The essayes, or, Morall, politike, and militarie discourses of Lord Michael de Montaigne ..

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Title:
The essayes, or, Morall, politike, and militarie discourses of Lord Michael de Montaigne ..
Uniform Title:
Essais
Alternate Title:
Essayes
Morall, politike, and militarie discoures of Lord Michael de Montaigne
Physical Description:
14, 161 i.e. 631, 13 p. : ; 29 cm. (fol.)
Language:
English
Creator:
Montaigne, Michel de, 1533-1592
Florio, John, 1553?-1625
Flesher, Miles, d. 1664 ( printer )
Royston, Richard, 1599-1686 ( bookseller )
English Printing Collection (Library of Congress)
George Fabyan Collection (Library of Congress)
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Printed by M. Flesher for Rich. Royston ...
Place of Publication:
London
Publication Date:
Edition:
The third edition, whereunto is now newly added an index ...

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autobiography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
England -- London

Notes

Citation/Reference:
STC (2nd ed.)
General Note:
Added engraved t.p.; books 2-3 each have special t.p.
General Note:
Translator's dedication signed: Iohn Florio.
General Note:
Signatures: pi1 engr. t.p. A⁶(-A6) B-3G⁶ 3H⁸ chi².

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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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oclc - 00596976
lccn - 11018543
ocm00596976
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lcc - PQ1642.E5 F6 1632
System ID:
AA00004304:00001

Full Text


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To the Beholder of this T itk.
Hen firft this portlike Frcntifftcce waswrfcught,
Whofe Revmcs and Galleries fhould have beentrim'd With Emf>/eres, and with Ptttares,Mc\y lim'd, And dravvnc from thofe neat Pr,which dolurke Within the (f/Ve^of this timbers worke : So placing them, and them contriving fo, That ev'ry Reader (palling to and fro) By cafting thereupon a glauncingeye, Might in that Medtlov Efitomie, (Ev 'n at the firft afpecT) inform'd have beene, Of ev'ry Rantie contain'd within. But walking through that Plaace of Invention, (The better to accomplish our intention) Wee found unlookt for, fcattred here and there, Such Profits, and fuch pleafures, ev'ry where, In fuch Variety, that,to but name Each one, would make a Voin^e of the fame. For, in thofe angles, and among thofe Leaves Whereon the rafh Behoiders eye perceives No fhewes or promifes, of fuch choice tilings, A diligent unfolder of them brings Concealed Fruits to light: Ev'nthus did we In fuch abundance, that they prove to bee Beyond a briefe exprejpon, and have ftop't Our purpofe in preferring what wee hop'd. In ftead of EmbUmes there fore, to explaine The fcope of this great Volume, we are faine To fixe the Anthers Titlt> on the Gate, Annexed to his Name$ prefiiming that Will give this following Treattfe much more praife Then all the Trophies which our skill can raife. 1 For, he that hath not heard of Mount ame yet, Is but a novice in the fchooles of nit. You that fo pleafe may enter : For,behold The G*tc ftands open, and the doorts unfold Their leaves to entertaine you. That Frenchman Which lately kept you forth, is now unbard, And you may pafle at pleafure ev'ry way If you are furnifh'd with an Englifh-kfj. That, wee fuppofe you want not: if you do, Wee are not they, vAmnthis was meant unto s Pray paffeoiwg, and flare no more on that Which is the PiSure ojeu knew not what. Yet, if it pleafe you 9peB.it, And if than You underftand not, Give them rnwe that can.


THE-
AND MILITARIES
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THE
ESSAYES
OR,
M OR ALL, POLITIKE,
AND MILITARIE
DISCO VRSE5 OF
Lord Michael De Montaigne,
Knight
Of the noble Order of Saint Michael, and one of the Gentlemen in Ordinary ofthe French Kings Chamber.
The Third Edition.
Whereunto is now newly added an Index of the
principali matters andperfonages
mentioned in this Booke.
LONDON,
Printed by M. Fle(her,for Rich : Royfton,
in Irie-lanc next the exchequer office.
MDCXXXII,




TO THE MOST
ROYAL AND RENOVVMED
M a i s t i e of the Hrgh-borne Princeffe Anna of Den mark e ,by the Grace
of GodQuE e n e of England, Scotland, Fi ance ,and Ireland, Sec.
Imperial! and Incomparable iSWajeJlie,
Being with me,all of me is in your Royall poffefsion, and whatfoe^ ver peeces of mine have heretofore, under other Starres pafled the publike view, come now of right to be under the predomination of a Power,th at both con^ tain's all their perfection", and hath influences of a more fublime nature,! could not but alfo take in this part (wherof time had worn-out the edition) which the world hath long fince had of mine, and lay it at your Sacred feet, as a memoriall of my devoted du* ty, and to mew that where I am, I muft be all F am, and cannot ftanddifperfed in my obfervance, being wholly (and therein happy)
Tour [acred Maibstiis moji
bumble and loyatf fervant3


ALI; AVGVSTA
MAEST DI ANNA,
Serenma Regina d'Inghilterra,
di Scoria, di Francia, & & Irlanda, &c
|^ffl$ He fi pu dir di v o i3fomma Regina, A M Che non fia detto dell e pi lodate T>i Magnanimit yVirtfBeltatc, Incomparabile, Sopra^divina d4n%i,cbe flile tanto fi r affina y
Che non fia vinto dalla ^daeflate, L Altra Ja Qbiare^a, la Bontate, zAlla cjual',ogni cuor d'ucuor s inchina ? Lagnai di tutti bonon 7 jpeccbio m'.flra, La qual il pregio Soura tutte tiene Anna, 'a nello della Qioia noftra. La nofira ficurtja noftra /pene.
VlEN dall' eccelso la grandez*
za voftra
Dalla grandezza voftra 7noflrobene.
Il Candido


mm fSM
TO THE READER.
Nough, if riot too much, hath beenefaid of this Translation. If the faults found even by my felfe in the firft im pre/lion, be no w by the Printer corrected, as he was directed, the worke is much amended:Ifnof, know that through mincatten-dance on her Majefty, I could not intend it j and blame not Neptuns for thy fecond (hipwracke. Let me conclude with this worthy mans daughter of alliance : Quet'enfcmbkionc
left ear?
Still rcfoIutC I 6 h n f l o r i Oi
To my deare brother and friend M. IohnFiOrio, one of the (jentlemen of ber ^Mdjefties moft
Royall Privie Chamber.
Oohjike fuperfluous humors Bred with eafe3 So fluff e the world, as it becomes opprefi With taking more than it can welldigefi; And now are turnd to be a great difeafe^ For by this overchargingwe confound The appetite of skim they had before ; There beng no end of words 3 nor any bound Set to conceit the Ocean withoutfbore. As if man labouredwith himfelfe to be As infinite in writings intents t And draw his manifold uncertaintie In any fhape thatpaftion reprefents : That thefe innumerable images And figures of opinion and aifcourfe D raw'n out in leaves 3 may be the witnejfes Of our dcfebls much rather than our force. And thisproud frame of ourprefumptiorti
A J fh'U


This1 Babel 0/our skiUjbis Towre of wit, Sccmesonlychech with the confufxon Ofour mifiakings that dijfolvetb it. And. well may make us of our knowledge doubt, Seeing what uncertainties wee build upon, To be as weake within boo ke as without -y Or els that truth hath other jbapes than one.
But yet although wee labour with thisfior'e And with the preffe of writingsfeeme opprefi, And have too many bookes,yet want wee more, Feelinggr eat dearth and fcarcenejfe ofthebefi* wbicbcafi inchoicer fbapeshavebeeneproducd, To give the befiproportions to theminde fifour confufxon,andbave introduc'd Tbelikeliejt imagesfrailtie canfinde. Andwherein mofi the skill-defiringfoule'. Takes her delight,the beft of all delight, And where her motions evenejicome to rowle About this doubtfuU center of the right, which to difcover thisgreat Potentate, This Prince Montaigne (if he be not more ) Hath more adventur'd of his owne efiate Than ever man did of himfelfe before : And hath made fuch bold follies out upon Cuftome, t be mightie tyrant of the earth;, Inwbofi Seraglio offubjeBion Wee allfeeme bred-up3 from our tender birth < As I admire hitpowres3and out of love, Here at his gate doefiandy and glad I fiand So mere to him whom I doe fo much love, T'applaud his happy fitting in our land: Andfafe tranfyajpigebyhifftudious tare Who both of him andus dotbmerit much, Havingasfumptuoufly,as he is rare Placdhimin the befi lodgingof our fpeecby And made him now as free,as if borne here, And as well ours as theirs3who may beproud That he is theirs, though he be every where To have thefranchife ofbtfw'Grth allow'd. It bein^ theproportion of a happy Pen, Not to b'tnvaffal'dto one Monarchy, But dwell with aUthe better world of men wbofefyirits all are ofone communitie, whomneitber Ocean,Defarts,Rockes nor Sands Can keepefrom th'intertraffique of the minde, j But that it vents her treafure in alllands, ^ And doth a mofi fecure conimercement finde*
Wrap Excellencie up never fo much, lnU'trogliphica:ues,Ciphers jCaraBers,


And let her fteake never fofirange a fpeecb, Her By Sam, D a n i b t one of the extraordinaire of her Majefties moil
royall privie Chamber
Concerning the honour of bookesa
Ince Honour from the Honorer proceeds. How well doe they deferve that memorie And leave in bookes for all poiterities 1 he names of worthies,and their vcrtuous deeds When all their glorie elfeslike water weeds Without their element jprefently dyes. And all their greafnefle quite forgotten lyes: And when,andhow they floriftit no man heeds How poore remembrances, are ftatues, Toomes,s A nd other monuments that men ere& To Princes, which remaine in clofed roomes Where but a few behold them; inferpe& Of bookes, that to the univerfall eye
Shew how they liv'd,the other where they lye


A Table of the Chapters of the Firft Booke.
T divers meants men come to a lil^e
. ...' '\i
t
) end
I Ofifiadnefeorfiorrow. 3
3 Our affections are travfyo'rted beyond* our felves. 5
4 How the fonle difichargeth her paffions falfie objects, whenthetruefiaileit. 9
5 Whether the Captatne of a place bejieged ought to fally forth to parly. 1 p
6 That the houres ofparlies are danger :
7 That our intention judpeth our actions. 13
8 Ofidlenefe. 1 14 p Oflyers. 15 10 Of ready or flowjpeech. 18
ii Of Progfioftications. ? *9 IzOfCanfiancie. 31
13 Of ceremonies in the entcrview of Kings.
23
14 punifihed by too-much opiniating themfelves in a place without reafin. 23
l$Of the punifbment ofcowardifie. 24
16 e/f fricke of certaine ,tAmbaffadors. 25
17 OfFeare, 27
1 8 T6/ >< /7?/ of j* ttntill after our death. 28 19That toPhtlofiophiz,e, Utolearnehowto dye. 3 20 0/ the force of imagination. 40 ai The profit of one man is the damage of another^ 46 22 Offtftome, and how a received Law fhould not eafily be changed. 46
2 3 Divers events from oneficlfiefame eounfeL
24 OfiPed*ntifime. 60
25 Of the infiitution and education ofchi/r dren:totheLadyD\ivaof?o\ri. 6j
i6It W referre Trueth or Falfhhood to our fiufficiencie. 87
.?
.27 Of Friend/hip. 89 z%Nine andtwentyfonnets of'Steven dc Boe-tie,fa?/jtf Lady o/Grammonc. 97
29 Ofmoderation. 97
30 0/ Cannibals. 100
31 That a man ought fioberly to meddle with judging of divine lawes. 167
3 2 To avoid vofaptuoufheffe in regard of life.
108
33 That fortune is often times met whhail in purfute ofreafon.. i dp
34-Ofa defect in our policies. Hi l^OftheufeoJhpparell. iir
36 Of Cato the younger i 113
37 How weweepeandlaugh At onefelfe-famc thing, 116
tfOffolitarinefe. 118
39 A conftderation upon Cicero. 124
40 That the tafie of goods or cutis doth greatly depend on the opinion we have of them.
41 That a man fhould tot communicate his glorie. 137
42 Of the inequality that u betweene us. 13^ 43 Offumptuary lawes,or lawes for moderating ofexpences. 145
44 Ofjlecptng. ?46 tfOftbebattcllofDreux. 148
46 Ofnames. 148
47 Of the uncertainty of our jugdement. 151
48 Ofifteeds,calted in French JJeftriers.l'}'}
49 Of ancient cufiomes. 160 5o0/Dcmoericu$dtf^Heraclitus 163 51 Of the van/tie of words.
5 2 Oftheparcimony of our fore-fathers. 16j S^Ofa faying of Carfar. 168 54 Ofvaine fubtilties,orfubule devices. 169 5 5 Offmels and odors. 170
56 Of prayers and orifions. 172
57/*F' *77
A Table of the Chapters of the Second Book..
tfy^\FtheinconJhafJcieofouraclions. 183 I Of Confidence, 2 ^k-/ OfDrunkenneffe.
3 e/f Cuftome of the lie ofCci.
4 Tomorrow is anew day.
202
187 j 6 Ofexercifie orpraUife. 204 193/7 fthe recompencesorfewardsof hohonr.
2Q0
210
S 0/


THE TABLE.
25 How a man fhonld net aunt erf et to be
$ Of the affection of father/ to their children.
lit
p Of the Farthiansarmts. 223
10 Of'Books. 21$
11 Of'Cruelty. 233
12 An Aiologte of Raymond Scband. .242
13 O fudging of others drath, 342 j 30 Of a nionfirous ehilde.
14 Hoivthatour jpirithindreih itfiilfe.34? 3 Of anger and zfrdleti '
15 That our defires art iucreafiedby dtffieul- 32 A defence of Scnea and Plutarch.
ficke. 76 Of Thumbs.
27 Cowardice the mother of criteltj,
28 All things have theirf tafion. %pOfVertue.
z6 Of (florin. j 7 Of Prefiumpt'ton. 18 Of (riving the Lie. j 9 Of the liberty of confidence*
20 /vtf/r nothing purely.
21 Againfl idlenejfe,or doing nothing
22 Of running Pofis,orCumers.
23 Ofbadmeanesemployed toagood.383 tqOf the Romangreatnejfe. 38J
386 387 388
m
395 399 399 404 407
345; 3 3 The htftory 0/Spurina. 349 j 3^0bfiervations concerning the meanes to> 357 warre after the manner of'Julius Ca:far.
411
35 Of three goodwomen. 416 3 420
37 Of the refiemblance ben* tent children and fathers* 404
374 376
378 380 382
ri-

A Table of the Chapters of the Third Bookc.
I <\F profit and hontfty. % V-/Of repenting.
3 Of three commerces orfibtieties.
4 Of diverting or dive}-(ion.
5 VponfomeverfierefVitigjX.
6 Of Coaches.
7 Of the iucommodity of greatnefe.
435 8 Of tr'e Art of conferring* 451 !j> OfVan 1tie.
i o How one ought togeverne his wiH*
ii Of the Lame oY Cripple. i J OfPhifiognamy. 13 Of Experience,
458 465
47* 504
5*5
5* 53*
578
5#
...... .-M-..I 1 1 -
The


THE AVTHOR TO
THE READER.
' y ^P)r%>>y if


THE
SSAYES OF
MICHAEL LORD OF
O N T A I G N E.
! i. ;\<&al&iihtt3dJ bMicoi bns hi
he:
---.-
Chap. I.
'By dtDers meanes men come unto a like end.
rle mod ufuall way to appeaie thofe minds we have offended (when revengelies in their hands^ and that we ftand attheir mercy) is, by fubmiftion to move them to commileration and pitty:Neverthelelfc,cour3ge,conftancie,and refolution (mettnes altogether oppofite) have fomctimcs wrought the lame effeft. Edward the black Prince of Wales (who fb long governed our Country of GyJeme, a man whole conditions and fortune were accompanied with many notable parts of worth and magnanimitie) having becne gricvoufly offended by the Limofins, though he by maine force tooke and cntred their Citie,could by no mcancs be appeafed, nor by the wailefull out-cries ofall Ibrts of people (as ofmen, women, and children) bemoved, to any pitty, they proftrating thcmfelvcs to the common {laughter, crying for mercy, and humbly fubmittingthemfclvcs at his feet, untill fitch time as in triumphant manner paffing thorow their Citic, he perceived three French Gentlemen, who alone, with an incredible and undaunted boldncffe, gainftood the enraged violence, and made head againft thefurie of his victorious armie. The confideration and relpect offo notable a vcrtue, did firft abate the dint of his wrath, and from thofe three began ro relent, and fhew mercy to all the other inhabitants of the faid towne. Scanderbeg,VmKz of Epirm, following one of his fouldiers, withpurpofeto kill him, who by all means of humilitie, and fubmiffe entrcatic, had firft afliucd to pacifiehim, in fuch an unavoidable extremitie, refolved at laft, refolutely to encounter him with his fword in his hand. This refolution did immediately ftay his Captains fury, who feeing him undertake fo honourable an attempt, not only forgave, but received, him into grace and favour. This example may haply, of fuch as have not knowne the prodigious force and matchlciTe valour or the faid Prince, admit another interpretation. The Empcrour Conradus,thixd of that name, having befieged Gttelphe, Duke ofBavaria, what vilcorbafefatisfaction focver was offered him, would yecld to no other milder conditions, but only to iuffer fuch Gentlewomen as were with the Duke in the Citie(their honourslafe) to ifllic out of the Towne afoot,with fuch things as they could carry about them.They with an unrcichung courage advifed and refolyed themfelves (neglecting all other riches or jew-
B ck)


Thefirfl rBook^t Chap. i.
els) to carry their husbands, their children, and the Duke himfelfe, on their backs : The Emperourperceivingthe quaintncfle of their device, tooke ib great plealure at it, thathee wept for joy, and forthwith converted that former inexorable rage, and mortall hatred he bare thcDuke, into fo milde a relenting aud gentle kindnelfe, that thenceforward hecntrea-ted both him and his with all favour and courtcfie. Either of thefe vvayes might eafily pcr-fwade mee : fori am much inclined to mercie, and affected tomildneffe. So it is, that in mine opinion, I fhould more naturally ftoope unto companion, than bend to cftimation. Yet is pitty held a vicious pafllon among the Stoicks.They would have us aid the afflicted, but not to faint, and co-fufter with them.* Thefeexamplesfcemefitteftfortnee, forfbmuch as thefe minds are fcene to be affaulted and environed by thefe two meanes, in undauntedly fuffering the one, and ftooping under the other. It may pcrad venture be faid, thattoyeeld ones heart unto commiferation, isaneffedtoffacility,tenderncflc,and mecknefle: whence it proceedeth,thatthe weakeftnatures,asof women, children, and the vulgar fort are more* fubject unto it. But (having contemned teares and wailings) toyecld untotheonely reverence of thefacred Image of vcrtue, is the effect of a contagious and irnployable tnindc,hol-ding a mafculiue and conftant vigour, in honour and afte6tion. Notwithstanding, amazement and admiration may inlefle generous minds worke the like effect. Witneffethe The-banes,who having accufedand indited their Captaines,as of acapitallcrimc, forfomuch as they had continued their charge beyond the time prefcribed them, abfolved and quit Pelo-fidasof all puuifhmcnt, becaufe he fubmiffi vely yeeldcd underthe burden of fuchobjecti-ons,and to fave himfelfe, imployed no other meanes,but fuing-requefts, and demiffcintrca-tics; where on thecoutrary, Epaminondas boldly relating the exploits atehicved by him, and with a fierce and arrogant manner upbraiding the people withtbem, had nst the heart fomuch as to take their lots into his hands,, but went his way, and was freely abfolved; the afiemblymuch commending the ftoutnefle of his courage. Dionj/Jini the elder, after lone-lingering and extreme difficulties, having taken the Citie oi'Reggio, and in it the Captaine Phjton, (a worthy honeft man) who had fo obftinatcly defended the fame, would needs fhew a tragicall example of revenge. Firft, he told him, how the day before, he had caufed his fbnne and all his kinsfolkes to be drowned. To whom Phjton, ftoutly out-ftaringhim, aafwered nothing, but that they were more happy than himfelfe by thefpace of one day. Afterward he caufed him to be ftripped, and by his executioners tobetakenanddragoed? thorow the Citie molt ignominioufly, and cruelly whipping him, charging him befides with outragious and contumelious fpeeches. All which notwithstanding, as one no whit difinayed, he ever (hewed a conltant and rcfolute heart ; and with a cheercfull and bold countenance went on ftill, loudly recounting the honourable and glorious caufc of his death, which was, that he would never confent to yeeld his Country into the hands of a cruelltyrant, menacing him with an imminent punifhment of the Gods. Bior.jfius plainly reading inhisSouldiers lookcs, that in lieu of animating them with braving his conquered enemic,they in contempt of him, and feorne of his triumph, Itemed by theaftonifhmcnt of fb rare a vertue, to be moved with compaffion, and inclined to mutinie, yea,and tofreeP/^-t on from out the hands of his Sergeants or Guard, caufed his torture to ceafe, and fecretly -lent him to be drowned in thefea. Surely,man is a wondcrftill, vaine, divers, and wavering fubject: it is very hard to ground any directly-conftantand uniforme judgement upon him! Behold Pompej, who freely pardoned all the Citie of the Mamertines, (agakift which he wasgrievoufly enraged) for the lovcofthe magnanimitie, and confideration of the exceeding vertuc ofZeno, one of their fellow-citizens, who tooke the publike fault wholly upon himfelfe, and defiredno other favour, but alone to bearc the punifhnjent thereof; whereas SyUaes hoft having ufed the like vertue in the Citie of Perugta, obtained nothing, neither' for himfelfe, nor for others. And directly againft my firft example, the hardieft amongft men,andfogtacioustothevanquifhed, Alexander the great, after many ftrange difficulties, forcing the Citie of Gaz,a, encountred by chance with Beta, that commanded therein, of whofe valour (during the fiege) he had felt wonderfull and ftrange exploits, being then alone, forfakcnofall his followers, his amies all-broken, all-befmearcd withbloud aud wounds, fighting amongft a number ofMacedonians, whopcll-melllaid ftill upon him; provoked by fo dearc a vi&orie, (for among other miihaps he had newly received two hurts in his body) faid thus uuto htm ; Bet *r> thouJbalt not die as then rronldeft .-for make
account


