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 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Table of Contents
 Summary
 Synopsis
 Project proposals
 Budget for proposed humid tropics...
 Program staffing plan summary
 Backstopping: TropSoils
 Estimation of TropSoils expenses...














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A Proposal for extension of the Indonesia TropSoils Program
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 Material Information
Title: A Proposal for extension of the Indonesia TropSoils Program
Physical Description: 79 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Center for Soil Research
Publication Date: 1985
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Agriculture -- Research -- Indonesia   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Indonesia
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 52).
Statement of Responsibility: submitted by Center for Soil Research, Bogor, Indonesia; University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii; North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina.
General Note: Appears to be a draft with many handwritten notes.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 74494100
ocm74494100
Classification: lcc - S599.6.I5 P76 1985
System ID: AA00004338:00001

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
        Front Matter 3
        Front Matter 4
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Summary
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Synopsis
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Project proposals
        Page 11
        Page 12
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        Page 73a
    Budget for proposed humid tropics program
        Page 74
        Page 74a
    Program staffing plan summary
        Page 75
        Page 75a
    Backstopping: TropSoils
        Page 76
        Page 77
    Estimation of TropSoils expenses to be paid from Soil Management CRSP Fund
        Page 78
        Page 51R
        Page 62R
        Page 72R
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Full Text






Soil Management
Collaborative Research Support Program

TROPSOILS

Humid Tropics Component









A PROPOSAL FOR
EXTENSION OF THE
INDONESIA TROPSOILS PROGRAM








Submitted by
Center for Soil Research
Bogor, Indonesia
University of Hawaii
Honolulu, Hawaii
North Carolina State University
Raleigh, North Carolina





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TABLE OF CONTENTS


PROGRAM: HUMID TROPICS

page
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... 1

Synopsis. . . . . . . . . . .... ......... 8

Project Proposals:
Topic: Site Characterization
Project: Soil Survey of Land Clearing Research Site . . . .. 11
Project: Soil Variability in Mechanically Cleared Forest Land 14

Topic: Baseline Farming Systems Research
Project: Time Allocation Studies. . . . . . . . ... 20
Project: Nutrition/Diet/Income Survey . . . . . . ... 25
Project: Cooperator Farmer Interview Series . . . . ... 29

Topic: Improving and Sustaining Productivity in Farmers' Fields
Project: Farmer and Researcher Designed and Managed Cropping
Systems Experiments. . . . . . . . . ... 33
Project: Matching Crop Requirements of Rice, Maize, Soybean,
and Peanut to Soil Characteristics . . . . .... 38
Project: Assessing Field Inoculation with Introduced and
Indigeous VA Mycorrhizal Inocula by Crop Growth and
Yield on Soil Cleared of Tropical Rainforest ...... 44
Project: Modeling Phosphorus-Lime Interactions . . . ... 48

Topic: Land Reclamation: Land Clearing and Soil Conservation
Project: The Role of Soil Physical Properties on Land Quality
for Sustained Agricultural Production in Land Cleared
by Heavy Equipment . . . . . . . .... .54
Project: Pasture Grass and Legumes for the Humid Tropics. ... .59
Project: Management of Organic Matter in Indonesian Farming
Systems. . . . . . . . . ... ..... .64
Project: Conservation-Effective Rainfed Farming Systems for
the Sitiung Area, West Sumatra . . . . . ... 68

Budget for Proposed Humid Tropics Program . . . . . . . ... 74

Program Staffing Plan Summary . . . . . . . . ... ..... 75

Backstopping: TropSoils. . . . . . . . . ... ..... .76

Estimation of TropSoils Expenses to be Paid from Soil Management
CRSP Fund . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . 77

Staffing Plans for Personnel Supported by CSR Funds . . . . ... 78









Summary


A major goal of the TropSoils Project is to produce soil management

research results that can be successfully transferred from one research site to

other locations in the Humid Tropics. The aim is to establish the cause and

effect relationship between soil properties and soil behavior so that users of

soil resources can understand, predict, and control the behavior and performance

of soils. To say that research results can be successfully extrapolated implies

that outcomes can be predicted in other locations.

To predict the performance of a crop on a specific kind of soil, it is

necessary to match the requirements of the crop to the characteristics of the

soil. Soil management, in one sense, is the science and art of rectifying

mismatches between crops and soils. To match crop requirements to soil

characteristics, one must know how soil characteristics vary spatially and

temporally. It is the inability to deal with spatial and temporal variability

of soil properties that prevents soil users from matching crop requirements to

land characteristics, and therefore, from predicting soil behavior and

performance.

In addition to the problem of soil variability and matching crop

requirements to soil characteristics, there is the equally important task of

matching crop and soil management requirements to the cultural and resource

characteristics of the farmer. The subsistence farmer's reluctance to rectify

mismatches between crop and soil arises not so much from ignorance, as from lack

of resources. The adoption of soil management practices by farmers hinges on

producing soil management practices tailored to fit the cultural and resource

characteristics of the users.










Implicit in figure 1 is that research on "alternative soil and crop

management systems" and "land clearing practices" will lead to economically,

socially, and environmentally workable outcomes that can be extrapolated to

other regions of the Humid Tropics.

To produce transferable results, it is necessary, as stated earlier, to

establish the cause and effect relationships between soil behavior or

performance and soil properties. IIt is no longer sufficient to demonstrate that

a crop grown on an acid Oxisol will respond, for example, to application of lime

or phosphorus. We must now identify the soil properties and understand the

processes that control phosphorus dynamics, learn how plant genotype and

rhizosphere biology affect soil phosphorus uptake, and document how climate

affects the plant that responds to lime and phosphorus.

The Indonesia TropSoils Project is designed to deal with soil management

research through systems analysis and simulation. The project is based on the

premise that extrapolation and prediction of soil management outcomes can be

achieved by analysis and simulation of the soil, plant, atmosphere continuum.

Systems analysis and simulation are efficient and logical ways to match crops to

soil and climate for extrapolation purposes.

Figure 2 shows a flowchart for modeling the soil-plant-atmosphere

continuum. The chart summarizes the work of the Agricultural Research Service

of USDA and the International Fertilizer Development Center and was prepared for

use in the TropSoils and IBSNAT (International Benchmark Sites Network for

Agrotechnology Transfer) projects of the University of Hawaii by C. Allan Jones

of ARS and Upendra Singh of the University of Hawaii. A manual for collecting

the "minimum data set" to operate this model is available on request from the

TropSoils or IBSNAT projects of the University of Hawaii.






TROPSOILS

INDONESIA

Objective

Develop Soil/Management Systems
Appropriate to the Humid Tropics


Characterization of Soil, Present Farming Systems, and Land
Clearing Practices


Cleared Areas


Action Restoration
Experimental Research


Action Baseline Survey

Initial Best Estimate


Alternative
Soil/Crop Management
Systems and Land
Clearing Practices


Uncleared Areas


Action Prevention
Experimental Research


I
Action Farmer
Collaboration and Assessment


Outcome


Improved Farming Systems
(Economically, Environmentally and Socially Workable)


Fig. 1. Flow chart of activities for the Indonesia TROPSOILS Project. This chart was jointly
prepared by the Indonesian Center for Soil Research and the collaborating U.S. universities.











Legend
7 inputs
J outputs
I processes
0 decisions


Fig. 2. Flowchart for modeling the soil-maize-atmosphere-management system











Legend

Z7 inputs
J outputs
Processes
Decisions


Fig. 2. continued










Over the past two years, the project has been readying itself for systems

simulation research, both at the socio-economic and biophysical levels, through

farmer interviews, collection of weather data and soil characterization. The

collection of soil, plant, weather and human resource data requires backstopping

support to develop a data base management system to store and retrieve the

immense quantity of information already being generated, to produce the software

from the data base with which to make predictions about soil behavior and

performance, and to judge the reaction of users to soil management innovations.

A second major aim of the Indonesia TropSoils Project is to ensure that the

research methodology, data base management systems, and software producing

capability is left in the hands of host country scientists through training

activities.

To enlarge the TropSoils training component, the host country has

recommended, and the project has agreed, to invite faculty and graduate students

from Brawijaya University in Malang, Gajada Mada University in Jojakarta and

Pajajaran University in Bandung to participate in TropSoils research activities.

The aim of inviting Indonesian university scientists to participate in TropSoils

research is to enable the project to benefit from local expertise, and in

addition, to enable local faculty to utilize TropSoils research findings in

their teaching. Indonesian graduate students supervised by Indonesian

professors will have the opportunity to interact with expatriate scientists and

graduate students. The planned otucome is that indigenous and expatriate groups

will gain from the combined skills and knowledge they bring to the project. To

ensure that indigenous and expatriate staff interact synergistically, expatriate

scientists, graduate students, and their families have been selected not only

for their technical competencies, but for their cultural sensitivities as well.










The latter attribute has enabled them to work effectively in a collaborative

mode with their host country colleagues.

The Indonesia TropSoils Project intends to achieve its aim of developing

the means to extrapolate and predict soil management outcomes through linkages

with the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture,

the International Fertilizer Development Center, the International Board for

Soil Research and Management, and the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial

Research Organization of Australia. Three of these units have been selected to

provide expertise in systems analysis and simulation in soils research.

TropSoils Indonesia will continue to support and encourage inter-TropSoils

activities, and has agreed to take the lead in phosphorus-lime experimentation

for all TropSoils institutions. It has been asked by the other TropSoils

universities to take the lead in modeling soil-plant-climate processes for

prediction and extrapolation, and has agreed to support the other universities

in the areas of nitrogen dynamics (Cornell University), soil-water-atmosphere-

plant relations (Texas A&M University) and soil dynamics (North Carolina State

University).

After three years of research and experience, the Indonesia TropSoils

Project is ready to enter a new phase of expanded collaborative research on soil

management.






8



Humid Tropics Research Program Proposal

University of Hawaii

Synopsis


Topic 1: Site characterization


Objective:


To prepare a detailed soil survey of research sites and to
describe soil variability, use it to design agronomic experiment
and farming methods, and increase reliability of extrapolation
research.


Project 1. Soil Survey of Land Clearing Research Site

Means to attain objective:
Determine the soil chemical and physical properties most influential
in causing the extreme crop yield variability; in the gardens and
fields of transmigrant farmers; determine the structure in the
variance of soil chemical and physical properties by geostatistical
methods; relate soil and crop variablity patterns using
geostatistical approaches to quantify and understand the nature of
soil variability in mechanically cleared forest.


Topic 2: Baseline farming systems research


Objective:


Improve quality of life for transmigrant and local farmers by
tailoring soil management practices to fit cultural and resource
characteristics of farmers.


Project 1: The allocation study 6L^^ p upg)


Means to attain objective:
Ascertain the current division of farm labor, by sex and age;
determine how people were choosing to use their labor; determine
important seasonal variation in activities; maintain ongoing
communication between researchers and farming families.


Project 2: Nutrition/diet/income survey

Means to attain objective:
Ascertain a baseline for nutritional status, dietary patterns and
income levels in the area of field research investigations.

S Project 3: Cooperator farmer interview series

Means to attain objective:
Monitor characteristics of the farming families with whom the team
is working; compare their lives with those of a randomly selected
group of "control" farming families.


~2(3e


S










Topic 3: Improving and sustaining soil productivity in farmers' fields

Objective: Develop alternative soil and crop management systems that will
lead to economically, socially and environmentally workable
outcomes that can be transferred to other regions of the Humid
Tropics.

Project 1: Farmer and Research Designed and Managed Cropping Systems
Experiments

Means to attain objective:
Compare fertilizer packages, including rock phosphate or lime
against the current government supplied package of urea and treble
superphospate; enhance interaction with local farmers so as to
better understand a) their problems and b) their goals; learn and
get ideas from the farmers, drawing on their knowledge and
experience to help generate more appropriate research.

Project 2: Matching Crop Requirements of Rice, Maize, Soybean and Peanut
to Soil Characteristics with Crop Simulation Models

Means to attain objective:
Identify the minimum soil, crop and weather data needed to predict
the performance of rice, maize, soybean and peanut cultivars in the
humid tropics; test, validate and modify existing rice, maize,
soybean and peanut simulation model as screening device for varietal
testing.

Project 3: Assessing Field Inoculation with Introduced and Indigenous VA
Mycorrhizal Inocula by Crop Growth and Yield on Soil Cleared
of Tropical Rainforest

Means to attain objective:
Compare and evaluate the influence on mungbean growth by field
inoculation with organic debris (considered as indigenous VA
mycorrhizal inoculum) and pot culture inoculum (Glomus fasciculatum)
in a soil cleared of tropical rainforest; determine the effect of
land clearing on the population and inoculum potential of VA
mycorrhizal fungi in the highly acid soils of the Sitiung area.

