Developmental factors of industrial production facilities theory and application

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Developmental factors of industrial production facilities theory and application
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College of Architecture, University of Florida
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AFA Historic Preservation document 426

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JAE BLACK






INTRODUCTION

Man's greatest periods of change could be classified as

the discovery of fire, the industrial revolution and travel in

space. The industrial revolution's relative impact on modern

society is the greatest of the three. The impact has been growth.

Architecture has been the means of enclosing all this growth and

even directing it. Industrial production facilities and the

mass production concept represent that architectural enclosure

having the greatest contact with this source of change and

growth.

The industrial processes of the early twentieth century

were stimulated by several very important factors. Refinement

and implementation of oil and electricity were two critical

sources of energy. The steam engine, railroad, improved steel

production and implementation were factors that did work for

man and increased his ability to produce. The United States'

economy was finally coming to a level of maturation that

allowed some degree of expectation and control on the part of

people and government. A largely democratic and capitalistic

society and government formed the open framework for monitoring

and regulating the industrial revolution.

A thorough discussion of industrial revolution and it's

manifestation would be a very large undertaking. This paper

will limit it's discussion to some of those factors that most

directly affect the industrial building. Like all architecture,

these industrial buildings had a very large impact on many






















2

people and people on architecture. In mention of labor,

however, most developments concerning people in factories were

also in the name of increased efficiency. Mass production

theory, growth, philosophy, technology and the market economy

will be discussed. These factors are representative of some of

the governing factors in factory design. A general description

of various building types shall show some of the concerns and

actual conditions of factory buildings prior to the 1920's.







DEVELOPMENTAL FACTORS OF INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION FACILITIES
THEORY AND APPLICATION

During the middle of the nineteenth century, the pro-

ducer,consumer, and product interacted very closely. With the

close of the nineteenth century came a new philosophy of pro-

duction. Increased scale of industry and greater awareness of

efficiency in mass production required that the laborer special-

ize in some area of production and thereby have very little

contact with the final product. The worker no longer produced

an article having real working qualities. The article had to

be produced according to specified standards, as a series of

parts. Quality was now seldom a concern for the worker, his

control had been eliminated. Previously the worker's part in

the production of an article was apparent, and he could not

escape a personal responsibility for quality.

Mass production theory had been understood for quite some

time as being the means for more efficient production of consumer

goods. Yet experimentation could not be undertaken by small

organizations. Investment at this period was limited to those

large companies that had either the flexibility or the assurance

in their directionthat they could survive any loss through fail-

ure. Good financial backing was the most important of all the

factors. This could have been in terms of banking, stocks, and

securities. A sideline product would be retained that would

absorb most losses.

Once major experimentation by large companies showed that

investments in mass production application could produce a very








favorable profit, theory became practice. The advancement in

manufacturing techniques, improved machinery, increased avail-

ability of power, ease and economy of transportation and avail-

ability of labor made small plants a possibility. College edu-

cated management personnel became more interested in smaller

firms and this added greatly to their productivity. It took

time, but the smaller firms gradually developed a very favorable

size of the industrial fabric of the United States. As of the

mid 1920's, "It is estimated that 45% of the wage earners in

manufacturing industries are employed by companies with 250

workers or less. These companies also produce about 45% of the

products measured in dollar value." 1

Application of mass production became mandatory to keep

up with the competition. Implimentation of mass production

evolved a more favorable product environment for the consumer.

Relative prices of goods were reduced and there evolved many

more goods for the consumer to choose from. As the consumer's

diversity of choice and buying power increased, so increased the

diversity of the company. With the process understood, it was

up to the company to find the products for the market or the

markets for the products. The market was to become the major

factor in industrial cash flow.

A predictable, controllable, and increasing industrial

cash flow was the right formula for growth of the industrial

production concept. Established products generated the poten-

tial for associated products. The market structure permitted








the introduction of new goods and development of new markets.

As profits and technology increased, the manufacturing concerns

sought to introduce production facilities in many more areas.

Centralized specialty production, though still valid, did not

generally reach enough of the markets to allow organizational

and profit flexibility. It became necessary and beneficial for

companies to move their production and major distribution faci-

lities to areas more directly or better associated with market

concerns. The exact location of new facilities was contigent

upon the compliment of several factors, as listed.