Chap.t-
The firji Book^.
Account thouinuft indttre all the torments may pofftbly bee devifed or infilled upon a ca'nife wretch,as thoU /w.But he,for all his enemies threats, without fpcaking one word, returned only an allured, fterne,and dilciainefull countenance upon him ; which filcnt obfli ncicA-Icxander nothing, faid thus unto himfelfe: what -? would hee not bend his k*ee ? cduld he nit utter one fuppliantvoyce f I wttl ajfuredly vanejuijh his filence-, and if I cannot Wrefl a word fom himj wiHat leafi make himto.fob orgroane. And converting his anger into ragc,com-manded hishcclesto bee through-pierced, and fo all alive vvicii a cord through them, to be corne,mangIed,and difmcmbredata carts-tailc. May it be, the force of his courage, was lb, naturall and peculiar unto him, that becaufe he would no-whit admire him, hcrelpciftcd him the lefle? or deemed he it (b proper unto !umfclfe,that in his height,he could no": with-out the fpight of envious paffion, endureto fee it in an other ? or was the naturall violence of his rage incapable of any oppofition ? furc)y,had it received any reftraint, it may be fup-poled, that "m the ranfacking and dcfolation of the Citie of Thebes-, it fhould have felt the fame; in feeing to many Worthies loft, and valiant men put tothefword, as having no meanes of publike defence; for above fix thoufand were flaine and maiTacrcd,of which not one was leene, either to tun away, or beg for grace* But on the contrary, fomc here and therefeeking to affront,and endevouring to check their victorious enemies, urging and provoking them to force them die an honourable death. Not one was fecne to.yecld, and that to his laftgafpedid not attempt to revenge himfelfe,and with all weapons ofdifpairc,with the death of fbme cncmie,comforr and iweeten his owne miferie. Yet could not the arflidti-oflof their vertue find any ruth or pirie,nor might oneday fufiicc to glut ov affwagc his re-vengcfull wrath. Thisbutchcrous {laughter continued unto the laft drop of any remaining bloud; where none were fparedbut the unarmed and nakcd,the aged and impotcnt,the women and childrcnjthat fo from amongft them;,they might get thircie thoufand {laves.
Chap. U. Of Sadnejfe or SorrolVe.
NO man is more free from this paffion than I, fori neither love nor regard it: albeit the world hath undertaken, as it were upon covenant, to grace it with a particulat favour. Therewith they adornc age, vertue, and conicience. Oh foolifh, and bafc ornament The Italians have more properly with it's name entitled malignitie: far, it is a qualii tie ever hurtfull, cverlottifh; and as ever baft and coward, the Stoikes inhibitthcir Elders and Sages to be therewith tainted, or have any feeling of it* ButtheS*>rie faith; that Pfantneticus king of b % bee


The firfl Booker.
Chap. 2.'
rtrg.Am.1.11. iji.
beeexprefedbj teares. The invention of that ancient Painter might happily fit this pur-pole, who in the facrifice of Iphigenia, being to reprefent the gricfc of the by-ftanders according to the qualitic and intereft each one bare for thedeath of fo faire, fo youncrand in-, nocent a Lady, having ranfacked the utmoft skill and effects of his art, when became to the Virgins father,as if no countenance wcrcable to rcprelent that degree offorfow,he drew him with a vaile over his face. And that is the reafon why our Poets fainc mifcrable Niobe who firft having loft fevenfonnes, and immediately as many daughters, as one over-bur-thencd with their lofles,to have beene ttansformcd into a ftonc;
Of id. Uetam. Diriguife mails .
Ufo.j 03. All(l grcw as nard as ^one^
But miferie and moane. Thereby to expreffe this mournfull filent ftupiditie, which fo doth pierce us, when accidents lurpaffing our ftrcngth orcwhelme us. Verily the violence of a griefc, bei'np extreme muft needsaftonie the mind,and hinderthe liberty ofher actions. As it hapnethat the fud-den alarum of fome bad tidings,when weefhall feele ourfclves furprifed,benummed and as it weredeprived of all motion, fo that the foule burfiing afterward forth into tcares and complaints/eemeth at more cafe and libertie,to loofc,todeare and dilate it felfe. Etviavixtandem vocilaxatadolorec'sl, And fcarle at laft for lpeach, By griefe was made a breach. In the warres which king Ferdinando made againft the widow of John king of Bunva-Via, about Buda; a man at armes was particularly noted of all men, forfomuch as in a cer-taineskirmifh he had fhewed exceeding prowefle of his body, and though unknowne, being flaine,was highly commended and much bemoaned of all: but yet of none fo arcatly as of a Germane Lord,called Raifeiac, he that was amafed at forarc vcrtuerhis body being recovered and had off,this Lord,led by a common curiofitie, drew neere unto it, to lee who it might be, and having caufed him to be difarmed, perceived him to be his owne fonne ; which knowne,did greatly augment the compaffion of all the camp : he only without framing word,or clofing hiseyes,but earneftly viewing the dead body of his fonne, flood ftill upright, till the vchemencieof his fad fonow, having luppreffed and cheaked his yitallfpi-ritSjfell'd him ftarke dead to the ground. > x -
VtL$.i.Stthlv>. Chipuo dir com egli ardec in picciolfttoco,
He that can lay how he dothfrie, In pettic-gentle flames doth lie, fay thofe Lover^hat would lively rcprefent an intolerable paflton. Cml JEfig. mtferoqnodomnvs 48. y. Eriph fenf*s mihi; Namfimttl te
Lesbia ajpexi, nihil eft fuper mi
Quodloquar amens Lingua fedtorpet,tenuis fub artus
lammadimanat,fonitHfuopie jci sib fljgKomfl fc">iwl zul
TinnittntattrestgeminategHntHr, /irf^Mijimi .WOlxc
Lumina nolle. *SW**<
53l*v miferablyfromme, ;r,iiicyc!rtof.Eion.i
This bereaves all fenfc: for I can no fooner Eic thee my fweet heart, but I wot not one word
to (peake amazed. Tongue-tide as in trance, while a lprightly thin flame Flowes in all my joynts, with a felfe-refounding Both my cares tinglc,with a night redoubled '-i isv Jud: Both mine eiesare veild. Nor isit in the livelieft, and moft ardent heat ofthc fit, that wee arc able to dilplay out plaints and perfwafions,the foule being then aggravated with heavie thoughts, and the body fupptefled and languifhing for love. And thence is Ibmetimcs engendered thatcafuall f&nmcj, which founfcafonablyfurprifethpaflionatc Lovers, and that chilneife, which by
the
ti


Chap.3'
The firft Bookc.
5
Curst leves loqumturjngentesfiupem.
Light cares can freely fpcakc,
Great cares heart rather breake. The furprize f an unexpected pleafure aftonicth us alike.
Vtme conjpexit venientem,& Troja ctrcum
4/rmA amens vidit, magnis exterrita monfimt
Dirigtttt vifu in medio,calor ojfa reliquit,
Labttur>& longo vix tandem temporefatur.
When (hebeheld me come,and round about
SenfeleiTeiaw Trojan armes,fhc flood afraid
Stonc-ftill at fo ftrange fights : life heat flew out :
She faints: at laft,with long paufe thus flic faid. Befides theRomane Ladie, that died for joy to fee h er fonne retiyrne alive from phe bar-tell ofCanna,Sophocles and Dionyjius the Tyiant,wh6deceafed through over-gladnes: and Talva, who died in Corjiea, readingthe newes of the honours theRoman Senate had conferred upon him : It is reported that in ourage, Pope Lto the tenth having received adver-tilement of the taking of the Citie ofMillane, which he had fo exceedingly defired, entrcd into fuch excelfe of joy, that he fell into an ague, whereof he fhort ly died. And for a more authenticallteftimonie of humane imbccillitie, it is noted by our Ancients, that Diedorut theLooician, being furprized with an extreme palfioii or apprchcnlion of l"hamc, fell downeltarke dead, becaufc neither in his Schoole, nor in publique, he had beenc able to re-folve auaroument propounded unto him.I am little fubject to thefe violent pafiions. I have naturally alurd apprehenfion,which by difcourle I daily harden more and more.
Sen.Bip.atl.i. Stem i.
Fitg. JUnead. Ub.$. jotf.
Chap. III.
i! .isiiifiiiifinJiw jJj3i!j3Lrt bafc V'SJfiW vravsn; c7sof!s;ri}^*.^vAttA*K i'-iiti flirt
THofe which ftill accufe men for ever gaping after future things, and go about to teach us,to take hold of prefent fortunes, and fcttleiourfclves upon them, as haying no hold of that which is to come ; yea much leffe than we have of that which is already pafl, touch and are ever harping upon the commoncft humane error, if theydare call that an error, to which Nature herfelfc, for the ferviceofthe continuation of her workc, doth addrelfe us, imprinting (as it doth many othcrs)thisfaIfc imagination in us, as more jealous of our acti-ons,than ofour knowledge.We arc never in our felves,but beyond. Feare, defire, and hope, draw us ever towards that which is to come, and remove our fenfeand consideration from that which is,to amufe us oil trftt which fhall be,yea when we fhall be no more. Calamito-fusejf animusfuturianxhu. A mindeinfujpenfewhat is to come,ism a pittifullcafe.
This notable precept is often alleaged in Plato. Follow thy bufinejfe and know thy felfe; St7,'ef''98* Each of thefe two members, doth generally imply all our duty; and likewife enfolds his j> companion. He that Should doc his bufincfle, might perceive that his firft leifon is,to know j> what he is, and what is convenient for him. And he that knoweth hitnlclfe, takes no more anothers matters For his ownc, but above all other things, lovcth and correcteth-himfclfc, rejeetcth fupcrfluous occupations, idle imaginations, and unprofitable propositions. As if you grant follie what it dcfitcth,'tt will no-whit be Satisfied; fo is wifdomc content with that which is prefent,and never difplcafed with it(klk.Epicurus doth d ifpenfe with his agetduching the forefight& care of what fhal infue. Amongft the lawes that tegard the deccafed, that whichties the adtions of Princes to be examined when they are dead, fecmcs tome vericfolid. TheyarecompanionSjifnotmaftersofthelawes : That which julticc could not workc on their hcads,it is reafon it effect upon their reputatiou,and goodsofthcit. fucceffors: things wee many times prcferre before our lives. It is a cuffome brings many, fingularcommoditicsunto nations that obfervc.it, and to be defisedof all good Princes; whohavecaufcto complainethatthe mcraorie of the wicked is ttfed as theirs. Wee owfe a B 3 like


6
The firfl Book like obedience and fubjcction to all Kings ; for it refpets their office : but eft imation and affection, 1we owe it only to rheirvertuc. If they be unworthy, wee are to endure them patiently, to conccale their vices,and to aid their indifferent actions with ourcommendations,as long as their authoritie hath need of our aflittance, and that ought to be afcribed unto poli-tikcorder.But our commerce with them beingendcd,thereisuoreafon welhould refute the unfolding of our felt wrongs unto juftice andourlibcrtie. Andfpecially to rcfuigood fub-
' jects, the glory to have reverently and faithfully fcrved a mafter, whole imperfections were fo well knowne unto them : exempting pofieritiefiomfo profitable an example. Andfuch as for the refpect of fome private benefit or intcreft, doe wickedly embrace the memorie of an unworthy Prince, doeparticular juftice at the charge of publike juftice. Titus Ltvius ipcaketh truly, where he faith, thatthc lpeechofmen brought up under a royaltic is ever full of vaine oftentations, and falfe witnelfes ; cvety man indifferently extolling the King, to the furtheft ftraineof valour ad ibveraigne greatnefle. The magnaijimitic of thoi two Souldiers may be reproved, one of which being demanded of Nero, why he hated him, an-fwercd him to histceth ; I loved thee whilcft thou waft worthy of love, but fince thou became!! a parricide, a fi re-brand, a J uglar, a Player, and a Coach-man, I hate thee, as thou deicrveft. The other being asked, wherefore he fought to kill him,anfwerd,Becauie I finds, no other couri to hinder thy unceffant outrages and impious deeds. But can any man, that hath bis fenfes about him, juftly reprove the publike and generall teftimonics that lince his death have bcenegiven, and fo fhall be for ever, both againft him and all fuch like reprobates, of his tyrannicall and wicked demeanours ? Iam forrierhat in lb facrcd a policieas the Lacedemonian was,fo fained and fond a crmonie at the death of their Kings was ever devifed and brought in uf. All their confederates and neighbours, all the flave-Heotes, men and women pell-mell,for a teftimonieoftheitgticfe and forrow, did mangle and gafh their foreheads,and in their out-cries and lamentations exclaimed, that their decealcd Kingjhow-focver he had lived, was and had beene the beft Prince that ever they had, afcribing in order the commendations dueuntodefert, and to the laft and latter rankc, what belongs unto the firftmerit. Arifiotle thzthzth anoare in every water, and medleth with all things, makes queftion about Solons ipeech, whoiith, that no man can truly be counted happy before his death, Whether he that lived and- died according to hiswifh, may be named happy, whether his renownc be good or ill, and whether his pofteritic be mifcrablc or no. Whileft
* wceftirreand remove, wee tranfportoupclves by. preoccupation whercfocYcr wee lift :buc uofoonerare weeoutofbeing, but wee have no communication at all with that which is. And it were better to tell Solon, that never man is happy then,fince he never is fo, but when he is no more.
lMW.rtr.nat. / Quifquam
to. j. ju. Vtx radicitus vMft toUit, & ejicit :
Sedfade cjfefui qttiddam piper infeius ipfe, Nec removet fat projette carport fe fe, & Vtndicat. Scarce any rids himfelfc of life Co cleere, But leaves unwittingfomepart of him hecre : Nor frees or quits himilfc iufflcicntly From that his body which forlornc doth lie. Bertrand of Gelfquin died attheficgeofthccaftlcofKWM.neerc unto Tnj vxAvergneo thebefieocd yeelding afterward, were forced to carry the kcies of the Gaftlc, ur_jn the dc-ceafed or the Captaine. Bartholomew of Alviano. Generall of the Venetian forces dying in thwr frvice and wars about Brtfcia, and his bodie being to be traniporred to Vtnice, through theterritory of Verona, which then was enemie untothem.the greateftpart ofthc army thought it expedient to demand a faf conduct for their pafiage of thofeof Verona, to which TheedoroTrtvuci ftoutly oppofed himfelfc,and chofc rather to paffe it by main* force, and to" haaard theday, faying it was not convenient, that he who in his life time had never apprehended fcareofhisenemies fliouldnow being dead, leme to fcare them. Verily in likcmatters, by the lawes of Greece, hee that required a dead body of his enemies, with intent to bury the fame, renounced the victory, andmightno more erect any trophy fit :andhewho wasforequired, purchafcd the title of honour and gaine. Sodio Nietas
loft


Chap.j-
The firft Bookz^.
7
iofe the advantage hee had clearcly gained of the Corinthians ; and contrariwifc, Agefilam affuvcd that, heedubtfiilly had gotten of the Bcetians. Thciactions might bee deemed ftrange, ifinallages it were not a common-received opinion, not only to extend the care of out Selves, beyond this life, but alio to bcleeve, that heavenly favoursdoe often accompany us unto our grave, and continue in out pofterity. Whereof there are fo many examples (leaving our moderne a part) that I need not wade farre into it.
Edward the firft King ofEngland, iiuhc long wars he had with Robert King of Scotland i having by triall found how greatly hisprcfence advantaged the fucccii of his affaires, ai?d how he was ever victorious in any enterprise he undertookeinhisownepcrfbn; when hee died,bound hislomeby folem.ie oath,that being dead he Should caufehis body to beboy-led, untili the flefh fell from the bones, which he Should caule to be interred, and carefully keeping the bones,evcrcarry them about him, whenlbcvcr hee Should happen to have wars with the Scots : As if deftiny had fatally annexed the victory unto his Iimines. IohnZtfca, who for the defence oUVtck[tfs opinions fo much troubled the fiate ??Bohemia, commanded that after his death his body fhould be fiead,and a drum made of his skin,, to be carried and {bunded in all the wars againft his enemies: deeming the lbund of it would be a meanes to continue the advantages, which in his former warres hee had obtained of them. Certaine Indians did likewife carry the bones of one of their Captaines in the skirmifhes they had with the Spaniards, in regard of the good fucceffe hee had, whileft hee lived, againft them: And other nations of that new-found world, doe likewifc carry the bodies of Such worthy andforftmatc men with them, as have died in their battels, roServerhemin fteadof good fortune and encouragement. The firft examples refrve nothing elle in their tombe, but the reputation acquired by their former atehievements : butthef will all adjoyne unto it the power of working. The act of Captarne Bajart is of better competition, who perceiving hirafclrc deadly wounded bya fhot received in his body, being by his men per-fwaded to come off and retire himfclfe from out the throng, anfwercd, he would not now foneerehisend, begin to turne his face from his encmie : and having ftoutly foughtenfb Iongas he could ftand, feeling himfclfc to faint and ftagger from his horfc, commanded his fteward to lay him againft atrec, but in filch fort, that he might die with his face toward th encmie ; as indeed hee did. I may not omit this other example, as remarkable for this confederation, as any of the precedent. The Emperour Maximilian, great grand-father to Fhilipaovi)ut\go(Spaine,Y)*si Prince highly endowed with many noble qualities, and amongft others with a well-nigh matchlcfle beauty and comelinefl of bodyjbut wkh other cuftomesefhis, hee had this one much contrarie to other Princes, who to difpatch their wcightieft affaires make often their clofcftoole, their regali Throne or Councel-chamber, which was, that hee would not permit any groome of bis chamber (were hee never fb neere about him)to fee him in his inner chamber,who if he had occafibut to make water, would as nicely and as religioufly with-draw himfclfeasany maiden, and never fuffcrfo much as aPhyfitian, much Ieffc any other whatfoevcr, to fee thole privie parts that all in modeftie feeketokcepefecrctandunfeenc. Myfclfc, that am fo broad-mouthed andlavifhin Speeches, am notwithstanding naturally touched with that bfhfuleff. Andunleffc it bee by the motion of ncceffity or of voluptuoufnefTe, I never Willingly imparted thofc actions and parts (which cuftorac willeth to bee concealed) to the view of any creature. I endure more compulsion, than I deeme befitting a man, especially of my profeftion. But hee grew tofuchfuperftition, that by exprelfc words in his laft will and Teftament, hee commanded, that being dead, hee fhuld have linnen-flops put about them. ??? Should by codicile haw: annexed unto it, that hee who fhould put them on, might have his eis hood-winckc The instruction which Cy/wgiveth his children, that neither they nor any other fhould either fee or touch his body, after the breath were once out-of it ; I afcribeit unto fome motive of devotion in him. For both hi hiftorian andhimllfe, amongft many other notable qualities they are endued with, hate throughout all the courfc of their life fcemed to hare a Singular refpect and awfull reverence unto religion. That ???? dilpleafcd mee very much, which a noble-man told me of a kirrfmaa of mine (a man very famous and well known both in peace and warre) which is, that dyingvery aged in his court, being much tormented with extreme pangs of theftone, hee with an eameft and unwearied care, employed all his laft houres, to djfpofe the honour and ccremorjyof hisftmerals^nd fommoned allthe nobilitie
that


