay attention to details specific to the process. Usually one of the problematic areas of the process may be the reporting mechanism. It is therefore imperative that all individuals a re fully informed of the reporting protocol to be used. If the goal of early detection is to arrest the problem before it spreads, then it is essential that the protocol is followed. It is then essential that all stakeholders be trained and provided with t he necessary tools to ensure success of the early detection process. Farmers, game wardens, gardeners and other individuals involved with plant protection should also be trained and provided with an identification manual of known alien invasive plant speci es. They should also be trained to identify plants with invasive characteristics in order to be able to respond and eradicate them quickly before establishment. Welch (2007) suggested that rapid assessment, data management techniques and reporting are esse ntial parts of the early detection process. As a result attention should be paid to the key stages of the process (Figure 1 ). This is a cyclic process and as such requires that all parties involved be familiar with it. A more detailed system (Figure 2 ) pro vides relevant information that ensures the success of the process. Figure 1 : Key stages of Early Detection, Rap Early Detection Analysis, Data Management, Reporting Rapid Assessment Rapid Response
12 Figure 2 : Key Stages of Early Detection, Rapid Response Assessment (Welch 2007) potential invasive plants. A rapid response team should then be dispatched to the site to conduct a species surv ey. Once the plant is identified and quarantined, the team should move swiftly to employ the most suitable technique to eradicate it. Verification is essential and should be done by a reputable source (Welch 2007). The Department of Agriculture may have tr ained botanists who would be able to carry out his task. In the event this is not possible then local botanists from the Bahamas National Trust, The Nature Conservancy or the College of the Bahamas may be used in this process. The process also requires an incident command system which is important to communication and ensuring that quick action is taken to eradicate the noxious plant species. A person dedicated to this task will help to improve response time. The actual management at this stage may be diff erent depending on the severity of the problem. The process may require one respondent, or a response team depending on the degree of invasion (Welch 2007). Moncrieff (2006) suggested that three response types may be necessary when dealing with alien invas ive plants. These include low, medium and high level incursion responses. Low level incursion response should be employed using one or few persons at the local or national level when the risk involved is very low. It may be a plant that is in the early sta ge of invasion and can be hand pulled and treated with an application of pesticides. Usually little or no funding is required with this method. Medium level incursion response would require specifically with a newly identified potential invasive that must be positively identified, by specialists. Eradication techniques may or may not be known; therefore specialists are necessary
13 to the process. The high incursion leve l requires the establishment of a special team and may require special funding. Quarantine measures and declaration under special laws may be needed before action can be taken. A national alien invasive species monitoring and rapid response process requir es a systemic approach to eradicating such plant species. It is essential that approaches to monitoring and responding are specific for national parks, botanical gardens, local parks, agricultural areas, public parks and recreation, tourist resort areas an d local home gardens are clearly defined. This will ensure success at all levels. Attempts to address this aspect by the BEST Commission in its national strategy document are a starting point to this process. The National Invasive Species Strategy for The Bahamas outlined a voluntary code of conduct for the government, botanical gardens, landscape architecture, nursery professionals, zoos, aquaria, agriculturalists, aquacultures and the gardening public. Monitoring can be done but individuals and organizati ons are not required to follow any strict enforceable guidelines. 2.1 .4 Control By the time invasive plant species become established or naturalized in an area they are usually in numerous places. Their large numbers and wide distribution make them diffic ult to eradicate because the cost for such operations is huge and the rate of failure is high (Tu et al. 2001). The goal of controlling alien invasive species is the long term reduction of the species below a given threshold. This would eventually lead to weaker invasive weed populations, resulting in an increase in native species populations (Welch 2007). Several species of alien invasive plants are established and naturalized in The Bahamas. The country does not have the resources to handle an eradication program. How then should the country proceed? Developing a coordinated control program is the best way to deal with this problem. Planning for control efforts is the first and most important aspect of the process. This involves goal setting, mapping or s urveying, and utilizing the most effective method for control (Tu et al. 2001 ); s etting realistic and attainable goals is essential to the success of any control process. Second, mapping the invasive species is also important to the process. One would think that if one knows where invasive plant species are it would be made easier to implement a control method. Third, providing the most suitable method is also necessary to succeed. The schematic guide for control of alien s pecies (Figure 3 ; Randall 19 97) is a helpful tool to use with the control technique.
14 Fig ure 3 : Management and Control of Alien Invasive Plant Species (Randall 1997) This cyclic process explains the dynamic nature of control of plants such as Casuarina equisetifolia (Australian pine ) which is found throughout the Bahamas. Essential to this process is developing an invasive plant management plan for systemic control of these plants that cannot be fully eradicated. Such a plan should include general inform ation (Table 2 ), measurable o bje ctives, control options (Table 3 ), monitoring and assessment of the species to be controlled and review and modification.
15 Monitoring and assessment is necessary to determine if progress is being made based on the objectives and whether intensification of the control process is necessary. If during this stage t here appears to be little or no progress, then a review needs to be done and where necessary modification of the process to ensure success. It is essential to emphasize that the most effective way to coordinate a control effort is at the local level. This would mean that local invasive species councils must coordinate the effort through a subcommittee of individuals trained in different control techniques. The subcommittee should not do the work by itself but must train all stakeholders in various techniqu es that can be used. These techniques may involve mechanical, chemical and biological control or a combination of these methods. Individuals who are trained and understand methods of control are usually closer to a problem and can be most valuable to the p rocess. M echanical control is achieved through manual removal of plants from a site such as hand pulling of weeds. Other f orms may involve the use of non electrical tools such as saws, axes, shovels, machetes and hoes. A more advanced form of mechanical c ontrol is the use of power equipment such as chain saws. Other heavy equipment, like harvesting machines which are used in Florida to clear water hyacinth, and bulldozers for other large trees, are also employed in the mechanical control method. This metho d is very labor intensive and may require special skills and training in Table 2: General Information A bout Casuarina equisetifolia Priority High priority is assign ed to the control along beaches on major islands and removal from botanical gardens and protected areas. Casuarina invades the entire shoreline, taking over sand dunes and disp lacing native plant species. This plant shallow root system makes it easy to tumbl e over with strong winds and during hurricanes. This tree accelerates beach erosion and beach loss and disrupts the nesting areas of sea turtles. The next step is to eradicate casuarinas from small islands and cays. Description Australian pine is an everg reen tree that resembles conifers and gr ows to about 150 feet (42 m). Casuarina has a single trunk with an irregular crown. The bark is reddish brown to gray, rough, brittle and peeling. The leaves are grayish green branchlets, jointed and thin. The flower is unisexual, inconspicuous, and brown. Fruit is cone like, with one winged nutlet type seed Current Distribution in the Country The Australian pine is also found in mangroves and wet land areas and along the sandy sho res. Casuarina is established extensively throughout The Bahamas.
16 operation of machines and proper disposal of invasive weeds. In addition, only specific species could be removed mechanically; therefore special training may be needed in order to ide ntify such species before removal could begin (Wittenberg and Cock 2001). Chemical control includes the use of herbicides developed to assist with the management of weeds. They are types of pesticides manufactured for the purpose of killing plants. Most of the herbicides used today are harmless to animals. It is usually applied to the above ground portion and basal bark application to standing shrubs and thin Windus and Kromer 2001; Tu et al. 2001) The condition of the site must be considered before any herbicide is used. Consideration must be given to seasonal conditions, non target species, and ground water contamination (Windus and Kromer 2001) A summary of the how herb icides are applied (Table 4 ) should be helpful to the process. The use of a technique depends on the species to be treated. Herbicides should be used which present minimal risk to other plants and animals and the environment (Hil lmer and Liedtke 2003). Florida geography is similar to that of the Bahamas. Many of the invasive alien plant species found in Florida are present in The Bahamas. The University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Science has done extensive rese arch on various herbicides in Florida. In a suggested several herbicide applications that have proven effective in controlling various plant species. The book also outlined the behavior of various herbicides in soils and their effects on wildlife populations. The Bahamas invasive plant species program may find this useful when implementing an invasive alien plant species control protocol. However, consideration mus t be given to the differences in environmental conditions. In Florida it was found that treatment varied from site to site as wells as on the same site (Langeland et al. 2009). Biological control is the introduction of a species from one environment into another to control pest species such as invasive plants. Usually such species are insects and are chosen because they are host specific. They are used to reduce the alien invasive plant population and not eradicate it. This is termed classical biological control and is said to be cost effective and self sustaining and is ecologically safe because of the specificity of the host to the plant. The biological control organism lives in balance with its host but reduces the plant population to a level that allow s native plants to thrive. This method is said to be suited to nature preserves where the use of chemicals could result in damage to native plants (Wittenberg and Cock 2001).
17 Table 4.2 Sample objectives and control options for Casuarinas equisetifolia Objectives Casuarina equisetifolia is extensive along the sea shore of many islands in The Bahamas archipelago and cannot be eradicated completely with available technology. The following objectives will help to guide the control process. Determine the ex tent of this alien invasive plant throughout The Bahamas. Eradicate this plant species from uninhabitated small islands and cays. Eradicate stands along isolated beaches on major islands of The Bahamas. Reduce stands by 60% to 80% along beaches on major is lands. Eradicate form botanical gardens and protected areas. Provide incentives for local gardeners to eradicate trees from their property. Control Options Pull young saplings and discard them in an appropriate place and burn Remove small stands manually Remove large stands by cutting trees and applying herbicides Employ basal bark treatment Hatch and squirt tree, then inject with herbicides
18 2.1 .5 Remote Sensing, A eria l Photography and Geogr aphic Information Systems (GIS) Alien invasive plants continuously contribute to a decrease in native biodiversity and ecological destruction such as erosion, and species extinction. Various te chnology can be used with the identification and mapping of alien species. These methods include the use of Aeriel photography, remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) While each of these techniques can be used separately, research scienti sts and other individuals and groups working with invasive plants use a combination of these techniques. Mullerova et al. ( 2005 ) used aerial photographs to effectively examine the behavior of Heracleum mantegazzianum which led to the discovery of an effe ctive control method in the Slavkousky les Protected Landscape Area of west Bohemia Underwood et al. (2002) studied iceplant ( Carpobrotus edu lis ) and Jubata G rass ( Cortaderia jubata ) for identification and to compare three techniques for processing image s of particular species The researchers used Airborne Visual/Infrared Imaging spectrometer (AVIRI) to determine which of three techniques, Table 4: Methods of Herbicide Applications (Tu et al. 2001) Foliar to intact, green leaves Spot spray ba ckpack applicator, spray or squeeze bottle Wick wipe onto leaves Boom spray mechanized equipment, seldom used in natural areas Basal bark circling the base of the trunk on the intact bark Frill, or hack and squirt to cuts in the trunk Inner bark injection requires special equipment and herbicide products Cut stump to freshly cut stems or stumps Pellet at plant base; rarely used in natural areas) P re emergent soil treatment (before the target species emerge; rarely used in natural areas).
19 (1) Minimum Noise Fraction, (2) Con ti nu um Removal and (3) B and Ratio Indices were most effective in identifying the plant species. The technique resulted in identifying Continuum Removal as the most effective method. GIS techniques are considered to be a superior process for gathering data. They are more efficient at locating and mapping invasive plant species and assisting in developing a program for eradicating and controlling them and replacing them with native plant species (Ricciardi et al. 2000). Combining local knowledge with GIS techniques used for identifying, mapping and managing such species is seen as critical to improving biodiversity (Robbins 2003) Other techniques are also used. In a Califor nia study (Underwood et al. 2002 ), topographic maps, historical data and vegetative maps were georeferenced to aid in the ma pping of invasive plants. This technique led to suc cessful and accurate identification of invasive plants as well as highest density areas and proximity to the coast line. Such accurate knowledge of spatial distribution of invasive plant species allowed f or better control, eradication and management t echniques (Underwood et al. 2002 ). A similar study combining field data, airborne imagery spectrometry and GIS found that invasive plants can be successfully managed (Ustin et al. 2002). However, having these techniques to better identify alien invasive plants is not sufficient. What happens after is more important. Methods used to manage invasive plant species must follow.
20 Section III: A Proposed Plan for t he Bahamas The BEST Commission has done the preliminary work for the establishment of a nationa l program for The Bahamas (BEST Commission 2003). Attempts have been made to get public support through the planting of Bahamian trees ; these attempts, however, have not affected any change nationally. The Bahamas National Trust (BNT) has established a botanical garden on the island of Eleuthera and has begun the refurbishment of the botanical garden on the island of New Providence. However, there seem s to be no concerted effort to move forward in a systema tic wa y to rid the count r y of noxious invasive alien plant species. The establishment of a national invasive alien plant council as suggested earlier by this writer can be the impetus for moving the national strategy forward. Once the council is establishe d a national plan designed for better management of noxious weeds can be properly addressed. 3.1 Bahamas National Invasive Plant Council The Bahamas National Invasive Plant Council (BNIPC) should be the body to oversee the overall program (Figure 4 ). It is imperative that a national council on invasive plant species is established to coordinate the management of alien species. The council should comprise representatives from government agencies with specific responsibilities for environmental concerns, non government agencies, scientists and environmental concern groups. This body should have responsibility to provide a national database of invasive plants by islands in the Bahamas. This would mean employing Geographic Information System (GIS) and rem ote sensing techniques in mapping these plants so as to ensure organized and proper management practices are employed to specific plant s pecies An inventory could hel p with planning for which plant species should be controlle d or eradicated on in dividual islands. T he national council should also be responsible for training, promoting research and monitoring and evaluation of invasive alien species projects as they are launched periodically. Minchau (2009), a researcher who worked with the Cariboo Regional District of British Columbia outlined additional duties the council may adopt. These include coordinating the cooperation among public and private agencies and organizations, public education, dispensing of information and materials (herbicides) to genera l public and employing bi ological control methods. T he national council should be the lead agency in regional collaboration and information sharing on invasive plant species. The council should also have responsibility to appoint island council with simila r responsibilities in consultation with local authorities on each island of the archipelago.
21 Figure 4 : Bahamas National Invasive Plant Council (BNIPC) 3.2 Structural Changes and the Family Islands : Island Councils As was mentioned earlier, the establish ment of island invasive alien species council s under a national council would provide a more effective means of managing alien plant species. The island council s sh ould have similar powers to those of the national council with the ability to generate the nece ssa ry financial resources need f o r fund ing projects, training locals and encouraging research on invasive plants to help further the work of the council s. L iaising with the national council in order to maintain open dialogue and reporting frequently on succes ses and fai lure should assist greatly in improving the management of invasive plants throughout the archipelago 3 .3 National Inventory According to the BEST Commission report no data is available on the extent of alien plant species in The Bahamas. While we know some species, the commission stated that the data base will be updated as information becomes available (BEST Commission 2003). This is but a beginn ing of acknowledging the existence of invasive plants but no serious survey or study has been done to reveal the extent of the invasion and, the invasive species biological d iversity and security. The desire to clear the land for the development of major tourist resort hotels, con dominiums, and luxury homes has resulted in a red uction of forest and other wooded areas, contributing to a t hreat to wildlife sustainability It is documented that alien species are some of the most destr uctive threats to natural ecosystem, resulting in environmental an d socio economic impact s that affect the lives of millions of people around the world ( Wittenberg and Cock 2001 ). It is therefo re a matter of urgency that a na tional inventory is conducted to determine the extent of the problem. Board Bahamas National Invasive Plant Council Board Chairman Deputy Chairman (Local Project Coordinator) Deputy Chairman Regional & International Deputy Chairman Research & Development Local Island District Council
22 It is important to conduct a national inventory so as to establish the legitimacy of claims by scientists and environmentalists Napompeth Banpo t (2004 ) of the National Biological Control Research Center, Kasetsart University Thai land reported on invasive alien insects and made several recommendation s th at this writer suggest s may be important for conducting a national inventory (Banpo t 2004) These suggestions are altered to suit the context of The Bahamas. The inventory can : Assist in establishment of a national coordination mechanism and information ex change system Provide the b ases for refining and strengthening policy and legislation and a better national enforcement system of invasive alien species Better assist with determining the problem s associated wit h invasive alien plant species and establishm ent of an early detection program Encourage appropriate and relevant research Assist with building a sustainable invasive alien plant program Improve capacity building in terms of human and finan c ial resources needed for the program In addition to these s uggestions, this writer suggest s that a national inventory will serve as the basi s for a national education and training program that will truly reflect the nation s goals, objectives and priorities of a more sustainable Bahamas Clearly defined goals and objectives can be developed and a phased management program could be adopted to address the invasive alien species concerns. The phased management pro gram may want to first implement quick success ful projects that will help to dr ive public involvement befo re moving to the more difficult eradication and control methods. However, it is important to know that part of the inventory has already started because of the National Invasive Strategy (NIS). The NIS categorized invasive plants into two groups: species t o be eradicated and species to be control led (BEST Commission 2003) This can be use d as the beginning to develop an inventory of invasive alien plants. A m odel developed by the European C ommu ni ty (Table 5 ) may be helpful in designi n g a similar one for the Bahama s. However, employing the Bahamas National Geographic Information Systems (BNGIS) to conduct surveys in each of the islands is essential to the establishment of a national management program. Once a national inventory is established and available to all stakeholders then ongoing research and monitori ng can occur A serious nation al pro gram could then be established for education, and mitigation of invasive plant species in The Bahamas.