Project 4: Modeling Phosphorus-Lime Interactions

Means to attain objective:
Predict phosphorus and lime interactions in high acidity, low
activity clay soils for crop modeling


Topic: Land reclamation: land clearing and soil conservation

Objective: Produce economically feasible, environmentally safe and
transferable methods for sustaining agricultural productivity in
land cleared from tropical rainforests.










Project 1: The Role of Soil Physical Properties on Land Quality for
SSustained Agricultural Production in Land Cleared by Heavy
Equipment

Means to attain objective:
Identify land clearing methods that are cost-effective,
agronomically sound, and environmentally safe, identify the soil
physical parameters that are adversely modified by mechanized land
clearing; be able to recommend safe, inexpensive and acceptable,
post land clearing soil management practices to reclaim soils
damaged by mechanized land clearing; develop economic model to
identify the best combination of land clearing and post land
clearing method.

Project 2: Pasture Grass and Legumes for the Humid Tropics (38)

Means to attain objective:
Evaluate germplasm in a range of environments representative of the
humid tropics and to identify suitable cover crops for eroded
lands.

Project 3: Management of Organic Matter in Indonesian Farming Systems

Means to attain objective:
Evaluate the importance of soil organic matter in agricultural
production in Indonesia, determine its role in nutrient cycling and
effect on physical and biological processes in soil; identify
optimum farming systems for the management of organic materials.
These should be appropriate to the conditions in Sitiung and the
constraints of subsistence level farmers; identify the major groups
of soil organisms involved in organic matter decomposition in
Sitiung and to study the effects of management.

Project 4: Conservation-Effective Rainfed Farming Systems for the Sitiung
7, Area, West Sumatra

S i Means to attain objective:
Quantify the rainfall erosion potential for major agroenvironments
in the area; evaluate the effectiveness of alternative cropping
systems and land management practices for controlling the erosional
losses of soil and water resources; integrate the above with other
agroeconomic and socio-economic information for use in developing
productive and stable watershed-based farming systems in the area.










Program: Humid Tropics

Research Leader:

Soleh Sukmana, Center for Soil Research

Collaborating Scientists:

Haruyoshi Ikawa, University of Hawaii
Harijogjo, Center for Soil Research
Bambang Mahmudi, Center for Soil Research
Yayat Hidayat, Center for Soil Research
Anggana, Center for Soil Research

Topic: Site characterization

Goal: Stratify systematic soil variability so that specific soil management

research can be matched to specific soil characteristics

Project Title: Soil Survey of Land Clearing Research Site

Objectives:

Produce a detailed soil map (1:5,000) of the TropSoils land clearing

research site.



Reasons for the Investigation:

A 220 hectare, forested site in Sitiung has been selected to serve as a

permanent research station. Instead of simply clearing the land, the land

clearing effort will become part of a study to assess land clearing methods (see

project on land clearing). A detailed soil and plant inventory of the site will

enable the land clearing project to locate suitable research plots and to plan a

long term research strategy for the site.



Relevance to Other Programs:

Detailed characterization of the land clearing site is necessary to render

the research results useful elsewhere in the humid tropics. This site will be

one of three "Benchmark" land clearing sites planned under a cooperative effort

with the International Board for Soil Research and Management (IBSRAM).










Soil survey and classification is a continuing training aspect of the

TropSoils project. Its main training will be in the use and adoption of Soil

Taxonomy as a common international language for soil management technology

transfer.



Generalized Procedure:

Transects through the site will be prepared and soil and vegetation type

recorded. Soil samples will be analyzed in Bogor and the field and laboratory

data will be used to classify the soil according to the Indonesian system of

soil classification and Soil Taxonomy. A large scale map (1:5000) will be

prepared.



Principal Site for Experimentation: Sumatra, Indonesia



Duration: May 1984 to June 1987



State of Progress:

A preliminary report in Bahasa Indonesian has been prepared.

Budget:


4 5 6 7 8 TOTAL


SALARIES 0 0 0 0 0 0
FRINGE BENEFITS 0 0 0 0 0 0
SUPPLIES 3000 1500 1000 0 0 5500
VEHICLE 0 0 0 0 0 0
EQUIPMENT 0 0 0 0 0 0
TRAVEL-INTERN. 3000 3500 3500 0 0 10000
TRAVEL-DOMESTIC 500 500 600 0 0 1600
BACKSTOPPING 3980 3000 3300 0 0 10280
OTHER DIRECT COSTS 1000 1000 1500 0 0 3500
INDIRECT COSTS 2870 2375 2475 0 0 7720

TOTAL 14350 11875 12375 0 0 38600




H- J3
hL I


Soil Survey of Land Clearing Site

Budget and Staffing


A. Budget

Year
Object 4 5 6 8 Total

x $1000

Supplies 3 2 1 0 0 6

Travel, International 3 4 4 0 0 11

Backstopping 4 3 3 0 0 10

Other Direct Costs 1 1 1 0 0 3

Indirect Costs 3 2 3 0 0 8

TOTAL 14 12 12 0 0 38



B. Staffing

Year Total
Category 4 5 b 7 8 CRSP Other
Funded Funded

SY/YR

Campus Based Scientist 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.30

TOTAL 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.30










Program: Humid Tropics

Project Leaders:

Russell Yost, University of Hawaii
Goro Uehara, University of Hawaii

Collaborating Scientists:

Soleh Sukmana, Center for Soil Research
John R. Thompson, University of Hawaii, Sitiung
Michael Wade, North Carolina State University, Sitiung
Jean-Pierre N'Diaye, University of Hawaii
H. Rum, Center for Soil Research

Topic: Site characterization

Goal: Develop method to conduct field experiments in plots with high soil

spatial variability

Project Title: Soil Variability in Mechanically Cleared Forest Land

Objectives:

(1) Construct semi-variograms of soil properties to determine structure in

the variance of soil properties

(2) Use the structure in the variance of soil chemical and physical

properties by geostatistical methods to predict soil properties in

unsampled locations

(3) Relate soil and crop variability patterns using geostatistical

approaches to match soil management inputs to spatially variable

soils.



Reasons for investigation:

Soil variability in short distances (2-3 meters or less) appears to be a

common attribute of newly cleared land in the Sitiung area (M. Sudjadi, personal









communication) and from our observations of local crops on several

locations. Indeed local variability may be more prevalent in some areas

(Sumatra) than in others (Peruvian jungle) according to some. Agricultural

experimentation on such highly variable land is difficult at best. Often

variability within a plot of approximately 3 x 5 m can be greater than that

occurring between the main treatments (CSR observation, 1980; personal

observation, 1984). The result is that such variation is allocated to the error

term of the ANOVA and few if any treatments differ significantly. Perhaps more

importantly the data from such experiments is of doubtful utility in making

,recommendations on highly variable farmers' fields.

Our approach also will include consideration of differences among crop

plants in their root configuration. Crop roots vary in the extent of

ramification as well as in capability to proliferate in zones of high fertility.

Several of the crops we shall compare represent some of the extremes in these

charactersitics. We suggest that because of differences in root configuration

and physiology, some plants are better adapted to highly variable soil

conditions.

These crops are being evaluated across the gradient in soil chemical

properties (pH 3.9 6.5, Al saturation varying from 0 to 96%, Trangmar, 1984).

If the nature and character of such variation can be understood it is probable

that methods can be developed to permit better experimentation and which may

suggest practical methods for the individual farmer to correct the numerous low

productivity areas in their gardens and fields.



Relevance to Other Programs:

Understanding soil variability is fundamental to agronomic investigation.

Evidence is strong that classical field experimentation techniques based on the










assumption of uniform experimental material may not be the most appropriate

for efficient agronomic investigations on highly variable fields such as those

in the Sitiung area. This experiment has already provided indication of the

major sources of the microscale variability and suggested the need for detailed

sampling in the existing field experiments.

Soil variability which cannot be accounted for by traditional soil survey

methods can be dealt with by application of the theory of regionalized

variables. This type of soil variability occurs in every agroecological zone

and can be accommodated by existing computer software. These software are

available in a dissertation that has been distributed to all SM-CRSP projects.

Use of these techniques requires access to mainframe computers. It is the

intent of this project to train an Indonesian graduate student in this technique

when he or she arrives in Hawaii. Two Master of Science candidates from

Indonesia have been proposed for matriculation in the University of Hawaii.



Generalized Procedures:

The theory of regionalized variables has been developed by mining engineers

to extract the maximum amount of information from a minimum amount of sampling

data. The sample data are used to generate a semi-variogram which shows the

existence or non-existence of spatial relationships among neighboring samples.

If such relationships exist, the information in the semi-variogram can be used

to estimate values of soil properties in unsampled locations. This additional

information can be used to prepare more accurate soil maps so that problem areas

can be more precisely pinpointed.

The theory of regionalized variables will be applied to two sets of data.

The first set consists of 88 soil profiles analyzed by the Center for Soil

Research. The samples were collected from the 100,000 hectare transmigration










site. The second set of data was collected from a plot in a farmer's field by

the TropSoils team. The samples were analyzed by the soil characterization

laboratory of the Center for Soil Research in Bogor.

A third set of data is planned for the land clearing site. An area of high

soil variability has been selected and established. Samples of soil and plants

have been collected in the area. Additional samples will be collected of the

various crops and fertilization that will follow. After a sequence of crops

have been compared for their tolerance to high soil variability we propose to

divide the experimental area into standard experimental plots and superimpose

fertility treatments which do and which do not take into consideration the

inherent soil variability. For the larger scale work we expect to incorporate

new data and information in the fertility maps developed by Trangmar (1984).



Principal Site for Experimentation: Sitiung, Sumatra, Indonesia



Duration: July 1982 to September 1988



Progress to Date:

The results show that natural soil variability can be exploited to answer

key agronomic questions. Examples are available to illustrate the variability

of aluminum saturation in an experimental plot and its corresponding effect on

the rice crop. The data show that rice yields were significantly higher on burn

sites than on exposed subsoil. A more detailed analysis shows that difference

in organic matter, phosphorus and nitrogen accounted for less of the yield

increase than differences in aluminum saturation, calcium, magnesium, potassium

or zinc. Thus, geostatsitics enabled project scientists not only to map spatial

variability of soil properties but to extract from the data set agronomic










information that relates soil productivity to soil properties.

The same technique has been employed to map agronomically important soil

properties for the entire 100,000 hectares research area. The spatial

variability of the amount of lime needed to correct aluminum toxicity in the

Sitiung area illustrates how geostatistics can be used to identify soil

constraints.


Budget:


Ale'


4,/ 5 6 7 8 TOTAL
4 p 0%


SALARIES
FRINGE BENEFITS
SUPPLIES
VEHICLE
EQUIPMENT
TRAVEL-INTERN.
TRAVEL-DOMESTIC
BACKSTOPPING
OTHER DIRECT COSTS
INDIRECT COSTS


TOTAL


10200
5300 Y
10000
0
2600
6000
1000
13620
3500
11655


10900
7500 A
6500
0
2500
7000
1000
16000
2000
13600


11600
8000
7500
0
750
7500
1500
22300
2000
15850


12300 13000
8500 9 9000
7500 7000
0 0


0
7500
1500
23200
1500
16250


0
8000
1000
24200
1000
16550


63875 67000 77000 78250 79750 365875


Equipment List:
(over $2000 ea.)
Distillation,water


58000
38300
38500
0
5850
36000
6000
99320
10000
73905


2500














Program Staffing Plan


Topic: Site Characterization

Project: Soil Variability in Mechanically Cleared Forest Land


Year Total
Position
4 5 6 7 8


SY

Resident Faculty CRSP Funded
Land Clearing Specialist .1 .1 .1 .1 .1 .5

Resident Faculty non-CRSP Funded
J. Thompson .1 .1 .1 .1 .1 .5

Senior Scientist
G. Uehara .1 .1 .1 .1 .1 .5
R. Yost .1 .1 .2 .3 .3 1.0

Graduate Student 6- 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 5.0

Other (identify) none


Total 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.6 7.5




/4-/?