8 Thefirfl, Booker. Chap. 5.
that came to vifit him, to give him allured ptomifeto be as affiltants, and to convey him to his lafi refting place. To the very fame Prince, who was with him at his laff gafp, he made very earned fuit, he would command all his houfhold to wait upon him at his interment, inforcing many reafbns, and alleaging divers examples, to prove that it was a thing very convenient, and fitting a man of his qualitie: which affured promife when he had obtained, and had at his pleafuremarfhallcd the order how they fhould march,hefeemed quietly and contentedly to yceld up the ghoft. I have feldome Scene a vanitie continue fo long. This o-thcrcuriofitie meeve oppofite unto it (which to prove I need not labout for home-examples) feemeth in my opinion colen-gcrman to this, that is, whenone is ever ready to breathe his lafi, carefully and paffiortarelvtoendevour how to reduce the convoy of his obfequies unto fame particular and unwonted parcimonie, to one fetvantand to onelantetne. I hearethe humour and appointment of Marcus t^Bmilius Lepidus commendcd,who exprefly forbade his hcircs to nfc thofe ceremonies about his interment,which in fuch cafes were formerly ac-cuflomcd. Is it temperance and frugalitic, to avoid charge and voluptuoufnefle, the ufe and knowledge of which is inpcrceptable unto us ? Loe here an eafie reformation, and of fmall coSt. Were it requisite to appoint any, I would be of opinion, that as well in that, as in all other actions of mans life, every man fhould referre the rule of it to the qualitie of his fortune. Arid the Philofopher Lycon did wifely appoint his friends to place his body where they fhould thinke it fitteft and for the belt : and for his obfequies, they fhould neither be Superfluous and ovcr-coftly, norbafeand Sparing; For my part, I would wholly relie on cuftome,which Should difpofe this ceremonie, and would yecld my felfe to the difcrction of the firSt or next into whole hands I might chance to fall. Totus h/c loots efi contemnendtts in cb P 'non neglig^M* tn nofiris : tsfllthis matter fhould be dejpifed ofus,but notnegldledof ortrs' And religioufly faid aholyman ; Curatiofuneris, conditio fepultura,pompa cxeqnia-*po(l.fcr. j ee rum,magisfum vivorumfilatia^uamfubfidia mortuorum. The procuration of fmerals,the maner ofburia\l,the pomp ofabfequies,arerather comforts tothe living,than helps to the dead. Therefore oVnzr gave


Chap. 4. the firfi Booke.
gavcleafure to an infinite number of bis living enemies, whom he might eafily havefurp*ri-zed to failc away in fafecy, who afterward made them to purchafc their importunate fuper-ftition,Wadredce$o^ Av.Am ,5'.OldyliiotihimUl > UiahJhi&uiaAl rbol
Oji&risi quo \aceat, pofl obhum ,loco? Sen- Troat. cber,
Jjltjto/tinJ*M| jtftvw^i tfti'j-ul .'iilal v;[fo: ilfjoal i-lfo wirTwmol **,$<&,e afcr-i
Where fhall you lie when you arc dead ?
Where they lye that were never bred : This other reftores the fenfeof reft unto a body without a foulc.
Necjuefepxlchrum, quo reciptat, habeatportum corporis. Cic.Yufc. op. tib.
Vbi, remiffa humnna vita, corpus requiefcat a malts.
To tufnc in as a hav'n, have he no grave,
Where life left, from all giiefe he reft may have. Even asNaturc makes us to fee, that many dead things have yet certaine fecret relations-unto life* Wine doth alter and change in fellers, according to the changes and alterations of the fcafons of its vineyard* Andtheflefh ofwilde bcafts and venifon cloth change qualitie and tafte in the powdering-tubs, according to the nature of living flefh, as fomefay that havcobfervedir. ;A \*wt*Vs*.*urn.
. Em.
Chap. IV.
How the joule difchargeth her pafions uponfalfe objecls,
bn* 'AO :mowuiviaylnicm t?!cwwljfhtt'yisbxoritiAnrijibddou/vob
AGentleman of ours exceedingly fubjeett triegowr,bcing inftantly folicited by his Phyfitions, to leave alt manner of falt-meats, was wont to anfwer pleafantly, that when the fits or pangs of the difeafc tookc him, hec would have fome body to quarell withjand that crying and curling, now againft ifa/s/w-faufege, andfometimes by railing againft fait ncats-tongucs, and gammons of bakon,ht found fome eafe. But in good earneft evcnasthcarmcbeinglifteduptoftrike,ifthcfti;6kehitnot,but fallvoid, wccfeelefome painc in it,and many timesftrike it out of joynt; and that to yceld our fight pleafant,it muft not be loft and difpierfed in the vaft ayre, but ought rather to have a litnitedbound tofii-ftainc it by a reafonable diftancc.
VentmutanmtH iires,n:finboredt.t)f lucanM.i.jtu Occ-'.rraut JtIv Chi-jaculumparva Lybisamemanithabenay Lucan.lib.S.
Impedit,&fccumfugicHtem circuit hafiam* Even fothe wouud-enragcel Auririan beare, On whom a Moore hath thir'ld his flinged ipeare, Whcelcson her wound,and ragingbitesthedart, Circling that flics with her, and cannot part.
What


IO
Thefirfl Bookie.
Ckap. 5.
What caufes doc wee not invent, for the crofles that happen unto us ? bee it right, or wrong: what take we not hold of,to have fomething to ftrive withall ? It is not the golden locks thou teareft, nor thewhiteneffeofthebreaft, which thou through vexation fb cruelly dolt finite, that have by meanesofanunluckic bullet, loft thy dcerc-belovcd brother: on Livjl(c,$M.l. fomethingclfcfhouldeft thou wreake thyTelfc. Liv'rns fpeaking of the Romanearmyin Spaine, after the loflc of two great Captaines that were brethren. Fie re omnes rcpente,&ef-fenfare capita.-They alt wept and often beat their htades. Itisanordinariecuftome: And thePhilolbphcr^ow was very pleafant with the king,thatforgricfetore his haire,when he {zii\,T)oth this man tbinke, that baldneffe will affwage hie grtefe ? who hath not fcene fomc to chew and fwallow cardes,and wel-nigh choake themfelvcs with bales of dice, only to be revenged for the loflc of fomc moncy?JiVr.r whipped the Sea,and writ a cartell ofdefiance to the hill Athos: And Cyrus for many daies together ammuied his whole armie to be revenged of the river Gyndttsfoi the fearc he tookepaffing over the fame: And Caligula cau-fed avcricfaire houfc to be defaced, forthepleafure his mother had received in the fame. When I wasyoung^mycountrimcn were wont to fay, That one of our neighbour-Kings, having received a blow at Gods hand, fware to be revenged on him, and ordained,that for ten yearesfpacenomanfhouldpray unto him,norJpeakj>fhim,nor(fo longashewere in authority, J beleeve in himSsy which rcport,they doc not fo much publifh the fortifhnefle,as thcambi-tious glorie, peculiar unto that nation of whom it was fpoken. They are vices that evergoe together: But in truth fuch actions endine rather untofelfe-conccit,than tofondncs.^f-ftus Cafar having bcene beaten by a tempeft on the fea, defied the God Neptune, and in the celebration of the Circcnfian gamcs,that fo he might be avenged on him,hc caufed his image to be removed from out the place, where it ftood amongft the other Gods; wherein he is alfo leflc excufablc, than the former, and leffc than hce was afterward, when having loft a battell, under Qufntilius Varus in Germanic, ah in a rage and defperate, he went up and dowuc beating his head againft the walls, mainly crying out: Oh! Varus, reftore me my Saaldtersagaine.$or)tho{cexceed, allfallie, (foefbmuch as impictieis joyncd unto it) that will wreake themfelvcs againft God,or fortune,as if fhe had eares fubject to our batterie: In imitation of the Thracians,who when it lightens or thundcrs,bcgin with a Titanian revenge to flioot againft heaven, thinking by {hooting of arrowes to draw God to fomc reafon. Now,as faith that ancient Poet in Plutarch. y faw > Point nefefaut corroucer aux affaires,
line leur chautde tomes nog. choleres.
We ought not angry be at what God doot h,
For he cares not who bcarcs an angry tooth. But we fhall never raile enough againft the difbrder and unrulineffc of our minde.
* Chap. V.
Whether the Captaine of i place bejieged ought to fallie forth toparlie,
isrffimtres oYpilabi vino fiarawTirijifinsrjrib i...r r. gniii^T^uJ&iil ii -iviaaabisriJrn.
LVcius Mar due Legate of the Romans, in the warre againft Per feus King oPMacedon, defirous to get fb much time,as he wanted toprepare hisarmy, gaveoutfbme motives of accord,wherewith the King inveagled,yeelded unto a truce for certaine daies: by which meanes he furnifhed his enemie with opportunitie and leafure to arme himfelfcrwherofpro-cecded the Kings laft ruine and over-throw. Yet is it,thatthe elders of the Senate, minafull of their fore-fathers cuftomes, condemned this practice as an enemie to their ancient proceedings, which was, fa id they,to fight with vertue, and not with craft, nor by furpriles,or ftratagems by night, nor by fct-flights, and unlookt-for approches, never undertaking a warre, but after it was proclaimed, yea many times after the appointed houre and place of the battell.With this corifcicncc did they fend backc to Pirrhut his traitorous Phy fitian,and


. Chap. 5.
The fir ft Book^.
tothe PhaUfci their difloyallfchoole-mafier.Thete were true Romano proceedings,and not Grecian policies, nor Punike wiles, with whom to vanquifh by force is lefie gloneus than to conquer by treacherie. To deceive may fervefor the inftant, but hee only is judged to be overcome, that knowes he wasiiot vanquifhed by craft or deceit, nor by fortune or chance, but by meeie valour, betweene troupe and troupe, in an overt and juft warre* It appcareth manifcfUy by the Speech of thefc good men, they had not yet received this Sentence.
:*Doltts,anvirtus, quisinhofierequirat?
Dcceit,or vertue,cither,in foes,it skill's not whether. The Achajans,faith Polibius, deteSted all manner of deceit in their warres, deeming that no vierorie,whcre their enemies courages were not quelled.^w vir fanbT:us,&fapiens fciat ejfe villoriam ver,wt,eju4 falva fide,& integra dignitate parabitur.Awtfe andreligitms man willknow that is viEtorie indeed,whicb fhatlbe attainedwith credit unimpeached^and dignitie untainted, faith another,
Vos ne velh, an me regnare hera,quid-veferatfors> Virtute experiamur.
If fortune will have you to raignc, or me, And what chance bring's,let vermes triall be. InthcKingdome of 7fr>fiv.r,amongth.ofe nations,which wee fo fiill-mouthcd,call Barbarous, the cullomc bearcth,that they never undertake a wane, before r he fame be denounced; thereunto ad ding an ample declaration of the meanes they have toemploy therein, what manner, and how many men, whatmunition, and what Armes either orrcnlive or dc-fenlivc: which done, they alfo efhblifh as'a law, that without reproach or imputation, it Shall be lawfullfor any man,in their warres, to ufe what ad vantage Soever, may in any fort further or hclpe them to vanquifh. The ancient Florentines w ere fo far from defiling any advantage of their enemies by Sudden SurpriSes, that a moneth beforethcy could bring their Armie into the field,they would give them warning, by the continuall found of their common bell, which they called Martinella. As for us, who are lelTcfuperft itious, and deema him to have the honour of the warre, that hath the profit ofit, and according to Lifanderj fay,thatiVheretheLions-skinnewiRnotftiffice,wee mufladdeafcantlingoftheFoxes; the the moft ordinarieoccafionsoffurprifesaredrawne from this pradtice,and as wee fay, there is no timc,w herein a Captaine ought to be more warie aad circumlpetl to Iooke about him, than that of parlies,and treaties of accord : And therefore is it a common rule in the mouth of all our modern men of warre, thatthc GovernourorCominaunder of a befieged place, ought never tofallie forth himfelfe to parlie. In the time of our forefathers, thefamc was calf in the teeth, (as a reproach) unto the Lord of CMontmord and Ajftgni, who defended J/o/o,againfi the Earlc of Nanfeaw. Yet in this cafe it were cxcufablein him,that Should iblallieout, that tlic affurance and advantage, might Still be on his fide. As did the Earle Guido Rangoni in the Citic ofReggioQScredit may be given to BeUay: for Guicciardinzfnz-meth,that it was himfelfe ) when as the Lord of Efcute, comming to parlie made his approaches unto it; for he did fb littlcforfakchis fort,that whileft they were in parlie, a commotion being raifed, the Lord otEfcuteand the troupes which came with him, in that tumult found himfelfe to be the weakeft, fo that Alexander Trivultto was there Slaine, and hecdecming it the Safcft way,wasforced to follow thcEarlc,and on his word to yccld himfelfe to the metcicand Slicker of blowes^intotheCitie. Eumenes inthe Citic ofNera,being urged by Antigonus,ihsx befieged him,tofallie forth to parlie, alleaging that there was rea-fon he Should come to him,fith he was the better man, and the Stronger: after he had made this noble anfwer, I wtllnever thinke any man better than my fclfe, fo long as I can hold of rule my Jwnordid he ever yecld until! Anttgonushad deliyevcd him Ptelomey,\ns owne nephew for aplcdge, whom he required. Yet Shall weefecfometo have prolpercd well in Sallying foorth of their holdes to parlie, upon the word and honor of the affailant; witnes Henric ofy"aulx,z knight of Champaigne, who being beleagred by theEngliSh-meninthc CaStlc of Commerciei and Bartholmew ofBones, who at that liege commaunded as Chiefe having caufed thegreate'ft partofthe CaStlc to be undermincd,fb that there wanted nothing but the giving of fire, uttetly to fubvert the fame, under the ruines ofit, fummoncd the faid /f but
Firg.lE.neid. /1.390.
cic.Ojfic.l'tbxex Rm.de Pjrtb.


12
The firfl BookeJ.
Chap. 6.
but with three more, who manifeftly feeing the evident mine, wherein he was undoubtedly liketofall, acknowledged himfelfe infinitely beholdingtohisencmie, unto whofedifcre- tion, after he had yeclcfed together with his troup, and that flic was given to the Mine, the maiue propsof the Caftlefailmg, it was utterly overthrown^ and carried away. I am eafily perfwaded to yeeld to other mens words and faith,but hardly would I doe it,whcn I Should .give other men caufeto imagihe,that I had rather done it through defpairc and want of courage, thau ofafree and voluntary choifc, and confidence in his honcftic and well-meaning.
m
Chap. VI. That th e home ofpar lies is danger ow.
" Otwithftanding I Saw lately,that thofe of L?tfujidan,i place not farre from mcc,who with others of their partic, were by our forces compelled to diSlodgc thence, exclai-med,thcy were bctraid, becaufe during the Speech ofaccord, and the treatie yet continuing, they had beenefurprized and defeated; which thing might haply in other ages have had Tome apparence of truth but, as I fay, pur manner of proceed ing inrfuch cafes, i s altogether differing from thefc rules, and no man ought to expect performance of promife from an cnemie, except the laft fealc of bond be fully annexed thereunto, wherem notwithstanding is then much care and vigilancie required, and much adoe Shall be found. And it was ever a dangerous counfell to trtift the performance cf word or oath given unto a Citic, that yeclds unto gentle and favourable composition, and inthat furie to give the need ie, bloutl-thirStie, andprey-grecdy Souldicr free entrance into ir,unto the free choife and licence ofa victorious armic. LuciustALmilius Regillus a RomanePra:tor, having loft his time in at-, tempting by force to take the Citieof the Phocensby reafonof the Singular pro weSfc,which the inhabitants Shewed, in Stoutly defending themfclves, covenanted to receive them as friends unto the people of 2yjw? Tvoy,


Chap. 7.
The firft Booke.
3
Arhb cam. if.
ftjH.L
Tvoy,having coirunittedthisovcrfighttoiflucout of his holdc, ro parlic with the Con* liable ofFkikcc, athisreturnc found the Townctaken and himfclfe jack-out-of-doores. But that wee may not pa fie unrcvengcd,the Marques of Pcfcara belcagcfing Geri6va,vi\xxs. Duke 0 U avian Fregofo commanded under our protection, and an accord between them having lb long been treated^ and earnestly folicircd, that it was hold as ratified, and upon he point of condufion the Jpanjards being entred theTownc, and feeing thcmfelves the jhonger, tookctheir opportunicic, and ufed kasafuli and compleatcvictoricand finccat Lygnfw ; whcietheEarlcofBriennecommanded, the Emperour having befieged inm in pcrfon, and Barthotemy Lieutenant to the fiide Earle being come foorth of his hold roparlie, was no Sooner out, whileft they wcit disputing, bat tht T'ownc was furprifed, and lie excluded,They fay,
Fu ilvinccrfmpremai laudabilcofa\
Vmcafiper fortuna 0 per ingegno.
To be victorious,evcniioie wasglorious,
Be we by fortune or by wit vidtorious. But thePhilofophcr Chryfippus would not havb bcerie of chat opinion; nor I neither/or .he was wont ro fay, That thofe who run forthe mafberiemaywell'employ all their jlrengih to make jpeed, but it is not tawfutl for them to lay hands on their adverfaries, to flay him, or to croffe leggs, tomtkehim trip or full. And more gencroufly anfwered Alexander the grcat,at what time Palyperton pcrfwaded him to ufe the benefit oftheadvantage which the darknefleof the night afforded him, to charge Darin*; No, no, faid hec, it ftsnotmeeto huntafter night-ftolne viftoHes : Malo me for4ms, poeniteat, qitam vitloria pudeat. I had ratherreper.t me ofmy fortune, than be afhamcd ofmyviuorie.
Atqueidemfugientcm baud efl dtgnatus Orodem
Sterner jalla cscum dare cujpide vulnus:
Obvirts adverfoque occurrit,feque viro vir
Comultt, baud fur to melior, fedfortibus armii.
Hcdcign'd not to Strike downe Orodes flying,
Or with histhrowne-launccblindely-wound him running I
But man to man afront himfclfe applying,
Met him, as more cSiccm'd for Strength than cunning.
Vitg. AenJ'ib. 10.731 Mi^eitt.
i--_
_......
_
. yvrtn bnA .rt'vtxA otisiiu riuwtmm
Chap. VII.
' ?eilj, fb\dui jmoi juoda\ m vv'* ?os>x r^av/.siw!
That our intention \udgetb our aclions.
THE common faying is, that Death acquits us of all our bonds. I know fomc thac have taken it in anot her fence. Henry the Seventh, King of?>?g/rf^ made a composition with Philip fon to Maximilian the Emperour or (to give him a mofwionorablc title) father to the Emperour Charles the fifth,that'the-faid Philip Should deliver into his hands, the Duke ofSuffolke, his mortall enemie, who was fled out of England, and Saved himfclfe in the Lowcountries,aIwayesprovidcdthcKingfliould attempt nothing agalnft the Dukes life; which promifc notwitliftauding,being neere his cnd,hccxprefly by will and tcftamcnt commanded his fuccecding-fimc,that immediately after his deceafc, he Should caufc hirfi to be put to death. In the late tragedic, which the Duke of Alva prefented uswithall at Brufels,on the Earlcs of Home and Egmond, were many remarkable things,and worthy to be noted rand amongft others,that the laid Count Egmondupon whofefaithfull word and affurance, the Earle of Home was come in and yeeldcd himfclfe to the D"kcf Aha,te-quircd very inftantly to be ft 1 ft put todcath,to the end his death might acquit and free him ofthc word and bond,which he ought & was engaged for,to the faid Earlc o?Horne.\t{?&-mcththat death hath tip whit difchafged the former of his word given^ and that the fe-
C cond


14 Tbefirfl'Bookc^. Chap. 8.
Second, without dying, was quit of it. We cannot be tied beyond our Strength and meancs. The rcafon is, becaufc the effects and executions are not any way m our power, and except our will,nothing is truely in our power: on it onely ate ail the rules of mans dutie grounded and cftablifhed by neceffitie. And therefore Count Egmoxd, deeming his minde and will indebted to his promife,how beit the power to effect it, lay not in his hands, was no doubt cleercly abfolvcd of his debt and dutie, although he had furvived the Count Home. ButtheKingof^/^failingofhis word by his intention, cannot be excufed .though hee dclaidc the execution ofhisdifloyaltieuntill after his death. No more rhan Herodotus his Mafon who during his naturall life, having faithfully keptthefecret of his Mafter the King ofEgyptstieafurc,whenhcdied difcovcrcd the fame unto his children. I have in mydayes leenc many convicted by their owne confciencc, for detaining other mens goods, yet by their lafi will and teltamenttodifpofe themfclves, after theirdcccafctomake fatisfaction. This is nothing to the purpofc.Ncither to take time for a matter fo urgent,nor with fofmali intcreft or Shew of feeling, to goe about to eftablifh an ii.ijurie. They arc indebted fome-what more. And by how much morethcy pay iucommodioufly and chargcably, fo much the more juft and meritorious is their Satisfaction. Penitence ought to charge, yet doe they worfe,who refcrve the revealing of fome heinous conceit or affection towards their neighbour, to their laft will and affection, having whileft they lived ever kept it Secret. And Seeme to have little regard of their owne honour, by provoking the partie offended aoainft their owne memory, and leffe of their confciencc, Since they could never for the refpect of death cancell their ill-grudging affection, and in extending life beyond theirs. Oh wicked and ungodly judges, which refcrrctliejudgementofacaufetofuchtimeas they have no more knowledge ofeaufes! I will as neere as I can prevent, that my death revcale or utter any thing, my life hath not firft publikcly Spoken.
Chap. VIII. 0/ Idlenejfe.
A ^ wefcefomeidle-fallowgrounds,iftheybefatandfcrtile,tobringfoorthSforeaiid Sole repercujfum, Omniapervolitatlateloca,jdmque fub auras Er^itur,fummiqueferitlaqueariateH. As trembling light reflected from the Sunnc, Or radiant Moonc on water-fild braffe lavers, Fliesovcr all, in aire unpraifed Sbone, Strikes houfe-topbeames,bctwixtboth Strangely wavers. And there is nofolly,or extravagant raving,they produce not in that agitation.
Htr.art.ftt.T. -velutignfomnia,van*
lingumnr fpecies.
Like Sicke mens dreamcs, that feigne Imaginations vaine.
The minde that hath no fixed bound,will eafily loofc it fclfe: For,as wefay, Tubt tverit UartMreti ^bert, is to be no where.
7i.t. C^fqtek^qHehAbitmMaximhnHfqMmh^bimt,
Good