1. Market: Most directly this is product sales,however a
very important part was in securing new markets,
and finding associated product lines.
2. Capital: Cost of capital was the governing factor for
a good profit margin and local investment
put investment profits into communities.
3. Materials: Availability and cost were the most important.
4. Process: This pertained to the availability of machinery,
5. Labor: This varied according to requirements and general-
ly standards were set for either high or low.
quality positions.
6. Power: This pertained to whether there were municipal
utilities available and at what costs.
7. Transportation facilities: This concern was for cost,
availability, type, and diversity.

To assure success,.it was necessary to find the best combi-

nation, of factors. This meant compromise on some points, in

most cases. Knowledge of conditions in the territory and careful

study was necessary. Anticipation of changes in any of the asso-

ciated factors was the essential part of maintaining the control









of cash flow. Capital availability, market fluctuations, and

technological advances were the most important of all the

factors governing growth.

It was necessary for big business companies to pioneer

and promote development in industrial processes, mainly due to

their access to capital and markets. However their contact

with the people was probably one of the most critical areas of

development. The big companies represent the first real intro-

duction of a mass production concept into the daily lives of

most people. They reached the consumer and the employees.

Both of these groups were larger than ever contacted before, by

any group outside of governmental concerns.

Philosophically, the influence of the machine on man's

culture and society had been a serious controversy. Mass pro-

duction, machines, hordes of workers unknown by the employers

were elements of the time. They stimulated a great deal of

critism and conflict. "We are hardly aware of the silent work-

ing influence of machinery upon the morals of the world...

Communism, which means the destruction of labor, cannot coexist

with machinery Its use requires too much competition, both

social and industrial, to admit of communism. The states, there-

fore, devoted to industries which require the use of machines

to a large extent are safe from the inroads of communism and

communistic socialism." 2

The situation could no longer be considered a philosophical

one. Problems required solutions and attitudes had to change








at all levels. Some of the changes came naturally and others

were required to exist.

Philosophical questioning did little to stem the impact and

growth of the industrial facilities. Growth was imperative and

conflicting forces were at work influencing the relocation and

growth of new industries. The national effort for World War

one was largely concentrated in the industrial area. "The tre-

mendous demands made upon American industry for the production

of all kinds of goods to forward the war program brought about

a demand for expansion of existing plants in metropolitan and

other highly industrialized areas. The need to utilize manage-

ment talent in these plants and areas was almost imperative." 3

Difficulties were experienced with quality standards, labor,

and governmental control. These factors made expansion of urban

plants difficult. A general lack of control, management, and

commitment towards growth and expansion inhibited growth.

This period of urban conflict saw development of several

important technological advancements. Communication ability

had greatly increased and it was possible to have urban leaders

monitoring rural facilities. Automobiles and all weather roads

provided the means for many more people to live farther away

from the plant and travel to work. This allowed workers to live

in areas of higher quality and still work. This aided the rural

conditions more because urban workers were generally settled

into districts that were located near the factories.

These problems, advancements, and other social and economic








forces had been at work, tending to influence the spread of

industry to semirural and rural locations. Management peo-

ple realized the great value in working with the workers to

favorably produce. Management began to closely monitor

market and economic conditions and trends. All efforts were

made to provide a system of efficiently planning and control

of as many factors as possible.

The rural environment was becoming a more favorable lo-

cation for growth. "When such locations are economically

feasible, they contribute toward a better balance of our agri-

cultural and industrial economy by enabling workers to depend

partially upon gardens, poultry and fruit of their own raising.

With this arrangement the hazards of less industrial employment

or unemployment are minimized." 4 Industrial enterprises'

presence in or near rural communities brought a new level of

economic prosperity and productivity that could be anticipated.

Crop failures and uncontrollable market conditions had been

problems that the rural individual could not control. A well

managed and growing factory became the stabilizing source of

income for many communities.

Growth to the rural areas came at a time when communities

that had considerable resources of raw materials, found the

resources depleted to the point that they could not be econom-

ically attained. Various other industries were sought after by

these communities that often had the labor, transportation, and

power facilities partially developed from the resource production.