Soil Variability in Mechanically Cleared Forest Land

Budget and Staffing


A. Budget

Year
Object 4 5 b 7 8 Total

x $1000
Salaries 10 11 11 12 13 57

Fringe Benefits 5 8 8 9 9 39

Supplies 10 7 7 8 7 39

Equipment 3 3 1 0 0 7

Travel, International 6 7 7 8 8 36

Travel, National 1 1 2 1 1 6

Backstopping 14 16 22 23 24 99

Other Direct Costs 4 2 2 1 1 10

Indirect Costs 12 14 16 16 16 74

TOTAL 65 69 76 78 79 367



B. Staffing

Year Total
Category 4 5 6 7 8 CRSP Other
Funded Funded

SY/YR
Campus Based Scientist 0.20 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.40 0.00 1.50

Field Based Scientist 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.50 0.50

Graduate Students 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 5.00 0.50

TOTAL 1.40 1.40 1.40 1.40 1.60 5.50 2.00










Program: Humid Tropics

Research Leader:

Carol Colfer, University of Hawaii

Collaborating Scientists:

Atin Kurdiana, Center'for Soil Research
Edi Santoso, Center for Soil Research
Veronica Kasmini, Center for Soil Research
Russell Yost, University of Hawaii

Topic: Baseline farming systems research

Goal: Improve quality of life for transmigrant and local farmers

Project Title: Time allocation studies

Objectives: To tailor soil management-research to the cultural and resource

characteristics of the farmer by:

(a) Ascertaining the current division of farm labor, by sex and age

(b) Determining how people were choosing to use their labor

(c) Establishing important seasonal variation in activities

(d) Maintaining ongoing communication between researchers and farming

families.



Reasons for the Investigation:

Many promising soil management innovations and practices are not adopted by

farmers because the effort required to implement the innovation conflicts with

the work habits and schedule of the farmer. Farmers generally invest their

greatest effort on activities which are critical to their survival and quality

of life. Time allocation studies of farmer activities are efficient ways to

identify priority soil management research that correspond to farmer needs.



Relevance to Other Programs:

The applicability of these findings will depend on the similarities between

this location and others to which one might wish to generalize. However, the










process is an easy one to replicate, and other researchers all over the world

are conducting time allocation studies (using this method as well as others).

There is considerable probability that transmigrants of similar ethnic groups in

other tropical rainforest locations will have similar options for spending their

time.

Besides the benefit of allowing the team to answer specific,

research-related questions about the population with which they are working,

this time allocation study contributes to a growing body of information about

how people spend their time. In recent years, there has been an increasing

recognition that unpaid work has been underestimated and undervalued. This

particularly affects poor people and women, and researchers have begun to

develop a body of information on how people spend their time when they are not

being paid. The TropSoils studies can contribute to this body of knowledge.



Generalized Procedure:

The approach was somewhat different from many time allocation studies in

that people were not asked to remember how much time they devoted to some

preselected tasks. Rather a randomized schedule was drawn up at the beginning

of the study for the entire year. Visits were then made to the scheduled

households, and the activities of all members of the household were noted. Four

households were visited each day.



Principal Site for Experimentation: Sitiung, West Sumatra, Indonesia


Duration: September 1983 to September 1986










State of Progress:

The data are currently being entered into the computer to form a data base
S--* 5-- -" ""- "-"-------
from which specific soil-management-related questions can be asked related to

people's usual activities. The large number of observations and their random

nature permit reasonably accurate generalizations to the general populace. The

fact that two very different transmigration sites were used, one representing a

long-established one and the other a newly settled site, allow the team to

ascertain important differences based on length of residence. These data will

also provide a measure of the changes that occur over the course of the

research.

The team has already had cause to question the frequency with which people

must search for grass for their cattle and goats, the division of agricultural

labor between the sexes, the incidence of off-farm employment, monthly variation

in productive activities of adults, among others. When the data are fully

entered into the computer system, they will be much more accessible to team

members. -/< ,L 0 O o" _?

A number of CSR personne/have been involved in data collection for this

study. This provides a mechanism by which they regularly interact with farmers,

becoming attuned to their concerns, constraints and goals. This in turn affects

their decisions about the kinds of experimentation that are likely to yield

agricultural technology that can be used by farmers.











Budget:


4 5 6 7 8 TOTAL


SALARIES
FRINGE BENEFITS
SUPPLIES
VEHICLE
EQUIPMENT
TRAVEL-INTERN.
TRAVEL-DOMESTIC
BACKSTOPPING
OTHER DIRECT COSTS
INDIRECT COSTS


8000
4000 iO
500
1200
0
2000
500
7000
2150
7415


8500
4300 57
500
0
0
2000
500
7500
2000
8128


9500
4800
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3003


10000 10500 46500
5000 0 5500 9f 23600
0 0 1000
0 0 1200
0 0 0
0 0 4000
0 0 1000
0 0 14500
0 0 4150
3150 3360 25056


35265 36428 17303 18150 19360 126506


TOTAL




A-23
y- zV


Time Allocation Studies

Budget and Staffing


A. Budget

Year
Object 4 5 6 7 8 Total

x $1000

Salaries 8 9 9 10 11 47

Fringe Benefits 4 4 5 5 6 24

Supplies 1 1 0 0 0 2

Equipment 1 0 0 0 0 1

Travel, International 2 2 0 0 0 4

Travel, National 1 1 0 0 0 2

Backstopping 7 8 0 0 0 15

Other Direct Costs 2 2 0 0 0 4

Indirect Costs 8 8 3 3 3 26





B. Staffing

Year Total
Category 4 5 6 7 B / CRSP Other
Funded Funded

SY

Campus Based Scientist 0.10 0.1 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.20

Field Based Scientist 0.25 0.25 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.50 0.00

TOTAL 0.35 0.35 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.50 0.20
____________V _ )___














Program Staffing Plan


Topic: Baseline Farming Systems Research

Project: Time Allocation Studies


Year Total
Position
4 5 6 7 8


SY

Resident Faculty CRSP Funded
C. Colfer .25 .25 .5

Resident Faculty non-CRSP Funded none

Senior Scientist
R. Yost .1 .1 .2

Graduate Student none

Other (identify) none


Total .35 .35 .7










Program: Humid Tropics

Research Leader:

Carol Colfer, University of Hawaii

Collaborating Scientists:

Barbara Chapman, consultant
Liek Irianti, IPBNP
Bartholomeus Wied Apriadji, IPBNP

Topic: Baseline farming systems research

Goal: Improve quality of life for transmigrant and local farmers

Project Title: Nutrition/diet/income survey

Objectives:

Establish a baseline for nutritional status, dietary patterns and income

levels in the area f field research investigations] from which to measure impact

of soil management research on quality of life of farmers.



Reasons for the Investigation:

A purpose of this study is to compare the nutritional status and income

levels of the people now with what is obtained at the conclusion of the

TropSoils project. In the interim, the team hopes to compare various survey
____ __---- 7-
questions in this location and in the urban context of Bogor. It may be

possible to make comparisons with other countries which participated in the r'7

Street Foods Project. Chapman is quite interested in comparing the findings in

Sumatra with those of her previous research in Central Java several years ago.

The analysis will provide the team with a means of assessing the appropriateness

of proposed new crops for experiments over time. Entry of these data into a

computerized data base management system will improve their usefulness.










Relevance to Other Programs:

The relevance of these findings should be reasonably great for other

transmigration sites. The findings from Sitiung V, where the people had only

recently stopped receiving their government subsidy, should be of relevance for

assessing the adequacy of the subsidy. The description of the subsistence

adjustment that has been made by the longer term residents can also be of use to

the team in suggesting agronomic improvements that are consistent with existing

patterns.


Generalized Procedure:

The dietary patterns were of particular interest since the team hoped to

select food crops for use in management experiments which would be usable by

transmigrants in their subsistence efforts and would supplement nutritional

deficiencies. Data were also collected on the agricultural production of

families. The team wanted a reading on the relative wealth of Sitiunn I

compared to II (irrigation and no irrigation, respectively); and Sitiung V

which, in contrast to I and II, is newly settled.

The approach was to utilize experienced researchers combined with knowledge

of local conditions to construct a survey instrument that would provide the

information desired. People were interviewed in their homes, usually in their

language. Each of the 80 families were interviewed twice, on consecutive days,

so that actual food consumption data would be as accurate as practical and

relying as little as possible on memory. Income data were obtained to include

agricultural production that was consumed and not sold, using market prices that

were obtained at the time of the interviews.


Principal Site of Experimentation:

Sitiung, West Sumatra

Bogor, West Java










Duration: April 1984 to March 1988



State of Progress:

The results showed Sitiung I and II to be grouped together, income-wise, at

the top and bottom of the ladder. Sitiung V was generally in the middle, from

an income standpoint. Incomes range from approximately $8.00 to $200.00 per

month. Nutritional status was marginally adequate. The lack of variety in the

diets was suggested as a possible contributor to their nutritional deficiencies.

Virtually no meat was consumed by the people in any of the locations. The

nutritionists warned the team of a danger in focusing on high value crops, the

reason being that the people will sell them rather than consume them to improve

their nutritional status. They also suggested that the team introduce some of

the variety of seeds for edible plants available in Java.


Budget:



4 5 6 7 8 TOTAL


SALARIES
FRINGE BENEFITS
SUPPLIES
VEHICLE
EQUIPMENT
TRAVEL-INTERN.
TRAVEL-DOMESTIC
BACKSTOPPING
OTHER DIRECT COSTS
INDIRECT COSTS

TOTAL


Equipment List:
(over $2000 ea.)
Microcomputer


6400
3200 ;l
500
0
2500
1500
1000
5670
2000
6067

30837


6800
3400 SP
500
0
0
1500
750
7000
2000
6238

30188


7600
3800 SZ'
650
0
0
2500
750
7990
1500
7323

34113


8000
4000S
750
0
0
3000
1000
14540
1500
9198

43988


8400
4200 50
0
0
0
0
0
15130
1500
7683

38913


37200
18600
2400
0
2500
8500
3500
50330
8500
36509

178039




H-?-R


Nutrition/Diet/Income Survey

Budget and Staffing


A. Budget

Year
Object 4 5 6 7 8 Total

x $1000

Salaries 6 7 8 8 8 37

Fringe Benefits 3 3 4 4 4 18

Supplies 1 1 1 1 0 4

Equipment 2 0 0 0 0 2

Travel, International 2 1 2 3 0 8

Travel, National 1 1 1 1 0 4

Backstopping 6 7 8 14 15 50

Other Direct Costs 4 4 4 3 4 19

Indirect Costs 6 6 7 9 8 36

TOTAL 31 30 35 43 39 178



B. Staffing

Year Total
Category 4 5 6 87 CR5P Other
Funded Funded

SY/YR

Field Based Scientist 0.20 0.20 0.30 0.30 0.30 1.30 0.00

TOTAL 0.20 0.20 0.30 0.30 0.30 1.30 0.00













Program Staffing Plan


Topic: Baseline Farming Systems Research

Project: Nutrition/Diet/Income Survey


Year Total
Position
4 5 6 7 8


SY

Resident Faculty CRSP Funded
C. Colfer .2 .2 .3 .3 .3 1.3

Resident Faculty non-CRSP Funded none

Senior Scientist none

Graduate Student none

Other (identify) none


Total .2 .2 .3 .3 .3 1.3










Program: Humid Tropics

Research Leader:

Carol Colfer, University of Hawaii

Collaborating Scientists:

Barbara Chapman, consultant
Veronica Kasmini, Center for Soil Research
Bartholomeus Wied Apriadji, IPBNP
Liek Irianti, IPBNP

Topic: Baseline farming systems research

Goal: Improve quality of life for transmigrant and local farmers

Project Title: Cooperator farmer interview series

Objectives: Produce method for itching soil management requirements to

cultural and resource-characteristics of farmers by:
r-----------------------------------'------. -
(1) Monitoring characteristics of the farming families with whom the team

is working

(2) Comparing their lives with those of a randomly selected group of

"control" farming families.



Reasons for the Investigation:

The principle of matching the requirements of a soil management innovation

to the cultural and resource-characteristics of the farmer entails knowledge of

the requirement of the innovation and the characteristics of the user of the

innovation. This interview series is designed to understand the cultural and

resource characteristics of the farmer so that soil management innovations can

be tailored to match the needs and absorptive capacity of the farmer.



Relevance to Other Programs:

The relevance of this interview series derives more from the process of

S determining what questions need to be answered than from the specific questions

deemed important by this particular team in this particular location. It is

^^JlxJ^- it~
0 ^JiMM^-L










hoped that soil scientists working in this team will leave the project
*^ - ___---------- ---- \
understanding that information from farmers is relevant and is also accessible

by relatively straightforward procedures. If these persons do not try to gain

this information themselves in the future, at least they will understand that it

is important and seek help from social scientists.



Generalized Procedure:

The approach involves development of rapport with 40 families, and periodic

interaction with them over time. Effort was made to develop a sense of trust

and understanding of team goals, and thereby increase the likelihood of getting

accurate responses to queries. The families that were surveyed by the

nutritionists included those involved in this interview series.