23 3.4 Research and M onitoring A n essential part of the process is training researchers and monitors as to the importance of these processes to the overall goals of alien invasive species management. This aspect of the program could be done through a collaborative effort of the College of the Bahamas, BEST Commission, the Ministry of Environment, Department of Agriculture, Land and Survey, and external universities and for eign individuals that engage in research in The Bahamas. This would mean establishing a core team that could b e considered part of a clearing house for collecting and dissemination of information to national and local invasive species councils to aid in th e management effort. Because The Bahamas has a large number of invasive plants it may be easy to find individuals who may wish to work on specific species or several related species. Table 5 : Possible Steps to Develop a National Inventory and Set Priorities Mobilise existing expertise for species inventory and review, based on a partnership approach (universities, research institutes, botanic gardens, NGOs, other stakeholders) Start with known IAS and species for which information is already available. Link and integrate existing databases. Based on existing information and experience, make a preliminary assessment to identify priority species and areas for action. I nclude potentially invasive alien species, which are not yet introduced but have a high likelihood of introduction or spontaneous spreads from neighbouring countries. Where available, include information on: species taxonomy and biology date and place of introduction means of arrival and spread range and spread dynamics risk of expansion to neighbouring countries invaded ecosystems population size and trends impacts recorded and level of threat other data relevant for risk analysis and early warning systems prevention, mitigation and restoration methods and thei r efficiency references and contact details. (Genovesi and Shine 2004 )
24 The core team should convene a national symposium once per year to provid e updated information on scientific research on various plant species. Researchers working in specific isla nds may be considered as consultants to local invasive council s to provide support for ongoing management of invasive plants. Additionally, the core team should provide available research information on inva sive plant research from areas with similar ec ological make up as The Bahamas This may assist with the management effort. 3.5 Need for Additional Laws and Enforcement G uidelines A national strategy was developed but implementation of the plan has not been done as expected. One of the challenges is the lack of real legislation on invasive plant control in the Bahamas. The present laws are inadequate, as they do not fully address th e magnitude of the problem in the Bahamas today. Plant nurseries and individuals continue to import many of the plants considered to be harmful to the environment. Penalties for persons engaged in the transport of the various plant species must be perceive d as necessary if there is to be a change. A lack of legislation is contributing to a proliferation of invasive plants into the islands of the Bahamas. Only legislation can provide the framework to begin serious work on the many challenges presented by inv asive plants. The Bahamas can only be seen to be serious about the issues related to biological diversity when it moves forward to provide the necessary legislation to protect the native flora and fauna. Existing legislation and international conventions must also be enforced if there is to be a change in attitude of the Bahamian populace. When individuals and companies engage in importing invasive plants that are presently prohibited they should be given the maximum penalties. Such actions will send a cle ar message to others that the country is serious about its biological diversity mandate and is intolerant of those who are willing to thwart their efforts. 3.6 Institutional Support In the Bahamas, several government ministries, departments and agencies a re responsible for environmental laws and their enforcements. The Ministry of Agriculture is responsible for enforcing legislations and regulations related to the agricultural sector; the Ministry of the Environment is responsible for forestry, crown l and, sub division development and other related areas. In each of these ministries departments have specific responsibilities for the enforcement of v arious environmental laws. Non g overnment agencies such as the Bahamas National Trust oversee national parks a nd protected areas and employ wardens to enforce the laws as they relate to these areas. During the Bahamas 2009/2010 Budget Debate in the House of Assembly June 8, 2009, the environment minister, Dr. Earl Deveaux alluded to several projects the ministry, other government agencies and non government environmental agencies worked on during the course of the year (Bahamas Government 2009). Such cooperation is necessary if there is to be a level
25 of success in the quest to manage the environment. However, the a ttention to invasive plant control and eradication was only briefly mentioned when the minister cited the work of the Bahamas National Trust to increase the number of native plants in botanical gardens (Bahamas Governme nt 2009). Since invasive plant speci es pose a significant threat to biodiversity loss due to the replacement of species and land degradation, a more coordinated effort is needed to better manage this program. 3.7 Human and Financial Resources Human and financial resources are critical to the success of any program. The need for human capital is basically to manage the invasive alien species process and to help with the physical eradication and control measures. However, it is intertwined with the financial resources because without the latter it is not possible to engage human capital. While human resources may be engaged on a voluntary basis, financial resources are needed for tools, supplies and research to carry out control and eradication measures. It is important to note that control and eradication methods are expensive. The impact on agriculture, biodiversity and the economy as a result of accidental or intentional introduction of invasive alien species is difficult to determine but in the USA, the impact of six invasive species is esti mated at $74 billion dollars per year (National Invasive Species Council 2009). Information about such impact in the Bahamas is unknown but having examined the extent of invasive plants throughout the Bahamas archipelago, it could be estimated into hundr eds of millions of dollars The Bahamas is a small developing nation, which is faced with challenges such as financing a project that is seemingly growing out of control. This is due to the fact that more emphasis is placed on generating economic activity at the expense of co nservation efforts However, despite the challenges, the Bahamas must invest financial resources to manage this critical area of concern, which is reaping havoc on ecosystems throughout the country. In addition, acquiring international funding to assist in this process must be a national goal in order to better manage invasive alien species. 3.8 Training Critical to the management process is a well designed and suitable training program for leaders of the invasive alien species program, trainers, and the general public. Training i s essential because establish es legitimacy for the program, therefore, provides a means of realizing the provide s specific information about each plant species and ensure s that correct information is provided on the management of specific plant species. The degree of training should depend on the level of participation. Leaders both at the national and local lev els s hould be provided with extensive training program divided into six to seven sessions: overview and invasive species to be eradicated, invasive species to be controlled, other
26 non native species, eradication and control case studies, alternatives (native pl ants) and repo rting mechanisms. A booklet of invasive plant species should be provided as a reference guide for each participant. A second group of individuals from the private and public sector s should be trained as well. T hese individuals should include agriculture and fisheries officers, land management personnel, environmental health officers, customs, police and defense force officers, plant nursery owners and operators, botanical garden personnel, environmental agencies and organizations and science t eachers. Public education and training should be an integral part of this process. Several environmental reports have supported such training (BEST Commission 2003; BEST Commission 2005; Pinder 1995). It is important to provide training to this sector of society because members of the public in their gardens, community parks and local farms will do most of the actual work. The training should be a well designed, informative, and i nstructive media based public service program (Pinder 1995) available on radio stations throughout the country. In addition face to face instruction should also be available to the general public in each island district for individuals who would prefer su ch a program. Training at this level should be designed based on goals to be achieved; however, a general overview of invasive alien species should be part of the program. A web site should also be maintained by the national invasive alien species council which accomplishes the following: keeps ever yone informed about the program informs the public o f island projects and successes shares regional and international information and local research and provid es ongoing training for leaders Leaders of the program should ensure that this site is regularly updated because new information is available almost daily on invasive plant species. Persons should also ensure that it is interactive with a page or section of news and an information section allocate d for comments from the general public. 3 .9 A Community Based Approach Local communities can play an important role in the prevention, early detection and control of alien invasive plant species. Residents of a community are the most important stakeholder s and as such should be part of any program that affects their community. Another reason for community involvement is that efforts to control or eradicate an invasive species may be expensive, but involving residents would result in lower cost. Many indivi dual s in The Bahamas also know the landscape very well and can identify many plants by common names. They may have so me knowledge of the plant s but are ignorant of the environment and economic impact. Some plants may be problematic on many local farms as well, but the lack of knowledge on effective control and eradication methods has compounded the invasive species problem. By
27 providing the necessary training to local residents more could be done to arrest the invasive plant species problem quickly and mor e successfully. Community based management is an approach that involve s local residents to pa rticipate in organizing program s planning, implementing, monitoring and reporting strategies to en sure success. This program should be headed by the national coun cil and coordinated by local inva sive plant council s The local invasive plant cou ncil s should be the legal body for providing training for local residents and any materials that must be used in the invasive plant management program. Such a program is nece ssary because The Bahamas, an archipelagic nation would be better served by local management rather than by centralized agencies. Examples given below of successful control and management using a community based approach on several islands supports the thesis that it is a useful strategy for The Bahamas. Papua New Guinea used the community based approach very successfully with the residents in the north eastern part of the island (Wittenberg and Cock 2001) Sa lvin i a molesta an aquatic floating fern ha d completely taken over the Sepick River which was the main source of food and only transportation corridor for the people of the region. With help from the United Nations Development CSIRO the government was able to acquire the biological control agent C yrtobagous salviniae (Salvinia beetle), which it distributed to the local residents in the area The beetles were released into the water bodies. The use of the local residents allowed for quicker distribution and release of the agents which in turn contri buted to rapid control of the noxious invasive weed This is reported as one of the most successful biological control program to date. Similar programs use volunteers, such a s the restoration of the nature reserve on the island of Rodrigues east of Maurit ius and the community based Aboriginal management program in Northern Australia (Wittenberg and Cock 2001). One example of a local problem that can be eradicated through community effort is Schinus terebinthifolius ( Brazilian pepper tree ) in North Andros a nd on other islands of The Bahamas where they have not been est ablished. What is needed is a coordinated approach to organizing and educating the local communities so that efforts could be initiated to rid the islands of these noxious weeds. Such a project must first engage volunteers in a planned education program on the Brazilian pepper tree and methods for eradication. In addition to workshops and seminars posters and broachers could be developed to educate the public about invasive plants (Appendix B, C and D ). Second, the planting of native plant species (Appendix E ) and monitoring to prevent recovery of the Brazilian pepper tree. This can serve as a pilot for future eradication projects.
28 Conclusion This study focus is restoring the ecology of The Bahamas, not to prehistoric conditions or to pre European exploration but to a functional state that will bring balance to the existing biosphere that has become unsustainable due in part to the over population of inv asive alien plant species. Because of this the island s of the Bahamas are under threat of losing their native biodiversity. It is therefore imperative that urgent action is taken to begin the restoration process. A revision of environmental laws will prov ide for regulations to properly manage the imp orts, smuggling and accidental introduction of invasive plants in the county. Strengthening the laws should require that e xisting and new subdivisions use only native plants in landscaping. Large commercial and tourist developments should have sim ilar requirements. T hose businesses with invasive plants as part of the landscape must be encouraged to replace them in the shortest possible time. T he establishment of a nationa l invasive plant council to lead the ta ecosystem is most important. It cannot be done by any single government agen cy because va rious aspects of land management are the responsibility of several agencies. This writer has therefore proposed a plan that can work and w ill definitely impact the restoration in a positive way. It recognizes the importance of a national invasive plant council but underlines the need for local involvement to ensure success over the long term. This paper does not propose that the count r y stri ve for an ideal that does not exist or never existed. It seeks to bring attenti on to a problem that is spiraling out of control that must be address ed Careful consideration of this plan will pro vide insight into the important ingredients required for rest oration. These factors include establishing a national body, activating the national plan, educating individuals, strengthening of laws and engaging t he inhabitants in the process as essential to the desired outcome The Bahamas is a relatively small cou ntry with limited resources; however, it has a rich tradition of i nvolving its people in the self help projects that benefit both them as well as the country as a whole. Funding is always a challenge but volunteers along with creative fundraising will help to move the program forward. The need to se ek international grants and aid to help with the program is necessary; however, corporations wishing to do business in the Bahamas must be invited to help fund this program as well. It is a challenging, time consuming and in some cases labor intensive program but with leadership, support and the necessary resources this project can be an example for many other countries struggling with similar challenges. It he Bahamas focus on creating an enforceable early detection, rapid expertise must also be considered if it expects to successfully eradicate specific alien invasive p lant species. I t is necessary that urgent action be taken because the native fauna and flora of the Bahamas is threatened; therefore, steps must be taken to save native plants f rom becoming extinct. The action of removing invasive plants fo rm the Bahamas a rchipelago will benefit other
29 native species, restore our wetlands and mangroves and the fast eroding shoreline. Many native plants have been removed from many of the islands, and replaced with alien species. Many of the alien species have become naturaliz ed on those islands. The action of removing native plants has affected the balance in nature, because animals that have used them as food sources are affected. Finding a way to re No island country can remain sustainable if it is stripped of its native for est; trees and shrub for alien invaders that are not adapted to the natural land and aquatic systems. The task is a mammoth undertaking but with a well organized system in plac e much can be done to help control and eradicate the many noxious weeds found in the archipelago. Organizing resources with a steady flow of local and international funding can help to address the issues related to invasive species. This would mean rethink ing traditional management practices and implementing those that may be more effective and responsive to the process of controlling and eradicating invasive alien species. The Bahamas must follow the example of South Africa and declare war on alien invasiv e species and utilize an aggressive program t o eradicate such species. Koe n i g (2009) reported that South Africa at the initial stages of its eradication program employed 7500 part time workers paying them $6 per hour. Today, because of its aggressive appr It is important for The Bahamas to and adapt a development plan in order to reverse the negative effects of non native invasive plant species. A non responsive attitude will resul t in further damage to ecosystems and human enterprises such as fisheries, farming and forestry, costing the country millions of dollars.
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32 Mullerova, J. P. Pysek, V. Jarosik and J. Pergl 2005. Aerial photography for assessing the regional dynamics of the invasive plant Heracleum mantegazzianum Journal of Applied Ecology, 42: 1042 10 53. National Invasive Species Council. 2009. What do species cost the economy? I n N ational I nvasive S pecie s Council Washington D C Available from http://www.invasivespecies.gov/main_nav/mn_faq.html#economic_cost (accessed November 19, 2009). Period, R. 2001. Invasive plant management project. San Luis Obispo, CA: ARI, 46910. Available from http://digitalcommons.calpoly.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1076&context=b io_fac (accessed November 21, 2009) Pimentel, D., R. Zuniga, and D. Mo rrison 2004. Update on the environmental and economic cost of associated with alien invasive species in the United S tates. Ecological Economics 20 : 1 16. Pinder, S. 2005. Bahamas: Count ry report to the FAO international technical conference on plant genetic resources. Food and Agricultural Organization, Leipzig, Germany. Randall, J.M. 1997. De fining weeds of natural areas. P p. 18 25 I n J. Luken and J. Theiret (eds.) Assessment and management of plant invasions Springer, New York, NY. Ray, G. C. 1999. The commonwealth of The Bahamas biodiversity and action plan. The Best Commission Nassau, Bahamas. Ricciardi, A., W. W. M. Steiner, R. N. Mack and D. Simberloff. 2000. Towards a glob al information system for inv asive plants. BioScience, 50 : 239 2 44 Robbins, P. 2003. Beyond ground truth: GIS and the environmental knowledge of herders, professional foresters, and other traditional communities. Human Ecology 31 : 233 2 52. Sealey, N. E. 19 94. Bahamian landscapes: An introduction to the geography of The Bahamas 2nd ed. Media Publishing, Nassau, Bahamas Tu, M., C. Hurd and J.M. Randall. 2001. Weed control methods handbook: tools and techniques for use in natural areas. Wildland Invasive Species Program, The Nature Conserv ancy, Davis, CA. 195 pp. Available from http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu (accessed November 20, 2009).