Agencies were developed to help coordinate communities and

regions and potential industries. The National Resources

Planning Board in Washington, D.C. was set up during the first

quarter of the twentieth century to aid in the development of

regional and community planning councils. The favorable impact

of industrial enterprise upon man and society became sought after.

Attempts were made to increase the positive aspects and control

and understand the negative factors.

The industrial enterprise- mass production system promoted

a new way of thinking. The philosophical questions were still

around, but they were overshadowed to a large degree by the

prosperity that the industrial enterprise system generated.

The new concepts were discovered, developed and adopted-

some rapidly, others slowly.














"EVOLUTION OF THE MODERN BUILDING.- Many of our

industrial engineers and architects have long appreciated

that the factory buildings have either a direct or reflex

influence upon nearly every phase of the plant operations

and in some degree upon the general business as wells and

the result of their efforts, both individual and concerted

to meet every demand and need of the plant and the business

insofar as they were effected by the plant buildings, has been

a gradual evolution from the "four wall, roof and floor, dismal

factory box" to the modern, fireproofed, well-lighted, adequately

ventilated, permanent structure of today- the modern Factory

Building, designed for a special purpose, to meet specific needs

affording most comfortable and efficient work rooms and a

pleasing and attractive exterior design and finish." 5








TYPICAL BUILDING FORMS AND CONSTRUCTION TYPES

Factories represented an industry's symbol of success

and efficiency. Any sign of success brought a classification

and distinction to the industry. Specific industries had

certain specific requirements for machinery and space. Very

shortly, industries adopted various types or forms of buildings.

Studies were conducted on various buildings to find the most

favorable type. This resulted in the development of several

designs, whose cross-sectioned outlines may have been taken as

more or less indicative of the most approved forms. The follow-

ing types of buildings are ones that could be considered repre-

sentative of generally acknowledged types.

The one-story general utility building was the first of

all classified types and most commonly used. It was usually

a narrow rectangular cross sectioned building with either flat

or pitched roofs. Side windows provided the lighting and ven-

tilation and the building was generally used in a large variety

of light manufacturing applications.

The one story "saw tooth" roof configuration was used

textile and general manufacturing processes. It could respond

to any cross sectional width and provide uniform lighting due

the saw toothed glass surfaces overhead. Having the glass move-

able also provided an area of continuous ventilation.

The one story machine and heavy general manufacturing

building had a wide cross sectional area. There was a higher

central space with upper side wall sash for additional ventila-









tion and lighting. Flat or pitched roofs covered the areas on

either side of the central space.

The heavy machine, forge shop and foundry building was

similar in most respects to the previous building descrip-

tion except for a generally higher central space and an inverted

vee roof shape. This innovation improved not only lighting,but

most importantly ventilation. These buildings were usually one

story buildings.

The multi-storied building was used in.both light and

heavy industrial processes. It had a limited cross sectional

width primarily for lighting purposes. Side windows provided

the only means for lighting and ventilation. Structural limita-

tions were not a problem except in the largest applications.

Fire safety and power requirements proved to be greater problems.

There was a great deal of effort devoted to not only

building types but also to methods of construction and use of

materials. "By the concerted efforts of the engineers,engaged

in the design of such buildings, the manufacturers of the many

materials of construction, of the insurance interests of the

country through the Underwriters Association, and of the Labor

Departments of many states, there have been evolved certain

approved classes of construction for the several forms of fac-

tory buildings;..."6Several descriptions follow that delineate

construction types for the safety and efficiency of the indus-

trial facility.







Brick and timber construction was one of the first types

of construction that was used in factories. Little technology

was involved and the materials could be attained almost every-

where. It was generally known as slow-burning mill design. The

buildings could be identified by the following features, concrete

foundations, brick walls, timber columns, girders, beams,and

heavy plank floors and ceilings.

Brick and steel construction was implemented on an in-

creasing basis. Originally cast iron members were used, but

with the improvement of steel, cast iron was replaced. The steel

material was still only used for interior columns, girders, and

beams. The potential for steel use throughout the building was

not dealt with for quite some time. This type of construction

was considered "fire retardent" by many standards. Concrete

or heavy plank floors and roofs, brick, tile, or concrete cur-

tain walls formed the remainder of the enclosure.