Cbap. 9
The fir ft Bootes.
*5
33d ylottwh'ii- Good fir, hcthat dwcls every where, -iuft oat
It is not long fiuce I retired my felfeuntb.mineownchoufe, with full purpofe, as much as lay in me, not to trouble my felfe with any bufineffe; butifblitarily and quietly to Weare out the remainder,. of my wcll-nigh-fpent life; where me thought I could doe my Spirit no greater favour, .than to give him the full Scope of idknefle,--and entertain'c him as he belt pkaicd, and withall,to fettle him-felfe as;he beff -liked :which I hoped he might no w,being by time become more fetled and ripe, accomplifh. very eafily: but I finde,
-..r.- ?- Thatcontrariwife playing the skittifh and loofe-broken jade, hetakes a hundred times more caiicrc and libertie unto himfelfc, thankee did for others, and begets in me So many extravagant Chimeraes, and fantafticall monfters,foorderleffe, and without any reafon, one hudling upon an other, that at feature to view thofoolifhneSfe and monftrous ffrangeneffe of them, I have begun to keepe aregifter of them, hoping} if I live, one day to make him a(hamcd,and bluSh at himfelfc. viV,w^*k\*^^ > mnittQi 3!-wM'dwnr>ilb tvaim rrMicaiM.>9di worl'Awiortgt Jon ntt I .^VW%W*

sdio
._ .
> iodic wi
3ft w ,v*wtn
C h a p. IX.
. >q) Cfl V.' V,bfl6 |:J3fn33ri03ji33ri3Up3lriOJ y
J ; iii'fl.oUvJ.V^WjBd^liO^iilV^W.^Mq.'I mO.iA
(SfblijOgfi
/;/. rMtrtbi o/wond yvlJ
OfLyers.
tr.7
THereisnoinan living, whom it may lefle befeeme to fpeake of memoric, than my felfe,forto faytruth, I haye none at all: and am fully perfwaded that no mans can be fo weakc and forgctfull as mine. All other parts are in me common and vile, but touching mcmorie,I thinke to carrierheprife from all other, thathaveit weakeft,. nay and to gaine the reputation of it, befides the naturall want I endure ( for trucly confidefing the ncceffitie of it, Plato hath reafon to name it A great and mighty Goddejfe) In my countric, if a man will imply that one hath no fenfe,he will fay ,Such a one hath no memorie: and when I com-plaine of mine, they reprove me, and will not bcleeve me, as if I accufed my felfe to be mad and fenfelcfle. They makeno differencebetwecne memorieand wit; which isanempairing of my market: But they doe me wrong,for contrariwife it is commonly Scene by experience, that excellent memories do rather accompany wcake judgements. Moreover they wrong me in this (who can do nothingfo well as to bea perfect friend) that the fame words which accufemy infirmitic,rcprefent ingratitude. From my affection they take hold of my memorie, and of a naturall defect, they infer a want of judgement or confcicnce. Some will fay,hc hath forgotten this entreaty orrequeft,orthatpromife, heisnotmindfullof his old friends, he never remembred to fiy,ordoe,or concealethisorrhat,for my fake. Verily I may eafily forget, but to neglect the chaigemy friend hath committed to my truft, Itfcver doit. Let them bcarc with my infirmitie, and not conclude it to bea kind of malice; which is So con-' trarieaneneniicto my humor. Yet am I fomewhat comforted. Firft, becaufe it is an evill, from which I have chicfliedrawne the reafon to correct a worfc mifchiefc,that would eafily have growen upon mc,that is to fay,ambition; which defect is intolcrablein rhem that meddle with wordly negotiations. For as divers likeexamplcs of natures progrefle,fay,fhc hath happily ftrcngthncd other faculties inme, according as it hath growne wcakerand weaker in mc, and 1 Should eafily lay do wne and wire-draw my minde and judgement, upon other mens traccSjWirhout cxercifing their proper forces, if by the benefit of memoiic, forren inventions and Strange opinions were prelcnt with me.Thatmy Speech is thereby ShortcriFor the Magazin of Mcinorie is peradvencure more Stored with matter, than is the Store-houfe of Invention. Had it held out with me,I had ere this wearied all my friends with prathng: the Subjects rouzing the mcanc facultie I have to manage and imploy them, ftrerigthniug 8c wreftingmy difcourfes. It is pitie;. I have affayed by the trial of Some of my private friends* according as their memory hath miniftrcd them a whole & perfect matter,who recoile their
C 2 narration
Luta, libj .704.


16
The fir ft Bookc.
Chap, o,
narration Co fanc-backc, and ftuff-it with fo many vainc circumstances, that if the Story bee good,they Smoother the goodriefleof it : ifbad, you mull needs cither curScthcgood fortune of their memorie,or blamt the misfortune of their judgement. And it isno eaiic matter, being in the midft of the caricreof a difcourfc, to flop cunningly, to make a Sudden period, and to cut it off.And there is nothing wherby the clcane ftrengthofahorfcis morcknowne, than to make a rcadic and cleanc flop. Among the skilfull I fee fome, that Strive, but cannot flay their race. Whileft they labour to finde the point to flop their courte, rtiey Stagger and falter, as men that faint through wcakncfVc. Above all, old men arc dangerous, who haveonelythcmcmoricofthingspa left them,and have left the remembrance of their rc-petitions.,! have heard fome very pleafant reports become moft irkefome and ted ious in the mouth of a certaine Lord, forfornuchasallthcby-ftandcrs had many times becne cloyed with them. Secondly, (as faid an aucicnt Writer) that, / doenet fo much remember'injuries received. I had need have a prompter as Darius had, who nor to forget the wrong he had received of the Athenians, whenfoevcr he fate do wnc at his table, caufd a page tofingwio to him, Sir, remember the Athenians, and that the places or bookes which I read-over, do

Chap. o. The firft' Booke^. i f
no not when it might Stand him in Stead of profit. Ifa lie had no more faces but one.as truth hath, we fhouid be in farre better tet mes than we are: For,wha;foevcr a lier Should fay, we would takeitin a contrarie fcnfe. Buttheoppofite of truth hath many-many fliapcs, and an undefinite field. The Pythagoreans make good to be certaine and finire, and evill to bee infinite and uncertaine. Athoufand by-wayes miffe themarke, oneonely hits the fame. Surely I can never affure my felfcto come to a good end, to warrant an extreme and evident danger,by afhamelefle and folemne lie.
An ancient Father faith We are better in the companie of a knowne dogge, than in a mam natt focietie, whofe [peach isnnknowneto us. Vt externa alienonon fit hominis vice. A fir anger btJLl.iMi tea fir anger is not like a man. And how much isafaifefpeech leSi'e Sociable rhan filence ? King Francis the firft, vaunted himfclfe to have by this mcanes brought Francis Tavernat Ambaffador to Francis Sforz,a, Duke of Mtllane,to a non-plus; a man very famous for his rare cloquence,and facilitie in fpeech,who had beene difpatched to excufe his mafter,to ward his Ma jeftie, of a matter of great importance, which was this. The King to kccpc ever Some intelligence in Italy, whence he had lately beene expelled, but efpecially in the Dukcdome oi'Millane, thought it expedient to entertaine a Gentleman of his about the Duke, in effect ashis Ambaffador, but in apparancc as a private man; who fhouid make Shew to re-iidethcre abouthis particular affaires, forfbmuch as the Duke, who depended much mere oftheEmperour (chiefcly then that h was treating a mariagc with his niece, daughter ohhelixagot' Denmarke, who is at this day Dowager of Loraine ) could not without great prejudice unto himfelfe difcover to have any correfporideucicand conference with us. For which commiflion and purpofc a Gentleman of MiHane, named MerveiHe, then fer-ving the King in place of one of the Quiers of his Quierie, was deemed fit. This man being difpatched with fecret letters of credence, and instructions of an Ambaffador together with other letters of commendation to the Duke in favour of his particular affaires, as a maskeand pretence of his proceedings, continued fb long about the Duke, that the Empe-rour began to have fome fufpition of him; which as we fiippolewas caufeof what enfued, which was, that under colour of a murther committed, the Duke one night cauied the faid Merveille to be beheaded having ended his proceffe in two dayes. Matter Francis being come to the Court, fraught with a long counterfet deduction of this ftorie ( for the King had addreffed himfelfe to all the Princes of Chriftendoniej yea and to the Duke himfelfe for juftice, for fuch an outrage committed upon his Servant) had one morning audience in the Kings councell-chambcr : who for the foundation of his caule having efta-bliShed and to that end projected many goodly and colourable apparenccs of the fact: namcly,thatthc Duke his Matter had never taken MerveiHe for other than a private gentle, man, and his owne Subject, and who was come thither about his private bufincs, where he had never lived under other name, protesting he had never knowne him to be one of the Kings houfhold, nor never heard of him,much leSfetakcn him for his Majefties Agent. But the King urging him with divers objections and demands, and charginghim on every fide, preSt him So farre with the execution done by night,and as it were by Stealth, that the feely man,being much entangled and Suddenly furprifed as if he would fet an innocent face on the matter, anfwercd, rhat for the love and refpect of his Majeftie, the Duke his Matter would havebecne very loth thatfuch an execution Should have beene done by day. Heerc every man may guefic whether he were taken Short or no, haying tripped before to goodly a nofe,as was that of our King Francis the firft. Pope Iulius the Second, having Sent an Am-baSlador to the King of England to animate him againtt our forefaid King : theAmbaffa-dor having had audience touching his charge, and the King in his anSwer urging and in-Sifting upon the difficultic he found and forefaw in levying fuch convenient forces,as Should be required towithttandfomightie, andfet.uponfopuifantaKing, and alleaging certaine pertinent reaSoe* : The Ambaffador fondly and vnfitly replied, thathimfelfchadlongbc-fore maturely confidered them, and had told the Pope of them. By which anfwer fo farre from his proposition (which was with all fpeed, and without more circumftancestounder-takeand undergoe a dangerous warrejthe King of England tooke hold ofthe firft argument which in effect he afterward found true, which was,that the faid Ambaffador, inhisowne particular intent, was more affe6tcd to the French fide, whereof advertising his MaSier, his goods were all onfifcate,himfeIfedifgraced,and he very hardlyefcapcd with life.
C 3 Chap.


18
The jirfi Booker.
Chap. ic.
Chap. X. Ofreadie orflow faeecb.
ONc nefuren a tout tomes graces domes. AS Gods good graces are not gone To all, or of all any one.
So doc we fee that in tta gift of eloquence, fomehavcfuch a facility and promptitude, and that which wccallutterance,fbeafie and atcommand,thatataIl afl'aies,and upon eyerie occafion,thcy are ready and provided; and others more flow,nevcrfpcake any thing except much laboured and premeditated, hi Ladies and daintie Dames are taught rules to take recreations and bodily cxcrcifcs, according to the advantage of what they have faired about them.If I were to give the like counfcl,in thofe two different advantages of eloquence wber-of Preachers and plcading-lawiersofouragefeeineto make profefhon; the flow fpeaker in mine opinion mould be the better preacher, and the other the better lawicr. Forfomuch as charge ofthe firfl allowes him as much leifure as he pleaftth to prepare himfelfe; moreover his cariere continueth ftiil in one kinde without interruption: whereas the Lawyers occasions urging him dill upon any accident to be ready to cuter the lids : and the unexpected replies and anfwers of his adverfe partie,do often divert him from his purpoie,whcr he is enforced to take anew couric.Yctisit,that at the lad cnterview which was at Marfmiles betweene Pope Clement the fcvcnth,and Francis the fird,our King,it hapned cleane contra-rie, where Monfleur Poyet, a man of chiefc reputation,and all dayes of his life brought up to plead at the bar, whofe charge being to make an Oration before the Pope, and having long time before premeditated ahd con'd the fame-by roat, yea, andasfome report, brought it with him ready penned from Parts; the very fame day it fhould havebeeue pronounced the Pope fufpe&ing he might haply fpeakc fomething, might offend the other Princes AmbafTadors,that were about him,fcnt the argument,which he at that time & place thought fitteft to be treated of,to the King, but by fortune cleane contrarie tothat w hich Poyet, had lb much ftudied for : So that his Orarion was altogether fruftrate,, and he mud prefently frame another. But he perceivinghimfelfe unable for it, the Cardinall Bellay was faine to fupply his place and take that charge uponhim. The Lawyers charge is much harder than the Preachers: (yet in mine opinion) fhall we find more paffable Lawyers than commendable Preachers, at leaft in 'Prance. It feemeth to be more proper to the mind,, to have her operation ready and fudden, and more incident to the judgement, to have it flow and conn-derate. But who rcmainethmute,if he have no leifure to prepare himfelfc,and helikewifeto whom leifure giveth no advantage to fay better, arc both in one felfe degree of ftrangeneflc. It is reported that Severn* Cajfius fpake better extempore,and without prcmeditation.That he was more beholding to fortunc,than to his diligence; that to be interrupted in hisfpeech redounded to his profit: and that his adverfaries feared to urgehim left his fudden anger fiiould redouble his cloquencc.1 know this condition ofnature by experience, which cannot abide a vehement and laborious premeditation: except it hold a free,a voluntaric, and felfe pleafing cpurfe,it can never come to a good end. We commonly fay of fome compofitions, that they fmell of the oile,and ofthe lampe, by reafon of a ccrtaine harfhnefic, & rudenefle, which long plodding labour imprints in them that be much claborated.But befides the care of wcll-doing,and the contention ofthe minde, overflrctched to her entcrprife, doth breake & impeach the fame; even as it hapneth unto water,w hich being clofely pent in,through it's o wnc violence and abundance, can not fir.de ifluc at an open gullet. In this condition of nature, whereof 1 now fpeake,thisallbis joyned unto it, that itdefireth not to be pricked forward by thefc ftrong paflions^ as the anger of CaJJtits (for that motion would be over-rude) it ought notto be violently fhaken but yeeldinglylblicited : itdefireth to be rouzed and pricktforward by ftrangeoccafions, both prefent andcafuall. Ifitgoe all alone,it doth but languifh and leyter behinde : agitation is herlifc&grace.I cannot well containe my fclfc in mine owne pofleffion & diipofition, chance hath more intcreft in it than my felfe; occafion, company,yea thechange of my voice,drawes more from my minde than I can finde therein, when by my fclfclfecond and endevorto cmpley the fame. My words like wife are better
than


--:--.-*----
Chap. ii. 'thefirfl Booker. 1s>
than my writings if choice may be had info worthleflc things. This alio hapneth unto me, that where 1 feeke my felfc, I finde not my fclfe: and I finde my felfe more by chance, than by the fearch of mine ownc judgcmcnr. I fhall perhaps havecaftfoorth fome futtletie in wiiting, haply dulland harfh for another but fmooth and curious for my fclfe. Let us leave alfthefc complements and quaintnefle. Thatisfpoken by everie man, according to his ownc ftrengtb. I have lb left it, that I wot not what I would have faid and ftran- 1 gers have fometimes found it before me. Had I al wayes a razor about me, w here that hapneth, Ifhould cleanerazemy ielfeout. Fortune may at fome other time make the light thereof appearebrighter unto me, than thatofniid.day, and will make mce wonder at mine owne taltring or flicking in the myre.
Chap, X I.
id.Mt.
Of Prognofticatiohs.
' A ^ touching Oracles it is very certaine, that long before the cOmming of our Saviour x\ left* Christ, they had begun to lofe their credit: for we fee that Cicero labourcth to ck.divm.Hb.i> finde the caufe of their declination: and thefe be his words: far islo mode jam oracula Del- t> phis nonedumur nonmodo nostra Sollicitis vifum mortalibusadderc curam,
Nofcant Venturas ut diraper omnia eludes ?
S it ptbitum quodcunque par as, fit cacafutwi
Why pleas'd it thee, thou ruler of the fpheares,
To adde this care to mortals care-clog'd minde,
That they their mifcrie know,ere it appeares?
Let thy drifts Hidden come;, let men be blinde
T'wards future fate: oh let him hope that fearcs. 1\e utile qutdem eTtfcire qutdfuturum fit: Miferum est enim nihil prefcientem stngi. It is not fo much as prof table for tt*,to know what is to come, for tt is a miferable thing, a man jhould fiet and be vexed,anddo no good. Yet is it ofmuch lefle authoricie,loc here wherefore the example of Francis Marquis of Salu^&o hathfeemed remarkable unto me : who being Lievtcnant General unto Francis our King,& over all his forccs,which heathen had beyond the Mountaines in Italie,z man highly favoured in al our court, and othcrwile infinitly beholding to the King for that very Marquifate, which his brother had forfeited : and having, no occalion todoe it,yca and his minde and affections contradicting the fame, {uttered him-felfe to be flighted anddcludcd (as it hath lince been manifeftly prooved) by the fond pro-gnofliatioBs, which then throughout all Europe were given out to the advantage of the
Emperox'
Lutan.lifa.4.
, Cicjut. Deir,' lib.,.


io The fir ft Bookc. Chap.
11.
Emperor Charles the fift, and to our prejudice and difadvantage ( but fpccially in Italy, wherethefe foolifh praedictions had io much poffcffed the Italians, that in Rome were laid great wagers,and much money given out upon the exchange,that we fhould utterly be o ver-throwne) that after he had much condoled, yea and complained with his fecret friends, the unavoidable miferies which he forefaw prepared by the fates againft the Crowne of France, and the many friends he had there, he unkindly revolted, and became a turnc-cotc on the Emperors fide,to his intolerable loffe and defttuction, notwithstanding all thecou-ftdlations t-nen reigning. But was drawne unto it as a man encompaffed and befet by divers paflions; for having both ftrong caftlcs, and all maner of munition and Strength in his ownc hands, the enemies armie under zAntonio Leva about three paces from him, and wc nothing miftrufting him,it was in his power to do worfe than he did. For notwithftanding his treafon,we loft neither man nor towne,cxcept Feffati, which long after was by us Stoutly conteftd anddefended.
Eordi. .01 Prudensfuturi temporit exitum
i9. CaliginosanoftcpremitDeus,
Ridetque,/! mortalis ultra Fas trepidat.
Our wife God hides in pitch-darke night Of future time th'event decreed, And laughes at man,ifman (affright) Feare more than hetofearehathnccd. Hie potent fui
)jI< Lasufii deget, cut licet in diem
Dixijje,vixi,crasvelatra Nubepolum pater occupato, Velfole puro.
He of himfelfe lives merily, Who each day, I have liv'd,can fay, To morow let God charge the skie Withdarkc clouds, or faire fun-fhine-ray. I- Ltttus in pmfens animus,quod ultra eft*
Odertt curare.
For prcfent time a mery mind Hates to refpect what is behind. cUdivi.it And thofe which take this word in a contrary fetife are in the wrong. Iftaficrectprocan-
tt tur,ut&fidivinatioj7t,dyJint,&j?d9jlnt,ftdivinatio.Thisconfe^^ there be any divination there are Gods t and if there be Gods, there is divination. Much mere wifely Pacuvius. Jb.f.Vu. Nam ifiis qui linguam avium intelligunt,
Plufy ex alieno jecore fapiunt, quam exfuo, Jkfagis audtendum, qudmaufcultandum cenfeo. Who understand whatlanguagebirdsexpreffe, By their ownc, than beafts-livers knowing leffe, They may be heard, nothcarknedto, I gueffe. Thisfbfamous art of divination ofthe Tuskancs grew thus. A husband-man digging very deepe into the ground, with his plough-fharciaw Tages,z demy-God appeare out of it,with artinfantine face, yet fraught with an aged-like wifedome. All men ran to fee him, and both his words and knowledge were for many ages after remembred, and collected, containing theprinciples and meanes of this art. An of-fpring furablcto her progreffe. I would rather direct affaires by the chanceofdice, than by fuch frivolous drcames. And truly in all common-wealths, men have ever afcribed much authotitie unto lot. Plato in the policie which he imagineth by difcretion, afcribeth the deciding of many important effects unto it, and amongft other things would have marriages bet wcene the good to bee contrived by lot. Andgiveth fo large privileges unto this cafuall election that he appoints the children proceeding from them to bee brought up in thecountrie; and thole borne ofthe bad to be banifhed and fent abroad. Notwithftanding if any of thofe fo exiled