33 Underwood, E., S. Ustin and D. Dipietro, 2002. M apping non nati ve plants using hyperspectral. In C enter for Spatial and Remote Sensing (CASTARS), Dept. of Land, Air & Water, Universit y of California, Davis, CA. Available from ftp://po po.jpl.nasa.gov/pub/docs/workshops/02_docs/2002_Underwood_web.pdf (accessed November 17, 2009) United Nations Environment Programme. 1973. Convention on international trade on endangered species and wild flora and fauna. United Nations. New York NY Available from http://www.cites.org/eng/disc/text.shtml (accessed October 24, 2009). United Nations. 1993. Convention on biological diversity. United Na tions. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Available from http://untreaty.un.org/cod/avl/ha/cpbcbd/cpbcbd.html (accessed November 19, 2009). United Nations. 2000. Cartagena protocol on biosafety to the convention on biological diversity. United Nati ons, Montreal, Canada US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 2009. Invasive species 2009 Washington DC Available from http:// www.blm.gov/education/LearningLandscapes/explorers/lifetime/invasive.html (accessed November 19, 2009). Ustin, S. L., D. DiPietro K. Olmstead E. Underwood and G. S. Scheer. 2002. Hyperspectral remote sensing for invasive species detection and mapping. Ca lifornia, U.S.A. Center for Spatial and Remote sensing (CASTARS), Dept. of Land, Air & Water, University of California, Davis. Wade, M. 2005. Priorities for the control and management of alien invasive plants on islands. Biology and Environment: Proceeding s of the Royal Irish Academy 105B : 167 1 71. Welch, B. A. 2007. Introduction, Pp. 1 7. In Strategic approach to early detection. In : Early detection of invasive plant species handbook USGS/NPS. Available from http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov/brd/invasiveHandbook.cfm (accessed November 21, 2009). Windus, J. and M. Kromer ( ed s) 2001. Invasive plants of Ohio: A series of fact sheets describing the most invas ive plants in Columbus and Franklin County Metro Parks, the Nature C o nservancy, and Division of Natural Areas and Preserves Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Columbus, Ohio
34 Wittenberg, R. and M. J. W. Cock. 2001. Invasive alien species, how t o address one of the greatest threats to biodiversity: A toolkit of best prevention and management practices. CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon, U. K.
35 Appendix A: Early Detection Reporting Sheet Invasive Plant Species (botanical name): Common Name: Person locating infestation: Name of property or park etc.: Contact Phone Number Island Email: Owner/Manager of land: Date of Sighting Location features/Address of property or park and infestation location: Has Identification been confirmed? By: Specimen Number Type of Plant (Circle as appropriate) Tree Shrub Herb Grass/ sedge Creeper Vine Floating aquatic Emergent aquatic Average height ( in cm) 1 10 11 20 21 50 51 200 200 + Growth Stage seedling Adult (non flowering) Adult (flowering) Seeding Post Seeding Flower Color: Area of Infestation (in m) Specify or estimate if possible Habitat Farm Road Side National Park Public Park Garden Coppice Wetland Specify Source of Introduction of Suspected Vector How long has it been there? Other Information Photo taken Yes No Ada pted from Moncrieff 2006
36 Appendix B: Education Poster
37 Appendix C : Wanted Invasive Poster
38 Appendix D : Education Pamphlet
39 Appendix E : Native Bahamian Plants Local Name Scientific Name Local Habitat Propagation Marlberry, Dog Berry Ardisia escallonioides Coppice scrubland S eeds Gumbo limbo Gum elemi Bursera simaruba Coppice, pineland, scrubland, open areas Seeds, Cuttings Brasiletto Caesalpinia vesicaria Coppice, rocky hills Seeds Sevenyear Apple Casasia clusiifolia Coastal coppice Smooth Casearia Casearia nitida Scrubland, Coppice Seeds Cuban Catalpa Catalpa punctata Coppice, open areas Seeds Coco Plum Chrysobalanus icaco Coastal swamps, sandy beaches Seeds Satin leaf, Saffron tree Chrysophyllum oliviforme Woodland, coppice, scrubland seeds Buttonwood Conocarpus erectus Coastal mud, savannas edge of Salinas Seeds, cuttings Pigeon plum, Plum bush Coccoloba diversifolia Coppice, scrubland Seeds, seedlings, cuttings Bahamian Pigeon plum Coccoloba tenuifolia Coppice, scrubland Seeds, cuttings Sea grape Coccoloba uvifera Coastal thickets, rocky areas Seeds, seedlings, cuttings Silver Thatched Palm Cocothrinax argentata Coppice, Pineland, Scrubland Anaconda, Geiger Tree, Spanish Cordia Cordia sebestena Sandy rocky coastal tickets Seeds, cuttings Cascarilla, Sweet Wood Croton eluteria Coppice covered ridges, rocky slopes Candlewood Go chnatia ilicifolia Coppice, pineline, scrubland Seeds Lignum Vitae, Tree of Life Guaiacum sanctum Coppice covered rocky slopes and ridges, palm shrubs, seaside ledges Seeds, cuttings Beefwood Guapira obtusata Coppice, thickets S eeds Bay hops, Bay Winders, Railroad Vine Ipomoea pes capre Beaches and coastal rocks seeds Boxwood, Cancer tree, What Jacaranda co erulea Coppice, scrubland Seeds West Indian Red cedar Juniperus barbadensis Coppice, rocky ground Cones, seedlings
40 Common Name Scientific Name Local Habitat Propagation Sagebush Lantana demutata Rocky flats, coppice, scrubland Wild tamarind Lysiloma latisiliquum Coppice, scrubland Seeds, cuttings Willow Bustic Mastichodendron fetidissimum Beach coppice, pineland, flats S eeds Horse Bush Peltophorum adnatum Scrubland, coppice Seeds Black Ebony, Bull Wood Pera bumeliifolia coppice Seeds Black Wood Picrodendron baccatum Rocky coppice Seeds Dog Wood Piscidia piscipula Coppice, rocky slopes, dunes claw Pithecellobium bahamense Scrubland, pineland, savannas, coppice Seeds Pithecellobium glaucum Coppice, pineland Seeds Bay Cedar Suriana maritime Dunes, rock shores Inkberry, Black Soap Scaevola plumier Coastal dunes Seeds, cuttings Bahama senna, Stinking pea Senna chapmanii Pineland, coastal coppice, waste land S eeds Sea Purslane, Sea Pickle Sesuvium portulacastum Sandy beaches, saline flats, rocky areas seeds Bay Cedar Suriana maritime Dunes, rock shores Beef bush, Gu mwood, Above all, White cedar, Pink P oui Tabebuia bahamensis Scrubland, Coppice, pineland S eeds Yellow Elder Tecoma stans Sandy or rocky soil, coppice Seeds, seedlings, cuttings Small fruited Thatch palm, Buffalo top Thrinax morrisii Sandy and rocky soil Seeds Large fruited Thatch palm Thrinax radiate Coastal limestone and sands Seeds Bahamas Buttercup Turnera ulmifolia Beach sand, coppice, scrubland Seeds Sea Oats Uniola paniculata Beaches and sand dunes Spike grass Uniola virgata Saline Source: Correll and Correll, 1982
41 Part II : Introduction The Bahamas is an archipelago of 700 islands and about 2,400 cays, covering an area of 5,358 sq uare miles (13,878 sq. km) ( Bahamas Government 2009). Like all small island developing countries it is vulnerable to invasion of noxious weeds that invade the natural landscape, threatening native plants to a point of endangerment or extinction due to human population pressures and overdevelopment of the coast (Global Environmental Facility 2005). Invasive plants are considered weeds, because they exist outside their natural range. They are also considered weeds in natural areas because they usually displace native plants and other w ildlife associated with natural vegetation and can alter a natural process such as water flow (Langeland and Stocker 2009). The Bahamas, like small island nations, shares characteristics such as isolation, vulnerability and extreme susceptibility which ma ke it the most threatened to biodiversity loss because of invasive species of plants (Commonwealth Science Council 1996). The Global Invasive Species that are non native to an ecosystem, and which may cause economic or environmental harm or A number of plant species have either been intentionally introduced into the landscape of The Bahamas or brought in by mistake. In a study of Cas uarina equisetifolia on San Salvador Island, an island in the Southeast Bahamas, it was found to be a dominant species, taking over the landscape near the shoreline and wetland areas (Rodgers 2005). A study on Eleuthera Island, an Island in the Central Ba hamas reported similar findings (Vincent and Kwit 2007). Additionally, prominent plant conservation garden in The Bahamas (Ardastra Gardens and Zoo 2009). Anoth er noxious weed Schinus terebinthifolius is rapidly invading natural areas on several islands (Hickey and Vincent 2005). Plants may have become so widespread on some islands that eradication is near impossible therefore, control measures are employed. It is important that these invasive plants are controlled in order to maintain the native Casuarina equisetifolia as was mentioned earlier is found along the coast and has a very shallow root system. It has replaced much of the coastal plant species resulting in the beach becoming more vulnerable to degradation during hurricanes. Hurricanes are very destructive storms, with very strong winds, therefore, casuarinas with its shallow root system are among the first to topple. The result is, sand dunes are flattened and sand gets blown away resulting in beach loss (Moultrie 2005). Rodgers and Gamble (2008) reported very little damage done to casuarinas and coast in San Salvador different. In observing the same storm in Grand Bahama and Eleuthera extensive damage to the beach area was witnessed as a result of fallen casuarinas during Hurricane Francis (200 4). These
42 beneficial. It is evident from various researches that these plants possess specific identifying characteristics that make it difficult controlling or er adicating them. The University of Arizona Office of Arid Lands Studies (2006) report that the specific traits make some plants more invasive than others. They report that many of these invasive plants grow quickly and have short life cycles; they go from s eed to producing seeds very rapidly. Several are able to grow in a variety of habitats, produce large number of seeds, long seed dormancy and staggered germination and proficient seed dispersal. Some invasive plants are characterized by the ability to repr oduce sexually by seeds or asexually by sending out above ground or below ground stolons and rhizomes or by growing new plants from cuttings. If the invasive weeds reproduce sexually, they are able to effectively use insects, birds, bats or other pollinato rs in the new environment. These plants often provide shade, which prevent the growth of native plants. Some plants may even benefit from allelopathy and release a chemical in the soil that prohibits the growth of native plants. The Bahamas, in an attempt to address the problem of invasive plant species ratified the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity in 2004. Through the efforts of the Bahamas Environmental Science and Technology (BEST) Commission a National Biodiversity Strategy and Actio n Plan and National Invasive Species Strategy were developed for The Bahamas. A committee on Biodiversity was formed. In addition, The Commonwealth of The Bahamas Biodiversity Clearing House Mechanism website was launched shortly afterward in 2005 to disse minate information nationally. The Bahamas implementation of the United Nations Convention on Biodiversity is ongoing with full implementation expected by 2010 (The Commonwealth of The Bahamas Biodiversity Clearing House Mechanism Website 2005). Educating the public about the impact of invasive plant species is essential if controlling or eradicating them is to be successful. The Bahamas National Trust, Nature Conservancy, Bahamas Reef Environment Education Foundation (BREEF), Friends of the Environment, th e Ministries of Tourism and Education and several other environmental organizations were among the leaders in educating the public on invasive plant species. A new Ministry of the Environment should be able to network with other government and non governme nt agencies to devise a strategy to educate the Bahamian masses about the issues of invasive plants. The Bahamas Government leadership has also been essential to the control and eradication effort. In addition to adoption of international conventions and a greements, the establishment of the Ministry of Environment was a positive indication of a serious commitment to environmental issues. Additionally, the government supported the million tree planting program whose goal it is to plant one million native tre commitment to eradicate, where possible, and control invasive plant species in the Bahamas species an d replacing them with native species is another indication of its commitment to eradicate invasive species from the Bahamas (Gilbert 2009).
43 an overview o f its role in providing the national leadership to ensure that this program is successful. It is also important to know that while the government agencies are essential for providing the framework for the invasive species policy, it will take Bahamians and residents to aquatic environments. The initial thrust was to develop a national invasive strategy as the impetus for beginning the work to rid The Bahamas o f the noxious weeds. A reference list is available as a result of extensive work by the Bahamas Environment Science and Technology (BEST) Commission. Additionally, scattered information is available on a few species. This is a first attempt to compile the local information along with that of the international researchers to effectively manage invasive plants in The Bahamas. In addition, the information contained in this booklet will serve to educate the general public and individuals, who are key stakeholde rs in helping with the management process, about invasive plant species in the Bahamas. It is designed with pictures and illustrations to help local residents easily identify the various species in an effort to spur active involvement in the control and er adication efforts. The booklet, further, highlights invasive plants in three categories: species recommended for eradication, species recommended for control (BEST Commission 2003) and other potentially invasive plants.
44 SECTION I: Invasive Plant Species R ecommended for Eradication Eradication of non native, invasive plants is a very expensive undertaking; however, volunteer programs by citizens can help to speed up the complete removal of these species. The general public may begin by removing invasive pla nts from their property (BEST Commission 2003). Additionally, local area groups could be formed to assist with eradication programs within a specific locale. It is useful to employ methods that have served to successfully control invasive plants locally. H owever, some useful methods of control are pulling weeds when soil is wet; removing annuals and applying biodegradable herbicides during dry weather to maximize efforts. In addition, monitoring personal gardens and property nearby to detect early invasion or return of invasive species is critical to the eradication program (Simberloff 2003). Also, individuals should become involved in educational programs that will assist with physical identification of species recommended for eradication. The Bahamas Envir onment Science and Technology (BEST) commission has singled out five species recommended for eradication including: Casuarina glauca (Suckering Australian Pine) Colubrina asiatica (Leatherleaf), Melaleuca quinquenervia (Paper Bark) Scaevola taccada (Asia n Scaevola) Schinus terebinthfolius (Brazilian Pepper) Jasminum fluminense (Azores jasmine) and Mucuna pruriens (Monkey Tamarind). The BEST Commission (2003) also stated that this list is fluid and may change as more information becomes available.
45 1.1 Trees and Shrubs Casuarina glauca Common Name: Suckering Australian pine Beefwood family: Casuarinaceae Origin: Australia Identifying Characteristics Casuarina glauca is an evergreen tree that grows to a height of 20 meters (70 feet). It resembles the conifers with branches having green pine like needles that are jointed, long, thin and sometimes waxy. The leaves are in tiny whorls of 10 to 17 found at the joint of branchlets. Flowers are red and unisexual and bloom bet ween April and September. Ma le flowers are found in small axillary clusters and females are found in small terminal spikes. Casuarinas have tiny, one seeded, winged nutlets or samaras in woody, subglobose, cone like clusters or fruiting heads (Cor rell and Correll 1982; Kaufman and Kaufman 2007; Langeland and Burks 1998). Habitat Casuarina is found only occasionally on islands of The Bahamas along the coast and inland areas, favoring sandy soil. Casuarina glauca is salt tolerant and is most prevalent in Andros, Berry Islands, Cat Ca y, and surrounding cays (Correll and Correll 1982). Migration Patterns This plant produces an abundance of light, flat seeds that are easily spread by the wind. In addition, it reproduces rapidly from suckers from extensively spreading roots (Langeland an d Burks 1998). Use ornamental plant and is still seen in some gardens as hedges. Additionally, they are planted along roadsides as shade trees. They are also often used as firewood, for wood carving and furniture making. In some areas of the world it is used as lumber (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007).
46 Impact This aggressive Casuarina species can take over the landscape and replace native plants. Suckering Australian pine spreads aggressively from extensively spreading roots, especially when pruned, resulting in dense stands of forests. It is extremely destructive to native plant communities as it completely takes over area s replacing native vegetation (Langeland et al. 20 08) Pollen from the flower is said to cause allergic reaction in humans ( Kaufman and Kaufman 2007). Management Efforts to eradicate Suckering Australian pine must begin with education. In addition, preventative measures must be put in place to prevent th e import of this species. For small stands, practical ways of eradication is manual removal. Young saplings should be pulled and discarded or cut until the root system is exhausted. For the larger, more extensive stands a combination of cutting and systemi c herbicide application is most effective. Another effective method is to employ basal bark treatment. The tree can also be hatched and sprayed, then injected with herbicide. Burning new seedlings is also effective (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007; Langeland and Burks 1998). Colubrina asiatica Common Name: Leatherleaf Buckthorn Family: Rhamnaceae Origin: Tropical Asia Identifying Characteristics Leatherleaf is a low shrub with climbing branches which can grow to a length of 30 ft. (9 m). Leaves are alternate, thin, shiny green, egg shape d and long pointed. Flowers are small greenish A http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Starr_061108 9754_Colubrina_asiatica.jpg B http://www.invasive.org/gist/photosc f.html
47 and bloom in clusters. Seeds are in green capsules and are small, grey then turning brown at maturity (Correll and Correll 1982; Kaufman and Kaufman 2007). Habitat Leatherleaf is found in coastal thickets on both sandy and rocky shores. It is now established in The Bahamas, Florida and the Caribbean (Correll and Correll 1982). Migration Pattern It is spread vegetatively by trailing stems. Climbing vines may fall back and produce roots, producing new vines. See ds survive in soils for 3 to 5 years (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007). Use It is used as a ornamental plant in gardens and has escaped cultivation. Impact It has a sprawling habit, forming a thick mat of stems on native plants, preventing light penetration, impeding germination of plants, thus threatening native species (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007). Management Leatherleaf is controlled using basal bark treatment or is cut to stump and controlled by applying the herbicide triclopyr. Also, spraying glyphosate on leaves can kill the plant (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007).