There was a brick and steel "fire resistant" type of

building and this merely employed the use of fire resistant

materials as cover for columns, girders and beams.

Reinforced concrete was considered "fire resistant"

construction. The beam and girder or flat slab floor and

roof design had its structural work of reinforced concrete,

except the curtain walls between columns or pilasters. These

may have been of brick, hollow tile, concrete or other fire-

resistant materials.

A large number of factories were multi-storied. The

multi-storied buildings were good when the materials and























14


machines of the factories were not bulky and heavy. Various

processes were better carried out in multi-storied factories

and it provided a factory that centralized operations and

concentrated the plant, fully using the site. The nature and

extent of the plant and process governed quite a bit of the

multi-storied building forms.





CONCLUSION

One major purpose of studying industrial production

facilities, is to recognize just how little conceptual

advancement has been made. Conceptually, industrial products

are still fabricated just as they were at the start of the

first industrial revolution. Unfortunately, the associated

problems have increased exponentially. Any new system will

have to be one that grows and eliminates the problems.

Corrective action will lose it's effectiveness. It is almost

too late for corrective action now.

In reviewing the early twentieth century industrial

facilities and comparing them to today, it can be seen that

little advancement has been made in the organization of buildings

and the processes that go on in them. Working conditions have

improved, operation speeds have increased, etc., but there is

no movement to produce goods in anything other than a linear

organization.

The early factories were done primarily by engineers and

owners. Their concerns were obviously for the function and

efficiency of the facility. Architectural ornamentation seldom

interested the owners and this eliminated most architects from

designing factories. The engineers used elements of the build-

ings in their purest form. Aesthetics became of more concern

as factories grew in number and impact. Engineers and architects

began to look at elements as the held aesthetic quality on their

own. Materials were reviewed for their potential to represent

themselves, or as a series of components. An attractive

building could be designed that lacked eclectic ornamentation.







There were, of course, those engineers and architects that

had absolutely no concern for aesthetics and good design.

Materials were used in the most elementary and often inap-

propriate methods. Unfortunately, this aspect is one we

live with today. Many contemporary architects show little

concern for the real ability of materials and the information

that they can carry in a building, The thinking involved in

designing a good building is difficult. Thinking about

designing in a new framework is difficult. People will usually

reject something that is either new to them, or destroys an

ideal that they live by. Any change is difficult.

Times have not really changed a great deal. The exact

issues may be different, but we are still faced with new ways

of thinking and doing, in a world that sees success largely

feeling comfortable about the present positions of man.

Without a doubt, we are looking at the coming of a new industrial

revolution. We must start to think towards a new perspective.

Any look backwards in time must be made to gain information

about the future. If we try to understand how the first

industrial revolution changed thought, we will realize the

very simplest impact that the new revolution will have on

our lives.

The new revolution will occur primarily out of necessity.

The cost of development and technology is now so high that all

known alternatives or derivations should be explored. The

problems will be so large that only technology can aid us in

those problems. Technology that is not known will have to be







developed.

It must be remembered that the first industrial

revolution occurred due to man's ability to manipulate

more efficiently, the six basic mechanical concepts. "Yet

every machine, new or old, can be resolved into a combination

of no more than six basic mechanical elements, known to the

Greeks-and perhaps-others-a couple of centuries before Christ.

They are the pulley, the wheel and axle, the inclined plane,

the wedge, and the screw." 7 The first industrial revolution

or manipulation of these ancient concepts generated the growth

that has allowed us to exceed our natural capacities and strain

our manipulation of the concepts. The second revolution will

have to solve the problems generated due to man's overzealous

growth. New technology will undoubtedly have to generate a

new set of criteria for thinking and doing.






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FOOTNOTES


1. Anderson,Arthur Industrial Management, p.47,

2. Wright,Carroll Industrial Evolution of the United States,
p.343.
3. Anderson,Arthur Industrial Management, p.46,
4. Ibid., p.46.

5. Case,Willard The Factory Buildings, p.252.
6. Ibid., p.256.

7. Walton,Harry Mechanical Movements, p.2.









BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Anderson,Arthur Industrial Management. The Ronald Press
Company, 1928&1942 (pp.3-53t109-306).
2. Burr,J.B. & Hyde The Great Industries of the United
States. 1873.