The following represent kinds of questions that have been incorporated into

the interview series: Since the people appeared to be quite interested in fruit

trees, questions on the kinds, numbers and locations of fruit trees were

included. In this way the existence of a variety of fruit trees already planted

in people's houselots was verified, as well as the people's interest in these /

crops. This information is then shared with the soil scientists.

The team wanted a sense of whether the people in the community were

experienced in agriculture so a question on land holdings and previous

agricultural experience was included. About half of the farmers interviewed had

been landless in Java, but virtually all had had agricultural experience as

laborers.

At another point the team wanted to get an idea of how much money the

people had brought with them. The purpose of this question was to ascertain

whether they had funds to buy agricultural inputs. The whole series as

designed to monitor and provide ongoing information as the team decided would be

useful.










Principal Site for Experimentation: Sumatra, Indonesia



Duration: November 1983 to September 1989



State of Progress:

The most relevant benefit of this particular interview series was to

provide the team with timely, focused information that relates to ongoing

agricultural experimentation in the community. In the future the team expects

to use this method to ascertain the profitability of the soil management

innovations recommended to and adopted by the farmers.


Budget:


4 5 6 7 8 TOTAL


SALARIES
FRINGE BENEFITS
SUPPLIES
VEHICLE
EQUIPMENT
TRAVEL-INTERN.
TRAVEL-DOMESTIC
BACKSTOPPING
OTHER DIRECT COSTS
INDIRECT COSTS

TOTAL


8000
4000 b
500
0
0
1500
500
8000
1150
5913
29563


8500
4300
500
0
0
1500
500
8500
1000
6200
31000


9500
4800 1
650
0
1000
2000
750
20300
2500
10125
51625


10500
50004 $
750
0
0
2500
750
22250
2500
11062
55312


10500 47000
5500 23600 SV
750 3150
0 0
0 1000
4000 11500
1000 3500
23200 82250
3000 10150
11238 44538
59188 226688




-// /2
/1-32-


Cooperator Farmer Interview Series

Budget and Staffing


A. Budget

Year
Object 4 5 6 7 8 Total

x $1000
Salaries 8 9 9 10 11 47

Fringe Benefits 4 4 5 5 6 24

Supplies 1 1 1 1 1 5

Travel, International 2 2 2 3 4 13

Travel, National 0 0 0 0 1 1

Backstopping 8 9 20 22 23 82

Other Direct Costs 1 1 3 3 3 11

Indirect Costs 6 6 10 11 11 44

TOTAL 30 32 50 55 60 227



B. Staffing

Year Total
Category 4 5 6 8 CRSP Other
Funded Funded

SY/YR
Field Based Scientist 0.25 0.25 0.30 0.30 0.30 1.40 0.00

TOTAL 0.25 0.25 0.30 0.30 0.30 1.40 0.00













Program Staffing Plan


Topic: Baseline Farming Systems Research Studies

Project: Cooperator Farmer Interview Series


Year Total
Position
4 5 6 7 8


SY

Resident Faculty CRSP Funded
C. Colfer .25 .25 .3 .3 .3 1.4

Resident Faculty non-CRSP Funded none

Senior Scientist none

Graduate Student none

Other (identify) none


Total .25 .25 .3 .3 .3 1.4










Program: Humid Tropics

Research Leader:

Michael Wade, North Carolina State University, Sitiung

Collaborating Scientists:

Carol Colfer University of Hawaii, Sitiung
So eT umana, Center for Soil Research, Bogor
Suwandi, Center for Soil Research, Sitiung
Atin Kurdiana, Center for Soil Research, Sitiung

Topic:r Improving and sustaining soil productivity in farmers' fields

Goal: nations of fertilizer used efficiently for improved crop production

Project Tile: Farmer and Researcher Designed and Managed Cropping Systems

Experiments

Objectives:

(1) To compare fertilizer packages, including rock phosphate or lime

against the current government supplied package of urea and treble
------------------
superphosphate (TSP).

(2) To enhance interaction with local farmers so as to better understand

a) their problems and b) their goals.

(3) To learn and get ideas from the farmers, drawing on their knowledge and

experience to help generate more appropriate research.



Reasons for the Investigation:

Farmers newly arriving at transmigration sites are often working in a

vacuum. They have just been moved from an area with very different soils and

climate. They, like the researchers, are in a new and different situation.

They are very open, and searching for new information and technology. By

working closely with such farmers, the researchers can find more appropriate and

usable technology that can be of immediate use to other new transmigrants in

neighboring ot similar areas.









By the close association with these farmers, the researchers also gain

insight into the goals, problems, and thinking of transmigrants. This

interaction in turn should help guide the component research so as to provide

more culturally and economically acceptable technology.



Relevance to Other Programs:

The results of this research should impact on package suitability and

management implications for farmers arriving at newly cleared sites. It also

gives the researchers the opportunity to monitor soils and farmers from their

time of arrival. Information gained can be used for making recommendations and

designing research in other new areas.


Generalized Procedures:

On-farm, farmer-managed trials with 19 participating farmers, one

replication per farmer. Initially one year, with the intention of making use of

established contacts and rapport with these farmers that can be used to test

positive results from component trials in years to come.

The cropping pattern used was an intercropping pattern of rice with relay

planted cassava. After the rice harvest, peanuts and chili peppers were planted

between the cassava. Large plots (20 x 40 m) were divided into four treatments

on each The researchers laid out the plots and applied the fertilizers

and lime according to the treatments. The farmers were primarily responsible

for labor and crop protection decisions. The researchers provided seed and
,--------------- .. .
pesticide as required or requested. Planting pattern (species, timing and

spacing) were determined collectively by the farmers and the scientists.

Tillage decisions were left to the farmer for the no fertilizer and

government packages. The rock phosphate and lime plots were to be hoed after


i-










broadcasting the rock and lime. TSP was banded in all cases. Three farmers

were selected not to hoe the rock and lime.



Principal Site for Experimentation: Sitiung, West Sumatra, Indonesia



Duration: October 1983 to September 1986



State of Progress:

Tillage was not a factor in the four treatments. It turned out to be a

very critical management decision. There was no increase in production by

fertilizers when the land was hoed. However if not hoed, the lime treatment was

considerably better than the other packages. In the non-limed treatments,

hoeing gave an approximate 50% yield increase. The area for this trial was all

newly cleared land, i.e., first planting. Hoeing was very difficult due to the

thick mass of roots from the previous forest. But apparently incorporating the

forest litter (there was no general burn) had a fertilizing effect, an effect

even greater than the urea and TSP and rock phospate. Most of the Javanese

farmers thought it best to hoe, as they traditionally do in Java. However, the

root barrier deterred some of them. Also, the local (Minang) transmigrants

traditionally slash and burn for upland rice cultivation and they advocated not

hoeing. They did not think it was detrimental, merely a waste of time. However

the situation here was somewhat different from the usual slash and burn. This

forest had been felled in the rainy season and not burned. The farmers arrived

and cleared the felled trees several months later during the following dry

season. By then there was little dry leaf litter or twigs suitable to fire a

generalized burn. Thus they had to hand cut and pile the limbs and logs.











Budget:
C2


4 5 6 7 8 TOTAL
---------------------------------------------------------------


SALARIES 3200 3400 0 0 0 6600
FRINGE BENEFITS 1600 1700 0 0 0 3300
SUPPLIES 1250 500 0 0 0 1750
VEHICLE 1200 0 0 0 0 1200
EQUIPMENT 0 0 0 0 0 0
TRAVEL-INTERN. 0 0 0 0 0 0
TRAVEL-DOMESTIC 600 400 0 0 0 1000
BACKSTOPPING 3780 4350 0 0 0 8130
OTHER DIRECT COSTS 3980 3600 0 0 0 7580
INDIRECT COSTS 2971 2870 0 0 0 5841


18581 16820 0


0 0 35401


TOTAL














Program Staffing Plan


Topic: Improving and Sustaining Productivity in Farmers' Fields

Project: Farmer and Researcher Designed and Managed Cropping Systems Experiments




Year Total
Position
4 5 6 7 8


SY

Resident Faculty CRSP Funded
C. Colfer .1 .1 .2

Resident Faculty non-CRSP Funded none

Senior Scientist none

Graduate Student none

Other (identify) none


Total .1 .1 .2




A-37
//- 3


Farmer and Researcher Designed and Managed

Cropping System Experiments

Budget and Staffing


A. Budget

Year
Object 4 5 6 7 8 Total

x $1000
Salaries 3 4 0 0 0 7

Fringe Benefits 2 2 0 0 0 4

Supplies 1 1 0 0 0 2

Travel, National 1 0 0 0 0 1

Backstopping 4 4 0 0 0 8

Other Direct Costs 4 4 0 0 0 8

Indirect Costs 3 3 0 0 0 6

TOTAL 18 18 0 0 0 36



B. Staffing

Year Total
Category 4 5 6 8 CRSP Other
Funded Funded

SY/YR
--Cipaas.Based Scientist 0.10 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.20 0.00

TOTAL c C Ot 0.10 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.20 0.00










Program: Humid Tropics

Project Leader:

Russell Yost, University of Hawaii
Michael Wade, North Carolina State University
Goro Uehara, University of Hawaii

Collaborating Scientists:

Upendra Singh, University of Hawaii
John Thompson, University of Hawaii
Patrick Ching, University of Hawaii
Clement P. Y. Chan, University of Hawaii
Gordon Y. Tsuji, University of Hawaii

Topic: Improving and sustaining productivity in farmers' fields

Goal: Find crops suited for climate and soils of the humid tropics

Project Title: Matching Crop Requirements of Rice, Maize, Soybean and Peanut to

Soil Characteristics With Crop Simulation Models

Objectives:

(1) Identify the minimum soil, crop and weather data needed to predict the

performance of rice, maize, soybean and peanut cultivars in the humid

tropics.

(2) Test, validate and modify existing rice, maize, soybean and peanut

simulation models using the minimum data set.

(3) Use rice, maize, soybean and peanut simulation model as screening

device for varietal testing.



Reasons for the Investigation:

When a new, high performance cultivar of a food crop is developed, it is

widely tested in a number of locations to determine its range of adaptability.

This method is called testing by trial and error. How well a crop cultivar

performs in a particular location depends on how well the environmental










requirements of the crop match the environmental characteristics of the

location. Many of the mismatches that cause crops to perform poorly can be

rectified by management. This is particularly true of soil constraints.

Trial and error varietal testing is slow and achieved at high social costs.

There is currently available (e.g. maize, soybean) well-developed crop models

that will simulate performance of a cultivar in a specific location on a

specific named-kind of soil. Simulation models are currently being developed

for rice (IRRI, CSIRO Australia, and ARS) and peanut (University of Florida).

These models have been designed to replace trial and error varietal testing with

testing by simulation. Simulation is not intended to replace field validation

of crop performance, but is designed to screen large numbers of cultivars and to

identify the most likely candidate for field testing.

Simulation techniques can also use historical weather data to perform 50

year or even longer simulations, and display the yield distribution for this

period as a histogram. The histogram will reveal the number of good, average

and bad years. Thus, simulation techniques can provide information about risks

due to weather variability that a few years of field experimentation can never

provide.

In order to predict the performance of a cultivar, information about the

soil, climate and the genetic makeup of the crop must be used in the model.

These models enable soil management practices to be analyzed for different

cultivars and different climatic conditions and soils. It is potentially a

powerful technique to extrapolate soil management techniques not only within

agroecological zones, but among them.










Relevance to Other Programs:

This project is directly relevant to the erosion and phosphorus-lime

modeling projects. The ability to simulate crop productivity over long periods

(50 years or more) is necessary for assessing the impact of erosion on

productivity. The Agricultural Research Service of the USDA has an erosion

model called EPIC (Erosion Productivity Impact Calculator). EPIC has a crude

crop model built into it and can benefit from the more detailed models

envisioned under this project. An effort will be made to ensure that a common

"minimum data set" is collected from this project, the erosion project, and the

phosphorus-lime project so that results from all projects can be used to examine

the interdependence of components of the larger system.



Generalized Procedures:

The University of Hawaii has compiled the recommendations of an

international group of soil scientists, agronomists and modelers into a document

entitled "Experimental design and data collection procedures for IBSNAT

collaborators". The minimum data set to collect for rice, maize, soybean and

groundnut is outlined in this document and needs to be accepted or revised as

needed by the TropSoils group.

The ARS group in Temple, Texas has agreed to develop with the University of

Hawaii a rice model. The same group already has an operating model for maize

which can be tested and validated immediately.

The University of Florida (Agricultural Engineering Department) has agreed

to modify its soybean model to fit groundnuts (peanut).