48 Melaleuca quinquenervia Common Name: Melaleuca, paper bark Myrtle family: Myrtaceae Origin: Australia, New Guinea, Solomon Islands Identifying Characteristics This fast growing evergreen tree can reach a height of 80 feet (24 m). Its most distinctive characteristic is its whitish, multi layered peeling bark. Leaves are short stalked, narrow elliptic. The bottlebrush like spike clusters flowers ar e small and white with many stamens. Fruits are short, woody cylindrical capsules with many seeds (Corr ell and Correll 1982; Kaufman and Kaufman 2007; Mazzotti et al. 2009 ). Habitat Melaleuca grows best in wetland areas like mangrove swamps ( Kaufman and K aufman 2007). It also favors open rock flats near ponds and in scrubland. It is found on most islands of The Bahamas archipelago including Exuma, Rose Island, Cat Island, Andros, Berry Islands, Eleuthera, Harbour Island, St. Georges Cay, Paradise Island, N ew Providence, Andros, Bimini, Cat Cay, Abaco, Grand Bahama and surrounding cays (Correll and Correll 1982). Migration Patterns This aggressive, fast growing plant is propagated by seeds that are dispersed by wind and water (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007). Use Used extensively as an ornamental plant in gardens throughout the Bahamas, it is also used as mulch and pulpwood in Florida (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007). C ier/imagepages/singles/starr_031108_0008_melaleuca_quin quenervia.htm D http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Melaleuca_quinque nervia_(leaves).JPG E http://www.calflora.net/losangelesarboretum/whatsbloomi ngdec06.html
49 Impact Due to its fast growth, it takes over vast areas of land, invading wetlands and terrestrial area s. It prevents native species from being established by forming a dense canopy, and preventing light from penetrating. Melaleuca can change the ecology of marshes and swamps by establishing itself as the dominant tree species. Trees are adapted to fire, an d threfore very hot crown fires can result. The nectar is used by honey bees. The pollen causes allergic reaction in some people ( Kaufman and Ka ufman 2007; Mazzotti et al. 2009 ). Management Seedlings can be pulled and disposed of properly to prevent regrow th. Large trees are usually cut or girdled and treated with the herbicide imazapyr. Biological control methods are also employed using melaleuca snout beetle or melaleuca weevil ( Oxyops vitiosa ) and melaleuca psyllid ( Boreioglycaspis melaleucae) (Kaufman a nd Kaufman 2007). Scaevola taccada Common Names: Asian Scaevola, White Inkberry, Hawaiian Seagrape Goodenia family: Goodeniaceae Origin: Indian and Pacific Region Can be confused with the native species ( Scaevola plumie i r) but leaves of the native species are not as glossy as those of Scaevola taccada and the fruit of Scaevola plumier i is black. Identifying Characteristics Asian Scaevola is a rounded, erect, bushy shrub that grows to 16 feet (4.8 m). Leaves are simple, evergreen glossy and thick with alternate arrangement. They are also oblong obovate and broadly rounded at the apex. Flowers are in clusters of 2 4 and white t o pinkish, flowering year round, with five petals that are arrange d in a semicircle when matur e The fruit is fleshy and round first green then white (Correll and Correll 1982; Kaufman and Kaufman 2007).
50 Habitat This plant thrives in sandy areas such as dunes as well as rocks along the beach and coast (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007). It is found throughout the islands of The Bahamas especially on Andros, Bimini, Cat Cay, Abaco, Grand Bahama and surrounding cays (Correll and Correll 1982). Migration Pattern New plants get established easily because the fruits of Scaevola taccada are eaten by pigeo n and sea birds. Additionally, fruits drop into the water and float to new locations (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007). Use This is used as an ornamental plant by many coastal developments such as hotels, condominiums, other residential developments and as hedgin g by local residents (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007). Impact Asian Scaevola forms dense thickets along the coast and in garden areas, out competing the native species that are better at controlling erosions. They also cover sand dunes which threaten s the habit at of plant species and other animal species like the sea turtles that use them for laying eggs (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007). Management Plants can be hand pulled but one must be careful to pull all underground stems to prevent them from sprouting again. An other effective method is to cut the stem s and then paint them with the herbicide triclopyr (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007).
51 Schinus terebinthifolius Common Names: Brazilian Pepper, Bahamian Holly Sumac family: Anacardiaceae Origin: Argentina, Paraguay & B razil Identifying Characteristics Brazilian Pepper spreads along the ground or grows as a shrub to about 30 feet (9 m) with arching branches. The leaves are dark green, alternate on stems with about 3 to 12 toot hed leaflets. Flowers are white and unisexual with 5 petaled clusters. Fruits are the most distinguishing characteristic and are like round peppercorn s ; they begin green then turn bright red (Correll and Correll 1982; Kaufman and Kaufman 2007). Habitat Cultivated in gardens but escaped an d inhabits both terrestrial (thickets and waste lands) and wetlands ( Kaufman and Kaufman 2007) The plant is found on most of the islands and cays of The Bahamas with extensive stands in North Andros, New Providence, Long Island, Rum Cay, San Salvador, Exu ma, Abaco, Bimini and Grand Bahama (Correll and Correll 1982). Migration Patterns Some birds feed on the fruit of the Brazilian Pepper and spread the seeds ( K aufman and Kaufman 2007). M any seeds also drop near standing trees and new plants grow. In additio n new plants are grown from cuttings. Use The Brazilian Pepper is used mainly as an ornamental plant ( Kaufman and Kaufman 2007) as well as for decorating by some individuals.
52 Impact This plant escapes and competes very aggressively with native plant species. It forms very dense stands, casting very heavy shade which hampers the growth of native plants. It also produces a chemical that also stops the growth of native plants. The sap contains alkenyl ph enols, chemical s that cause skin i rritation in humans. It is reported that persons in proximity experience sneezing, burning eyes and headache. Brazilian Pepper also produces nectar that is a rich source of honey ( Kaufman and Kaufman 2007). Management A m ost effective method is to kill seedlings during the growing season with herbicide containing Hexazinone or picloram plus 2, 4 D. Fire is also used to prevent germination. A most practical method is to remove large stands using bulldozers, front end loader s and other heavy equipment. The stumps and roots are then treated with herbicides. Single or scattered trees should be cut and painted with herbicides. The leaves of the Brazilian Pepper could also be sprayed with synthetic herbicide containing Triclopyr, Glyphosate, Hexazinone or imazapyr ( Kaufman and Kaufman 2007). 1.2 Vines Jasminum fluminense Common Names: Azores jasmine, Brazilian jasmine Olive Family: Oleaceae Origin: Tropical Africa Identifying Characteristics This vine is an evergreen, climbing woody vine. Young stems are densely hairy and mature stems are glabrous. Leaves are opposite, compound, with 3 oblong leaflets. Fruits are fleshy,
53 black 2 lobed rounded berries. Flowers are white, tubular, and fragrant a t night (Correll and Correll 1982; Langeland et al. 2008). Habitat Brazilian jasmine is found over vegetation in thickets, in hedgerows and in shady waste places. It is established in most of the Bahamas archipelago and naturalized in the tropical and subt ropical regions of the world (Corell and Correll 1982). Migration Pattern Fruits are eaten and dispersed by birds and raccoon (Langeland et al. 2008). Use Brazilian jasmine is cultivated as an ornamental vine for hedges in gardens. Brazilian jasmine is con sidered to be an important plant in the Bahamian garden, but is categorized as a weed because of the invasive nature of the plant. Impact This vine climbs trees, completely covering the canopy, blocking sunlight to plants below and reducing native plant di versity (Langeland et al. 2008). Management Brazilian jasmine can be controlled by hand pulling or by cutting older vines to ground level. Cutting and treating stem with the herbicide triclopyr is effective (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007). If it is cultivated t hen care must be taken to prevent the plant escaping.
54 Mucuna pruriens Common Name: Monkey Tamarind Legume family: Fabaceae Origin: India Identifying Characteristics Monkey Tamarind is a tropical climbing v ine that can reach a length of 5 feet (1 5 m). Leaves are arranged alternately with three large rhomboid ovate leaflets. The flowers are white to dark purple and several or many, found in long clusters. The pods are coriaceous, containing seeds are and are arranged in clusters covered with a redd ish brown hair (Correll and Correll 1982). Habitat These plants grow wild throughout The Bahamas in disturbed areas, open grassy soil on the edge of coppice forest and, on fences. They are more prevalent between April and September (Correll and Correll 1982; Oudhia 2001). It is common in the Berry Islands, Eleuthera, Harbour Island, St. Georges Cay, Rose Island, Paradise Island and New Providence as well as southern Florida, and the Caribbean and other tropical regions of the world (Correll and Correll 1 982). Migration Pattern Propagation is by seeds. Usually, the pods split open and seeds dropped and new plants grow (Oudhia 2001). Use The roots, leaves, pods and beans are used in the preparation of herbal medicines (Oudhia 2001). Impact The reddish brown hair on the pods causes intense itching if it touches the skin. Monkey Tamarind also forms wood thickets and smother underlying vegetation (Oudhia 2001).
55 Management Mucuna pruriens is highly resistant to insect pest s because of toxic compounds found in the plant ; therefore biological control by insect prey and other organisms are not likely to occur. However, physical removal of the plant by pulling seedling s until exhausted (Langeland and Stoker 2001) is the most effective means of controlling this pla nt.
56 SECTION II: Invasive Plant Species Recommended for Control Some species of plants may have extensive stands in The Bahamas and would require major financial resources to completely eradicate them. In some cases small islands and cays in the archipelago can be completely eradicated of invasive plant species as was successfully done in Bermuda (Mack and Lonsdale 2002). However, this may not be possible for all islands; therefore, control measures must be put in place to keep invasive species at the lowest ac ceptable level (BEST Commission 2003). General management practices that may aid in the control of species include: Education and prevention strategies Enactment and enforcement of laws to ban imports Enforcement of the national policy on invasive spe cies The species recommended for control by the BEST Commission are Albizia lebbeck Bauhinia variegat a Casuarina equisetifolia (Casuarina, Australian pine, Beefwood), Delonix regia (Poinciana), Ficus benghalensis (Banyan fig ), Haematoxylon campe chianum (Logwood), Leucaena leucocephala (Jumbey), Pimenta racemosa (Bay Rum), Terminalia catappa (Almond Tree), Ricinus communis (Castor Bean), Spathodea campanulata (African Tulip Tree, Flame of the Forest), Schefflera a ctinophylla (Schefflera, Queensland Umbrella Tree), Antigonon leptopus (Coral Vine), Ipomoea purpurea (Morning Glory), Wedelia trilobata (Wedelia, Carpet daisy) and Eichorina crassipes (Water Hyacinth).
57 2.1 Trees and Shrub Albizia lebbeck Common Name: Pea family: Fabaceae Origin: Tropical Asia, Africa Identifying Characteristics spreading crown and pale bark. The leaves are alternate, bipinnate with 2 to 5 pinnae and each pinna having 3 to 5 leaflets. Flowers are fragrant, in snowy rounded clusters at stem tip. They are cream to yellowish white and have many long, yellow stamens. The fruit is a flat, linear pod with many seeds. It is green when young turning brown when mature (Langeland and Burks 1998). Habitat This plant grows best in sal ine and alkaline soils (Langeland and Burks 1998). It is found primarily on Long Island, Ragged Island, New Providence, Eleuthera, Harbour Island, St. Georges Cay, Paradise Island, Cat Cay and Berry Islands and is widespread throughout all tropical region s of the world (Correll and Correll 1982). Migration Pattern s. Seeds are dispersed mainly by wind. Use is cultivated as an ornamental plant but easily escape s cultivation due to dispersal pat terns.
58 Impact This is a very fast growing plant that invades disturbed areas (area where native vegetation is removed because of farming or other use) throughout The Bahamas. It is a threat to all natural coppice forest species as well as pine forests (Langeland and Burks 1998). Management Trees should be cut and the stumps treated with herbicides. Root sprouts should also be treated with herbicides ( Langeland and S tocker 2009 ). Bauhinia variegata Pea family: Fabaceae Origin: Eastern Asia (India, China ) Identifying Characteristics This tree is semi deciduous and grows to 50 feet (15 m), with a spreading crown. Leaves are alternate, long petioled, and thin leathery. Flowers are in clusters, showy, fragrant, pale l avender, indigo and white. The fruit is a flat, long, oblong pod with few seeds (Langeland and Burks 1998; Correll and Correll 1982). Habitat drained soils but is most suited to acidic soils (Langeland and Burks 1998). It is found in disturbed areas, principally on Berry islands, Cat Cay, Eleuthera, Harbour Island, St. Georges Cay, New Providence, Paradise Island, Rose Island, Abaco, Grand Bahama and the surround ing cays (Correll and Correll 1982).
59 Migration Patterns Bauhinia variegata is easy to propagate from seeds distributed naturally and by wind The plant also grows easily from suckers (Langeland and Burks 1998). Use This plant is used as an ornamental plant but has escaped into natural coppice forest and is naturalized (Langeland and Burks 1998). Impact areas. It forms thickets in open coppice forests and along roadsides. It is difficult to manage because its seeds could remain viable for more than a year (Langland and Burks 1998; Correll and Correll 2008). Management Individual trees should be cut and basal bark treatment applied to the tree stump ( Lange land and Stocker 2009 ) It can also be eliminated by controlled burning. Casuarina equisetifolia Common Name: Australian Pine, Beefwood Casuarina family: Casuarinaceae Origin: Australia Identifying Characteristics Australian pine is an evergreen tree that resembles conifers and grows to about 150 feet (42 m). It has a single trunk with an irregular crown. The bark is reddish brown to gray, rough, brittle and peeling. The leaves are minute, on grayish green branchlets that are jointed and thin. Th e
60 flower is unisexual, inconspicuous, and brown. Fruit is cone like, with one winged nutlet like seed s (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007; Langeland and Burks 1998). Habitat This plant is the most salt tolerant of all casuarinas, and found along the shoreline and roadsides throughout The Bahamas (Correll and Correll 1982). However, it is also found in mangroves and wet land areas. It is established extensively throughout The Bahamas and is widespread throughout the tropics and subtropics (Correll and Correll 19 82). Migration Patterns Australian pine produces a large number of seeds; as many as 300,000 seeds make up a pound. Several thousand can be produced by one tree. Casuarina reproduces by s eeds that are dispersed by wind ( Langeland and Burks 1998) Use Casuar ina is cultivated as an ornamental plant and used as fire wood. It is also used in carving and furniture making. In some countries it is used for lum ber (Langeland and Burks 1998). Impact Casuarina is a very fast growing tree and is naturalized in The Bah amas. It invades the entire shoreline, taking over sand dunes and displacing native plant specie s. Its shallow root system allows it to tumble over easily with strong winds and during hurricanes. This tree accelerates beach erosion and beach loss and disru pts the nesting areas of sea turtles (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007; Langeland and Burks 1998). Management For small stands, practical ways of eradication is manual removal. Young saplings should be pulled and discarded or cut until the root system is exhausted For the larger, more extensive stands a combination of cutting and systemic herbicide application is most effective. The tree can also be hatched and squirted, then injected with herbicide. Burning new seedlings is also effective (Kaufman and Kaufman 200 7; Langeland and Burks 1998).
61 Delon ix regi a Common Name: Poinciana Bean family: Fabaceae (Leguminosae) Origin: Madagascar Identifying Characteristics Poinciana is a deciduous tree that reaches 30 to 40 feet (9.1 12. 2 m) in height. Its spreading depressed crown is about 40 to 60 feet wide with exuberant red and orange flowers. Each flo wer is large and showy with 5 spoon shaped pe tals, one slightly larger than the others an d 10 stamens that are shorter than the petals. Leaves are lacy, green, oblong, fernlike and twice pinnate (bipinnate); each is divided into 10 to 20 leaflets (pinules). Fruits are pods, green then dark brown, flat and woody with many seeds (Gilman and Wat son 1999; Correll and Correll 1982). Habitat Poinciana tolerates a wide range of soil types and is also drought tolerant. It grows best in full sun and is found on most inhabited islands and cays in The Bahamas. It is primarily found on Great and Little Ex uma and Cays, Berry Islands, Cat Cay, Eleuthera, Harbour Island, St. Georges Cay, Paradise Island, New Providence and Rose Island and the surrounding cays and throughout most tropical regions of the world (Correll and Correll 1982). Migration Patterns This beautiful tree grows easily from semi ripe tip cuttings and seeds that sprout beneath Poinciana trees (Gilman and Watson 1993). Use Poinciana is an ornamental tree that is cultivated in many home gardens as well as public parks and along main streets (Gil man and Watson 1993). A major thoroughfare on the island of New Providence bears the name of the Poinciana tree. The flower is also used in decorations for special celebrations.