Chap, ii
ltd Shall by fortune happen, wbikft he is growing, to fhtw fomegood hope or" him-fclfe, that he may be revoked and fcnt-for backc,ahd fuch amongft the firfi as fhall in their youth give (mall hope of future good to be banifhed. 1 fee lbme that ft udie,plod, and gloffe their Almanackes, and in all accidentsallcagc their authoritie. A man were as good to fay, they muff needs fpeake truth and lies. Quit eft enim qui totunt diem jaculans, nenaltquando con- ck.div.B.% lineet ? Forwbo is hethat Jbooting aH day, fometimes hits not thewhite ? I thinke not the bet-tcrpfthcm, though what they fay proove fometimes true. It were more aettaine, if there wereeitherarulcoratruthto lie ever.: Seeing no man recordeth their fables becaufc they arc ordinaricand infinic; and their predictions are made to be of credit, becaufe they arc rarcjincred ibltand prod igious .So anfwered Dtagorai furnamed the Athcift (being in Same-thrace) to him, who in Shewing him divers vowes and offrings hanging in the Temple, brought thither by fuch as had efcaped Shipwtacke, (aid thus unto him : Ton that thinke the G ods to have no cure of humane thmgs, what fay you by fi many men faved by their grace and hdpel Thus is it <*W,infwered he:Thofe which were drowned fAire exceeding their number, are not her: fct-forth. Cicero faith, That amongst all other PhilofophcYs that have avowed and acknowledged the, Gods,onely Xenophanes the Colophohian hath gone about to root out all maner ofdivinattoM.lt is fo much the leffe to be wondrcd at,if at any time we havefeene Some of our Princes mindes to their great damage, relit Upon fuch like vanities. I would to God, I had with mine owne eyes fcene fhofe two wonders, mentioned inthe bobke oi'Ioachin the Abbat of Calabria, who foretold all the Popes that Should enfue, together with their names and fhapes: And that of Leo the Emperor,whd fore-Spake all the Empetors and Patriarkes of Greece. This have I fecne with mine owne eyes,that in publike confufions, men amazed at their owne fortune, give thcmfclves head-long, as it were to all maner of fuperitition, to fearch in heaven the caufes and ancient threats'of their ill-luckc;& in my time arc lb Strangely fucccifefull thcrein,as they have perfwaded me, that it is an ammufingof fharpe and idle wits/hat fuch as are inured to thisfubtletie,by folding and unfolding thcm,may in all othet writings be capable to findelout what they feckc-aftcr. But above all,their dark,ambiguous, rantailicall,and prophcticall gibrifh, mendsthe matter much, to which their authors never give a plainefenfe, that pofterity may apply what meaning aud construction it Shall pleale unto it. The Damon of Socrates was peradventuf c accrtaincimpulfion or will,which without the advice of his difcourfc prcfentcd it felfe Unto hirruln a mifldefb Well purificd,and by continuall cxercifc of wifedome and vcrtue fo wel prepared,as his was,it is likely, his incli-nations(though raSh and inconfiderare) were ever ofgreat moment, and worthie to be followed. Every man fcelcth in himfclfe Some image of fuch agitations,of a prompt,vchemcnt & cafuall opinion.lt is in mc to give them Some authoritie,that affoord lb little to our wifc-domc. And I have had Some, equally weake in rcafon^and violent in perfwafion and diffwa-fion(which was more ordmarie to Socrates) by which I have fo happily and fo profitably fiiffred my fclfc to be transported, as they might perhaps be thought to containc Some matter of divine inspiration.
Chap. XII. OfConfiancie.
i\A id fibijstiii, eKb\w? to!odw.bfiui6lamsmvtuotruqoeiil..tomwNq lo^.nc. }n m [ ....
THelawofrefolurionand cohftancieimplicthnot, we Should not, as much as lieth in our power Shelter our felvcs from the mifchicfes and inconveniences that threatcnuSi nor by confequence fcarc, they Should furprifc lis. Contrariwifc, all honeit meanes for a man to warrant himfclfe from evils are hot onely tolerable, but commendable. And the part of conftancie is chiefly actcd,in firmcly bearing the inconveniences, againft which no remcdicistobcfouud.Sorhat, thercis no nimbleneffe of bodie, nor wcalding of hand-weapons, that we will reject-, if it may in any fort defend Us from the blow, meant at us. Many moil warlike nations in their conflicts and fights, ufed retreating and flight as a prin-cipall advantage, andfhewed their backs to their encmie much more dangcroufly than their faces. TheTurkesat this day rctainc fomething of that humour. And Socrates in Plato doth mockc at T^w, becaufe he had defined fortitude, tokeepc' herfelfe fteadie in *v ........ her


zr Thefirft Booker. Chap, i z
herrancke againft her enemies; What, faith hec, were it'then cowardife tcbeatthemMgi. virig the?n place? And alleagech Homer againft him, who coinmendeth in vncas hisskill in flying and giving ground. Andbecaufe Laches being better advifed, avoweth thatcu-ltomctobeamougfl theScithiaus^and generally amongli all horSemen.,: he allcageth further unto him the example of the Lacedemonian footmen (a nation above all other tiled to fight on foot) wfycj int^^^eij^^^ : Hismindcdothfirmcrematnc,Zfi:^r ,.- >.t..... flpmynsM
TcaresarcdiHill'dinyaine. f!l ,>}*,? The wife Pgripatctike doth not exempt himfelfc from perturbations of the mind, but doth modcratij them. ...
44?
.1


Chap. 15.14
The fir ft Bookc
aril
C h a p. XIII. Of Ceremonies in the cnteruielo of Kings.
THcrc is.no Subject Fo vaine,that cicfcveth not a place in this rapfodicjt were a notable difcourtefic unto our common rules, both towards an equall, but more twNr) d a great perfon,not to meetc with you in your houfc3:fhchavc once warned you chat he will come : And Margaret Queenc of Navarre ; was wont to fay tothispurpoiej Thai ttwas akjndt ofincivilhie in a gent!emantto depart from his houfe,as theftjhicn is, to meet with him that is camming to htmhow worthy foever he be : and that it more agrecth with c'tv'tliticaxd refprflt toflay for him at homc,axdthere to entertatne him: except h were for fearc the frangerJhoteld mijfehis way : and that it fajficethto compunie and watt upon htm,when he is going away againe. As'rorme, I oftentimes forget both thefe vaine offices; as one that cndevottrcth.to abolifh'all mancrofceremonies in my houfc. Soiii? will bee offended atit, what can I doc withall? I had rather offend a Stranger once, then my fclfecveric day ; for it wcrcacoiiti-nuall Subjection. To what end doc men avoid the fcrvitudeof Courts, and entertcfic the fame in their owne houfes ? Moreover it is a common rule ida-ll a fl'emblies.,, rat hee w ho isthc meaner man commeth firSttothe place appointed forSbmuch as it belongs to the better man tobe Staid-for, and waited upon by the other. Neverthelcffc we Saw that at the cntetview, prepared t cMefceiHes bctwcCnePope Clement the feventh, and Francis the firlt, King ofFrancei the King having appointed all ncceffiric preparations, went him-fclfe outoftheTowne, and gave the Pupc two or three dayes Icafurc, to makchi3 entric into it, and to refrefh himfclfe, before he would come to meet him there. Likcwife at the meeting ofthefaid Pope with the Empcrour at Bologna, the Empcrour gave the Pope advantage and leafure to be firSt there, and afterward eamchimfelfe. It is (fay they y an ordinarie crmonie at enterparliesbetweene fuch Princes, that the better man Should ever come firft to the place appointed ; yea before him in whofe countrey the affembly is : and they take it in this fence, that it is, becaufc this complement Should tcStific, he is the better man, whom the meaner gocdi to Seckc, and that hec fucth unto him. Not onely each countrey, but every Citic, yea and every vocation hath his owne particular decorum. I have ?cry carefully bcencbrought up in mine infancie, and have lived in verie good company, becauf I would not bee ignorant ofthe good mancrs of our countrey of France, and I am perfwaded Imight kecpea fchoolcofthcm. I loveto follow them, butnot fo cowardly, as my life rcmaine thereby in Subjection. They have fomc painful I formes in them, which if a man forget by difcrction, and notbycrrour, hee Shah no whit bee dhgraced. I have often Scene men proovc unmanerly by too much maners and importunate by over-much CUrteSie. The knowledge ofentertainment is otherwise a profitable knowledge. It is, as grace and bcautie are, the reconciler ofthe firft accoaftings of Society and familiarity : and byconfequence, it openeth the entrance to inftruct us by the example of others, and to exploited produce our example, if it have any inftrutting or communicable thing in it. i<
- .1 _1-' 1 i-___,_._
C h p. XIV.
s:u? i'.'j'iilitf
Men are punifhedbytoO'tnuch opiniating themfeluesin a place
withoutreafan. :r.V
VAlour hath hislimits, as other vertues have : whichif a man out-go, hec Shall find himfelfein the trainc of vice: in Such fort, that unlcifc a man know their right bounds, which in truth are not on a Sudden, eafily hit upon, he may fall into rafhneSfc, obftinacic, and


24 The firfl Bookc. Chap. 15.
and folly. For this confidcration grew the cuftome wee hold in wanes, to punifh, and that with death, thofe who wilfully opiniatcthemfclvcs to defend a place, which by the rules of warre, cannot be kept. Othcrwile upon hope of impunitic, there fhould bee no cottage, that might not entertaine an Annie. The Lord Conftablc Momorantie at the fiege ofPavta, havingbeenc appointed to paffc over the river Tejine, and to quarter himfelfe in thefuburbsof Saint tAntonie, being impeached by a tower, that flood at the end of the bridge, and which obftiuatcly would needs hold out, yea and to be battered, cauled all thofe that were with-in it,to be hanged. The fame man afrcrward,accompanying my Lord the Dolphin of France in his journey beyond the Alpes, having by force taken the Caff lc ofVillane,vnd all thofe that were within the fame, having by the furic ofthe Souldiers bin put to the fword, except the Captainc, and his Ancient, for the fame reafon, caufed them both to be hanged and ftranglcd : As did alfo, Captainc Martin duBeUay, the Governour cfTnrin, in the fame countrcy, the Captainc of Saint Bony : all the red of his men having bcene maffacrcd a^thc taking ofthe place. But for fomuch as the judgement of the Strength or weakencfie ofthe place, is taken by thecftimateand countcrpoife ofthe forces that af-faile it (for fom man might juflly opinionate himfelfe againfl two culverins, that wold play the mad-man to expect thirtie cannons) where alfo the grcatneffe ofthe Prince conquering mull be confidered, his reputation, and the refpect that is due unro him : there is danger a man fhould fomcwhat bend the ballancc on that fide. By which tcrmcs it hapneth, that Jome have lb great an opinion of themfelvcs, and their meatics, and deeming it unreasonable, anything fhould be worthic to make head againfl thern, thatfo long as their fortune continueth, they ovcrpafle what hill or difHcultic ibever they findc to withftand or rc-fift them : Asisieenc by the formes of fbmmonings and challenges, that the Princes of the Eaft, and their fuccelfors yet remaining have in ufc, lb fierce, fo haughtie, and fo full of a barbarous kindeofcommandemenr. And in thofe places where rhePortugales abated the pride ofthe Indians, they found lbme dates obferving this univcrfall and inviolable law, that whatenemie Soever he be, that is overcome by the King in pcrlbn, or by his Lieutenant, is exempted from all comppfition of ranlbmc or mercie. Soaboveall, a man who is able fhould take heed,lcft he fall into the hands of an cnemic-judge, that is victorious and
armed. .5 '..::].,:': ^s.{ith
:3K3d .V-v-.cj l.'v'.A) VimvAmt?t;tidi jitt^d til .ittub,o-jiolttiiii u il:sia
-_i__;__1__:_r__-
N .yfi.-i i iintnohb ?av.:o.?:;l li^ikkfctaovyi3ir>.^tt-*Jv .*A)0yjovo Jt'dt^* "
Chap. XV.
'Kyi 1 I* v'Wi'iR.jo.'vsjtei'Cjn)(j"'.'v"1':jrffiboo"1 ,'?IjjnKyJofiJbluoiS' 1 vtuxsafi
Ofthe funifbment of cowardife.
:"! uUi K'.i-.C" ou\\$fU-3i,i ,.T.i.~: b.-vdj *' m sti
IT Have heretofore heard a Prince, who was a very great Captaine, hold opinion, that a JL fouldier might not for cowardifc of heart be condemned to death: who fitting at his table heard report of the Lord oiVervins fcntence,who for yeclding up of Bollein, was doomed to lofc his head* Verily there is reafon a man fhould make a difference between faults proceeding from our weakneffe, and thofe that grow from our malice. For in the latter we arc directly bandied agaihft the rules of reafoa, which nature hath imprinted in us; and in the fanner it lecmcth, we may call the famenaturc as a warrant, becaufe it hath left us in fuch imperfection and defect. So as divcrsnations have judged, that no man fhould blame us for any thing we doc againfl our confeience. And the opinion of thofe which condemnc heretikes and miftrcants unto capitall puuifhmcnts, is partly grounded upon this rule: and the fame which effablifheth, thataludgcoran advocate may not bee called to account for any matter committed in their charge through overfight or ignorance. But touching cowardiie,itis ccrtain,thc common fafhion is,topunifh the fame with ignominic & fhame. And fomc hold that this rule was firft put in practice by the Law. giver Charondat,%x\d that before him the lawesof (jreece were wont to punifh thofe with death, whoforfcarc did run away froma Battcll: where hee oncly ordained, that for three dayes together, cladin womens attire, they fhould be made to fit in the market-place : hoping yet to have fomc feryicc at their hands, and by mcancsofthisreproch, they might recover their courage a-
% gaine


Chap, i 6. The firfi Book^.
c\\\k. S.tjjsiniere malts bominis fangninem qndm effmdere: Rather move amans blond to ~bl;ifh ta his face, than remove it by bleeding from his body.
It appcaredi alio chat the Roman lavves did in former times punifh fnch as had run away, by death. For sAmmiantss Marcellinns reporteth, that Inlian the Emperor condemned ten of hisSouldicrs,.vvhoin achargcagainftthc Parthians, had but turned their backs from it; firff to be degraded, and then to iutferdcath,as he faith,according to the ancient lawes, who ncvertheleffe, condemneth others for a like fault, under the cnligne of bag and baggage, to be kept amongft the common prifoncrs. The Sharp punifhment of the Romans agaiult thole Souldicrsthatcfcapcd from Canns,: and in the lame warrc againft thofe that accompanied Cn. Fnlv'ms in his defeat, reached not unto death, yet may a man feare, fuch open fhame may make them delpaire, and not only prove faint and cold friends, butctuell and fharpe enemies. In the time of our forefathers, the Lord of' Franget, Whilom Lievtcnantof the Marfliill o&baihlliouscampitiy, having by the Marfhall of Chabanes beenc placed Governor of Foittarabic, in Stead of theEarleof Lude, and having yeclded the fame unto the Spaniards, was condemned to be degraded of all Nobilicie, andnotonely himfelfje, but all his Succeeding poftcritic declared villains and clownes, taxable and incapable to beare amies; which feverc fentence was put in execution at Lyons. The like punifhment did afterward all the Gentlemen Suffer, that were within Gttift, when theEarleof Nanfaw entrcdl the to wne: and others Since. Nevcrtheleffe if there were fogrolfe an ignorance, and fo appa-rant cowardizc, as that it Should exceed all ordinary, it were rcafon it Should be taken for a Sufficient proofcofincxcufabletreachcrie, and knaverie, andforfuchtobepuniShcd.
imu 'si .w
Chap. XVI. AtrickedfcertaineAmbaffadors.
IN all my travels I did everobferve this cuflome, that is,alwaies to learne fornethingby the communication of others (which is one of thebeSi fchoolesthatmaybc) to reduce thole I confer withall,to fpeakc ofthat wherein they are moft convcrfant and skiifull.
Bajtialnochicroragionarde'venti, idemttoperuk Albifolco de tori,& lefue piaghc i,^ii.4|. Contt ilgnerrier, conti il paftor gl'armenti. Sailers ofwindesplow-men Of beafts take kcepe, Let Souldierscount their wounds, Shepherds their fheepe, For commonly we See the contrary,that many chuSe rather to difcourfeofany other trade than their owne;luppofing it to be fo much new reputation gottcn:witnes the quip Archida* mttsgxvtTmanderihy'mg that hefofookethc credit of a good Phyfitian,to become a paltry. Poet.Notebut how C^rdifplaieth his invention at large,whcn he would have us conceive his inventions how to build bridgcs,and devices,how toframcother war-likecngins; and in leSpect of that how cloSc and Succinct he writes, when he fpcaketh of theoffices belonging to his profeffion, of his valour, and of the conduct of his war-fare. His exploits prove him a moft excellent Capraine, but he would be known for a skiifull Ingenier, a quality Somewhat-Strange in him. D tony fins the clderwas a very great ehieftaine and Leader in warrc, as a thing beft fitting hjsfijrtunc: but he greatly laboured by meancs of Poetry, to afiume high commendation uiito himfelfe, howbeit he had but little skill in it. A certaine Lawicr was not long fince brought to See a Study, Stored with alll manner of bookes, both of his owne, and of all other faculties, wherein he found no occafion to entertaine himfelfe withall, but like a fond cunning clarke carneftly bufied himfelfe to gloffeand cenfurc a fence or barri-eado, placed over the fere w of the liudy, which a hundred Captaincs and Souidicrs fee eyerie day, without obferving or taking offence at them.
Oyy<*t ephippia bos piger, optat arare caballrts. utr. lib. i.epifi.
Tlic Oxe would trappings wcare, 14.4}
The Horfe,ploughs-yoake would beare.
D By


26 Thefirfl Bookc^. Chap. id.
Bythis courfc yon never come to pcrfcction,or bring any thing to good pane. Thus muft amanendevour to induce the Architect, the Painter, theShoomakcr to fpeakcof their owne trade, and fo ofthc reft,every man in his vocation. And to this purpofe am I wont, b rcadingof hiftories (which is the Subject of moft men) to confidcr who are the writers : I they be fiich as proreffc nothing but bare learning, the chicfe thing I lcarne in them, is theirf ftile and language: if Phyfitians, I belecvethem in whatlbever they fhall report concerning the tcmperatcncffc of the aire, the health and complexion of Princes, or of hurts and infirmities: If Lawiers,wc fhould oblcrvc thecontrovcrfies of rights,titlcs,and ptetenfes oflawes and cuStomcs,thccftabliShmcnts ofpolicies, and fuch like things: If Divines, we may note thcaffaires of the Church,thc EccleSiafticall cenfurcs,difpcnfations,cafes of conference, and marriagcs:IfCourtiers,manncrs,complcmcnrs,ccrcmonics,and entertainments :If Warriors, what belongs unto their charge, but chiefly the managing and conduct of the atchicvements or exploits wherein they have been themfelves in pcifon: If Ambaffadors, the negotiations, intc]ligences,praCtices,policics,and manner how todirect,coinplot,and conduct them. And therefore what in another Writer I Should pcradventtirc have curforie palled over, I have with fomc adviScdnefle confidercd and marked the lame in the hiftoric of the Lord of Lav-gey, a man moft expert and intelligent in fuch matters: which is,that after he had exactly let downeand declared thole glorious,andfarre-fctchtremonflrances of the Emperor Charles the fifth made in thcconfiltoricof Rome, in thcprcfcnce of the Bifhop of Mafcon, and the Lord o$Velljfl\vt Ambaffadors; wherein he entcrmixed many bitter and outrageous words againft us; and amongft others,that if his Captaines and Souldiers were nor of much more faithfulneffe and fuSficiencie in the art of wane than our Kings, he would forthwith tic a rope about his and goc aske him mercy.; whereof he Seemed to bclceve Something : for afterward whileft he lived, he chanced twice or thrice to utter the vcrie fame words. Moreover, that he had challenged the King to fight with him, man to man in his fhirt, with Rapier and Dagger in a boar. The laid Lord of Langey, following his ftoric, addeththat the laid Ambaffadors making a diSpatch of what had paffed unto the king, diffcmbled the chicfeft part unto him, yea and concealed the two precedent articles from him. Now me; thought it very ftrange, that it fhould lie in the power of an Ambaffador to diipence with any point, concerning the advertizements he mould give unto his Matter, namely of fiich confequence, commingfrom fuch a perfon, and fpoken in fo great an affembly, whereas me Seemed it fhould have becne the office of atruftie Servant, truly and exactly to let downe things as they were, and in what manner they had fuccecdcd : to the end the libertie of difpofing, judging and chufing, might wholly lie in themaftcr. For to alter and conceale thetruth from him, for fearc he mould coulter and take it otherwife than he ought, and left that might provoke him to fomebad rcfblution; andinthemcanewhilctofuffcr hmi to be ignorant of his owne affaires, mcc thought mould rather have appertained to him that giveth the law, than to him that rcceivcth the fame; to the Matter or over-fcer of the ichoolc,and not to him who fhould thinke himlclfc inferior,as well in authority, as in wif-domeand good counfell. Howlbcvcr it were, I would be loth be lb ufed in mine owne fmall and particular bufineffe, wedoc lb willingly upon every flight occafion and pretence neglect and forgoe commandement, and are fb farrc from obeying, that we rather ufurp a kind of maftcric, and free power : every man doth fb naturally afpire unto liberty and authoritie, that no profit ought to befb deare unto a fuperiour, proceeding from thofe thatferve him as their fimplc and naturall obedience. Whoibever obeyeth by difcretion, and not by fubjection, corruptcth and abufeth the office of commanding. And P. Crajfns he whom the Romans deemed five times happy, when he was Confull in uifia, having lent a Grxcianlngincr, to bring the grcatclt of twofhip-mafts before him, which he hadfeene ia ^Athens, therewith to frame an engine of batterie: This man under colour of his skill,prcfumed to doc otherwifethan he wasbiddcn,and brought the lefler of the two mafts which according to his arts rcafen hee deemed thefittctt. Crajfns having patiently heard his reafons and 4llcgations,caufcdbim to be well whippedjprefcrring the intcrcft of true dif-cipline, before that of the workc. On the other fide a man might alio confidcr, that this Co ftridt obedience belongs but to precifc and prefixed commandements. Ambaffadors have a more Icopefull and freecharge, which in many points dependeth chiefly of their difpofi-tion.Thcy doc not mccrely execute, but frame and direct by their owne advice and counfell,