Small subgrants to ARS and the University of Florida from the Hawaii

TropSoils project will enable these two organizations to accelerate model

development for use in Indonesia.










The testing and validation of the crop models will be in Sitiung sites with

weather stations. The minimum data sets require daily collection of maximum and

minimum air temperature, solar radiation and rainfall.

A central data base management system for storage and retrieval of the

minimum data set will be developed at the University of Hawaii. These data will

be sent to ARS, Temple, Texas and the University of Florida for analysis.

Training of Indonesian and TropSoils scientists in simulation techniques

will be provided in workshops.



Principal Site for Experimentation:

This is a project that can be installed in at least three of the four

TropSoils sites, including Peru, Indonesia, and Brazil. The Niger site can

restrict their crops to peanut and sorghum. The collection of the minimum data

sets guarantees that all project results can be analyzed by the same model for

serving a common purpose, namely to find the best soil management practice for a

particular crop under specific soil conditions. The result of this project will

be greatly increased in value if the experiments are conducted in a range of

agroenvironments.



Duration:

This project is designed to test each crop for at least two years. If two

crops are tested at any given time, a total of four years of field work will be

required. A six-month to one year planning period will be needed to reach

consensus on project design. April 1985 to September 1989.










Matching Crop Requirements of Rice, Maize, Soybean

and Peanut to Soil Characteristics with Crop

Simulation Models


A. Budget

Year
Object 4 5 6 7 8 Total

x $1000
Salaries 7 8 8 8 8 39

Fringe Benefits 3 3 3 4 4 17

Supplies 8 10 7 8 7 40

Equipment 1 0 2 0 0 3

Travel, International 6 8 6 8 7 35

Travel, National 3 3 4 4 5 19

Backstopping 22 24 29 31 32 138

Other Direct Costs 3 4 4 5 4 20

Indirect Costs 14 21 25 25 24 109

TOTAL 67 81 88 93 91 420



B. Staffing

Year Total
Category 4 5 6 7 8 CRSP Other
Funded Funded

SY/YR
Campus Based Scientist 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.20 0.20 0.00 1.90

Field Based Scientist 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.00 0.50

Graduate Students 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 5.00 0.00

TOTAL 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.30 1.30 5.00 2.40










Budget:


4 5 6 7 8 TOTAL


SALARIES
FRINGE BENEFITS
SUPPLIES
VEHICLE
EQUIPMENT
TRAVEL-INTERN.
TRAVEL-DOMESTIC
BACKSTOPPING
OTHER DIRECT COSTS
INDIRECT COSTS


TOTAL


7200
2900 A
7500
0
1000
6000
3000
22240
3000
13710


7500
3100 41
10000
0
0
8000
3000
24000
4000
21275


7800 8100
3300 A) 3500
7500 7500
0 0
2000 500
6000 7500
4000 4000
29280 30800
4000 4500
24845 25475


66550 I8871 12~725 Akt885 117625 5406~ 0 P

9^ ^W 'i /^' <^/^


c4~d
oqf


8400
43 3700
7500
0
0
7500
5000
32300
4500
23725


39000
44 16500
40000
0
3500
35000
19000
138620
20000
109030







43






Program Staffing Plan


Topic: Improving and Sustaining Productivity in Farmers' Fields

Project: Matching Crop Requirements of Rice, Maize, Soybean, and Peanut to Soil
Characteristics with Crop Simulation Models





Year Total
Position
4 5 6 7 8


Resident Faculty CRSP Funded

Resident Faculty non-CRSP Funded
J. Thompson

Senior Scientist
J. Silva
U. Singh
G. Uehara

Graduate Student

Other (identify)


SY

nonI


.1 .1 .1 .1


.1 .5


.1
.3
.1

1.0

none


1.6 1.6 1.6 1.3 1.3 7.4


Total










Program: Humid Tropics

Project Leader:

Russell Yost, University of Hawaii

Collaborating Scientists:

Soleh Sukmana, Center for Soil Research
E. Santoso, Center for Soil Research
John Thompson, University of Hawaii, Sitiung
Mike Wade, North Carolina State University, Sitiung
Ruey-Shang Huang, University of Hawaii

Topic: Improving and sustaining productivity in farmers' fields

Goal: Manage soil phosphorus efficiently

Project Title: Assessing Field Inoculation With Introduced and Indigeous VA

Mycorrhizal Inocula by Crop Growth and Yield on Soil Cleared of

Tropical Rainforest

Objectives:

(1) To increase food crop production by field inoculation with organic

debris (considered as indigeous VA mycorrhizal inoculum) and pot

culture inoculum (Glomus fasciculatum) in a soil cleared of tropical

rainforest

(2) To exploit VA mycorrhizal fungi for reclaiming land damaged by improper

land clearing methods.



Reasons for Investigation:

Soils in the area are P deficient and P has been shown to be economically

important from food crop production. VA mycorrhizal fungi have been shown to

influence P absorption in situations where the indigenous population is low.










Relevance to Other Programs:

Vigorous mycorrhizae symbiosis is important for an efficient utilization of

soil P reserves. We expect that the mycorrhizal status of the selected crops

will be influenced by various land clearing options, various soil amendment

treatments, various crop residue management options, and that knowledge of the

status of the mycorrhizae symbiosis will aid in assessing the influence of these

treatments. In addition, we expect that land clearing practices which seek to

maintain the organic matter covering will similarly help assure a high VA

mycorrhizal propagule density and also provide favorable conditions for

development of the symbiosis.



Generalized Procedures:

Field experiments will be conducted to assess indigenous populations of VAM

propagules, evaluate the role of land clearing options on resultant propagule

density, and to explore practical methods for farmers to reinoculate fields low

in VAM propagules.



Principal Site for Experimentation:

Sitiung (V), land clearing site, West Sumatra


Duration: April 1985 to May 1989











Budget:


4 5 6 7 8 TOTAL


SALARIES
FRINGE BENEFITS
SUPPLIES

VEHICLE
EQUIPMENT
TRAVEL-INTERN.
TRAVEL-DOMESTIC
BACKSTOPPING
OTHER DIRECT COSTS
INDIRECT COSTS

TOTAL


Equipment List:
(over $2000 ea.)
Microscope


7200
2900 40
5500
0
6750
5000
2500
10090
1000
8547


7500
60000~-
3800
0
0
4000
2500
9540
1000
8585


7800
6200
5000
0
0
5000
2500
15100
2000
10900


8100
6500 9
5000
0
0
5000
3000
15900
2000
11375


8400
6700 90
5500
0
0
6000
3000
16660
2500
12190


39000
28300 1'2-
24800
0
6750
25000
13500
67290
8500
51597


49487 42925 54500 56875 60950 264737


4000










Assessing Field Inoculation with Introduced and

Indigeous VA Mycorrhizal by Crop Growth

and Yield on Soil Cleared of Tropical Rainforest

Budget and Staffing


A. Budget

Year
Object 4 5 6 7 8 Total

x $1000

Salaries 7 7 8 8 8 38

Fringe Benefits 3 6 6 7 7 29

Supplies 6 4 5 5 6 26

Equipment 7 0 0 0 0 7

Travel, International 5 4 5 5 6 25

Travel, National 2 3 3 3 3 14

Backstopping 10 10 15 16 17 68

Other Direct Costs 1 1 2 2 2 8

Indirect Costs 8 8 11 11 12 50

TOTAL 49 43 55 57 61 265



B. Staffing

Year Total
Category 4 5 b 7 CRSP Other
Funded Funded

SY/YR

Campus Based Scientist 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.00 0.50

Field Based Scientist 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.00 0.50

Graduate Students 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 5.00 0.00

TOTAL 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 5.00 1.00













Program Staffing Plan


Topic: Improving and Sustaining Productivity in Farmers' Fields

Project: Assessing Field Inoculation with Introduced and Indigeous VA
Mycorrhizal Inocula by Crop Growth and Yield on Soil Cleared of
Tropical Rainforest




Year Total
Position
4 5 6 7 8


SY

Resident Faculty CRSP Funded none
Resident Faculty non-CRSP Funded
J. Thompson .1 .1 .1 .1 .1 .5

Senior Scientist
R. Yost .1 .1 .1 .1 .1 .5

Graduate Student 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 5.0

Other (identify) none


Total 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 6.0










Program: Humid Tropics

Project Leaders:

Andrew Sharpley, USDA/ARS, Durant, Oklahoma
Goro Uehara, University of Hawaii

Collaborating Scientists:

Eugene Kamprath, North Carolina State University
Robert L. Fox, University of Hawaii
Allan Jones, USDA/ARS, Temple, Texas
Russell Yost, University of Hawaii
Douglas Godwin, International Fertilizer Development Center
Upendra Singh, University of Hawaii
Mike Wade, North Carolina State University
Indonesian scientist
Bernardino G. Cagauan, Jr., University of Hawaii
James A. Silva, University of Hawaii

Topic: Improving and sustaining productivity in farmers' fields

Goal: Apply systems analyses and simulation techniques to soil fertility

research

Project Title: Modeling Phosphorus-Lime Interactions

Objective: To predict phosphorus and lime interactions in high acidity, low

activity clay soils for crop modeling



Reasons for the Investigation:

Phosphorus deficiency and aluminium toxicity are two common soil

constraints encountered by farmers in the humid tropics. How a crop reacts to

these two constraints depends on the genetic makeup of the plant, the weather

conditions during the growing period, water supply, and the chemical, physical,

and biological conditions of the soil. Most soil fertility research is

conducted so that all factors other than the one being studied are held constant

and near optimum. But because phosphorus and lime interact with each other and

with other nutrients, water supply, plant genetics, and weather conditions, a









systems approach is required to integrate information into a model that predicts

the effects of lime or phosphorus on crop performance when a host of constraints

are operating simultaneously, as it almost always does in a farmer's field.

Until now, the systems approach could not be applied to soil fertility

research because the means to integrate large numbers of factors into a crop

simulation model was not available. Recently, ARS scientists at the Grassland,

Soil and Water Research Laboratory in Temple, Texas, working with the

International Fertilizer Development Center in Muscle Shoals, Alabama have

developed mathematical models that simulate nitrogen dymanics and water balance

in soils, and predict the effect of genotype and weather on crop performance.

These models, which until a year ago could only be executed on large, mainframe

computers, can now be run on readily available, inexpensive microcomputers.

These models translate daily weather information into soil moisture and soil

temperature for assessing the whereabouts and availability of nutrients with

respect to rooting depth and distribution.

A phosphorus-lime model that operates in concert with nitrogen dynamics,

water balance, genotype and weather conditions will enable users of the model to

predict the effects of phosphorus deficiency and aluminum toxicity in a wide

range of environments. Such models can be used to assess the economics of

fertilizer and lime applications when weather conditions and other nutrient

levels are not constant and limiting.



Relevance to Other Programs:

The systems approach is by definition an approach that examines components

of a farm in the context of the system as a whole. This approach enables the

user to simulate crop response to phosphorus or lime application for different

genotypes growing under conditions of nitrogen or water stress. It is the










capacity to measure the connection and relevance of one part of a system to all

other parts that justify adoption of the systems approach in soil management

research.



Generalized Procedure:

The systems approach requires interdisciplinary planning and designing of

the research. Because of limited resources, TropSoils cannot hope to develop a

phosphorus-lime simulation model for predicting crop performance without

interagency collaboration. To ensure efficiency and cost-effectiveness, the

project leaders and collaborating scientists have agreed to the following

procedures:

1. Conceptualization of the phosphorus-lime model. This will be achieved by a

January 1985 meeting of modelers (Jones, Godwin), agronomists (Fox,

Kamprath), soil scientists (Yost, Uehara, Singh, Wade), and chemist

(Sharpley). An Indonesian or U.S. scientist from Sitiung will also be asked

to attend this meeting. The meeting will be held on the campus of the

University of Hawaii.

2. Experimental design. An experimental design for field implementation will

be developed during the January 1985 meeting in Hawaii. The experiment will

be designed to test and validate a crop model that includes the new

phosphorus-lime simulator. The test crop will be corn for which a good

model that is known to work in Sumatra is available.

3. Identifying the minimum data set needed to test and validate the

phosphorus-lime simulator. The participants of the interdisciplinary

meeting in January 1985 will reach consensus on the minimum data set to

collect from the field experiments. The minimum data set will include soil,

crop (genotype), weather (daily), and management information. The agreed on










minimum data set will be reproduced for distribution to others.



Principal Site for Experimentation:

The principal site for field experimentation to test and validate the

phosphorus model will be in Sitiung, West Sumatera where the TropSoils project

already has fully characterized soils and an operating weather station. The

project is designed so that the same experiment can be installed in any of the

TropSoils sites in Brazil, Niger or Peru.