62 Impact Poinciana has a shallow root system that is visible above ground. It th reatens buildings and sidewalks and does not tolerate understory vegetation. The woody pods produce many seeds. The pods also drop and break open producing many seedlings under the tree (Gilman and Watson 1993). It easily escapes cultivation and is found in coppice forest s throughout the Bahamas. Management Poinciana is developed by pruning. Controlling the population may involve cutting down trees, peeling the trunk and painting it with herbicide. In order to prevent damage to sidewalks and building s, i t is recommended that trees be planted 10 feet or more away from these structures. The tree is also susceptible to root fungus (Gilman and Watson 1993). Ficus b enghalensis Common Name: Banyan tree Mulberry family: Moraceae Origin: India Identifyin g Characteristics This very large, fast growing, evergreen tree grows to about 9 0 ft. (3 0 m). It has spreading branches and aerial roots. The leaves are stalked and ovate cordate. Fruits are round, downy, in axillary pairs and about the size of cherry (Ou dhia 2004). Habitat The Banyan tree grows best in monsoon areas of India and is drought resistant (Oudhia 2004). In The Bahamas it is cultivated but occasionally escapes to coppice forest areas and is found on New Providence, Andros, Eleuthera, San Salvad or and several other islands.
63 Migration Patterns Propagation is by seeds, transplanting of young trees or stem cuttings (Oudhia 2004). Use The bark, leaves, root fibers, and milky juice (latex) are used in the preparation of traditional medicines. The tree is also planted for soil conservation, timber and pulp paper. The leaf is used in the preparation of fodder (Oudhia 2004). Impact The root system can damage buildings and sidewalks. In addition, invasion is by epiphyte on trees and epilithic on rocks and stones (Oudhia 2004). Management An effective treatment is with basal bark (herbicide is applied to the lower 12 15 inches of the entire bark). However, care should be taken when applying herbicides to epiphytes because some native plants are killed in the pro cess (Langeland and Stocker 2009 ). Haematoxylon campe chianum Common Name: Logwood Pea family: Fabaceae Origin: Central America (Mexico Identifying Characteristics Logwood is a small gnarled tree or shrub with a short and crooked trunk (Correll and Correll 1982) that grows to a height of 30 to 50 feet (9 15 m) (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2009). Leaves are alternate, evenly pinnate, with oval leaflets. Flowers are fragrant, with 5 small yellow petals F http://www.plantes otanique.org/src/galeries/gua08/haematoxylon_campechianum_02.j p g otanique.org/src/galeries/gua08/haematoxylon_campechianum_02.j pg G http://www.plantes botanique.org/galerie gua08 H http://caliban.mpiz koeln.mpg.de/mavica/icon/3500/03032.jpg
64 and 5 purplish red sepals and 10 stamens. The pod is flat with two seeds (Correll and Correll 1982). Habitat This tree grows in disturbed areas al ong hillsides, edge of marches, lakes or salt ponds and flooded places. Logwood is widely distributed on almost all islands and cays of the Bahamas except Inagua, Abaco, Grand Bahama and sur rounding cays. It is also established in Central America and the Caribbean (Correll and Correll 1982). Migration Patterns It is propagated from seeds. Use The heartwood is used in the making of dyes and the bark is used in the preparation of traditional me dicines. Impact These trees form coastal thickets (Correll and Correll 1982) replacing natural vegetation. It can also invade other natural areas as well. Management No known management practices are associated with this plant species. However, cutting th e tree and employing basal bark treatment or herbicide may prove effective. Leucaena leucocephala Common Name: Jumbey Pea Family: Fabaceae Origin: Mexico and Central America
65 Identifying Characteristics Jumbey is a small to medium sized tree or shrub that reaches a height of 26 feet (8 m). Leaves are alternate, evenly bipinnate with each blade having 4 to 9 pinna. There are many leaflets, 11 to 17 per pinna that are pointed or oblong. Flowers are creamy white, in small round clusters, with 5 petals, 10 stamens, and hairy anthers. The Jumbey is self fertilized. The pods may be several or many, and are flat with 18 to 25 glossy brown seeds (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007; Correll and Correll 1982). Habitat This plant is found in coppice s waste la nd, and disturbed areas as well as along the coast. It favors moist soil and full sun (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007; Correll and Correll 1982). Jumbey is common throughout the Bahamas f rom Grand Bahama in the north to Inagua in the south This plant is also e stablished in Florida, Bermuda, and throughout the Caribbean and contin ental tropical regions and the Old W orld tropics (Correll and Correll 1982). Migration Pattern Jumbey is propagated by s eeds that are dispersed by people and wind (Kaufman and Kaufman 2 007). Use Jumbey is used as feed for goats and sheep but becomes a laxative when eaten in large quantities. The leaves are brewed as a tea to strengthen the heart and for treatment of stress. In South Asia and Africa it is manufactured for charcoal (Kaufma n and Kaufman 2007). In The Bahamas this nervousness and heart trouble. Impact This tree grows rapidly in disturbed areas, and along the coast, forming dense thick ets and replacing native plant species (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007). Management Jumbey is very difficult to manage because it re sprouts rapidly after cutting and seeds can remain viable in the soil for 10 to 20 years. Browsing by goats will kill plants. In addition, herbicides triclopyr is sprayed on foliage or painte d on stumps to kill plant s (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007).
66 Pimenta racemosa Common Name: Bay Rum Myrtle family: Myrtaceae Origin: Caribbean Islands Identifying Characteristics Trees grow to a height of 13 to 39 feet (4 to12 m). Leaves are shiny above and dull below and obovate to oblanceolate or elliptic. Flowers are white and fruits ovoid and black at maturity (Moore 2009). Habitat Bay Rum grows best in full sun in moist areas (Moore 2009). Migration Patterns Seeds are spread by birds that feed on them (Moore 2009). Use Bay rum is cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens. The oils are extracted from the leaves and used in traditional medicine (Moore 2009). Impact Bay rum can become naturalized and replace native species of plants (Moore 2009). I Killer Plants http://www.killerplants.com/plant of the week/20070122.asp J www.np d.com/images/Pimenta%20racemosa.jpg
67 Management There are no known management practices for this plant. However, pulling seedlings, cutting mature trees and applying herbicides may be effective in controlling this species. Ricinus communis Common Name: Castor Bean Spurge family: Euphorbiaceae Origin: Tropical Africa Identifying Characteristics Castor bean is a course, glabrous annual or short lived perennial that appears to be a tree or shrub ; it reaches 3 to16.4 fe et (1 5 m) (Correll and Correll 1982). The young plant i s herbaceous and the mature plant is somewhat woody. Bark is light brown and smooth with rings at nodes (Francis 2009). Leaves are star shaped, alternate, with deeply serrate palmate lobes. Flowers are in large inflo rescences and have 5 sepals. The fruit is 3 celled, rough a nd spherical with ellipsoid seeds that look like ticks (Correll and Correll 1982). Habitat Castor beans are cultivated but escape to disturbed areas such as abandoned farms and overgrown lots. Castor bean is found throughout The Bahamas In Addition it is found throughout Central and South America, the Caribbean and in other warmer regions of the world (Correll and Correll 1982). Migration Patterns Propagated from seeds that fall out of dried fruits or get s hooked into animal fur and dispersed (Francis 2 009).
68 Use The leaves are used in traditional medicines for headaches, colds and heat rashes. It is also used as an ornamental plant (Francis, 2009). The seeds are a source of castor oil that was used as machine oil and a purgative (Correll and Correll 19 82). In The Bahamas it is used to treat menstrual troubles. Impact Castor beans invade disturbed areas and crowd out natural plants. The seeds are highly poisonous producing a chemical ricin, which can cause skin irritation as well as death. Pests and diseases are also associated with these plants (Francis 2009). Management Basal bark herbicide application development. Also, cutting the stump and treating it with the herbicide garlon 4 is effectiv e. Pulled seedlings are treated with the herbicide R ou ndup (Langeland and Stocker 2009 ). Schefflera actinophylla Common Names: Schefflera, Queensland Umbrella Tree Aralia family: Araliaceae Origin: Australia, New Guinea and Java Identifying Charact eristic Umbrella tree in an evergreen tree with single or multi stemmed trunk and greenish bark (Langeland et al. 2008). Schefflera grows indoors and outdoors. Outdoors, it can grow up to 40 ft. (12 m) high. The leaves are evergreen, alternate, palm like, and made up of 7 16 leaflets, that branch out like spokes of umbrella from the leaf stalk. Flowers are in long dense deep red whorls that spread out above the foliage. Fruits are round and d ark purple (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007).
69 Habitat Schefflera is fou nd in a variety of habitats including coppice forest, dunes, and disturbed woodland areas. Schefflera has spread to several islands of the Bahamas but is found more extensively on Andros, Grand Bahama Island, Bimini, New Providence, Eleuthera and Abaco. Ka ufman and Kaufman (2007) reported it to be naturalized in South Florida. Migration Patterns Seeds germinate in the soil or on other plants (cabbage palm) or rock and survive until roots reach ground. Fruits are eaten by birds and seeds are spread to new locations (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007). Careless disposal of cuttings into undeveloped property and forest areas is also contributing to the spread of this tree. Impact This plant escapes into forest and other natural are as and form dense thickets that shade out native plants, preventing them from being established (Gillman and Watson 1994). It is becoming a common weed in several of the islands of The Bahamas. Use Schefflera is used in landscapes as orn amental plants as well as house plants (Gillman and Wats on 1994). Several varieties are now common in the in the archipelago. Management One effective management strategy is to hand pull seedlings and saplings. Another is to cut large trees and treat stumps with Glyphosate and triclopyr herbicides. Mixing tric lopyr with oil and applying it at base of tree will also kill the tree (Langeland and Stocker 2009 ).
70 Spathodea campanulata Common Names: African TulipTree, Flame of the Forest Family: Bignoniaceae Origin: Tropical Africa Identifying Characteristics The African tulip tree is a large upright tree that grows to about 50 to 60 feet (15 18 m). Crown spreads 35 to 50 feet (10. 7 15 m). Leaves are evergreen, pinnately compound with elliptic (oval) or oblong leaflets Flowers are showy and orange to yell ow. Fruits are elongated, brown pods (Gillman and Watson 1994). Habitat Flame of the forest likes f ull sun and well drained soil (Gillman and Watson 1994) whi ch makes it suited to The Bahamas climatic conditions. It is found on several islands of the archipelago including Andros, Grand Bahama, New Providence and Eleuthera. Migration Patterns Propagation is by seeds, s oftwood cuttings or root suckers ( Gillman and Watson 1994). Use Flame of the forest is cultivated as a landscaping shade tree in gardens and along road sides and parks (Gillman and Watson 1994). In the Bahamas it is also cultivated because of its colorful bloom. K http://www.nybg.org/bsci/belize/Spathodea_campanulata_1.jpg
71 Impact African tulip tree has a shallow root system that can lift sidewalks and interfere with mowing. It can produce significant litter during windy periods (Gillman and Watson 1994). Management African tulip growth is controlled by periodic thinning (removing some plants) (Gillman and Watson 1994). Terminalia catappa Common Name: Almond Tree Combretum family: Combretaceae Origin: Tropical and subtropical India and Pacific Identifying Characteristics The almond tree is a deciduous tree that reaches a height of 35 to 55 feet (10.7 16. 8 m) with a spreading vase shape crown that flattens at the top. Leaves are glossy green, and leathery, turning red, yellow and purple before they drop They are alterna te and clustered at the end of twigs. Flowers are in terminal clusters, inconspicuous, greenish white, with no petals and 10 stamens. Fruits are called drupes, green at first, becoming yellow or red (Gilman and Watson 1994; Correll and Correll 1982). Habit at This tree prefers well drained soil, full sun and is wind, salt and drought tolerant (Gilman and Watson 1994). It is established in coppice forests, and abandoned areas. Almond trees are widely distributed throughout The Bahamas with only a few island s and cays without this plant species (Correll and Correll, 1982).
72 Migration Patterns This plant is spreads by seeds. Each tree produces large numbers of fruits that are eaten by birds and humans who are also responsible for spreading the seeds (Gilman a nd Watson 1994). Use Both the fruit and seed are eaten. In the Philippines it is used to make wine. It is also cultivated as an ornamental tree and a shade tree in gardens. In some areas of the world it is used for timber (Gilman and Watson 1994). In the Bahamas it is also cultivated as shade trees near beaches. Impact Almond trees produce a significant amount of litter, leaves and fruit which require constant removal. Trees are fast growing and produce many new seedlings. There is potential of invading la rge areas along coast (Gilman and Watson 1994). Management Fruits contain tannic acid that stains cars and other commodities. The tree is difficult to manage because of multiple trunks, requiring regular maintenance because of fallen leaves and fruit. It a lso requires regular pruning because of its fast growth. Exposed surface root system can also be hazardous to humans, sidewalks and buildings (Gilman and Watson 1994). 2.2: Vines Antigonon leptopus Common Name: Coral Vine Buckwheat Family: Polygonaceae Origin: Mexico
73 Identifying Characteristics This is a perennial fast growing, climbing vine with a large rootstock forming underground tubular roots. It holds on to plants and other material via tendrils. It can grow to 25 ft or more in length. Lea ves are alternate, ovate, heart shaped or triangular and soft. Flowers are pink to red and occasionally white (Center for Aquatic and Invasive Species 2007; Correll and Correll 1982). Habitat Coral vine grows in disturbed areas, in abandoned fields and alo ng roadsides. Coral vines are found extensively in The Bahamas, except on the island of Inagua and a few southern cays. Additionally, it is naturalized in warm temperate and tropical regions of the world (Correll and Correll 1982). Migration Patterns This vine is a prolific seed producer. Seeds float on water and are dispersed. Seeds are also spread when fruits and seeds are eaten by birds, raccoons and pigs. If it is cut down it re sprouts from underground tubers. Use Cultivated in landscapes as an orname ntal plant and grows well on hot walls (Center for Aquatic and Invasive Species 2007). Impact Coral vine has many reproductive and dispersal methods which make invasion easier. Vines cover entire plants, preventing light from getting to the understory and preventing growth of native plants. It also covers other structures such as walls and buildings (Center for Aquatic and Invasive Species 2007). Management One way to manage this vine is to limit planting. Additionally, remove existing plants, before seed p roduction to assist with controlling it. When the vine is cut, remove underground tubers to prevent re growth. Treat the area where the plant is removed with glyphosate or triclopyr herbicides (Center for Aquatic and Invasive Species 2007).
74 Ipomoea indic a Common Name: Morning Glory Bindweed Family: (Convolvulaceae) Origin: Mexico, Central America Identifying Characteristics Morning glory is a hairy stem med trailing, climbing vine. Leaves are heart shaped and flowers are purple, in clusters of 3 or more. Fruits are brown capsule s, with 4 6 seeds that are dark brown or black, hairy and wedged shaped (Virginia Tech Plant Identification Guide 2009) Habitat This plant is found along roadsides, in disturbed areas, thickets or as an ornamental in landsc ape. It is prevalent throughout the islands of The Bahamas and can tolerate full sun and a variety of soil types (University of Michigan Plant diversity website 2009). It is found generally throughout The Bahamas and the tropical and subtropical regions of the world (Correll, and Correll 1982) Migration Patterns Propagation is by seeds that are disperse d by wind, rain, gravity, and human activity (University of Michigan Plant diversity website 2009). Use The flower, seeds, roots and stems are used in herba l medicine for treating various diseases (University of Michigan Plant diversity website 2009). Impact Morning glory produces large amounts of seeds that are easily germinated. It dominates the substrate, nutrients, water and sunlight of native plants maki ng i t difficult for these plants to survive. It also releases a chemical that is poisonous to native plants (University of Michigan Plant diversity website 2009).