Chap.7-
The firfi Booke^.
the will of their Mafien I have in my dayes fcene fomc pcrfons of comrnandemcnt,chccked and found fault withall,becaufe they had rather obeyed the litcrall fenfe, and bare word s of the Kings letters, than the occalions of the affaires they had in hand. Men of underflau-dingand experience doc yet t this day condemnc the cuftome ofthc Kings of Perfi'a, which was to mince the inftrucYtons given to their Agents, and Licvtcnams fo"Small, that in the lcaft accident they might have recourfc to their directions and ordinances: This delay, in fo farrc reaching a fcope of domination, having often brought gtcat prejudice, and notable dammagc unto their affaires. And Craffiu writing unto a man ofthat profeffiorl, and advertizing himof the ufc whereto he purpofed the forcfaid malt; feemech he not to enter into conference with him concerning his determination, and wifhhim tointerpofe his cenfiire or advice of it.
---j---1-----;.--
C h kr. XVII* Of feare.
Obfiupui;fitteruntque conti, & voxfauctbui hi.fit. I flood agaft, my haire on end, Myjaw-tidctonguc no Speech would lend.
IAm no good Naturalifl (asthcy fay) and I know not well by whatfprings feare doth woike in us: but well I wot it is a ftrange paSfion: and as Phyiitians fay ,thetc is none doth fooner tianfport our judgement out of his due feat. Verily I have feene divers become mad and fcnfelcffe for feare: yea and in him, who is moft fettled and beft refolvcd, it is certain^ that whileft his fit continueth, it begetteth manyttrange dazchngs, and terrible a-mazements in him. I omit to fpeake of the vulgar fort, to whom it Sometimes reprc-fenteth ftrange apparitions,as their fathers and grandfathers ghofts, rifen out of their gra ves^ an! in their windinefheetstand to others it ibmtimes fhewcth Larvcs,Hobgoblins,Robbin-good-fellowcs, and fuch other Bug-bcares and Chimeraes. But even amongft Souldiersj with whom it ought to have no credit at all, how often hath flic changed a flocke of fheep intoatroupcof armed men? Bufhcs and Shrubs intomcn-at-armcs and Landers? our friends into our enemies ? and a red erode into a white ? At what time the Duke of ZWr-beztookcRome, an Ancient that kept fentincll, in the borough Saint Peter, wasat thefirft alarumfurprifed with fuch terror, that with his colours'in his hand, he Suddenly thtcw himfclfc thorow the hole of a breach out of the Citic, and fell juft in the midft of his ene-mies,fuppofing the way to goe ftraight in the heart of the Citic: but in the end he no fooner perceived the Duke of Burbons troupes, advancing to withstand him, imagining it to bee Some fallic the Citizens made that Way, hee better bethinking himfelfcj turned head, and the very fame way, he came out,he went into the towne agalne, which was more than three hundred paces distance towards the fields. The like happened, but not fo fuccesfully unto Captainc Julius his enfignc-bearer at what time Saint Paul was taken from us by the Earlc of Bures,znd the Lord oF,who was fo frighted with fearc,that going about to call himfclfc over the towne wals, with his Ancient irthis hand, ortocrccpc thorow a Spike-hole^ he was cut in pceces by the affailants. At which fiege likcwiSe, that horror and feare is very memorable,whichfo did choake,feizc upon,ahdfreeze the heart ofa gentlcmarti,that having received no hurt at all, hefelldowne ftarkedead upon the ground before the breach. The like paffion rage doth fometimes poffeffea whole multitude. In one of the encounters that Germanicui had with the Germanes, two mightie troupes were at one iuftant fo frighted with feare, that both bctooke thcmfelves to their hcelcs, and ran away two contrary wayes, the one right to that place whence the other fled. It fometimes adderh wings unto ourheelcs, asunto thefirft named, and other times it takes the ufe of feet from us: aswc iay rcadc of Thtophtlm the Emperor, who in abattcll hecloft againft the Agarens, was
Dz fo


2.8 ThefrftBooke^. Chap. 18.
fo amazed and aftonied,that he could not reSolve to fcape away by flight: adeo favor etiam atixiliaformidat : Feare is fo afraid even ofthatjbould help.Untill fuch time as Manuel,one. of the chiefe leaders in his armie, having rouzed and ihaken him, as it were out of a dead flecpc/aid unto h\m,Sir,ifyouwillnot prefently follow me,I wtllfurelykill)flKM a troupe of wel-nigh ten thoufand footmen, wasfb iurprifed with feare,that feeing no other way to take,nor by what other courfe to give their baftnes free paffage, they headlong bent their flight toward the thickeft and ftrongeft fqua-dron of their enemies, which with fuch furie it rowted and brake through, as it difranked, and flew a great number of the Carthaginians : purchafing a reproachfu II and difgracefull flioht,at the fame rate it might have gained a moft glorious victorie. It isfeare I ftand moft in fc^rcof. For,in fharpneflc it furmounteth all other accidents. What affection can be more violent and juft than that of Pompeyes friends, who in his owne fhip were Spectators of that horrible maflacre ? yet is it, that the feare of the ^Egyptian fades, which began to approach them, did in fuch fort daunt and skare them, that fbme have noted, they only buSied them-felvesto haflen the marriners,to make what Speed they couId,and by maine ftrength ofoarcs to fave themfelves, uutill fuch time, as being arrived at Tyre, and that they were free from feare, they had leafurc to bethinke themfelves of their late loffe, and give their plaints and tcares free paifage.which this other ftronger paffion had fuipended and hind red.
i.cic.Tu(c q.U. Tvmpavor fpientiam omnem mihi exanimo expetlorat.
4.exEm.deQ- Fearcthenunbreafts all wit,
rat.l.3. Thatinmymindedidfit.
Thofe who in any skirmifh or Sudden bickering of warre have been throughly skared, fore-hurt, wounded, and gored as they be, are many times the next day after, brought to charge againe. But fuch as have conceived atrucfearcof their enemics,it is hard foryouto make them looke them in the face againe. Such as are in continuall feare to lofe their goods, tobebanifhed, or to be Subdued, live in unceffant agonie and languor ; and thereby often lofe both their drinking, their eating,and their reft. Whereas the poore,thcbanifhcd, and feely Servants, live often as carelefly and as pleaSantly as the other. And So many men, who by the impatience and urging of feare, have hanged, drowned, and headlong rumbled downe from fome rockc, have plainly taught us, that feare is more importunate and intolerable than death. The Grecians acknowledge another kinde of it, which is beyond the error of ourdifcourfc: procceding,astheyfay,withoutany apparentcaufe,and from an heavenly impulsion. Whole Nations and Armies arc often Scene furprifed with it. Such was that, which brought fo wonderfiilla dcfblation to Carthage, where nothing was heard but lamentable out-cries,and frightfull exclamations: the inhabitants were fecnedefperately to runne out of their houfcs,asto a fudden alarum,and furioufly to charge, hurt, and enter-kill one another, as if they had beene enemies come to ufurpe and poffeffe their Citic. All things were there in a diSbrdercd confufion, and in a confuSed furie, untill fuchtimcasby praiersand facrificcs they had appealed the wrath of their God s.Thcy call it to this day ,thc
tMLi.cint. Panikctcrror.
.7. ad.}.------;---
' -mia' titA01 ;uodkar,io*d>atisaNsiwbwiiah'i^ <'.<.-. *A*iubxajpdibartxvm^t
Chap. XVIII.
Tb*t soefbould not judge of our bappineffe, untill after
our death.
-fcilicet ultima femper
Ovid.Het. /ife j. Expetlanda dies homini eSt,dici Ante obitum nemofupremaquefunera debet. We muft expect of man the lateft day, fclorcr'ehcdic.hc'shappie.canwefay. 3*
..... The


The firfi Booths
.;_,., ,:, .!}, -1; j.IrlusboT .??3ftiv b;fl? THc very children are acquainted with the fto'rie ofCrccfus to this purpcifa : whabevjg taken by Cyrus, and by him condemned to die, upon the point of his execution, cried out aloud : Oh Solon, Solon1, which words of his, being reported to Cyrmx who inquiring what he meant by them, told him, hee now at his ownc colt verified the advertifement So-lonhad before times given him: which was, that man; what cheerefull and blandishing countenance focver fortune fhcwedthem,may rightly decmc himfelfe happie,till ftich time as he have palled the lail day of his lifc,by rcafonof thcunccrtahtie and viciflitudcof hu-mane things, which by a very light motive, and flight occafioii, are often changed from one to another cleane contrary ftatc and degree. And therefore Agejilaus anl'wcred.one that counted the King ofPer/ia happy^ becaufe being very young, he had gotten the garland of lb mightie and great a dominion : yea but faid he, Priam at the fame age was not unhappy. Of the Kings of Macedon,xhatCaccccded Alexander the great,lbmeiwere aftcrwardlccnero become Joyncrs and Scriveners at Rome: and of Tyrants otStcilic, Schoplemaftcrsat Corinth : One that had conquered halfc rhc world, and been Emperour over fo many Armies, became an humble, and miferable futer to the raskally officers of a king of *Agypt : At fo high a rate did that great Pompey purchafe the irkefome prolonging of his life but for five Or fix moneths. And in our fathers daies, Lodowicke Sfome, tenth Dvkcot Millanr, tender whom the ftatc of Italie had fo long beehc turmoilcd and Shaken, was feene to die a wretched prifoner it troches in Prance, but not till he had lived and lingered ten yeprcs in thral-dome,which wastheworft of his bargainc;ThcfaireftQueene,wifcto'thegrcateft King of ChriftcndomCjWas fhe not lately fecneto die by the hands ofan executioner ? Oh unwor-thic and barbarous crueltie! And a thoufatid fuch examples. For, it ieemcth that as the fea-bilIowe3 and Surging waves, rageandftorme againft thefurly pride and ftubbcrneheight of our buildings; So are there above, tcrtainc fpirits that envie the riling profperitics and greatneffehcercbelow. it^V*^"?^ *V
Pfqncadco res h'umanasres aldtta qustdam ObtHriti^p^l^osfafcesfavafquef run ,d?i$m\Ok
Proculcarei ac ludibrio Jibi habere videtur. jrll a ib'-n i : & A hidden power fo mens ftates hath out-wornc FairC fwords, fierce Scepters, fignes of honours borne, It feemcsto trample and deride in fcornc. And it fcemtth Fortune doth foinetimcs narrowly watch the laft day of our life, thereby to flic w her power, and in one moment to overthrow what for many yearcs together the hadbeene crc6ting,and makes us eric after Laberius, Nimirttmhdc disttnaplmvixi; mihi qttam vivcndHrnfttit. Thus it is, / have lived longer by this one day, than IJhottld. So may thai good advice of Solon be taken with rcalbn. But forfomuchashce isaPhilofbpher, with whom the favours or disfavours of fortune, and good or ill lucke have place, and arc not regarded by him; and puiffanccs and greatneffes, and accidents Gfqualitie, are well nigh indifferent : Idccmcitvcry likely he had a further reach, and meant that the fame good for-tunc of ourlife, which dependeth of the tranquillitie and contentment of a welbornc mindc; andofthercfolutionand affurance of a well ordered fbule, fliould never be afcribed unto man,untill he have bcene Scene play the laft aft of his corned ie,and without doubt the har-deft. In all the reft there may be fome maskc > either thefe iophifticall difeourlci of Philofb-phiearc not in us but by countenance, or accidents that never touch us to thequick, give us alwaics leafure to keep our countenance fctlcd.But when that laft part ofdeath, and of our lclves comes to be acted, thcnnodiflcmbllng will availc, then is it high time to fpeake plainc Englifh,and put off all vizards: then whatfoever the potcoutainethmuft befhewnu, e ic good or bad,fo*le or 1,# JMfK* wri {itds ? /'.. d\i >D
Nam vera voces turn demumpeftore ab imo n&AitA Ejieinntur^eripitHrperfonatmanetres, vvncmdl For then are lent true Speeches from the heart, We are our fclvcs,we leave to play a part. Loe hecre, why at this laft jcaft, all outlives otheractions muff be trlde and touched. It is thereafter-day, the day that judgech all others : itistbeday, feiifc an auueient Writer,
D J that
.
)i it it
3)
tucret. l'ti,ji


The firflBooker. Cfcap.io.
thatrmift judge of all my forepaffed yearcs. To death doc I rcfcrrethccflay of my fludies fruit.There ftiall wee fee whether my difcourfe ptoceed frcm my heart, or frem my mouth. 1 have fecne divcrs,by their death, either in gcod or evill, give reputation to all their fore-paflcd life. Scip'to, father in law toPowpej,m well dying, repaired the ill opinicn which un-tillthat houremenhad ever held of h'\m.Epaminondas being demanded, vvhichof the three he eftecmed moft,eithcr Chabrias, or Iphtcrates, or himfelfc -, /; is ncccf}ry,h\d he, that ire tefeene todie,before your queftion may well be refolvcd. Verily we fhould lleale much from him, if he fhould be weighed without the honour and greatnefle of his end. Gcd hath willed it,as he pleafed: but in my time three of the molt exetrable perfons, that ever I knew in all abomination of lifc,and the moit infamous,have beene fecn to die vciy orderly and qui-etly,and in every circumltance compofed even unto perfection. There arc force brave and fortunate deaths. I havefeene her cut the twine of fome mans life, with a progrefleof wonderful ad vancement,and with fb worthic an end,cvcn in theflowrc of his grow th,and fprin of his youth,that in mine opinion,his ambitious and haughtie couragious defignes, thought nothing fo bigh,as might interrupt them: who without going to the place w here he pretended, arived there more glorioufly and worthily, than cither his defire or hope aimed at. And by his fallfore-went the power and name, whither by his courfc he afpired. When I judge ofothet mens lives, Ieverrcfpcct, how they have behaved thcmfelvcs in their cpd; and my chicfeft ftudy is, I may well demcanemy fclfc at my lafi gafpe, that is to fay,quiet-ly, and conftantly.
Chap. XIX. That to Pbilofophie^ to learne how to die.
Ieero faith, thatto Philofophie is no other thing, than for amah to prepare himfelfe to \jdeath; which is the reafon,thatffudicand contemplation doth in fome fort withdraw our foulefrom us, and Severally employ it from the body, which is a kind of apptentifage and relemblance of death; or elfc it is, that all the wifdome and difcourfe of the world, doth in the end refblve upon this point,to teach us, nottofcaretodie. Truly either rcftfbn mockes us,or it only aimeth at our contentmcnt,and in fine,bcnds all her travcll to make us live well,and as the holy Scripture fairh^if our eafe.tVX the opinions of the world conclude, that plcafurc is our cnd,howbeir they take divers mcanes unto,and for it,elle would men reject them at their firft comming.For, who would give care unto him,that for it's end would efrablifh our paincand difturbance? Thediflcntionsof philofophicallfefsinthiscaie,are verball: Tranfcurramus folertijfimas nugas : Let us run overfueh over-fntfooleries, and fubtilltrifles. There is more wiltulnelle and wrangling among them, than pertaines toafa-cred profcflion.But what perfbn a man undertakes to act, he doth cvertherewithall pcrfb-natc his ownc. Allthough they fay, that in vertue it felfe, the laft fcope of our aime is vo-luptuoufhes.lt pleafeth me to importunetheir earts ftill with this word,which fo much of-fends their hearing : And if it imply any chiefepleafure or exceeding contentments,lt is rather due to the affiftance of vertue, than to any other fupply, voluptuoufhes being more ftrong,finnowie,fturdic,and manly,is but more fcrioufly voluptuous. And we Should give it the name of plcafurc, more favorable, fwceter, and more naturall; and not tcrmc it vigor, from which it hath his denomination .S hou Id this bafcr fenfuality defer ve this faitenartie,it fhould be by compctencie,and not by privilege. I finde it leffe void of inCommodities and crofles,than vertue. And befides that, her taffeis more fleeting,rriomentarie, and fading,fhe hath her fafts, her eves, and her travels, and both fweat andbloud. Furthermore fhe hath particularly fb many wounding paffions,and offo fevcralliorts,and fo filthicand loathfome a focietic waiting upon her,that fhee is equivalent to penitencic. Wee aTe in the wrong, to thinkchcr incommoditicsferve het as a provocation,and fcafoning to her fwcctnes,asin nature one conttarie is vivified by another contraric: and to fay,w hen we come to vertue, that like fucccfles and difficulties ovcx-whelme it, and yeeld it auftere and inacceffiblc. Whereas
much


Chap.ij- The firfi Bookc^. 3 2
much more property then unto volupnioufhesj they ennobled, Sharpen, animate, andraife that divine and perfect plcafure, which it meditates and procureth us* Truly he is vcrieun-wotthie her acquaintance, that counter-balianeeth her cofr to his fruit, and knowes neither the graces iior ufe of itiThofe who go about to infiruCt us.how her purSiiit is very.hard and laborious, andherjovifauccwcll!pleafing and delightfull: what elfe tell they us, but that Shce iseverunpleafant and irkSome? For, what humane mcanc did ever attaine unto an ab-folute enjoying of it ? The perfected have beene content but to aSpircand approach her, without ever polfelSingheriBut they are deceived jfecingthat of all the plcafures we know, the putfute of them is pleafant.Thc ent*rprife is perceived by the qualitie of thething.which it hath regard unto : For it is a good portion of the efFect,and confubftantiall.That happincs and fclicitie, which fhineth in venue, repleniSheth her approaches and appuitenanccs, even unto the firSt entrance and utmoft barre* Now of all the benefits of vertue, the contempt of death isthechiefeft,a meanethat furnifheth our life with an cafe-full tranquilhtie,aiid gives us a pure and amiable taSte of it r without which every other voluptuouihes is extinguished. Loe,herc the reafons why all rules encounter and agree with this article. And albeit they all lcadc us with a common accord to defpifc gtiefc; povertie, and other accidcncall croffes, to which mans life is fubjedt; it is not with an equall care: as well becaufe accidents are not of fuels a neceffkie, for mod men paSfe their whole life without feeling any want or povertie, andothcr-fome without feeling any griefe or ficknes,asXenophilus the Mufitian,who lived an hundred and fix yeares in perfect and continual! health : as alfo if the word happcn,death may at all times,and whenfoevcr it fhall pleafc us^ cut off all other inconveniences and crof* fcs.But as for death,it is inevitable*
Omnes eodem edgimsiriomn'mni Hit.lib. j. cd. j.
Verfatnrurna, firms* ocytu *J'
So rs exhura,& nos in ater-
num exttium tmpofitnra cymbst.
All toone place aredriv'n, of all
Shak't is the lot-pot,where-hence fhall
Sooner or later dravyne lots fall,
And to deaths boat for ay e enthrall* And by cdnfcquencc,ifShemakeusaSteai:d,it is a continual fubject of tormcnt,and which can no way be eafed*Thcrc is no Starting-hole will hide Us from her,fhe will finde us where-foeycrweafe, wemayasinafiifpectcd countrie Start and turne here and there : quaqnaji cic.fiaM.U fttxtun Tantalo Jenifer impende;: Which evermore hangs likethe floneover the headofTan-talns: Our lawes doe often condeirinc and fend malefactors to be executed in the fame place where the crime was committed : to which whileft they are going, leadetliem. along the faircSthoufcs, or entertaine them with thebeft chccrcyon can,
non Sicula dapes Hfr.Lj.od.ki9.
Dulcem elaborabmtfaporem:
Nen avium, eitharaqnecantus
Somnum reducent.
Not all King P^/damtiefarcj
Can pleafing tafte for them prfcpare:
Nofong of birds,no mufikes found
Can lullabicto flecpe profound* Doc youthinke they can take any plcafure in it ? or be any thing delighted ? and that the final! tutent of their voiage being Still before their cies, hath not altered and altogether d i-ftraetcd their taSte from all rhefe commodities and allurements ?
i/fudititcr,numeratque diesifpatioqneviarum eland. aRitjf.L
Metttnrvitam,torqneturpeftefutura. M.ij7
Heheares his journey, counts hisdaies/o meafurcs lie
His life by his waies length, vext. with the ill Shall be* The end of ourcaricreisdeath,it isthcneceSfarie object four aimc:ifitaffrightus,how is it poffible we Should fiep one foot further without an ague ? The rcmedie of the vulgar fort is,not to thinke on it. But from what brutall ftupiditic may fo grotTc a Windncffe come upon him ? he mult be made to bridlehis AfTe by the taile,
w