Duration:

The project requires two years of field work consisting of two dry season

and two wet season experiments in the principal research site, and one year of

field experiment in Brazil, Peru and Niger. The first six months will be for

project planning. Project duration will be from January 1985 September 1989.


Budget:


4 5 6 7 8


SALARIES
FRINGE BENEFITS

SUPPLIES
VEHICLE
EQUIPMENT
TRAVEL-INTERN.
TRAVEL-DOMESTIC
BACKSTOPPING
OTHER DIRECT COSTS
SUB-CONTRACTS
INDIRECT COSTS

TOTAL


7200
1800 -

10500
10500
6800
7000
4000
22240
49000
10000
17435

104475


Equipment List:
(over $2000 ea.)
Spectrophotometer


7500
1875 -%

7500
0
1550
6000
4000
24000
42000
10000
16219

82644


7800
1900o

7500
0
2700
6000
4000
29280
38000
5000
16370

84550


8100
2025 Z-

8500
0
0
6000
4000
30800
34000
10000
18482

92407


8400
2100 2Z<

7500
0
0
6000
5000
32320
29500
15000
20330

101650


TOTAL
*------ nea

39000 r
9700

41500
10500
11050
31000
21000
138640
24500
50000
88836

465726


2500






52



References


Jones, C. A., C. V. Cole, A. N. Sharpley, and J. R. Williams. 1984.
Simplified Soil and Plant Phosphorus Model: I. Documentation.
Soc. Am. J. 48:800-805.


A
Soil Sci.


Jones, C. A., A. N. Sharpley, and J. R. Williams. 1984. A Simplified Soil and
Plant Phosphorus Model: III. Testing. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 48:810-813.

Sharpley, A. N., C. A. Jones, C. Gray, and C. V. Cole. 1984. A Simplified Soil
and Phosphorus Model: II. Production of Labile, Organic and Sorbed
Phosphorus. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 48:805-809.




H-s-i
#--f3


Modeling Phosphorus Lime Interactions


A. Budget

Year

Object 4 5 6 7 8 Total

x $1000

Salaries 7 8 8 8 8 39

Fringe Benefits 2 2 2 2 2 10

Supplies 11 8 8 9 7 43

Equipment 17 2 3 0 0 22

Travel, International 7 6 6 6 6 31

Travel, National 4 4 4 4 5 21

Subcontract 10 10 5 10 15 50

Backstopping 22 24 29 31 32 138

Other Direct Costs 7 4 4 5 5 25

Indirect Costs 17 16 16 18 20 87

TOTAL 104 83 85 92 102 466



B. Staffing

Year Total
Category 4 5 6 7 8 CRSP Other
Funded Funded

SY/YR

Campus Based Scientist 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.40 0.40 0.00 2.60

Field Based Scientist 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.00 0.50

Graduate Students 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 5.00 0.00

TOTAL 1.70 1.70 1.70 1.50 1.50 5.00 3.10
T






53






Program Staffing Plan


Topic: Improving and Sustaining Productivity in Farmers' Fields

Project: Modeling Phosphorus-Lime Interactions





Year Total
Position
4 5 6 7 8


Resident Faculty CRSP Funded

Resident Faculty non-CRSP Funded
J. Thompson

Senior Scientist
R. Fox
J. Silva
U. Singh
R. Yost
G. Uehara

Graduate Student

Other (identify)


SY

S .none .


.1 .1 .1


.1
.1
.2
.1
.1

1.0

none


1 .1 .5


.5
.5
.6
.5
.5

5.0


1.7 1.7 1.7 1.5 1.5 8.1


ku~-~i-


Total










Program: Humid Tropics

Project Leaders:

Keith Cassel, North Carolina State University
Goro Uehara, University of Hawai
Russell Yost, University of Hawaii

Research Collaborators:

Soleh Sukmana, Center for Soil Research, Sitiung
John Thompson, University of Hawaii, Sitiung
Mike Wade, North Carolina State University, Sitiung
Carol Colfer, University of Hawaii, Sitiung
Gordon Y. Tsuji, University of Hawaii
Bernardino G. Cagauan, Jr., University of Hawaii

Topic: Land reclamation: land clearing and soil conservation

Goal: To sustain agricultural productivity in land cleared from tropical

rainforests

Project Title: The Role of Soil Physical Properties on Land Quality for

Sustained Agricultural Production in Land Cleared by Heavy

Equipment

Objectives:

(1) Identify land clearing methods that are cost-effective, agronomically

sound, and environmentally safe.

(2) Identify the soil physical parameters that are adversely modified by

mechanized land clearing.

(3) Be able to recommend safe, inexpensive and acceptable, post land

clearing soil management practices to reclaim soils damaged by

mechanized land clearing.

(4) Develop economic model to identify the best combination of land

clearing and post land clearing method.










Reasons for the investigation:

Land clearing of forested lands by bulldozers is fast and inexpensive, on

the one hand, and detrimental to the soil on the other. The detrimental effects

can be measurably reduced by a combination of operator training, choice of

mechanized equipment and method of clearing. On the other extreme, manual

clearing provides a non-damaging, but also slow and costly alternative.

The best land clearing method depends on the purpose for which the land is

being cleared, the resource available, the speed with which the land needs to be

cleared, and the characteristics of the land. This implies that there is no

best land clearing method, but that there is a set of best methods for a

corresponding set of specific situations.



Relevance to Other Programs:

The quality of land clearing affects subsequent productivity of the land,

and therefore, the quality of life for the farm family. The quality of life and

problems encountered by the farm family determine to a large degree the nature

of the activities for the TropSoils program. Research to rectify damaged soil

can be avoided by preventing the damage to occur in the first place. It is

highly likely that the Sitiung farmer is today paying a high price for the way

in which his land was cleared.



Generalized Procedures:

Much land clearing research has already been done by a number of research

groups in several locations, including Indonesia. To avoid rediscovering what

has already been done and to ensure that economy of thought, time and action is

achieved, the intent of this project is to link its activities to the land

clearing program of the International Board for Soil Research and Management

(IBSRAM).










IBSRAM is planning a land clearing workshop in Sitiung or Padang in August

1985. The purpose of the conference is to develop (1) a strategy for land

clearing research and (2) a network of land clearing projects to answer

questions about land clearing. It is the intent to use this workshop to design

a research plan on land clearing that avoids rediscovering what has been done in

the past and focuses on the objectives listed for this project. The detailed

procedures for achieving the stated objectives will be developed during the

workshop. The attached budget is based on estimated need for conducting land

clearing research obtained from discussions with local heavy equipment

contracting firms and scientists who have worked on the land clearing work in

Yurimaguas, Peru. Ten hectares of land have already been cleared with

Indonesian funds, and the continued financial and personnel support from the

Center for Soil Research has been assured.

A job announcement for a soil physicist to oversee this project has been

placed in the Agronomy News.



Principal Site for Experimentation:

A 220 hectare forested area has been surveyed for vegetation and soil in

readiness for this project. The Center for Soil Research will convert this land

into a permanent research station and has decided to take advantage of the

necessary land clearing operations and will use them to answer questions on land

clearing. This parcel of land located on the dissected peneplain and occupied

mainly by Oxisols and Ultisols has been selected to represent the full soil and

topographic range in the region. About a third of the area is relatively flat

and the remainder varies in steepness.

During the workshop on land clearing scheduled for August 1985, IBSRAM

intends to develop a network of landclearing projects to answer a broader










spectrum of questions including long term environmental effects of

deforestation. Dr. Rattan Lal of the International Institute of Tropical

Agriculture is organizing the workshop program to ensure that Africa, South and

Central America and Asia are included in the network. The Sitiung TropSoils

land clearing project will be the first member to be identified in the Network.



Duration: Five years. October 1984 to September 1989.


Budget:


4 5 6 7 8 TOTAL


SALARIES
FRINGE BENEFITS
SUPPLIES
VEHICLE
EQUIPMENT
TRAVEL-INTERN.
TRAVEL-DOMESTIC
BACKSTOPPING
OTHER DIRECT COSTS
INDIRECT COSTS

TOTAL


Equipment Items:
(over $2000 ea.)
Microcomputer
Neutron Probe(2)
Oven
Weather Station(2)


22400
11500 S
12500
0
11750
35000
5000
16680
6500
27145


24500
14000
10000
0
6000
4000
2500
18000
3700
19175


26800
15000
10000
0
9200
5000
3000
21960
3500
21315


28900
16000
10000
0
750
6000
3000
23185
3500
22647


31000 133600
S17000 S' 73500
10000 52500
0 0
1000 28700
6000 56000
4000 17500
24265 104090
4000 21200
24066 114348


148475 101875 115775 113982 121331 601438


2500
9500
2500
6250




//- r-


The Role of Soil Physical Properties on Land Quality

for Sustained Agricultural Production on Land Cleared

by Heavy Equipment

Budget and Staffing


A. Budget

Year
Object 4 5 b 7 8 Total

x $1000
Salaries 22 25 28 29 31 135

Fringe Benefits 12 14 15 16 17 74

Supplies 12 10 10 10 10 52

Equipment 12 6 9 1 1 29

Travel, International 5 4 5 6 6 56

Travel, National 5 2 3 3 4 17

Backstopping 16 18 22 23 24 103

Other Direct Costs 6 4 4 3 4 21

Indirect Costs 27 19 21 23 24 114

TOTAL 147 102 117 114 121 601



B. Staffing

Year Total
Category 4 5 b 7 8 CRSP Other
Funded Funded

SY/YR
Campus Based Scientist 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.00 0.50

Field Based Scientist 0.50 0.50 0.60 0.60 0.60 2.80 0.00

Graduate Students 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 5.00 0.00

TOTAL 1.00 1.00 1.70 1.70 1.70 7.80 0.50














Program Staffing Plan


Topic: Land Reclamation: Land Clearing and Soil Conservation

Project: The Role of Soil Physical Properties on Land Quality for Sustained
Agricultural Production in Land Cleared by Heavy Equipment




Year Total
Position
4 5 6 7 8


SY


Resident Faculty CRSP Funded
C. Colfer .1 .1 .2 .2 .2 .8
Land Clearing Specialist .4 .4 .4 .4 .4 2.0

Resident Faculty non-CRSP Funded none

Senior Scientist
G. Uehara .1 .1 .1 .1 .1 .5

Graduate Student 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 5.0

Other (identify) none


Total 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.7 8.3










Program: Humid Tropics

Project Leader:

John Thompson, University of Hawaii

Collaborating Scientist:

D. S. Gunawan, Center for Soil Research

Topic: Land reclamation

Goal: Select suitable forage crops to plant on cleared lands for livestock

Project Title: Pasture Grass and Legumes for the Humid Tropics

Objectives:

To find forage crops adapted to a range of environments representative of

the humid tropi s and to identify suitable cover crops to reclaim and

protect eroded lands.



Reasons for the Investigation:

Ground cover is a logical and sound way to protect cleared land, reclaim

eroded soil, provide feed for livestock and serve as green manure for the

resource-poor farmers of Sitiung and the humid tropics. Pasture grass and

legume species that perform well and serve multiple uses can become permanent

and inexpensive components of the farming system. The varietal testing also

serves to illustrate genotype-environment interactions and the principles of

matching crop requirements to land characteristics. The multiple uses of

grasses and legumes in the farming system provide the basis for systems thinking

in soil management research. This project is designed to match the

environmental requirements of pasture grass and legumes to (1) the environmental

characteristics of the land and (2) the resource characteristics and preference

of the farmer.










Relevance to Other Programs:

Carol Colfer has discovered from her time allocation studies that Sitiung

families require considerable time to cut forage from roadside and abandoned

fields for their farm animals. The quality of the feed is very poor and the

CIAT collection has the potential to significantly reduce the time needed to

harvest forage and measurably improve quality of the harvested feed.

This work also has relevance to the small ruminant CRSP which is active in

the country. It is highly likely that future tests of CIAT's pasture grass and

legume collection will uncover many more high performance species that will

serve as ground cover to protect soil from erosion, green manure, forage for

farm animals and a land reclamation cover crop.



Generalized Procedures:

CIAT has a collection of pasture grass and legume germplasm ready for

testing. These cultivars will be tested in Sitiung under minimum input

situations. Cultivars will be selected for vigor, growth rate, pest resistance,

palatibility, productivity and survivability.

Pasture grasses and legumes are important elements in erosion control,

green manuring, biological nitrogen fixation, ecology of mycorrhize, animal

feeding, land reclamation and ground cover for rubber plantings.