75 Management This plant is very widespread, making it difficult to eradicate and control. Howev er, removing plants before seed production may be effective. Wedelia trilobata Common Name: Wedelia, Carpet daisy Family: Asteraceae Origin: Caribbean, Central America, Northern South America Identifying Characteristics Wed elia is a perennial, creeping herb that is mat forming with stem often rooting at nodes. Leaves are evergreen, fleshy, simple, serrated and lobed. Flow ers are bright yellow and in dense heads Fruits are elongated, brown, dry and hard (Gilman 1999; Correll and Correll 1982). Habitat Grows best in part shade and part sun and is water tolerant (Gilman 1999). Found growing in coastal thickets, scrubland and open rocky hill and along road sides. It is found extensively throughout most of The Bahamas archipelago and in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world (Correll and Correll 1982). Migration Patterns Carpet d aisy is spread by un rooted tip cuttings (Gilman 1999). Use The plant is used in landscaping, as groundcover and in hanging baskets (Gilman 1999).
76 Impact Wedelia creates dense mat foliage those crowds out native plants affecting their growth rate. It is a hard to control, creeping weed that spreads rapidly in wet areas (Gilman 1999). Management To control this plant, trim along edges of dense mats to prev ent it from escaping. In addition, in areas where it has escaped remove it completely (Gilman 1999). 2.4 Aquatic Plants Eichhorina crassipes Common Name: Water Hyacinth Water hyacinth family: Pontederiaceae Origin: Brazil Identifying Characteristics Water hyacinth is a floating, aquatic plant that grows to about 3 ft (1 m) high, rooting at nodes. Leaves are thick, oval or rounded with dense veins curved inward. Flowers are 15 to 18 in large spikes, lavender to pinkish, with 6 pelals, the upper of which has yellow splotches bordere d in blue. Fru its are 3 segmented, with reddish seeds (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007; Correll and Correll 1982). L http://www.mobot.org/gardinghelp/plantfinder/plant.asp?code=A621 M http://botany.csdl.tamu.edu/FLORA/imaxxpon.htm
77 Habitats Water Hyacinth prefers still and shallow water (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007) and inhabits pond, ditches lakes and canals (Correll and Correll 1982). Migra tion Pattern This weed is transported by wind, water and accidently by boats and other means (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007). Use This plant is an ornamental but has escaped cultivation and is established in many shallow water areas (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007). Impact Water Hyacinth grows rapidly and covers entire water area, preventing native plants from germinating. It also reduces habitats for native fish and other aquatic animals and increases insect production such as mosquitoes. Dead plants use up oxygen ne eded by other aquatic life (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007). Management Small populations are controlled by hand pulling and dispose of unwanted or dead plants in dry places to prevent proliferation. Large populations are mechanically harvested using a swamp dev il. Herbicide is effective but it kills native plants (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007).
78 Section III: Potentially Invasive Non Native Plant Species In addition to the plant species mentioned earlier, a number of other plants have made their home in The Bahama Isl ands. While they are not considered invasive species as yet, studies from Florida indicate that these plants can become invasive and threaten the native species on the islands. This is by no means an exhaustive list but includes the more prominent plants i n this category. The list includes Calliandra surinamensis (Pink powderpuff), Cestrum diurnum (Day Jasmine) Eugenia uniflora (Surinam Cheery) Lantana camara (Lantana, Shrub verbena, angel lips, big sage, black sage, prickly lantana) Moringa oleifera ( Horseradish tree), Ruellia tuberosa (Mexican petunia) Senna alata (Christmas senna), Thespesia populnea (Seaside mahoe, cork tree, Spanish cork) Veitchia merrillii (Christmas Palm) Abrus precatorius (Rosary pea) Cissus sicyoides (Princess Vine), Diosco rea alata (Winged yam) Dioscorea bulbifera (Air potato) Passiflora quadrangularis (Giant granadilla), Syngonium podophyllum (Arrow head vine) Asparagus densiflorus (Asparagus fern) Nephrolepis multiflora (Asian sword fern) Imperata cylindrica (Congo g rass) Neyraudia reynaudiana (Silkreed, Burmareed, Cane grass) Panicum maximum (Guinea Grass), Panicum repens (Torpedo grass), Pennisetum purpureum (Napier grass) and Sorg h um halepense (Johnson grass).
79 3.1 Trees and Shrubs Calliandra surinamensis Common Name: Pink Powderpuff Bean Family: Leguminosae Origin: North America Identifying Characteristics Pink powderpuff is a l arge, multi branched, evergreen tree that grows to a height of 12 to 15 ft. ( 3.7 4.6 m) Leaves are bipinnately c ompound, arranged alternate ly, glossy metallic green and are oblong in shape. Flowers are fragrant pink white and flower year round The fruits are dry pod s and are brown with 2 to 6 seeds (Correll and Correll 1982; Gilman and Watson 1993). Habitat This plant is propagated in gardens and in hedges along roadsides (edge of coppices ). It grows best in part shade, part sun in w ell drained soil. It is also drought resistant (Correll and Correll 1982; Gilman and Watson 1993). Pink powderpuff is generally found througho ut The Bahamas and Cuba (Correll, and Correll 1982). Migration Patterns Pink powderpuff is a f ast growing tree and is propagated from seed or cuttings (Gilman and Watson 1993). Use Powderpuff is used as an o rnamental plant in gardens and as a hedge along roadsides because of its showy, fragrant flower (Correll and Correll 1982; Gilman and Watson 1993).
80 Impact The planting of the tree along roadsides near coppice forest heightens its p otential for escape However, it i s not considered a highly invasive plant species (Gilman and Watson 1993). Management This plant requires occasional p runing to become established. Once established it does not need much care. It is, however, i nfected by chewing insects such as mites and c aterpillars (Gilman and Watson 1993). Cestrum diurnum Common Name: Day Jessamine Nightshade Family: Solanaceae Origin: Caribbean Identifying Characteristics Day Jessamine is an evergreen shrub that grows to 6.5 ft (2 m) tall. It has multiple trunks that are often densely branched, with arching branches. Leaves are alternate, simple and short petioled. The leaf blades are smooth, leathery, shiny green and oval to oblong. Flowers are fragran t in the day, and are creamy white and trumpet shaped. Stamens are straight and edentate. Fruits are oval berry, ripening violet shiny blue black with 4 t o 14 seeds (Correll and Correll 1982; Langeland et al. 2008) Habitat Day Jes s a mine is found mostly in dry soil in waste areas and along roadsides. It can be found along the coast under Australian pine, as it is shade tolerant and can tolerate the allelopathic N www.kingsnake com/westindian/cestrumdiurnum1 JPG
81 litter. However, it must be protected from salt spray and over wash from storms (Correll and Corre ll 1982; Langeland et al. 2008). This plant is found primarily on Berry Islands, Cat Cay, Eleuthera, Harbour Island, St. Georges Cay, New Providence, Rose Island and surrounding cays (Correll and Correll 1982). Migration Pattern Propagation is by seeds, fr uit dispersed by birds and by seedlings sold by nurseries. Day Jessamine has escaped cultivation (Correll and Correll 1982; Langeland et al. 2008). Use Day Jasamine was introduced as a landscaping plant for gardens, but has since been naturalized in many areas of the Bahamas (Langeland et al. 2009) Impact This plant has escaped cultivation and now considered a weed in the wild. It invades coastal and waste areas and grows along roadsides forming dense thickets. Fruits are poisonous to humans and other mamm als (Langeland et al. 2008). Management Young plants should be hand pulled where possible. Additionally, apply basal bark or cut tree and apply herbicide to stump (Francis 2009). Eugenia uniflora Common Name: Surinam cherry Myrtle Family: Myrtaceae Origin: South America
82 Identifying Characteristics Surinam cherry is a shrub or small tree that grows to 30 ft. (9 m). Leaves are opposite, shiny, dark green above and paler beneath. It has smooth edges. Flowers are fragrant white with many stamens that bloom in clusters. Fruits are red and juicy when ripe with 8 longitudal grooves and 1 to 2 brown rounded seeds (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007; Correll and Correll 1982). Habitat This plant favors fertile, moist soil and partial shade (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007). It is cultivated in many gardens in The Bahamas. However, it has escaped and forms thickets in low open coppice (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007; Correll and Correll 1982). While it can be found throughout the archipelago, it is primarily abundant in Berry Islands, Cat Cay, Eleuthera, Harbour Island, St. Georges Cay, New Providence, Paradise Island and Rose Island and throughout the tropics (Correll and Correll 1982). Migration Pattern Surinam cherry is propagation by seeds which is spread through birds, hu mans, and other mammals eating the fruit. It is also propagated by seedling and in India b y layering (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007). Use Edible fruit is eaten by human ( Kaufman and Kaufman 2007). It is also used in the making of jellies and sherbets (Correll and Correll 1982) and the plant as a hedge in gardens (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007). Impact Surinam cherry form s thickets in open coppice forests (Kaufman and Kau fman 2007; Correll and Cor rell 1982) preve nting native tree growth. It may also be a host for the Mediterranean fruit fly that is destructive to citrus trees (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007). Management Surinam cherry can be controlled by pulling small plants. Larger plants can be cut an d stumps treated with synthetic herbicides. Additionally, a basal bark treatment can be applied (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007).
83 Lantana camara Common Names: Lantana, Shrub verbena, angel lips, big sage, black sage, prickly lantana Verbena Family: Verbenaceae Origin: Central and South America Identifying Characteristics Lantana is a spreading, branched shrub of about 6 to 15 feet (1.8 4.6 m). Leaves are opposite, pointed oval, toothed edges and a rough surface. Stems have many prickles. Fl ower are tubular with 4 lobe s, ranging from yellow to orange, pink, white or red sometimes with different colors in the same compact cluster Fruit are shiny and green with 2 seeds, turning blackish when ripe (Correll and Co rrell 1982; Kaufman and Kaufman 2007). Habitat Lantana grows in open, sunny, partially shady, slightly moist wastelands along roadsides, dunes and pineland s It is also cultivated as an ornamental plant (Correll and Correll 1982; Kaufman and Kaufman 2007). Lantana is found throughout th e northern and central Bahamas, Bermuda, Georgia to Florida and Texas, the Caribbean and other parts of the Americas (Correll and Correll 1982). Migration Pattern The shoots become rooted when they touch the ground and the seeds are dispersed by birds (Kau fman and Kaufman 2007). Use This plant is used as an ornamental plant because of its showy fragrant flowers but has escaped into natural areas (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007).
84 Impact Lantana forms dense strands in natural areas, enriching the soil with nitrogen and poisonous allelochemical released from roots and stem. It can reduce the productivity of the forest and other areas it inhabits. It hybridizes with native endangered pinelan d lantanas and changes the gene pool. Flowers also attract insects such as bees and butterflies (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007). Management Small plant s can be pulled by hand or herbicides can be applied to actively growing plants. Also, trunks could be cut a nd basal bark treatment applied. Hot fire and herbicide combination is also deemed effective (Kaufman and Kaufman, 2007). Moringa oleifera Other Latin name: Moringa pterygospera Common Name: Horseradish tree Horseradish tree Family: Moringaceae Origin: India Identifying Characteristics Horseradish is a large shrub or sma ll tree that grows to about 3 3 feet (10 m) tall with a dense crown. It has a large, thick, irregular trunk with whitish, rough bark. Leaves are pale green, alternate and oddly pinnate. Leaflets are opposite with short slender petioles, entire and obovate to oblong or obtuse. This plant has many fragrant white flowers. The capsules in which broadly winged seeds are located are linear, obtusely trigonous and pendent (Correll and C orrell 1982). Habitat This plant is found in thickets, open coppice and wetlands. Horseradish tree is found in Florida, Mexico and Central America, Caribbean and The Bahamas. In the Bahamas it is established in Inagua, Mayaguana, Crooked Island, Long Cay, Cat Island, Berry Islands, Eleuthera, Harbour
85 Island, St. Georges Cay, Rose Island, Paradise Island and New Providence (Correll and Correll 1982). Use Horseradish tree is cultivated and its roots used as horseradish; its foliage is used as greens in salads and in curried dishes. Leaves are also used as feed for livestock. Roots and leaves are considered useful in the preparation of traditional medicines. The seeds yield an oil called Ben oil that is utilized as a lubricant for watches and in the manufacturi ng of perfumes and hairdressings. A blue dye is made from the wood (Duke 1983) Migration The horseradish tree is propagated from seeds (Duke 1983) Impact This is a low impact invasive plant species. However, it is attacked by fruit flies that harm other p lant species. It is also susceptible to fungal attack. It becomes a weed if it escapes (Duke 1983) Management As a result of it being a low impact invasive plant species it can be successfully managed by maintaining it within cultivated fields. Ru ell i a tuberosa Common Name: Mexican petunia Also called Ruellia brittoniana Acanthus Family: Acanthaceae Origin: Mexico
86 Identifying Characteristics Mexican petunia is a perennial shrub with erect or arching, dark purple stem to 3 ft. (1 m). Leaves are opposite, lance shaped, smooth or wavy edged. Flowers are 5 petaled, purple blue, in small clusters at the end s of branches. Seeds are in small cylindrical capsules and are ovate or compressed (Correll and Correll 1982; Kaufman and Kaufman, 2007). Habitat Mexican petunia prefers sun and moist soil but is also drought tolerant and can grow in a variety of soil types (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007). It is found throughout The Bahamas as a garden plant but has escaped cultivation into scrub lands, thickets and coppice forest s Generally, it is c ultivated throughout the southern United States, the Caribbean, South America, and tropical Asia and Africa (Correll and Correll 1982). Migration Pattern This plant is spreads through roots and stem fr agments and by seeds (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007). Use Mexican petunia used as an ornamental plant in landscaping; however, it has escaped cultivation into natural areas (Kaufman and Kaufman, 2007). Impact Mexican petunia forms dense mats that out shade oth er plants, stifling the growth of native plants (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007). Management This plant is hand pulled or dug up. However, roots are difficult to remove and seeds persist in soils for long periods. Large plants are sprayed with the herbicide glyp hosate to kill them (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007).
87 Senna alata Also called Cassia alata Common Name : Christmas senna, popcorn senna, Christmas candle, ringworm shrub, seven golden candlesticks, candlestick senna Family: Bean Family: Fabaceae/Leguminosae Origin: Africa, South East Asia and Pacific Islands Identifying Characteristics This is a bushy evergreen shrub that grows to about 6ft (1.8 m) Leaves are even pinnate alternate and dull green. Leaflets are oblong or obovate and opposite Flowers are bright yellow, with 5 petals on upright racemes. Fruits are winged pods, green when young, turning brown at maturity (Brown 2009). Habitat Christmas senna grows a long roadsides, in disturbed areas as well as in pasture lands (Brown 2009). The extent of the distribution in The Bahamas in unknown at this time; however, it is observed growing on the island of New Providence. Migration Patterns Plants are produced by seeds. Th e seeds of Christmas senna rip en on the plant drop s, and produce many seedlings (Brown 2009). Use Christmas senna is used as an o r namental tree in gardens and along roadsides as well as a potted plant on patios (Brown 2009).