3 x The firfl BookeJ, Chap. 10,
j^fi capiteipfe fuo infiituit vefiigia retro. Who doth a courfe contraric runne With his head to his courfe begunne. It is no marvcll if he be fb often taken tripping; fome doe no fooner hearc the name of death fpoken of,but they areafraid,yea the molt part wiflcrofle thcmfclves,as if they heard the Devill named. And becaufc mention is made of it in mens vvils and teftaments, I warrant you there is none will fet his hand to them,til the Phyfitian have given his laft doomc and utterly forfaken him. And God knowes, being then betweenefueh paine and fcare, with what found judgementthey endure him. For fo much as this fyllablcfounded fo un-pleafantly in their cares, and this voice feemed fo ill-bodingand unluckie, the Romans had learned to allay anddilatc thefame by a Periphrafis.In liew of faying,he is dead, or he hath ended his daies, they would fay, he hath lived. So it be life,be it paft or no, they are comforted rfrornwhom wehaveborowedourphraftsquondam,altos,or/ateJucfjaone.ltmay haply be, as the common faying is,the time we live,is worth the mony we pay for it. I was borne betwecne eleven of the clockc and neone, the laft of Februarie 1533. according to our computation,the ycarc beginning the firfl ofj anuarie. It is but a fortnight fincc I was 39. yeares old. I want at leaft as much more. If in the meane time I fhould trouble my thoughts with a matter fofarre from me,it were but folly. But what? wefee both young and old to leave their life after one felfe-fame condition. No man departs otherwife from ir, than ifhe but now came to it,fecing there is no man fo crazcd,bedrell, Or decrepit, fo lone* as he remembers Methufalem,h\xt thinkes he may yet live twentie yearcs. Moreover, fecly creature as thou art, who hath limited the end of thy daies ? Happily thou prefumeft upon Phyfitians reports. Rather confider the effeot and experience. By the common courfe of thingSjlong fince thou liveft by cxtraordinarie favour. Thou haft alreadie over-paft the or-dinarie tearmcs of common life: And to prove it, remember but thy acquaintances and tell me how many more of them have died before they came to thy age, than have cither attained or outgone the fame : yea and ofthofc that through renoune have ennobled their life, if thou but regiftcr them,I will lay a wager,I willfinde more that have died before rhey came to five and thirty yeares, than after. It is conibnant with reaibn and pictie, to take example by the humanity of leftss Cbrifi,v prifeus! ^j';q'h":\[:.uiyr t:.i.
Mtrftk,x.td. 13 Q$*d qutfqHe vitet, nnnquam hominifatit
ij.j Casttum est in boras.
A man can never take good heed, Hourelywhathemay fnunand fpced. I omit to fpeake of agues and plcurifies; who would ever have imagined, that a Duke ofBrittanie fhould have beencftifled to death in a throng of people, as whilome was a neighbour of mine at Lyons, when Pope Clement made his entrance there ? Haft thou not feene one of our late Kings flaine in the middeftof his fports? and one of his anceftors die mifcrably by the chocke of an h'ogEfcbtlus fore-thrcatned by the fall ofan houfe,when he flood moft upon his guard,ftrucken dead by the fallof a Tortoife fhell,which fell out of the tallants of an Eagle flying in the aire ? and another choaked with the kernell of a orape ? And auEmperourdieby the fcratch of a combe, whileft he was combing his head : And lAZmylius tepidus with hitting his foot againft a doorc-fcele? And Aufidins with ftumb-Iing againft the Confull-Chamberdoore as he was going in therear ? And Cornelius Callus the Praetor, TigiUinus Captainc of the Romane watch, Lodowike fonne of Guido Gonx,aga, Marquis of Mantua^nd their daies betweelie womens thighs ? And of afarre worfcexam-flc Speujippus thcPlantonianPhilofopher and one of our Popes ? TPook Befousi Judge whileft he demurrcth the lute of a plaintifc butfor eight daies,behold his laft expired; And Caius Iultus aPhyfitian,whileft he was annotating the cies of one of his paticnts,to havchis owne fight clofed for ever by death. And if amongft thefe examples, Imay addconeofa brother of mine, called Captainc Saint Martin, a man of three and twentie yeares of age, who had alreadie given good teftimonie of his worth aridforward valour,playing attennis, racejved a blow with a ball, that hit him a little aboye the right care, without apparance of
any


Ctiap.9-
Thefir Bookc.
33
any contufion,bruf,or hurt, and never fitting or retting upen it, died within fix houresaftcr of an Apoplcxie,which the blow of the ball caufed in him. Thefe fo frequent and ordinary examplcs,hapning,and being ftillbefore oureies, howisitpoffible for manto forgo or for-o the remembrance ofdeath?and why ihould it not continually ceme unto us,that fhec is Mill ready at hand to take us by the throat? What matter is it, will you fay unto me,how and in what manner it is, fo long as a man doe not trouble and vex himfclfe therewith ? I am of this epinion,that howfoever a man may fhrowd or hide himfclfe from herdart,yea were it under an oxe-hide,Iam not the man would fhrinkc backe: it ffficeth me to live at my ealc; and thebeft recreation I can have,that doe I ever take; in other matters, as little vainglori-ous,and exemplareas you lift.
-7-pratulerimdelir'usinerfqevideri,
Dummea deleent mala me,veldeniquefallant,.
Quam fapere&ringi.
A dotard I had rather ieeme,and dull,
Some my faults may pleaie make me a gull,
Than to be wiie,and beat my vexed Icull. But it is folly to thinke that way to come unto it. They come, they goe they trot, they daunccrbutnolpeechofdeath. All that is good fport. But if fh be once come, andona fudden and openly furprife, either them, their wives, their children, or their friends, what torments, whatout-crieSj what rage, and what defpairedoth then oveiwhelm them ? iaw you ever any thing fo drooping,fb changed,and fo didracled ? A man mutt looke to it, and in better times fore-fee it. And might that brutifh carelcffeneffe lodge in the minde of a man of undcrftanding (which I find altogether impoffible) fhcfcls us her ware at an over-deefe rate: were fhean encmicby mans wit tobe avoided, I would advife men to borrow the weapons of cowardlincffe: but lince it may not be,and that be you either a eoward^r a runaway ,an honcft or valiant man,fhe overtakes you,
empe & fngacempirfequitur virum,
Necparcit imbellis ]uveuta Poplmbt*s,ttmidoque tergo.
Shec perfecutcs the man that flies,
Shee ipares not weake youth to furprife^
But on their hammes and backe turn'dplieSi 1 And that no temper of cuirace may fhicld or defend you, Itte Itcet ferro eautus fe condat & are,
Mors tameninclufum protrahet wde caput. Though he with yron and braffe his head empale, Yet death his hcad-enclofcd thence will hale. Let us leame to ftand, and combat her with a refolute minde. And being to take the greateft advantage fhe hath uponus from her, letustakeacleane contrary way from rhe common,lct us remove her ftrangeneife from her,let us conver,frequent, and acquaint our fclves with her,let us have nothing fo much in minde as dcath,let us at all times and feafons, and in the uglieft manner that may be, yea with all faces fhapen and reprefent the fame unto our imagination* At the (tumbling of a horfe, at the fall of a (tone, at the lead prick with a pinne,lec us prefently ruminate and fay with our fclves, what if it were death it flfe ? and thereupon let us take heart of grace, and call our wits together to confront her Arniddefl our bankets,feafts,and pleafuies,let us ever have this rcftraint or object before us,that is,thc remembrance of our condition, and let not pleafure fo much miflead or tranlport us, that vre altogether neglect or forget, how many waies, our joyes, orourfeaftings,befubjectunto death, and by how many hold-fails ftice threatens us and them. So did the ^Egyptians, who in the middeft of their banquetings, and in the full of their greateft cheere, caufd the anatomic ofa dead man to be brought beforethetn,as a memorandum and warning to theft guefts.
Omem cYede diem tibi diluxijfefupremum, Grata fuperveniet, qua non jperabitur hora. Thinke every day (nines on thee as thy laft, Welcome it will come, whereof hope was pad.
id.yd.i,i4'
PropatMy& 17. *.
mt.llb. i.epi.4. 4'


54
The firflBook*-,.
Ckap. 19.
It is unccrtaine where death looks for usjlet us expect her everie where:the premeditation of death, is a fore-thinking of libertie. He who hath learned to die,hath unlearned to ferve. There isnoevill in life, for him that hath well conceived, bow the privation of life is no cvill.To know how to die,doth free us from all fubjection and confrrainr.T'Ww *1 anfweredone, whom that miferable king of Mttcedon his prifoncr fent to entreat him, he would not lead him in triumph,let him make that requeft unto himfelfe. Verily, if Natuic afford not fomehelpc,in all things, it is very hard that art and induftnc fhould goe farre before. Of my felfe, I am not much given to melancholy, but rather to dreamir^and flug-gifhncs. There is nothing wherewith I have ever more entertained my felfe, than with the imaginations ofdeath, yea in the moft licentious times of my age. CmUtligA. if Iucundum,cum at asflorid* vcr ageret.
When my ageflourifhing Did fpend it's pleafant fpring. Being amongft faire Ladies,and in carneft play,fome have thought me bufied,or mufing with my felfe, how to digeft fome jcaloufic, or meditating on the unccrtaintic offomc conceived hope, when God he knowes, I was entertaining my felfe with the remembrance of fome one or other, that b few daics before was taken with a burning fever, and of his fo-daineend, commingfrom fuch a fcaft or meeting where I was my felfe, and with his head full of idle conceits, ofIove,and merry glee; fuppoiing the fame, either ficknes or cnd,to be asneeremeas him. kl Iam fnerit, nee revocare lieebit.
Now time would be, no more You can this time rcftorc. I did no more trouble my felfe or frowne at fuch a conceit, than at any other. Itisim-poffible, we mould not apprehend or feele fome rnotioas or Hart ings at fuch imaginations at the firft, and eomming fodainely upon us: but deubtleffe, he that fhall manage and meditate upon them with an impartiall eye, they will afliiredly, in tract of time,become fami-liartohim : Otherwifeformypart,Ifhouldbeincontinuallfearcandagonie; for no man did ever raorediftruft his Iife,nor make leffe account of his continuance :Neither can health, which hitherto I havefo long enjoied, and which fo feldome hath bcene crazed, lengthen my hopes, nor any fickneffe fhorten them of it. At every minute me thinkes I make anef-cape. And I unceffantly record unto my felfe, that whatfbevcr may be done another day, may be effected this day. Truly hazards and dangers doe little or nothing approach us at our end: Aid if weconftdcr,how many more there rcmaine,befidesthis accident, which in number more than millions feeme to threaten us,and hang over us; we fhall find, that be we found or ficke,luftie or wcakc,at feat or at land, abroad or at home,fighting or at reft, in the middeftofa battel! or in our beds,fhe is ever alike qeere unto us. Nemo alterofragilioreft; nemo in erafiinumfni certior. No man is weaker then ether; none fnrer of himfelfe (to live) titt to morrow. Whatfoever I have to doc before death, all leafure to end the fame, feemcth fliortuntome, yea were it but of one hourc. Some body, not long fince turning over my writing tables, found by chance a memoriall of fomething I would have done after my death; I told him (as indeed it was true,) that being but a mile from my houft,and in perfect health and luftic,I had made hafte to'write it,becaufe I could not allure my felf I fhould ever come home in fafety; As one that am ever hatching of mine owne thoughts,and place them in my felfe: I am ever prepared about that which I may be: nor can death (come when fhe pleafe) put me in mind of any new thing. A man fhould ever, as much as in him lieth,be ready booted to take his journey, and above all things, looke he have then nothing to doc but with himfelfe. HttM*>td>it. QntdbrevifirtesjacnlAmHritvo
Mult a f
Toaime why are we ever bold, At many things in ?> fhort hold ? Forthen we fhall have workc fufficient,withoutany moreaccreafe.Some man complai-neth more that death doth hinder him from the allured courfe of an hoped forvi&orie, than of death it felfe; another cries out, he fhould give place to her, before he have married bis daughter, oidirccted the courfe of his children* bringing up ; another bewailethhcmuft
forgoe


Chap, i y.
The firft Booh.
35
rbr"ochis wives company: another moanctli the loffc of his children the chicfeft coirnno -dirics of his being. I am now bymnncs ofthe mercy of God in filch a taking, that without rcrctor grieving at any worldly matter, I am prepared to diflodgc, whenfbeverhc fhall plcafrtocall mc:I am every where free: my farewell is fooix: taken of all myfnends,except ofmv l*c'fc' No mm did ever prepare himfclfc to quit the world mow limply and fully, oe more ocnerally fpakc of all thoughts of it, than I am fully alfured I fhall doc. Thcdeadeft. dcachs are the bell.
-Mift, o m'fer (aiunt) omnia ademit.
And the builder,
Fna diesinfefla mthi tot pramit vita; O wretch,O wretch, (friendscry) oncday, All joyes of life hath tane away:
.-mxneant (faith he) opera interrupt*, mintc^
Mnrornm ingentes. The workesunfinifht lie, And walls that threatned hie. A man Should defighe nothing fo long afore-hand, or at leaft with fuch an intent, as to paffionate himfclfc to fee the end of it; we arc all borne to be doing.
Cum moriar, medinm folvar & inter opus. When dying I my felfc fhall Spend, Ere halfe my bufinelTe come to end. I would have a man to be doing,and to prolong his lives offices, as much as licth in him, and let death Seize upon me, whileftlam fcttiug my cabiges, careleffe of her dart, but more of my imperfect garden. I faw one die, who being at hislaft gafpe, unceffantly complained againft bisdeftinie, and that death Should fb unkindly cut him off in the mid-deft of an hiftoricwhichhehadin hand, and was now come to the fifteenth or Sixteenth of our Kings.
Mud in his rebus non addnnt, nec t'tbi ekrum,
lamdejideriumrerumfuperinfdetuna.
Friends addc not that in this cafe, now no more
Shalt thou defirc, or want things wifht before. a man mould rid himfclfc of theft vulgar and hurtfull humours. Even as Church-yards were firft placed adjoyning unto churches, and in the moft frequented places of the City, to enure (as Lycnrgns fiid) the common people, wom?n and children, not to be skared at the fight of a dead rrwii, and to the end that continuall Spectacle of bones, lculs, tombe*, graves and burials, Should fore warnc us of our condition, and fatall end. Quin etiam exhilarare virk convtvia cade
Mys olim, & mifcere epulis Jp eft acuta dira.
Certantwn ferro, fepe cjr fuper tpfa cadtntum
Focula, rejperjis non pdrco fangnme men ft s.
Nay morc,thc manner was to welcome gucfts,
And With dire Shewes of (laughter to mix feafts.
Of them that fought at fharpc, and with bords tainted
Of them with much bloud, who o'rcfull cups fainted. And even as the /Egyptians after their readings and caroufings, eaufed a great image of death to be brought in and Shewed to the guefis and by-ftandcrs, by one that cried aloud, Drinke and be merjtfir fuch fl>alt thou be when thou art dead.' So have I learned this cuftome or leSfon, to have a 1 waies death, not only in my imagination, but continually in my mouth. And there is nothing I defirc more to be informed of, than of the death of men: that is to fay, what words, what countenance, and what face they Shew at thci r death; and in reading ofhiftorics, which lib attentively obferve. It appearethby the Shuffling and hudling up of my examples, I affect no Subject fo particularly as this. Wcrel acompofer of books, I would keepe a regifter, commented of the divers deaths, which in teaching men to die, Should after teach them to live. Dtcearcus made one of that title, but of another and ImTc profitable end. Some man will fay. to mee, the effect exceeds the thought fo farre, that there is no fence fo Sure, or cunning fo certaine, but a man Shall cither lofe or forget,
if
tfrg.Aett.liBA. 13.
Ov'td.amMb.i. d.i9.3.
SjllM.il.


The firft Booker.
c$r.Gal.lib. 1.1.
HorJib.yod.j.
Chap.i 9
if toff conic once to that point'; let them fay what they lift : to premeditate on it, giveth no doubt a great advantage : and it is nothing,at the leaft to goc fo fane withsut difmay or alteration, or without an ague ? There belongs more to it: Nature her felfe lends her hand, and gives us courage. If it be a fhort and violent death, wee have no leifurc tofearc it; if nthcr wife,! perceive that accord ing as I engage my felfe in fickncife,I doc naturally fall into fomcdifdainc and contempt of life. Ifindethat I have moreadoc todigeft this refblu-tion, that I fhall die when I am in health, than I have when I am troubled with a fever: forfomnch as I have no more fuch faff hold on the commodities of lift, whereof I begin to lofcthcufeandpleafure, and viewdeathin the face with a lcflcundanted looke, which makes mc hope, thatthcfurthctlgocfromthar, and the nearer I approch to this, fo much more cafilydoel enter in composition for their exchange, Even as I have tried in many \ other occurrences, which Caftr affirmed that often fomethings feeme greater, being farrc from us, than if they bee nccreathand : I have found that being in perfect health, I have much more bcene frighted w^ith fickneffe, than when I have felt it. The jollitic wherein I live, the pleafure and theftrength make the other SeemeSb difproportio-nablc from that, that by imagination I amplifie theft commodities by one moitic, andap-prehended them much more hcavic and burthenfbme, than I feele them when I have them upon my Shoulders. Thcfamc I hope will happen to me of death. ConSiderwe by the ordinary mutations, and daily declinations which we Suffer, how Nature deprives us of the night of out loffe and empairing : what hath an aged man left him of his youths vigor, and ofhisforepafllifc?
Heu fenibus vita forth quanta manet \
Alas to men in ycares how fmall
A part of life is left in all ? Cafartoa tired and crazed Souldier of his guard, who in the open Street came to him, tobeg leave, he mightcaufehimfelfetobeput to death; viewing his decrepit behaviour anfwerd plefantly: Doeft thou thinke to be altve then ? Were man all at once to fall into it ; Idee not thinke we Should be able to beare fuch a change, but being faire and gently led on by her hand, in a Slow, andasitwereunperceiveddefcent, by little and little, andftepby Step, Shcroulesus into that miferable State, and day by day ftekes to acquaint us with it. So that when youth failcs in us, we feele, nay we perceive no Shaking or tranfehange at all in our Selves: which in cSfence and vcritie is a harder death, than that of a languishing and irkeSbme life, or that of age. Forfbmuch as the Ieape from an ill being, unto a not being, is not So dangerous or ftcepic; as it is from adelightfull and flourifhing being, unto a painfull and fbrrowfull condition. A weake bending, and faint Stopping bod ic hath leSfe Strength to beare and undergoe aheavic burden: So hath our fouie. Shcmuft becrouzed and raifed againft the violence and force of this ad verfarie. For as it is impoSfible, She Should take any reft whilcft She feareth: whereof if She be aifured (which is a thing exceeding humanecon-dition) She may boaft that it is impoSfible, unquietneffe,jtorment, and feare, much leSfe the leaftdiSpleafure Should lodge in her.
Non vultut instant it tyrami
Mente quatitfi/ida,neque Aufier,
Dux inquiett turbidus Adria,
Necfulminantis magna Jovis manus.
No urging tyrants threatning face,
Where minde is foundcan it displace,
No troublous wind the rough Seas Maftes,
Nor loves great hand the thundcr-cafter. She is made Miftris of her paSTions and concupiSccnce, Lady of indulgence, of Shame of povcrtic, and of all fortunes injuries. Let him that can, attainc to this advantage : Hcre>:i conSiSts the true and foveraigne liberty, that affords us meancs wherewith to jeaft and make a fcorne of force and injuftice, and to deride imprifonmcur, gives, or fetters.
-inmanicis,&
Compedibus, favo te fub cufiode teneb'o.
Ipfe Deus fimuiatquc volam, me folvet: opinor,
Hoc fenttrmoriar, mors ultima Itnea rerum efi.
In


\-9. Thefir? .
37
In gyves and fetters I will hampcrthee, Under a Jay ler that mail crucll be: YetjWheu I will,God mc deliver fhall, He thinkesj fnafl die : death-is end ofalh"
Our religion hath had no furer humane found ation,than the-contempt of life. Difcourfe of reafondoth not only call andfummon us unto it.For why fhottld we Ware to lofea miner, which bei. g loft, cannot be moaned ? but alio, fince wc are thrcatned by fo many kinds of deathjthere is no more inconvenience ro ftare them all, than to endure one : what matter is it when it commcthjfince it is unavoidable ? Secratcszniwtted one that told him, Thechii^-ty Tyrants have condemned thee to death j And Mature them,h\d he. What fondneifeisft ro carke and care fo'muthj at that inftantand paifagefrom all exemption of paine and care? As our birth brought us the birth of all things, fo fhall our death the end of all things* Therefore is itas great follieto wcepe, we mallnotlive a hundred yccres hence,astovvaile we lived not a hundred yeeres aspcJDedtb the beginning of another life. So wept we, and fo much did it coil us to enter into this life; and fodid we fpoile us of our ancient vaile in entring into it.Nothing can be grievous that is but once. Is itreafon fo long to fearea thino of fo fhort time ? Long life or fhort-life is made all one by death. For long or fliort is not in things that are no more.^r/jf-tf/fffaiththcre are certaine Iitle beafts alongit the river $-*,that live but oneday;fhc which dies at ig.aclocke in the morning,d'ies in her youth, and Ihcthat dies at 5. in the afternoon, dies in her decrepitude, who -of us doth not laugh, when we fhall fee this fhort moment of continuance to be had in confideration of good or ill fortune ? The mod and the leaft in ours, if we compart it with eternitie, or equall it to the lading of moimtaincs,rivcrs,ftars,and trees, or any other Jiving rfeature, is hoftffe ridiculous. Rot nature compels us to it. ?>*p Etqnaficnrforesvitailamfadatradiint. lucr.i.7^77.
Moitall men live by mutuall entercourfe:
And yecld their life-torch, as men in a eourft. Shal I not change this goodly contexture of things for you?It is the condition of your crea-tiomdeath is a part of your felves: you flie from your fclvcs.The being you enjoy,is equally mared betweene lifeand death.The firft day of your birth dorh afwel addreifcyou to die as to live. Prima qua vitdmdedit-,heracarp/it. ,
The fi rit houre,that to men Sm.mr.fHT.
Gave lifc,flrait,cropt it then. 3* Nafeentesmorimur^ntf^ab originepindet i .* As wc are borne we die; the end Doth of th'oiiginall depend; All the time you live,you fiealc it from death : it is at her charge* The continuall Worke of your life,is to contrive death; you arc in death, during the time you continue in life: for you arcafterdcath.when you arc no longer living. Or if you had rather haveitfo, youare dead after life: but during life, you are dill dying: and deathdoth more rudely touch the dyiiig,than the dead, and more lively and cflctitially. Ifyou have profited by life, you have alfobeene fed thereby,dcpart then fatisfied. '
Cur non utplentu vita conviva recedit ? %, Why like a full-fed gwft, Depart you not to red ? Ifyou have not knownc how to make ufc of it i if it Were Unprofitable to you, what need you care to have lod it ? to what end would you enjoy it longer ? '
-cur amptiusaddereqmrit tmr.f.j*8f,
Rurfumquodpereatmale,cirtngratumoccid.Tromne? Why fecke you more to gainc,what mud igai.ne All perifh ill,and paffe with griefc or paine? Life in it ftlfc is neither good nor evill: it is the place of good or evill, according as you prepare it for them. And if you have lived one day, you have feeuc all: one day is equal to
all