3. Case,Willard The Factory Buildings. Industrial Extension
Institute, 1919.

4. Gantt,H. Organizing For Work. Harcourt,Brace and Howe,
1919.

5. Gebhardt,G.F. Steam Power Plant Engineering. John
W ? y&Sons, 1928(photographs).

6. Giedion,Sigfried Space, Time and Archi t trec. i Harvar,

7. HavenGeorge Mechanical Fabrics. John Wiley&Sons,
1932(pp.763-795).
8. Hull,George Industrial Depressions. Frederick A. Stokes
Company, 1911(pp.1-21; 106-1251t66-227).

9. Kimball,Dexter Principles of Industrial Organization.
McGraw-Hill Books, 1913(pp.1-96).

10. Meyer,Henry Steam Power Plants. McGraw-Hill Books,
1912(pp.1-14:181-202).
11. Perrigo,Oscar Modern Machine Shop. Norman W. Henley
Publishers, 1917(pp.17-119).

12. Walker,P.F. Management Engineering. McGraw-Hill Books,
1924(pp.1-147).

13. Walton,Harry Mechanical Movements, Popular Science
Publishing, 1968.
14. Wright,Carroll Industrial Evolution of the United States.
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1910(pp.117-343).





















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FIG. 139.


WHITE ENAMEL REFRIGERATING CO.
A. -H. Stem, Architect


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MACHINE


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FIG.


141.


FACTORY OF THE DODGE MOTOR CO.


Engineer and Architect


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io. 137.
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MACHINE SHOP OF BUSCH-SULZER BROS.


DIESEL


ENGINE CO.
Thlie Arnold ('.. En-giInePrs


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nIG.


142.


FACTORY


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COUNT


IN1:NTAI


Ml(YI'QfI


Albert Kahn, Engineer aInd Arclhitect


Co.


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TCrosEsmn ,8-t
PLATE It. -P--Os TR STATION, CAPITAL TRACTION COMPANY, WASHINGTON, D. C.
IL S. (\RL,!cnlC: F ENGINEER.


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PLATE 10.- CROSS SECTION, \WATERSIDE STATION, NEW YORK EDISON COMPANY.





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Pi ATE 14. -CCRkO-: SECTION. c MANATTAN R\II\x i COMPANY'S POw\IR STATION NE1W YORK CITY.
:' i. Pri K\M. -H. I G'i ; \V. E. B .RR, MECH. ENGR,; L. B. STILLWEL, LECi ENG'IR.























































FIG, 5. Cross Section through Foundry, Cupola Platform, etc.


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(above) "':AND MODERN (below)- FO UN DRY'B
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THE FACTORY BUILDINGS


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CROSS-SECTION


AND INTERIOR OF


BUILDINGS


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FJC. '17.--Transverse Sectiotn of Machin: Shop-iwith Saw-tooth Roof of Steel Construction.








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INTERIOR OF MODERN FORGE AND FOUNDRY S1I-OW\ING


EXCELLENT LIGHTING AND ABSENCE OF FUMES


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FIG. 174. PARTIALLY ENCLOSE ANDT)
FT'LLY ENCLOSED STIlWI\YS


FIG(. 1 5. PLANS OF SMOKE-IPIOUI'
STAIR TOWERS


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2 MACHINE SHOP CONSTRUCTION








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FAN MACHINE
HHEAT
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261 o 361N

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GALLERY WASHROOM
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FIG. 5. Elementary Condensing Plant with Various Waste-heat Saving Appliances. (Reciprocating Engine.)


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EXTIERIORK MODERN FORGE AND FOUNDRY


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ON.- -_ -_ --ft .c n 'm


INTERIOR AND (c(S-SEtCTION OF GENER1L-ELECTRIC


Fut NDR AY A HT PA.


nl,. 91.


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WALL PLATE. ENLARGED SCALE.

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IIG. 95.


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IMPROVED SLOW-BURNING CONSTRUCTION SHOWING

COLUMN SPACING-_


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12"2 TH FlFA(,'TOR Y BUILDINGS









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