88 Impact Christma s se nna p roduce s a large number of seeds and many new plants grow from them. It is fas t growing and highly invasive. It also form s monoculture stands replacing native plants. Management In order to limit the impact of this tree it should be p rune d heavily Pruning reduce s its chances of survival It will not survive mo re than three years if heavy pruning is done (Brown 2009). In addition, limiting its transportation to other islands may also be effective in controlling this plant. Thespesia populnea Common Names: Seaside mahoe, cork tree, Spanish cork Mallow Family: Malvaceae Origin: India Identifying Characteristics Seaside mahoe is an evergreen shrub or tree that grows to 40 ft (12 m) ( Correll and Correll 1982; Kaufman and Kaufman 2007). L eaves are alternate, heart shaped, shiny green firm in texture and slightly fleshy (Correll and Correll 1982; Kaufman and Kaufman 2007). Flowers are hibiscus like yell ow with red centers (Correll and Correll 1982; Kaufman and Kaufman 2007) and a purple base (Correll and Correll 1982). Fruit are leathery, ball shaped cap sule s, brown when mature, with few hairy seeds (Correll and Correll 1982; Kaufman and Kaufman 2007). Habitat Seaside mahoe is salt and wind tolerant (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007). It is found on the borders of mars hes, mangroves, beach areas, vacant lots and waste areas throughout the Bahamas. It is naturalized generally throughout the tropics
89 Migration Patte r n Fruits are disperse d by water, floating to new locations, resulting in its widespread dispersal in tropical habitats (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007) Use Se asi de mahoe is used in the carving of small items, rope making and making of yellow dye. It is also used in traditional medicine (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007). In the Bahamas it is planted near beaches and in park areas. Impact This plant usually forms den se th ickets on dunes and in mangrove areas, displacing native plants as well as altering these habitats for animals such as sea turtles and fish (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007). Management An effective control method is by pulling and digging seedlings and sapl ings. Large trees are cut and stumps treated with herbicides (Kaufman and Kaufman, 2007). It may also be useful to utilize basal bark treatment with this plant species. Veitchia merrillii Common Name: Christmas Palm Palm family: Arecaeae Origin: Philippi nes
90 Identifying Characteristics This is a stocky single trunk ed palm that grows to about 25 feet (7.6 m) tall. Leaves are green, alternate, spiral and odd pinnately compound. Fruits are glossy, bright red and oval. Flowers are white and yellow and inconspicuous (Gilman and Watson 1994). Habitat Christmas palm prefers full sun or part shade as well as well drained, clay, sandy or loa m soils. It is moderately salt tolerant (Gilman and Watson 1994) and can be found througho ut the Bahamas, e specially New P rovidence, Exuma, Grand Bahama, Bimini, Eleuthera, Andros, Paradise Island, Harbour Island and St. Georges Cay. Christmas palm has escaped cultivation into natural areas of The Bahamas. Migration Patterns Propagation of Christmas palm is fro m seeds that germinate quickly, in about 1 to 3 months (Gilman and Watson 1994). Use This plant is used as both an indoor and outdoor ornamental plant in gardens, along sidewalks and road sides (Gilman and Watson 1994). Impact Christmas palm is susceptible to lethal yellowing disease which affects other native species. Recently, it was discovered to escape cultivation and is competing with other native plant species (Gilman and Watson 1994). Management This plant is said to carry the disease found in palm t rees call lethal yellowing, for which there is no cure. The lethal yellowing disease demands that it is controlled or banned and replaced with native species (Gilman and Watson 1994). Christmas palm should be placed on the eradication list and a plan imple mented for the same so as to protect native palm species.
91 3.2: Vines Abrus precatorius Common Name: Rosary pea Pea Family: Fabaceae Origin: India Identifying Characteristics Rosary pea is a high twining, trailing, perennial vine with a woody stem. Leaves are alternate, delicate, and feathery with 5 15 pairs of leaflets that are oblong in shape with smooth edges. Flowers are in clusters and are small pale violet to pink. They are pea like flowers hanging from the leaf axils. Pods contain 6 8 br ight red seeds with black dots at the base (Correll and Correll 1982; Kaufman and Kaufman 2007). Habitat This plant favors full sun and well drained soil (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007). It grows on the edge and in coppice forest, scrubland and waste places. It can be found on most of the islands of The Bahamas except Great Inagua and several cays in the southern and northern Bahamas. It is established in Southern Mexico and Central America, the Caribbean, South America, and Tropical Asia and Africa (Correll and Correll 1982). In the United States it is distributed in Florida (Langeland et al. 2008; Kaufman and Kaufman 2007), Alabama, Arkansas and Georgia (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007). Migration Patte r n The seeds are eaten and dispersed by birds (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007). Use Rosary pea is used in the local craft industry in the making of several items including jewelry and other ornaments.
92 Impact The Rosary pea climbs over trees and shrubs and blocks light to vegetation below. It fixes large quantities of nitroge n in soil which increasing levels of nitrogen Seeds are eaten by birds but have no nutritional value. In addition, seeds contain a toxic chemical, abrin, when ingested by people, cattle and horses causes blindness or death (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007). Ma nagement Young plants should be hand pulled but deep rooted vines are difficult to eradicate. Large stands should be sprayed with herbicides to kill them. Heavy grazing also helps to kill rosary pea (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007). Another method that may prov e effective is to cut the vine to the base and apply herbicide. Asparagus densiflorus Common Name: Asparagus fern Lily Family: Liliaceae Also called Asparagus aethiopicus Origin: South Africa Identifying Characteristics Asparagus fern is an evergreen perennial herb that grows from crown of tuberous roots. Stems are 2 9.8 feet ( 0.6 3m) or longer having large branches with ax illary spines. Leaves are tiny and scale like, at the bases flat, needle like, light bright green branchlets (cladoph y lls) Fruits are bright red berries with 3 seeds (Correll and Correll 1982; Langeland et al. 2008).
93 Habitat This plant grows best in low to high light, is drought tolerant and grows in well drained soil. It escapes cultivation and grows in coppice s and woodland areas (Correll and Correll 1982; Langeland et al. 2008). In the Bahamas it is established in several islands including Berry Islands, Eleuthera, Rose Island, Harbour Island, St. Georges Cay, Rose Island and New Providence Asparagus fern is widely established in warmer areas of the world (Correll and Correll 1982). Migration Patte r n The plant is spread by division of tuberous crowns and by birds that eat the seeds (Langeland et al. 2008). Use This vine is cultivated as an indoor and out door potted plant and a s an ornamental in gardens. Impact Asparagus fern escapes cultivation and replaces native ground cover and understory shrub (Langeland et al. 2008). Management Preventative control measures such as restricting imports can be employed. Limiting planting and monitoring to prevent escape is also effective. Another effective measure is removing exis ting plants; completely remove all roots, then cut and spray with the herbicide glyphosate solution with surfactant (Center for Aquatic and Invasive Pla nts 2007).
94 Cissus sicyoides Common Name: Princess vine Common Cissus Grape Family: Vitaceae Origin: northern South America Identifying Characteristics This is a woody, perennial vine It c limb s tall trees fences and over debris on the ground. The stem is flexible, tough and wiry growing to about 65.6 ft ( 20 m ). Leaves are alternate with simple blades, subo rbiculate ovate to ovate oblong and usually symmetric Flowers are in cymes (flower cluster s where the first flower is terminal on the main a xis), green or yellow Fruits are spherical or round, speckled (deep green) turning bluish black at maturity (Correll and Correll 1982). Habitat Common cissus is found climbing over ledges, shrubs, trees, fences and over d ead material on the ground It is e stablished on several Bahamian islands including Long Island, Rum Cay, San Salvador, Berry Islands, Eleuthera, Harbour Island, St. Georges Cay, Paradise Island, Rose Island, New Providence, Bimini, Andros and surrounding cays. It is also established in Fl orida, Central and South America and throughout the Caribbean (Correll and Correll 1982). Migration Patterns Propagation occurs when f ruit s are eaten by migratory birds and seed s dispersed in their droppings. Seeds are also disbursed when m ature fruits dro p into water ways such as canals and invade new areas. Broken offshoot s of vine s may also spread from one area to another (French e t al. 2003)
95 Use This vine was introduced as an ornamental vine in the Bahamas. It is probably used as a herbal medicine as well. Impact During the e arly growth stage it is indistinguishable from other vegetation like citrus because of the dark green foliage. Matur e vines completely cover shrubs and trees forming a thick canopy, blocking sunlight to the understory native plants. It also affects agricultural trees such as citrus (grapefruits and oranges) by completely covering them (French et al. 2003). Management There are no known biological herbicides avail able for eradication or control; therefore plants are m anually re moved (French et al. 2003). Dioscorea alata Common Name: Winged yam Yam Family: Dioscoreaceae Origin: Southeast Asia Identifying Characteristics Winged yam is a twining, stout, herbaceous vine that twines to the right and has massive underground tubers. Stem s may reach 30 ft. (10 m), and are free branching, with square petioled, opposite, nar rowly heart shaped, with angular basal A erial tubers (bulbils) form in leaf axils, and are rough and bumpy (Correll and Correll 1982; Kaufman and K aufman 2007). Flowers are small; staminate flowers are in whorls, with 6 stamens and pistillate flowers are in O http://www.hear.org/starr/plants/images/image/?q=031108 3193
96 simple spikes (Correll and Correll 1982). Fruits are 3 parted winged capsules (Langeland et al. 2008). Habitat This vine is cultivated throughout the tropics but has escaped cultivation in scrubland, coppice, sand dunes, and pine forest (Langeland et a l. 2008). It is found primarily in Exuma, Rose Island, Andros, Bimini, Abaco, Grand Bahama and the surrounding cays. Migration Patte r n Winged yam is spread by aerial tubers and underground tubers (Langeland et al. 2008). Use This vine is cultivated as an ornamental and as an edible tuber throughout the tropics including The Bahamas (Correll and Correll 1982). Impact Winged yam climbs vegetation and disrupts natural area plant communities. It also invades coastal dunes, coppice, pine forest and cultivated areas (Langeland et al. 2008). Management Winged yam can be controlled by cutting vines high in trees, cutting bulbils and removing them from site and burning to destroy them. Where possible dig up underground tubers, cut them and treat with herbicides (L angeland et al. 2001).
97 Dioscorea bulbifera Common Name: Air potato Yam Family: Dioscoreaceae Origin: Africa and Asia Identifying Characteristics Air potato is a twining, herbaceous perennial vine, 60 feet (18 m) long that twines to left. It has a square stem that grows from underground tubers and produce aerial tubers (bulbils). Leaves are heart shap ed and alternate. Flowers are r ar e fragrant green to white, with about 6 stamens (Correll and Correll 1982; Kaufman and Kaufman 2007; Langeland et al. 2008). Habitat Air potato invades hardwood trees, woodland edges and waste places (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007). Air potato is found primarily in the Berry Islands, Cat Cay, Eleuthera, Harbour Island, St. Georges Cay, Rose Island, Paradise Island and New Providence and throughout the tropics (Correll and Correll 1982). Migration Patte r n This vine grows rapidly from aerial tubers ( bulbils ) that are moved by animals or may drop in water, float and colonize new places (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007). Use Air p otato is cultivated as an ornamental vine but has escaped cultivation (Langeland et al. 2008).
98 Impact Air potato climbs over small trees and shrubs, completely covering them, blocking sunlight to vegetation below and preventing growth. It is considered t o be very aggressive in full sun and is rampant in undeveloped areas (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007; Langeland et al. 2008). Management For small invasion s rake or pick bulbils and burn to kill plant. Also, frequently cut vine s to ground level durin g growing s eason and spray with the herbicide glyphosate (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007). Passiflora quadrangularis Common Name: G ranadilla Passion Vine Family: Passifloraceae Origin: Tropical America Identifying Characteristics Granadilla is a glabrous fast growing vine that grows to about 50 feet (15 m) or longer. The stem is four angled and stout and prominently winged at t he angles. Leaves are alternate, broad ovate or oblong ovate and rounded or cordate at the base. The flowers are greenish to greenish red without and violet to pinkish within Fruits are oblong ovoid, greenish white to yel lowish with blushes of purple a t maturity with a thin, delicate skin (Correll and Correll 1982; Morton 1987). Habitat This vine grows best in f ull sun to partial shade It is usually cultivated but can escape. Granddilla is f ound throughout the Bahamas especially in Abaco, Grand Bahama and surrounding cays as well as throughout the tropics (Correll and Correll 1982; Morton 1987). P http://www.fmnh.helsinki.fi/nayttelyt/ktp/sisalto/kasvihuoneet/03.htm
99 Migration Patterns Granadilla is propagated from cuttings and seeds Use Grandillia is used as an o rnamental plant but mostly cultivated for its fruit which is used in the preparation of fruit salads, and juices. The green fruit is cooked and served as a vegetable. The root is also cooked and eaten in the place of yam in Jamaica. Additionally, it is used in the prepa ration of traditional medicines in many areas of the tropics (Morton 1987). Impact Parts of this plant are poisonous if eaten The leaves, skin of the fruit and immature seeds contain a cyanide compound, cyanogenic glycoside. The pulp contains passiflorin and if eaten in large amounts can cause lethargy (unconsciousness) and somnolence (sleepiness). Uncooked roots are emetic, narcotic and poisonous ( Morton 1987). Management Granadilla is not overly invasive ; however, to prevent its escape it may be necessa ry to prune it occasionally. Syngonium podophyllum Common Name: Arrow head vine Family: Araceae Origin: Central America (Mexico to Panama) Q http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Starr_080610 8101_Syngonium_podophyllum.jpg R http://www.kingsnake.com/westindian/manexotics1.html
100 Identifying Characteristics This is a fast growing epiphytic vine. Seedlings have one to several arrowhead shaped lea ves. Older vines have variable compound leav es, lo ng petioles (leaf stalks ) with 3 to12 leaflets of different sizes, are dark green above and pale green below. Flowers are pink and hidden inside a spathe; the fruiting spathe eventually turns bright red (Correll and Correll 1982; Morgan et al. 2004). Habit at Arrow head vine is found in natural areas like pond apple swamps and low swales. This vine is most common in the Berry Islands, Cat Cay, Eleuthera, Harbour Island, St. Georges Cay, Rose Island, Paradise Island and New Providence (Correll and Correll 198 2). Migration Patte r n This vine is spread through stem cuttings, escaping abandoned garden areas (Morgan et al. 2004). Use Arrow head vine is cultivated as an ornamental ground cover plant (Morgan et al. 2004). I n the Bahamas it is also used as an indoor and outdoor plant in hanging baskets. Impact This is a strong climber, making canopy top heavy and toppling trees. It also has extensive root systems that are difficult to re move. It forms thick impenetrable ground cover (Morgan et al. 2004). Management This plant can be hand pulled but must be dug to remove it. Next, it should be sprayed with the herbicides glyphosate or triclopyr to kill it (Morgan et al. 2004).
101 3.3: Ferns Nephrolepis multiflora Common Name: Asian sword fern Wood Fern Family: Dry opteridaceae Origin: Tropical Asia Identifying Characteristics Fronds which reach 3 feet in length are evergreen with 40 to100 pairs of pinnae (leaflets) that are oblong, triangular pointed and narrow at the base, with e dges that are smooth and sligh tly toothed. It produces above ground s tolons (stems) that are covered with tan scales, and und erground stems ( rhizomes ), that are also covered with scales and produce small tubers at the tips. Spores are produced in sori located on fertile f r onds on the u nderside of pinnae (Correll and Correll 1998; Kaufman and Kaufman 2007). Habitat This fern is found in the ground, shady moist areas on rocks, and on other plants in coppice s along roadsides and waste areas (Correll and Co rrell 1998; Kaufman and Kaufman 2 007). Asian sward fern is widely distributed throughout the Bahamas, Florida and the Caribbean (Correll and Correll 1982). Migration Patte r n Asian sword fern is spread by spores or dispersed by rhizomes or above ground stolons (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007). Use Like most invasive plants it is cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007).
102 Impact This fern escaped cultivation and grows in dense stands, displacing native plants (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007). Management One of the best ways to control this fern is to hand pull or dig up to remove all rhizomes, tubers, stolons and spray with the herbicide glyphosate (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007). 3.4: Grasses Imperata cylindrica Common Name: Cogon grass Grass Family; Poace ae Origin: Southeastern Asia Identifying Characteristics Co go n grass grows in loose bunches or turfs of 1 to 4 feet (0.3 1.2 m) from stout, creeping rhizomes. Leaf blad es are stiff, light green, with off centered midribs and serrated edges Flowers are in long fluffy, white heads (panicles) with long silky hair. S eeds are attached to plumes of the long silky hair (Langeland et al. 2008; Kaufman and Kaufman 2007). Habitat This grass has invaded sand dunes, roadsides, mars hes and other wetland areas. Co go n grass is established in parts of Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina and Florida (Langeland et al. 2008). In the Bahamas it is commonly found in Eleuthera, Harbour Island, St. Georges Cay, Rose Island, Andros, New Providence, Paradise Island and Bimini. S http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Imperata_cylindrica.jpg T http://home.vicnet.net.au/~sbea/html/plants/vegbycommon.html
103 Migration Patte r n The plan t spreads mainly by seeds which are spread by animals and wind (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007). It also has aggressive, branching rhizomes that allow it to form extensive colonies. Use This grass is frequently cultivated as forage in pasture areas and as an o rnamental plant (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007). Impact Co go n grass is among the top 10 invasive plants in the world. It establishes easily because it has strong spreading rhizomes. Leaves form dense mats that prevent native plants from establishing and can cau se severe fires when established. Leaves also reduce nesting of ground nesting birds because of its thick mat (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007). Management An effective management method is combined mowing and burning followed by plowing or disking. In addition applying herbicides imazapyr or glyphosate can also help control this grass species (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007). Cogon grass is not harmed by fire, which makes it particularly bad for The Bahamas. Neyraudia reynaudiana Common Names: Silkreed, Burmareed, Ca ne grass Grass Family: Poaceae (Gramineae) Origin: South Asia U http://aquat1.ifas.ufl.edu/node/287 V http://www.coralsprings.org/environment/sandyridge/Vegetation%20Survey/BurmaReed.cfm
104 Identifying Characteristics Silkreed grass is a vigorous, reed like perennial that grows to10 f eet (3 m) high. It forms clumps from rhizomes. The stem is branched with soft pith an d leaf sheaths are long, smooth and shiny, with clasping woody at the areas at the top Leaf blades are linear, flat, wide, with smooth margins, and are frequently deciduous. Flowers are in large terminal panicles, and are covered with long feathery hair (Correll and Correll 1982; Langeland et al. 2008) Habitat Silkreed grows in a wide variety of habitats, preferring sunny, dr y areas in depression s in disturbed sites (Langeland et al. 2008) This grass is found primarily in Andros, Abaco, Bimini, and surrounding cays in The Bahamas and in the United States from Massachusetts south to Florida and eastern Texas as well as easte rn Mexico and the Caribbean (Correll and Correll 1982). Migration Patte r n Plants are moved by people who grow them as orn amentals. The seeds are easily dispersed by the wind (Langeland et al. 2008). Use The flower plumes are used in flower arrangements. It is also cultivated as wind breaks around crops in Southeast Asia (Langeland et al. 2008). Impact Silkreed frequently escapes cultivation and colonizes marginal and undisturbed areas. It threatens native plant species. It is also highly flammable, promote s frequent fires, enhancing its spread (Langeland et al. 2008). Management This grass establishes deep roots which makes mechanical removal difficult. Some effective management approaches include a combination of cutting or prescribed burning. In addition herbicide could be applied to stems and the remaining plants hand pulled. The site should be monitored for two years to ensue all plants are kil led ( Invasive Species Specialist Group 2005).