Principal Site for Experimentation: Sitiung, West Sumatra, Indonesia


Duration: October 1984 to September 1989










State of Progress:

These experiments were previously arranged through contacts with CSR and

CIAT personnel. Dr. Jose Toledo, Coordinator of the forage and pasture project

for CIAT, provided seedstocks of several species of grasses and legumes.

James Spain, pasture agronomist from CIAT, has observed the growth and was

much impressed with the performance of several of the species being evaluated.

His wife, who is a microbiologist, collected several samples for classification

of mycorrhizae. This adds to the information on mycorrhizae in the Sitiung area

which Russell Yost and his graduate students in Hawaii are compiling.

About two months ago the team also had the opportunity to discuss the

native legumes of Sumatra with Ranier Schultz-Kraft who is the legume germplasm

collector for CIAT. Schultz-Kraft was much impressed with the broad range of

forage legumes in Sumatra and promised to return for a detailed collection and

classification of local legumes. The team will be working closely with him and

may utilize some of these species in the legume evaluation in Sitiung.

One grass and four legume species show promise as cover crops to reclaim

eroded land and at the same time serve as animal feed.

The grass species which performs very well is Brachiaria dietyoncura. The

legumes are:

Aeschinamene histrix This is a very vigorous legume with quick recovery.

It should be compatible with a vigorous grass such as Brachiaria.

Centrosema maerocorpem; C. Pubescence and C. sp. Both appear to be well

adapted and vigorous.

Pueroria phaseolides In spite of some insect problems, this species now

appears to be well established.










Desmodium ovalifolium This legume was slow to establish but it n

appears to be well established. Some of the Stylosanthes and Zorn:

species also appear to be well adapted to the Sitiung area.


Budget:



4 5 6 7 8 TOTAL
---------------------------------------------------""""


SALARIES 0 0 0 0 0 0
FRINGE BENEFITS 8400 8800 9200 9600 10000 46000
SUPPLIES 10000 9000 8000 8000 8000 43000
VEHICLE 0 0 12000 0 0 12000
EQUIPMENT 1500 500 250 500 250 3000
TRAVEL-INTERN. 4000 2500 2500 3000 3000 15000
TRAVEL-DOMESTIC 2500 2500 3000 3000 3500 14500
BACKSTOPPING 16375 17500 21300 22250 23200 100625
OTHER DIRECT COSTS 1500 1700 1600 1200 1200 7200
INDIRECT COSTS 9445 9375 10400 10638 11225 51083


48720 47375 64250 54188 56375 270908


TOTAL




H-'ZJ


Pasture Grass and Legumes for the Humid Tropics

Budget and Staffing


A. Budget

Year
Object 4 5 6 7 8 Total

x $1000

Fringe Benefits 8 9 9 10 10 46

Supplies 5 5 4 4 4 22

Equipment 2 0 12 1 0 15

Travel, International 4 3 2 3 3 15

Travel, National 2 3 3 3 4 15

Backstopping 16 18 21 23 23 101

Other Direct Costs 2 2 1 1 1 7

Indirect Costs 10 9 10 11 11 51

TOTAL 49 47 64 54 56 271



B. Staffing

Year Total
Category 4 5 b 7 B CRSP Other
Funded Funded

SY/YR

Campus Based Scientist 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.50 0.00

Field Based Scientist 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.00 1.50

TOTAL 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.50 1.50













Program Staffing Plan


Topic: Land Reclamation: Land Clearing and Soil Conservation

Project: Pasture Grass and Legumes for the Humid Tropics


Year Total
Position
4 5 6 7 8


SY

Resident Faculty CRSP Funded none

Resident Faculty non-CRSP Funded
J. Thompson .3 .3 .3 .3 .3 1.5

Senior Scientist none

Graduate Student none

Other (non resident faculty CRSP-funded)
R. Guyton .1 .1 .1 .1 .1 .5


Total .4 .4 .4 .4 .4 2.0









Program: Humid Tropics

Project Leader:

Carl Evensen, University of Hawaii

Collaborating Scientists:

Russell Yost, University of Hawaii
John Thompson, University of Hawaii

Topic: Or anic matter in the farming system

Goal: Effi en use of organic matter to improve crop production

Project-Titl Management of Organic Matter in Indonesian Farming Systems

Objectives:

(1) To eb i i ranC as a source of plant

nutrients

(2) To incorporate the production, handling and use of organic matter into

the farming system.



Reasons for the Investigation:

Organic matter is an important soil component, especially in highly leached

and weathered tropical soils. Soil organic matter is associated with increased

CEC, improved soil structure, and provides the major source of many plant

nutrients. The soils in much of the Sitiung area developed under rain forests,

which as a rule, maintain a tight nutrient cycle between litter decay, root

uptake, and plant growth. The clearing of rain forests breaks this cycle

and often leads to soil degradation through increased organic matter

decomposition, leaching of nutrients, soil compaction, and erosion.

Sustainable, low-input farming systems in Sitiung must provide for

maintenance of soil organic matter. This project is designed to compare farming

system technologies in terms of inputs and persistence of organic matter and

their feasibility and attractiveness to subsistence level farmers. An









assumption to be tested is that a permanent soil cover of vegetation or

mulch will best protect the soil and create a stable equilibrium between organic

matter deposition and decomposition. Hedges of legume trees cut frequently to

provide mulch and legume cover crops providing vegetative soil cover will be

assessed in intercropping with food crops.



Relevance to Other Programs:

Organic matter is expected to be an important soil component in other

transmigration sites with highly leached and weathered soils. Findings from

these studies in Sitiung should contribute to better management of soil organic

matter in similar sites. Of particular interest will be the identification of

useful tree and cover crop species and determination of their interactions with

intercropped food crops.



Generalized Procedures:

The research is proposed to consist of two major phases. The first phase

will involve tree and cover crop species selection, determination of lime and

fertilizer requirements, and observation of interactions between food crops and

organic matter producing plants. In the second phase, promising tree or cover L AA

crop, fertilizer, and food crop combinations will be tested in farmer managed

trials to determine farmer acceptance. Since this research will be

conducted as part of a farming systems project, the trials will be open to

adaptation as the research needs and farmer situation in Sitiung are better

understood.


Principal Site for Experimentation: Sitiung, West Sumatra, Indonesia









October 1984 to March 1987


Budget:


4 5 6 7 8 TOTAL


SALARIES
FRINGE BENEFITS
SUPPLIES
VEHICLE
EQUIPMENT
TRAVEL-INTERN.
TRAVEL-DOMESTIC
BACKSTOPPING
OTHER DIRECT COSTS
INDIRECT COSTS


14000
9100
4500
1200
3650
5500
500
4170
1500
9825


15000 /
is 9700
3500
0
0
3500
500
4500
800
9375


TOTAL


53945 46875 54300


3000


3095 161215


Equipment Items:
(over $2000 ea.)


Microcomputer


16000 r
10300 (6
3500
0
0
6250
300
5490
1600
10860


0
475D
0
0
0
0
0
0
062
620


0
0
0
0
0
0
600


45000
33975
11500
1200
3650
15250
1300
14160
3900
31280


Duration:


2500













Program Staffing Plan


Topic: Land Reclamation: Land Clearing and Soil Conservation

Project: Management of Organic Matter in Indonesian Farming Systems




Year Total
Position
4 5 6 7 8


SY

Resident Faculty CRSP Funded
C. Evensen 1.0 1.0 1.0 I0 3.0

Resident Faculty non-CRSP Funded
J. Thompson .1 .1 .1 .3

Senior Scientist
R. Yost .1 .1 .1 .3

Graduate Student none

Other (identify) none


Total 1.2 1.2 1.2 3.6




/t 67


Management of Organic Matter in

Indonesian Farming Systems

Budget and Staffing


A. Budget

YEAR
Object 4 5 b 7 8 Total

x $1000
Salaries 14 15 16 0 0 45

Fringe Benefits 9 10 10 2 2 33

Supplies 5 4 3 0 0 12

Equipment 5 0 0 0 0 5

Travel, International 6 4 6 0 0 16

Travel, National 0 1 0 0 0 1

Backstopping 4 5 5 0 0 14

Other Direct Costs 2 1 1 0 0 4

Indirect Costs 10 9 11 1 1 32

TOTAL 55 49 52 3 3 162



B. Staffing

Year Total
Category 4 5 b 7 8 CRSP Other
Funded Funded

SY/YR
Campus Based Scientist 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.30

Field Based Scientist 1.10 1.10 1.10 1.00 1.00 5.00 0.30

TOTAL 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.00 1.00 5.00 0.60












Program: Humid Tropics

Project Leader:

Samir A. El-Swaify, University of Hawaii

Collaborating Scientists:

Soleh Sukmana, Center for Soil Research
Land Clearing Specialist
John R. Thompson, University of Hawaii, Sitiung
Carol Colfer, University of Hawaii, Sitiung

Topic: Land reclamation: soil and water conservation

Goal: Improve and stabilize land productivity through reduced soil erosion and

enhanced conservation of soil and water resources

Project Title: Conservation-Effective Rainfed Farming Systems for the Sitiung

Area, West Sumatra

Objectives:

(1) Quantify the rainfall erosion potential for major agroenvironments in

the area

(2) Evaluate the effectiveness of alternative cropping systems and land

management practices for controlling the erosional losses of soil and

water resources

(3) Integrate the above with other agroeconomic and socio-economic

information for use in developing productive and stable watershed-based

farming systems for the Humid Tropics.



Reasons for the Investigation:

Emotional environmental appeals aside, recent research shows a convincing

cyclic interrelationship between sustained farm productivity and the effective,

conservation-minded, utilization of soil and water resources. In the humid










tropics, the potential rainfall erosion hazard is so high that, if manifested,

it can result in the rapid decline of productivity and, eventually in

irreversible land degradation. Nowhere is this threat more true than for the

land just cleared from forest for use in conventional cropping. For the

resource-poor farmer in these regions, the impacts of erosional damage are

considerably more, both in the short- and long-term, than for his Western

counterpart. This is because he cannot easily or fully afford to replenish lost

crop nutrients or the other inputs necessary for restoring soil productivity.

Furthermore, excess soil erosion and runoff degrade the hydrologic performance

of the watershed as a whole. Examples of these problems abound in Indonesia and

many other countries in the tropics. Therefore, the formulation of a farming

system which is conservation-effective is necessary for sustaining high

productivity and insuring the overall stability of the resource base.



Relevance to other programs:

Soil and water conservation is a critical component of successful rain-fed

farming systems in all agroecological zones. A systematic project as outlined

below is a logical one for networking. We, therefore, propose that similar

collaborative activities be started in due course in the Semi-Arid and Acid

Savannah zones. A number of related activities have already been initiated in

Hawaii and at ICRISAT.



Generalized procedures:

1. Climatic, soil, and topographic parameters which control runoff and

erosional processes will be derived from data on existing or newly designed

standard runoff plots. Rainfall variability, soil charactersitics and slope

classes will be utilized to determine the minimum number of required

experimental locations.









2. Biological and physical management options will be evaluated on plot and

small farm scale to quantify their ability to effectively control runoff and

erosion. Primary biological components will be (a) the canopy

characteristics of important crops or intercrops in the cropping system in

addition to the legumes and grasses that are candidates for soil protection

and stabilizers for banks or waterways or as ground covers, (b) residue

management by mulching or incorporation during the cropping cycle and

(c) other crop management options such as cultivar selections, planting

density and geometry. Since there are limits, mostly topographic, which

prevent sole reliance on biological erosion control measures, it is also

critical to determine the need for complementary land management and shaping

operations. Among the physical components to be investigated will be (a)

bunding systems, (b) terracing systems, (c) inter-terrace land

configurations and alternative tillage systems (including conservation

tillage) and (d) the interactions between these and slope length and

gradient for effective runoff disposal with minimal soil losses. Many of

the management options to be considered here must be applied before or

during land clearing. Therefore some of the above parameters will be

quantified for the land clearance site as well.

3. This interdisciplinary effort will be based primarily in fields selected to

form a number of clearly delineated cathments or small watersheds. Each

will be instrumented for runoff measurements and sampling for erosion

assessment in complement with crop performance observations. Here the most

promising treatments based on findings from objectives 1 and 2 will be

combined with those resulting from ongoing agronomic trials with

participation from the socio-economists and engineers to test the overall

productivity and conservation-effectiveness of the farming systems at a










realistic, operational scale. It is critical that the selection of

catchments include farms on which "traditional" farmer practices prevail to

allow systematic evaluation of benefits which may result from newly

introduced design features. The latter will include not only crop-and

soil-based improvements, terrace and inter-terrace measures, but also

drainage waterways for safe carrying and disposal of runoff. The possible

storage and utilization of excess runoff is an important feature of

watershed-based planning which can add significant benefits to the overall

farming systems. Such water may be utilized for supplemental irrigation,

meeting livestock requirements or, as is desirable in central Java, fish

ponds. It is also critical that selected catchments include aproppriate

"controls" to allow valid comparisons between soil loss and runoff trends

for developed and uncleared forest areas. Comparisons of land clearing

techniques, land surface shaping methods and associated soil disturbance

must be made to aid in setting a proper strategy for overall land

development schemes in these and other humid tropics.