105 Panicum maximum Common Name: Guinea Grass Grass Family: Poa ceae Origin: Africa Identifying Characteristics Guinea grass is a perennial with strong extensive rhizomes reaching 9.8feet (3 m) Ste ms are stout, erect reaching 4 feet in height, and glabrous to hairy with thick patches of hair at the leaf blade Blades are flat, linear, long and wide. Flowers on bran chlets are green to purplish, with white seed (Correll and Correll ; 1982 Langeland et al. 2008). Habitat Guinea grass favors coastal areas especially behind dunes but is found in disturbed areas as well. In The Bahamas it forms dense monoculture stands It is found primarily in Berry Islands, Cat Cay, Eleuthera, Harbour Island, St. Georges Cay, Rose Island, Paradise Island, New Providence, Abaco, Grand Bahama and surroundi ng cays This grass is also extensively distributed in warmer regions of the world (Correll and Correll 1982). Migration Patte r n Guinea grass is spread mainly by seeds and also from underground rhizomes after fires (Langeland et al. 2008 ) Use Guinea gras s is cultivated as a forge grass in part of the U. S. A. (Langeland et al. 2008). However, it has no special use in The Bahamas.
106 Impact This grass usually establishes monoculture stands, replacing native grasse s. It also changes the nitrogen cycle in soi ls, has allelopathic activity, causes pollen allergies and is a source of dermatitis in humans (Langeland et al. 2008 ) Management Guinea grass should be removed in small patches, including rhizomes. Also, it is controlled with herbicides As the depth of seeds increase in soils so do their viability. Also, seeds are not water tolerant so germination is easily controlled in flooded conditions (Langeland et al. 2008 ) Panicum repens Common Name: Torpedo grass Grass Family: Poaceae Origin: southern Europe, tropical/sub tropical Africa, Asia Australia Identifying Characteristics Torpedo grass is a perennial with strong, extensive rhizomes reaching18 feet (5.6 m) or longer. Rhizomes are pointed at the torpedo shaped tip with overlapping white scales and knotty. Stems are stiff and st out reaching 3 ft (1 m). Blades are flat, firm broad, upper surface are hairy or whitish bloom with edge rolled under. Flowers and seeds in branched inflorescence, whitish seed (Correll and Cor rell 1982; Kaufman and Kaufman 2007; Langeland et al. 2008). W http://www.virtualherbarium.org/lf/ X http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Starr_050902 4373_Panicum_repens.jpg
107 Habitat This grass favors damp areas near swa mps, canals and along coast s on s andy dunes (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007). In The Bahamas it is an extensively creeping grass on beach sand and in wasteland. It is found primarily in Berry Islands, Cat Cay, Eleuthera, Harbour Island, St. Georges Cay, Rose Island, Paradise Island, New Providence, Abaco, Grand Bahama and surrounding cays It is also established from the southern United States to Brazil and in tropical regions of the Old W orld (Correll and Correll 1982). Migration Patte r n The plant is spread b y fragmentation of rhizomes as wel l as seeds (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007). Use Torpedo grass is cultivated as a forge grass in part of the U. S. A. (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007). However, it has no special use in The Bahamas. Impact This aggressive grass specie s usually establishes monoculture s tands, and replacing native grasses It is also weedy in lawns and farm lands (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007). Management Torpedo grass should be removed in small patches, including rhizomes. Also, it can be controlled with th e herbicide s imazapyr and glyphosate. It may be drowned out by flooding depending on the duration and depth o f the flood (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007).
108 Pennisetum purpureum Common Name: Napier grass Grass Family: Poaceae Origin: Africa Identifying Characteristics Napier grass is a vigorous perennial reaching 13 feet (4 m) tall. It forms thick clumps, from basal offshoots and short rhizomes. Stem s are branched and internodes are bluish glaucous. Leaf sheath s are glabrous and leaf blade s are linear, tap er ing, flat, bluish green with rough margin s Inflorescenc e s are dense terminal panicles that are spike like, bristly and tawny purple tinged. Spikelets are sol itary, in clusters, on hairy axes with sparse yellowish bristles (Correll and Correll 1982; Langeland et al 2008). Habitat This grass grows in a wide vari ety of soils in disturbed areas. It is found throughout The Bahamas and tropical America (Correll and Correll 1982). Migration Patte r n Napier grass is a trailing grass that is spread by root crown division or rhizomes stem fragments (Langeland et al. 2008) Y http://www.hear.org/starr/plants/images/image/?q=031108 0231 Z http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:PvTNn5BEPtxc8M:http://www.kingsnake.com/westi ndian/pennisetumpurpureum1.JPG
109 Use This grass was cultivated as forage and silage but has escaped cultivation (Langeland et al. 2008). In the Bahamas it was cultivated as a forage grass but has escaped cultivation. Impact Napier is a weed that forms dense stands, crowding out native species. It survives drought once established (Langeland et al. 2009). Management Napier grass is controlled by cutting stems to ground level, allow sprout to reach 12 inches then Sorghum halepense Common Name: Johnson grass Grass Family: Poaceae Origin: Medi terranean region of Europe and Africa Identifying Characteristics Johnson grass is a perennial that grows to 8 feet (2.4 m) with roots about half inch thick It has e xtensive rhizomes that are whitish to pinkish when young and beige when mature. The lea f blade is flat with a white rib The p anicle s or seed head is hairy (Correll and Correll 1982; Kaufman and Kaufman 2007). Habitat This aggressive grass escapes and grows in o ld fields p asture s, along f orest edges cleared r oad sides and s tre a m banks (Kau fman and Kaufman 2007). In the Bahamas Johnson grass is found
110 mainly in the Berry Islands, Eleuthera, Harbour Island, St. Georges Cay, Rose Island, Paradise Island, New Providence, Andros, Bimini, Abaco, Grand Bahama and the surrounding cays. It is also wi dely distributed in the southern United States and in temperate and tropical regions of the world (Correll and Correll 1982). Migration Patterns This grass grows from r hizomes and c opious (large amount of) seeds (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007). Use This grass s pecies is c ultivated for forage but escapes easily because of extensive rhizomes and seed production (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007). Impact When this plant e scapes cultivation it becomes a weed taking over extensive areas. It is considered to be the w orst weed in the world It p roduce s large amounts of biomass, thus becoming a fire hazard Johnson grass can also be toxic to animals if it is wilted, frost damaged, or injured in any other way (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007). Management Johnson grass can be killed by heavy grazing from hogs and goats Also, preventing seeding and not allowing nutrients to roots can also control this grass. Additionally, t ill ing or plow ing to expose roots and apply ing herbicides will also help control this plant. Hand pulling young plants is also possible when the ground is wet (Kaufman and Kaufman 2007).
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115 U. S. Army Corps of Engineers. 2004. Water resources assessment of the Bahamas I n U. S. Army Corp of Mobile District & Topographic Engineering Center. Washington, DC. Available from www.sam.usace.army.mil/en/wra/Bahamas/BAHAMASWRA.pdf (accessed June 15, 2009) University of Arizona Office of Arid Land Studies. 2009. Common i nvasive plant characteristics I n The National Invasive Species Information C enter. Tucson, AZ. Available from http://alic.arid.arizona.edu/invasive/sub3/p2.shtml (accessed June 24, 2009). University of Mich igan. 2009. Ipomoea purpurea I n University of Michigan Plant Diversity Web site Ann Arbor MI. Available from http://www personal.umich.edu/~rburn ham/SpeciesAccountspdfs/IpompurpCONVFINAL.pdf (accessed June 20, 2009) Vincent M. A. and C. Kwit. 2007. Additions to the vascular plants and flora of Eleuthera. Bahamas Naturalist and Journal of Science 2 : 52 5 4. Virginia Tech Plant Identification Guide. 2 009. Tall morning glory Ipomoea purpurea I n Virginia Tech Blacksburg, VA. Available from http://www.ppws.vt.edu/scott/weed_id/ipopu.htm (accessed June 20, 20 09)
116 Glossary Alkaline. Relating to or containing an alkali; having a pH greater than 7; "alkaline soils derived from chalk or limestone" Allelopathy. Ability to suppress growth of nearby plants by secretion of toxic substance Allelochemi c al. A chemical produced by one plant that is toxic to another Aerial. Plants or parts of plant living above the ground or water Alternate. Arrangement of leaf at a node, one per node, appearing on one side of the axis then the other Apex. The outer end of a leaf, leaf tip Axil. Upper angle formed by a leaf or branch with the stem Axillary. Situated in the axil Biodiversity. (biological diversity) existence of a wide variety of plant and animal species in their natural environments. Bipinnate. With leaflets arranged on side branches of a leaf axis; twice pinnate Branchlet. A secondary woody stem growing from the trunk or main stem of a tree Capsule. A dry, dehiscent fruit formed from two or more fused ovaries Compound. Two or more separate leaflets Conifer. Cone bearing trees Coppice. A thicket or grove of small trees Cordate. With an indentation and rounded lobes at the base, heart shaped Coriaceous. Leathery in texture, tough Crown. The top of a tree including all of the branches Cyanogenic. Capable of producing cy a nide Cymes. A determinant flower cluster in which the first flower is terminal on the main axis
117 Deciduous. Non evergreen tree whose petal fall off after flowering, and leaves fall off in Autumn or dry season Dehiscent. Opening sp ontaneously when ripe to expel seeds Disking. Plowing t o loosen soil Edentate. Lacking teeth Elliptic. Narrowed and rounded at the ends and wide at the middle Entire. Undivided, the margin continuous, not incised or toothed Epilithic. Growing on rocks Ep iphytic. Growing on another plant Evergreen. Species that retain their leaves year round Glabrous. Without hair Hybrid. Offspring from two distinct species or genera Hybridize. Cause to produce a hybrid Glaucous. Covered with a whitish bloom Globose. Spherical or round Inflorescence. The flower cluster of a plant Leaflet. A segment of a compound leaf Longitudinal. Running lengthwise Node. Point on a stem where a leaf or branch arises Nutlet. Small and nut like Oblong. Longer than is broad with parallel sides Obovate. Reverse of egg shape, narrowing near the base, attached at the narrow end Obtuse. Blunt or rounded at the end Opposite. Two leaves at the same node
118 Orbiculate. Circular or nearly circular Ornamental. S hrub, vine, grasses and ground cover grown for its beauty Ovate. Outline of a hens egg, broader near the base Ovoid. Solid ovate or solid oval Palmate. A leaf resembling an open hand; having lobes radiating from a common point Petal. One leaf of a corol la Petiole. A leaf stalk Pinna (ae). A leaflet or primary division of a compound leaf Pinnate. Compound lea f with leaflets arranged on side s of a common axis Pubescent. Covered with short soft hairs, downy Raceme. A simple inflorescence with flowers arranged along elongated axis Rhizome. An underground stem or rootstock with scales at the node s Rhomboid. Somewhat diamond shaped Rootstock. A rhizome Saline. Salty Samara. A winged, one seeded, dry fruit Sand dune. A hill of sand built by Aeolian processes Serrate. Notched like a saw wit h teeth Shrub. A woody plant of smaller proportion than a tree, which usually produce several branches from the base Simple. Single or uncompounded (leaf) Sori. A spore dot, or cluster, on the back of the fronds of ferns Spathe. A broad sheathing enclosing a spadix Spadix. A spike on the suc culent axis enveloped in a spathe
119 Spike. An elongated rachis with sessile flowers Spikelet. The basic unit of inflorescence in grasses and sedges Spore. The reproductive body of lower plants, analogous to the seed Stamen: P ollen producing male organs of a flower, consisting of the anther and filament Stand. A group of forest trees of sufficiently uniform species composition Stolon. A modified stem growing on the surface of the ground Swayle. A track of low, usually moist areas between ridges Systemic. A chemical which is absorbed directly into a plants system to either kill feeding insects on the plant, or to kill the plant itself Subglobose. Nearly spherical in shap e Suborbiculate. Almost o rbiculate or orbicular Thicket. A dense growth of shrubby plants Toothed. Dentate Tree. A woody plant with one main stem, relatively tall Trigonous. Three angled Unisexual. Flower having either male or female parts Wetland. An ha bitat that may be wet most of the time or seasonally Whorl. With three or more leaves at the node
120 Photo Credits Plate A http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Starr_061108 9754_Colubrina_asiatica.jpg Plate B The Global Invasive Species Team http://www.invasive.org/gist/photosc f.html Plate C Melaleuca quinquenervia, Pacific Islands ecosystems at risk : Melaleuca quinquenervia http://www.hear.org/Pier/imagepages/singles/starr_031108_0008_melal euca_quinquenervia.htm Plate D Wikimedia: Melaleuca quinquenervia http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8e/Melaleuca_quinquenervia_%28leaves%29 .JPG Plate E Califlora.net: Melaleuca quinquenervia http://www.calflora.net/losangelesarboretum/imag es/melaleuca_quinquenervia.jpg Plate F Haematoxylon campeachianum, Planetes et botanique http://www.plantes botanique.org/galerie gua08 Plate G Haematoxylon campeachianum, Planetes et botanique http://www.plantes botanique.org/galerie gua08 Plate H Haematoxylon campechianum, http://caliban.mpiz koeln.mpg.de/mavi ca/icon/3500/03032.jpg Plate I Pimenta racemosa, Killer Plants http://www.killerplants.com/plant of the week/20070122.asp Plate J Pimenta racemosa Natural Products and Drugs www.np d.com/images/Pimenta%20racemosa.jpg Plate K Spathodea campanulata, The New York Botanical Gardens Ethnobotany and Florists of Beliez. http://www.nybg.org/bsci/belize/gallery.html
121 Plate L Missouri Botanical Gardens http://www.mobot.org/gardinghelp/plantfinder/plant.asp?code=A621 Plate M http://botany.c sdl.tamu.edu/FLORA/imaxxpon.htm Plate N www.kingsnake.com/westindian/cestrumdiurnum1.JPG Plate O http://www.hear.org/starr/plants/images/image/?q=031108 3193 Plate P http://www.fmnh.helsinki.fi/nayttelyt/ktp/sisalto/kasvihuoneet/03.htm Plate Q http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Starr_080610 8101_Syngonium_podophyllum.jpg Plate R http://www.kingsnake.co m/westindian/manexotics1.html Plate S Imperata cylindrical http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Imperata_cylindrica.jpg http://home.vicnet.net.au/~sbea/html/plants/vegbycommon.html Plate T Neyraudia reynaudiana http://www.coralsprings.org/environment/sandyridge/Vegetation%20Survey/BurmaReed.cfm Plate U Panicum repens http://www.virtualherbarium.org/lf/ http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Starr_050902 4373_Panicum_repens.jpg Plate V Pennisetum purpureum http://www.hear.org/starr/plants/image s/image/?q=031108 0231
122 Plate W http://www.virtualherbarium.org/lf/ Plate X http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Starr_050902 4373_Panicum_repens.jpg Plate Y http://www.hear.org/starr/plants/images/image/?q=031108 0231 Plate Z http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:PvTNn5BEPtxc8M:http://www.kingsnake.com/westindian/pe nnisetumpurpureum1.JPG