Principal site for experimentation: Sitiung, West Sumatra, Indonesia



Duration:

This should be considered a long-term project with an intended duration of

10 years. Budget is provided for the first five years. October 1984 to

September 1989.










Summary:

Existing and newly designed runoff plots will be utilized to quantify soil

conservation baseline data and management parameters for incorporation in the

overall farming systems at selected locations of the Sitiung region, West

Sumatra. The performance of introduced conservation components will be

evaluated in interdisciplinary (including agronomic and socio-economic) studies

on farmers' fields and in small watersheds to allow a systematic, operational

scale assessment of the productivity of the farming system and impacts on the

overall performance of the watershed or catchment. Emphasis will be placed on

evaluating the erosional hazards and conservation-effectiveness of various land

clearing techniques and subsequent strategies for land utilization and soil

management.


Budget:



4 5 6 7 8 TOTAL


SALARIES 30400 32900 37100 40100 43100 183600
FRINGE BENEFITS 12000 13000 14000 15000 17000 71000
SUPPLIES 5000 10000 10000 2500 2500 30000
VEHICLE 0 0 0 0 0 0
EQUIPMENT 5000 20000 5000 0 0 30000
TRAVEL-INTERN. 8000 8000 6000 8000 8500 38500
TRAVEL-DOMESTIC 3000 2500 2500 2500 2500 13000
BACKSTOPPING 19180 20500 24960 27185 28265 120090
OTHER DIRECT COSTS 7500 7500 7500 5000 5000 32500
INDIRECT COSTS 22270 23900 26115 25671 27316 125272

TOTAL 116350 139500 135575 128356 136581 656362


Equipment List:
(over $2000 ea.)

Weather Station 3500













Program Staffing Plan


Topic: Land Reclamation: Land Clearing and Soil Conservation

Project: Conservation-Effective Rainfed Farming Systems for the Sitiung Area,
West Sumatra


Year Total
Position
4 5 6 7 8


SY

Resident Faculty CRSP Funded
C. Colfer .1 .1 .2 .2 .2 .8
Land Clearing Specialist .5 .5 .5 .5 .5 2.5

Resident Faculty non-CRSP Funded
J. Thompson .1 .1 .1 .1 .1 .5

Senior Scientist
S. A. El-Swaify .2 .2 .2 .2 .2 1.0

Graduate Student 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 5.0

Other
Research Associate .5 .5 .5 .5 .5 2.5


Total 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.5 2.5 12.3









Conservation Effective Rainfed Farming System

for the Sitiung Area, West Sumatra

Budget and Staffing


A. Budget

Year
Object 4 5 6 7 8 Total

x $1000
Salaries 30 33 37 40 43 183

Fringe Benefits 12 13 14 15 17 71

Supplies 5 10 10 3 2 30.

Equipment 5 20 5 0 0 30

Travel, International 8 8 6 8 8 38

Travel, National 3 3 2 3 2 13

Backstopping 19 21 25 27 28 120

Other Direct Costs 12 9 10 7 7 45

Indirect Costs 22 24 26 26 27 125

TOTAL 116 139 135 129 134 656



B. Staffing

Category 4 5 6 7 8 CRSP Other
Funded Funded
SY/YR
Campus Based Scientist 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.00 1.00

Field Based Scientist 0.70 0.70 0.80 0.80 0.80 3.30 0.50

Graduate Students 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 5.00 0.00

Other 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 2.50 0.00

TOTAL 2.40 2.40 2.50 2.50 2.50 10.80 1.50









Budget for Proposed Humid Tropics Program

University of Hawaii


Year Total
Topic Number and Short Titles
4 5 6 7 8


---------------- $1,000 ----------------

1. Site Characterization
Soil Survey 14 12 12 -- -- 38
Soil Variability 64 67 77 78 80 366

2. Baseline Farming Systems
Time Allocation 35 36 17 18 19 125
Nutrition/Diet/Income 31 30 34 44 39 178
Farmer Interview 30 31 52 55 59 227

3. Improving Productivity
Farmer Cropping Systems 19 17 -- -- -- 36
Crop Requirements 67 106 124 127 118 142
Field Inoculation 49 43 55 57 61 265
Modeling P-Lime 104 83 85 92 102 466

4. Land Reclamation
Soil Physical Properties 148 102 116 114 121 601
Pasture Legumes 49 47 64 54 56 270
Mgt. of Organic Matter 54 47 54 3 3 161
Conservation 116 140 136 128 137 657


780 761 826 770 795


3932


Total










Summary of Budget for Proposed Humid Tropics Program


University of Hawaii


Year
Short Titles 4 5 6 7 B Total


x $1000


Site Characterization
Soil Survey
Soil Variability

Baseline Farming Systems
Time Allocation
Nutrition/Diet/Income
Farmer Interview

Improving Productivity
Farmer Cropping Systems
Crop Requirements
Field Inoculation
Modeling P-Lime

Land Reclamation
Soil Physical Properties
Pasture Legumes
Mgt. of Organic Matter
Conservation


Backstopping


10 9
51 53

28 27
-32s IS23
22 23


14 14
45 57
39 33
82 59


131 84
33 29
51 44
93 118


9
54

17
857
30


59
40
56


95
43
47
108


28
55 55 268


18
iv29
33


62
41
61


91
31
3
100


20
37t
37


152 167 199 210 218

Q77 7140 71Y 73 73 7
S W44 4W 7-


TOTAL


110

145


28
282
197
328


498

148
523

946


379F
30+2













Program Staffing Plan

Summary


Year Total
Position
4 5 6 7 8


SY

Resident Faculty CRSP Funded
Land Clearing Specialist 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 5.0
C. Colfer 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 5.0
C. Evensen 1.0 1.0 1.0 -- -- 3.0

Resident Faculty non-CRSP Funded
John Thompson 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 5.0

Senior Scientist
H. Ikawa .1 .1 .1 -- -- .3
R. Yost .5 .5 .5 .5 .5 2.5
G. Uehara .5 .5 .5 .5 .5 2.5
R. Fox .1 .1 .1 .1 .1 .5
J. Silva .2 .2 .2 .2 .2 1.0
S. El-Swaify .2 .2 .2 .2 .2 1.0
U. Singh .5 .5 .5 -- -- 1.5

Graduate Students--CRSP Funds 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 30.0

Other (identify)
R. Guyton .1 .1 .1 .1 .1 .5

Total 12.2 12.2 12.2 11.6 11.6 57.8




H-75-


Summary of Budget for Proposed Humid Tropics Program

University of Hawaii


Year
Short Titles 4 5 6 7 8 Total


x $1000


Site Characterization
Soil Survey
Soil Variability

Baseline Farming Systems
Time Allocation
Nutrition/Diet/Income
Farmer Interview

Improving Productivity
Farmer Cropping Systems
Crop Requirements
Field Inoculation
Modeling P-Lime

Land Reclamation
Soil Physical Properties
Pasture Legumes
Mgt. of Organic Matter
Conservation


TOTAL


14 12 12
656t 69"7 7677


35
31
30

18
67
49
104


W10#,
49
551
116


35M.
30
3231


18-17
81
43
83


102
47
4947
140


17
356 3



88
55
85



64

136


38
-7499 367364


18
43rr
55


9392-
57
92


114
54
3
128


39




61
102


121
56
3
137


777 734 -790 73r- 79
8 -74-1 77 735 769


125
178
227

36
420 .
265
466


601
62--zfo



36t2


-4 eAA*^ J GiULC ft^ rUl










Backstopping: TROPSOILS


Staffing Pattern


Current Holder


FTE Charged
to CRSP


On-campus: Hawaii

Prin. Investigator
Proj. Manager
Asst. Proj. Manager
Fiscal Specialist
Data Manager
Comp. Programmer
Wd. Proc. Operator
Publi. Specialist
Publi. Assistant
Analy. Chemist
Biometrition
Agronomist


G. Uehara
G.Y. Tsuji
A.E. Chang
S. Sakumoto
C.P.Y. Chan
A.Y.C. Chan
N. Murabayashi
V.L. Pecsok
P. Choy
A.E. Chu
- open -
R.F. Guyton


Off-campus: Indonesia


Adminis. Sec.
(Sitiung)
Adminis. Sec.
(Bogor)
Drivers (4)


- open -

- open -

Ratno
Ratno
Yusup
- open -


Location/
Duration


0
0.5
0.45
1.0
0.25
0.25
1.0
0.3
0.5
0.25
0.5
0.9


HI/5
HI/5
HI/5
HI/5
HI/5
HI/5
HI/5
HI/5
HI/5
HI/5
HI/5
HI/5


Indo/5

Indo/5

Indo/5
Indo/5
Indo/5
Indo/5




//- -77


Program Backstopping Support

Budget and Staffing


A. Budget

Year
Object 4 b b 1 8 Total

x $1000

Total 153 164 201 210 220 948



B. Staffing

Year Total
Category 4 b b 87 CRSP Other
Funded Funded

SY/YR
Campus Based Scientist 5.90 5.90 5.90 5.90 5.90 29.50 0.00

Field Based Scientist 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00 30.00 0.00

TOTAL 11.90 11.90 11.90 11.90 11.90 59.50 0.00










Staffing plans for personnel supported by CSR funds


FTE

Senior Staff
M. Sudjadi .1
S. Sukmana 1.0
I P.G. Widjaja-Adhi .2


Site Supervisors
A. Sofyan 1.0
Cahyono 1.0
Heryadi 1.0
E. Santoso 1.0
Sutji 1.0
B. Tori 1.0


Research Assistants (8) 1.0
V. Kasmini
Kasno
A. Kurdiana
Martono
Mulyadi
H. Rum
Sarjiman
Suwandi


15.3


Total







minimum data set will be reproduced for distribution to others.



Principal Site for Experimentation:

The principal site for field experimentation to test and validate the

phosphorus model will be in Sitiung, West Sumatera where the TropSoils project

already has fully characterized soils and an operating weather station. The

project is designed so that the same experiment can be installed in any of the

TropSoils sites in Brazil, Niger or Peru.



Duration:

The project requires two years of field work consisting of two dry season

and two wet season experiments in the principal research site, and one year of

field experiment in Brazil, Peru and Niger. The first six months will be for

project planning. Project duration will be from January 1985 September 1989.


Budget:


4 5 6 7 8 TOTAL


SALARIES 7200 7500 7800 8108 8400 39000
FRINGE BENEFITS 1800 1875 1900 2025 2100 9700
SUPPLIES 10500 7500 7500 8580 7500 41500
VEHICLE 10500 0 0 8 0 10500
EQUIPMENT 6880 1550 2700 0 0 11050
TRAVEL-INTERN. 7000 6800 6S00 6000 6000 31000
TRAVEL-DOMESTIC 4000 4800 4000 4000 5000 21000
BACKSTOPPING 22240 24880 29280. 30800 32320 138640
SUB-CONTRACTS 18000 10000 5000 10000 15000 50000
OTHER DIRECT COSTS 7000 4000 4000 4500 5000 24500
INDIRECT COSTS 17435 16219 16370 18482 20330 88836

TOTAL 104475 82644 84558 92487 101650 465726


Equipment List:
(over $2000 ea.)
Spectrophotometer 2500








Desmodium ovalifolium This legume was slow to establish but it now

appears to be well established. Some of the Stylosanthes and Zornia

species also appear to be well adapted to the Sitiung area.


Budget:


4 5 6 7 8 TOTAL



SALARIES 0 0 8 0 0 a
FRINGE BENEFITS 8400 8809 9209 9600 10000 46000
SUPPLIES 5000 4500 4000 4000 4000 21500
VEHICLE 0 0 12000 0 0 12009
EQUIPMENT 1500 509 250 500 258 3000
TRAVEL-INTERN. 4000 2500 2500 3008 3000 15000
TRAVEL-DOMESTIC 2500 2500 3000 3000 3500 14500
BACKSTOPPING 16375 17500 21300 22250 23280 100625
OTHER DIRECT COSTS 1500 1700 1600 1200 1200 7200
INDIRECT COSTS 9445 9375 10400 10638 11225 51083

TOTAL 48720 47375 64250 54188 56375 270908