58
Tbefirfl Booke^.
all other daics: There is no other light, there is no other night. ThisSunne, thisMeone thefe Startes, and this difpofition, is the very fame, which your forefathers enjoyed, and' which (hall alfoentertainc your pofteritie,
Non alinmviderepatres, aliumve nepotes
Ajpicient.
No other faw our Sires of old, No other (hall their fonnes behold. And if the worft happcn,the distribution and.varietiepfall the acts of my comedie,is performed in one ycare. If you have obferved the courfe of my fourc feaibns; they containe the infanciCjtheyouthithcvirilitiej&theold agcofthe world.Hchathplaicdhispart:heknowes no other wilineffebelonging to it,but to begin againc,it will ever be die fame, and no other.
/.stf./.j.ixj; ---Verfamuribidem,atque tnfumus ufque,
We (till in one place turne about, Still there we are,nowin,now out. %GwjI.j. Atque in fefua pervefligia volvitur annus,
403. The yeare into it felfe is call
By thofe fame ftcps,that it hath pad. I am not purpofed todevife you other new fports. lm.l. $78. Nam tibi praterea quod machiner,inveniamque
Quodplaceat,nihilest, cademfunt omniafemper. Elfe nothing, that I can devife or frame, Can pleafcthce,for all things are ftill the fame. Make roomc for others,as others have done for you.Equalitieis the chieft ground-worke of equitie, tvkp can complaint to be comprehendedwhere all are contained ? So may you live long enough,you (hall never diminifh any thing from the time you have to die: it is boot- leffe; Co long (hall you continue in that (fate, wtech you feare, as if you had died being in your fwathing-clothes,and when you were fucking. H.HZ(t licet, quotvis,vivendovincerefeclat
Jl4ers aterna tamen, nihtlominus tHa manebit. Though yeares you live, as many as you will, Death is eternall, death remaineth (fill. And I willfo plealeyou,that you (hall have no difcontent. Luc r.6i.j .9. In vera nefcis nullum fore morte alium te,
Jjtuipojfitvivus tibi te lugere peremptum, Stanfque jacentem*
Thou know'ft not there (hall be not other thou, When thou art dead indced,thatcan tell how Alive to waile thee dying, Standing to waile thee lying. Nor (hall you wifhfor life,which you fo much defire. fi$. Necfibi enim quifquam turn fe vitamque requirit, 966, Necdejiderium nofirinosofficiiullum.
Forthen none for himfclfe himfelfe or life requires: Nor arc we of our lei ves affected with defires. Death is leffe to be feared than nothing, if thete were any thing leffe than nothing.
, j70, -multo mortem minus ad not ejfe putandnm,
Si minus effepotefi quam quodnihil effe videmut. Death is much leffe to us, we ought eftcemc, If leffe may be, than what doth nothing feeme. Nor aIivc,hor dead,itdoth conccrne you nothing. Alive,becaufe you are: Dead,bccaufe -tta/f.l.iwJ you are no more. Moreover,no man dies before his houre. The time you leave bchinde was no more yours,than that which was before your birth,and conccrncth you no more. nif, Rejpice enim quamniladnos anteaBa vetufiat
Temporis Aternifuerit. For marke,how all antiquitie fore-gone Of all time e're we were,to us was none, Where-


Cfiap.9-
39
Whcrcfocvcr your life cndcch, thercisitall. The profit of life confifts nor in the fpace, bur rather in the ufe.Somcman hath lived long.that hath had a fhort life. Follow it whileft you havetime.Tc confiffs not in number f yccrcs,buf in your will, that you have lived long enough. Did you thinkc you mould never come to the place, where you were flilJ going? There is no way but hath an end. And if company may folaceyou,doth not the whole world walkcthefamepath?.
-Omni a te vita ferfnnUa feqnentnr. ,
Life paft, all things at laft Shall follow thee as thou haft paft. Doc not all things move as you doc,or kecpe your courfc ? Is there any thing grows not old together with yourfelfe ? A thoufand men,athoufand beafts,and a thoufand othcrcrea-tures die in the very inftant that you die.
Nam nox nulla diem,neqne nettem aurora ftquuta til, tt.x. 5g7.
Qua non audierit mifios vagitibus agr.is P lor at us mortis comities &funer ts atri. No night enfued day light: no morning followed night, Which heard not moaning mixt with fick-mens groaning, With deaths and funerals joy ned was rhat moaning. To what end rccoile you from it, if you cannot goc backe ? You have fcenc many who have found good in death, ending thereby many many mifcrics. Buthaveyoufecneany that hath received hurt thereby ? Therefore is itmeere fimplicitictocondemnca thing you never proved, neither by your fclfc nor any other. Why docft thou cornplaine of me and of deftinie ? Doc wc offer thee any wrong ? is it for thee to direct us,orfor us to governe thee ? Although thy age be not come to her period,thy lifeis.A little man is a whole map as well as a great man. Neither men nor their lives aremeafuredby the Ell. Chiron refufed immor-talitie, being informed of theconditionsthcreof, even by the God oftime and of continuance, Saturne his father. Imagine truly how much an ever-during life would be leflc tolerable and more painfull to a man, than is the life which I have given him: Had you not dcath,you would then unceffautly curfe, and cry out againft me, that I had deprived you ot it. I have of purpofe and wittingly blcudcd f>mc bittcrneffc amongft it, that lb feeing the eommoditic of it's ufc,Imight hinder you from ovcr-grcedily embracing, or indifcrcctly calling for it. To continue in this moderation, that is, neither to flic from life, nor to run to death (which I require of you ) I havctcmpercd both the one and other betweene fweetnes and fowrcnes. I firft taught Thales the chiefeft of your Sages and Wifcmcn, that to live and die,were indifferent,which made him anfwer one very wifcly.who asked him, wherforc he died not; Because, (aid he, it is indifferent. The water,the earth, the aire, the fire, aid ether members of this my univerfe, are no more the infiruments of thy life, than of thy death, why fearefi thou thy la day I. He it no moreguiltie, and conferreth no more to thy death, than any of the othersJt is nnt the la fief thatcanfeth wearinejfe: it only declares it. All dates march towards death,only the la comes to it. Behold hecre the good precepts ofour univcrlall mother Nature. I have oftentimes bethought my felfe whence it procccdcth, that in times of warrCjthc vifage of death (whether wee fee it in us or in others)teemcth without all compa-rifon much leffe dreadful and terrible unto us,than in our houfcs,orin our beds,othcf wile it fhould be an armie of Phylitians and winners, and flic ever being one, there muft needs bee much more affurance amongft countric-people and of bafc condition,than in others.! verily belcevc, theft fcarefull lookcs, and aftonifhing countenances wherewith wc encompaffe it, are thofcthat more amaze and terrific usthan death : a new formeof lift; the out-cries of mothers; the wailing of women and children; the vifitation of difmaid and fwouning friends: the afli fiance of a numberof palc-looking,diftracTed,and whining fcrvants; a darke chambers tapcts burning round about; our couch beftt round with Phylitians and Preachers ; and to conclude, nothing but horror and aftonifhment on every fide of us: are wee not alreadie dead and buried ? The very children arc afraid of their friends, when they fee them masked ; and fo are wc: The maskc muft as well betaken from things,as from rnca, which being removed, wc (hall finde nothing hid under it, but the very fame death, that a fecly varlet,or a (implc maid-fcrvant,did lately fuffer without amazement ot fears. Happie is that death, which takes alileafurc from the preparations of fuch an equipage.
E a Chap.


4o
The firfl Book^.
Chap. 0.
C h a p. XX. Of the force of Imagination.
FOrtis imaginatio generat eafum: eA"Jhong imagination begetteth chance, fay learned dearks. I am one of thole that fecle a very great conflict and power of imagination. All men arc fllockt therewith, and fomc overthrownc by it. The impreffion of it pierceth me, and for want offtrcngth to refill her, my endevour is to avoid it. I could live with the only affiftanccof holy and merry-hearted men. The fight of others anguifhes doth IcnCbly drive me into anguifli; and my fenfe hath often ufurped thefenfeof a third man.If one cough continually, he provokes my lungs and throat. Iam more unwilling to vifit the fickedutie doth engage me unto, than thofe to whom Iam little beholding, and regard leaft. I apprehend the evill which I ftudie,and place it in me. I deeme it not ftrange that fhe brings both agues and death to fuch as give her fcope to workeber wil,andapplaude hzx.Simon Thomas was a great Phyfitian in his daies. I remember upon a time comming by chance to vifit a jich old man that dwelt in Tho/oufe, an^who was troubled with the cough of the lungs, who difcourfing with the laid 5/woTi&4if of the mcanesof his recoverie, he told him, that one ofthe belt was,to give mcoccafionto be delighted in his companie, and that fixing his eyes upon the livclines and frefhnes of my face, ana fctting his thoughts upon the jolitie and vigor, wherewith my youthfullagedid thenflourifh, and fillingall his ienfes with my florifhing eftate,his habitude might thereby be amended, and his health recovered. But he forgot to fay,that mine might alio be empaired and infected,Galius Vibius d id fo well enure his mindeto comprehend the effence and motions of folly, that he fo tranlported his judgement from out his feat, as he could never afterward bring it to his right place againe : and might rightly boaft,to have become a foolc through wilHomc.Some there are,that through feare anticipate the hang-manshand ; as he did, whofe friends having obtained his pardon, and putting away the cloth wherewith he was hood-winkt,that he might heare it read,was found ftarke dead upon the fcaffold, wounded only by the ftroke of imagination. Wee iweat, we fhake, we grow pale,alid we blufh at the motions of our imaginations; and wallowing in our beds we feele our bodies agitated and turmoiled at their apprchenfions, yea in fuch manner, as fbmetimes we are ready to yeeld upthefpirit. And burning youth (al-, though afleepc ) is often therewith fo poffetTed and enfolded, that dreaming it doth fatisfie and enjoy her amorous defires. lMrJib.4.10171 Vt quafttranfafftsfitfe omnibu'rebu'frofundant
Flumints ingentesfiuUus,vefiemque cruentcnt. And if all things were done, they powrc foorth ftreamcs, And bloodie their night-garment in their dreamcs. And although it be not ftrange to fee fome men have homes growing upon their head in oncnight, thathadnone when they wenttobed: notwithftandingthcfortnneorfucccffc of Cyppus Kmgotltafie is memorable, who becaufc the day before he had with earneft affection, aflifted and bcene attentive at abul-baiting, and having all night long dreamed of homes in his head, by the very force of imagination brought them fotth the next morning in his forehead. An earneft paflion gave the fon of Crcefus his voice,which nature had denied him.And Anttochus got an ague,by the excellent beautie of StratoniceCo deepcly imprinted in his minde. 7Y/'/freportcth to have ftcne Lucius Cojfttius upon his marriage day to have becne transformed from a woman to z.rcm\Pontanus and others recount the like Mctamor-phofics to have hapned in Italic theft ages part: And through a vehement defire of him and his mother.
Ovid. Mutant. Vta puer folvit,quafoemina voverat If his. Hb.9.794. If his aboy,thevowcstheu paid,
Which he vow'd when he was a maid. Myfclfe traveling on a time by Vitry ]a France, hapned toTcea man, whom the Bifhop
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Cdap.2.0.
Tbejhfi Bookc.
o{ Soijfonshd.d in confirmationj named Germane, and ai! the inhabitants thereabout have botlriknowne and fecneto be a woman-childc, until! fbc was two and tw'cmic yeaiesof ac,calledbythcnamc ot Marie Ale was^-when I faw liim,ofgood ycares, andhadalong beard, and was yet unmarried. He faith, that upon a rime leaping, and flraining himfelfc to overlcapc another, he wot not ho w,but where before he was a woman, he iuddenly felt thcinftrumentofamantocomcoiitof him; and to this day tee maidens of thatrowtic and countrie have a long in ufc,'.by which they warne one another, when they are leaping, not to ftraine thcmfelvcs overmuch, or open their legis too wide, for feare they fhouki bee turned to boics,as Mane Germane was. It is no great wonder, that fuch accidents doe often happen, for if imagination have power in fuch things, it isib conriimally annexed, and ib forcibly fattened tothisfubjeit, that lett (lie fliouid fo often fail into the re'apsof the fame thought, and fharpneffcof defire, it is bccteroyictirac forall, to incorporatethis virile part unto wenches. Some will not (ticke to^iftribe the fcarrcsofKing'Z)^^^, or the cicatrices of Saint Francis unto the power of Imagination. Othcrfome will fay, that by the fotce of it, bodies arc fbmetimcs removed from rhcir places. And Ceifia reports of aPricft, whole loule was ravifhed into fch an extafie, that for a long time the body remained void ef all relpiration and fenfe. Saint Augufiine fpeaketh of another, who if hee butheavdany lamentable and wailefull cries, would fuddenly fall into afwowne,and bee fo forcibly carried from himfelfc, that did any chide and braulc never lb loud, pinch and thumpe him never fo much, he could not be madeto ftirrc, until} hec came tohimfclfea-g;iinc. Then would lie fay, .he had heard fundry ftrange voyces, comming as ic were from a farrc, and perceiving his pinches and brines, wondered at. them. And that ic was not an obilinatc conceit, ot wilfull humour in him, or againft lis feeling fenfe, it plainly appea- || red by this, becauieduring his extafie, he feemed to havq^neither pulfe nor breath. It is I very likely thatche principall credit of vifions, or enchantments, and fuch extraordinary ef-fedt's, procccdcth from the power of imaginations, working specially in the mindes of the vulgar fort, asthcwcakeftandfcelicft, whofe conceit and bclecfeis fo ftizeHupoiV, thac they imagine to fee what they lee not. Iam yet in doubt, thcfepleafant bonds, wherewith our world is fo fettered, and France lb pettered, that nothing elie isfpokenof, arc haply buttheimprcnionsofapprchenfion, and effects of feare. Fori know by experience, that feme one, for whom I may as well anfwer as for my felfe, and in whom no manner of fu-Ipltioneither of weaknefle or enchantment jmight fall, hearing a companion of his make report ofan extraordinary faint {owning, wherein he was fallen, at fuch atime,as he leaft looked for it, and wrought him no fmallfhamc, whereupon the horrourof his reportdid I .to ttronqly ftrikc his imagination, as he rannethc fame fortune, and fell into a like droo-pin : And wasthence forward fubject to fall into like firs: So did the pallionate remembrance of his inconvenience poffctte and tyrannize him;. but his fond doting was in time remedied by another MRdc of raving. For himfelfc avowing and publifhing aforehand thcinfirmitichcvvasfupjcc^ynto, the contention of his foule was folaced upon this, thac bearing his evillas cxpbtcd^'his dutic thereby diminiflicd, and he grieved lelfe thereat. And when at hischoicc, he hath had law and power ( his thought being eleered andun*. masked, his body finding it ielfc in his right ducand place) to make the fame to be felt, fcized upon,and apprehended by others knowledge: hehath fully and pcrfedtly recovered himfclfe. Ifa man have oncebeenccapable, hecannot afterward be incapable,.except by amftandabfolutc weaknefle. Such amkhiefc is notto be feared, but in the enterprifes, wjiere our ruindcis beyond all mcafure bent with dclireand rcfpett; and chiefly where oppovtunitif comes unexpected, and requires afuddendifpatch. There is no meanes for a mantoiccovcrhimlclfefromthistroublc; Iknowfome, who have found tocome unto it with their bodies as it were halfe glutted elft-whcre, thereby to (tupifie or allay the heat ofthatfuric,and who through age, rindc themfelvesleflc unable, by how much more they be Icffc able : And another, who hath alio found good, in that a friend of his allured him to bee provided with a counter-battery of forcible enchantments, to prcferve him in any Cue!) conflict: It is not amiifc I relate how it vvas.An Earlc of very good place,wit'h whom I was farri.il iajfy acquaintcd,being married coavcry fairc Lady,who had long beenc folici-tcd for lo.vc.hy one atnfting at the wedding, did greatly trouble his friends; but moll of all an old Lady ins kinf-woman,who was chiefe at the marriage,and in wholehoufe it wasfo-
E 3 lemnized,


TbefirftBooke-,.
Cbap.ao.
lenmized, as fhc that much feared fuch forceriesand witchcrafts: which fhee gavemceto undcrftand, I comforted her as well as I could,and defired her to relie upori me : I had by chance a peece of golden plate in my ttunke, wherein wercingraven ccrtainc celcftiall figures, good againtt the Sunne-beamcs, and for the head-ach, being fitly laid upon the future ofthe head : and that it might the better be kept there, it was fewed to a riband, to be fattened under the chin. A fond doting conceit, and cofin-germaneto that wee now fpcake of James Peleticrhzd whilcft he lived in my houfe,beftowed that fingular gift upon mee; Iadvifcdmyfelfetoputittofoaieufc, and told thcEarle, he might haply be in danger, and come to fome misfortune as others had done, the rather becaufe fome were prefent, rhat would not fticke to procure him fome il} lucke, and which was worfe, fouie fpitefull fhamc; but nevertheleflc I willed him boldly to goe to bed : For I would fhew him the part of a true friend, and in his need, fpare not for his good to employ a miracle, which was in my power; alwaiesprovided,thatonhis honour he would promife me faithfully to kcepe it very fecret; whichwasonly, that when about mid-night he fbould have his candle brought him,if he had had no good fucceffe in his bufinefl e,he fhould make fiich andfuchafignetome. Itfelout, hismindwasfoquaiIed,andhisearcsfoduIled, that by reafon ofthe bond wherewith the trouble of his imagination had tied him, hec could not run on pofte : and at the houre appointed, made the figne agreed upon bctweeneus, I came and whifpered him inthcearc, that under pretence to put us all out of his chamber, he fhould rife out of his.bed, and in jetting manner rake my night-gowne which I had on, and put it upon himfelfe (which he might well doe, becaufe wee were much of one ftature) and kecpe it on till hehad performed my appointment,which was,that when we fhould be gone out of theChamber,he fhould withdraw hirrifelfe to make water, and ufing certaine jeftures,I had (hewed him, (peake fuch wordsthrice over. And every time heefpakethem he fhould girt the ribband, which I put into his bands, and very carefully place the plate thcretofaftned,juftuponhiskidneyes,and the whole figurc.in fuch apofture. All which when he had accordingly done, and thelaft time lb fattened the ribband, that it might neither be untide nor ftirrcd from his place, he fhould then boldly and confidently re-turneto his charge, and not forget tolpread my night-gowne upon his bed, but fo as it might cover them both. Theft fopperies arc the chiefe of the effect. Our thought being unable fo to free it ftlfc, but fome ftrangc meanes will proceed from fomeabftrufe Icat-ning: Their inanitic gives them weight and credit. To conclude, it is moft certaine, my Characters proved more venerian than (blare, more in action, than in prohibition. It was a ready and curious humour drew me to this effect, farre from my nature. I am an encode to craftic and famed actions, and hate all futtletie in my hands, not only recreative, but alfo profitable. If theaction be not vicious, the coutft unto it isfaultie. Amafts King ofe/7pf,tooketo wic Laodiee, a very beauteous yong virgin of Greece, and he that before had in every other place found and (hewed himfelfe a luff ic gallant, found himfclfe fb lhort,when he came to grapple withher,that hethreatned to kill her,fuppofing it had becne fome charme or (brceric. As in all chinos that confift in the fantafie,fhc addreft him to devotion. And having made his vowesand promifes to Venus, he found himfclfe divinely freed, even from thefirft night of his oblations and facrificcs. Now they wrong us,to receive and admit us with their wanton,(queami(h,quarcllous countenances, which fertingus a fire,tx-tinguifh us.
! Pythagoras his necce was wont to (zy,That a woman which lies with a man ought, toge-' Athtr with herpetie-coate, leave ojfaH bajhfulnejfe, andwith herpetie-coate, take the fame I xgaine.Thc mindc ofrhe affailautmoleftcd with fundry different alarums,is eafilydiftnaid. And he whom imagination hath once made to fuffcr this fhame (and (lie hath caufed the fame to be felt but in the firft acquaintances; becaufe they are then burning and violent,and in the firft acquaintance and comming together,or triall a man gives of himfelfe, he is much moreafraid and quaint to miffc the marke he (hoots at) having begun ill hcfals into air ague or fpitc of this accident, which afterward continueth in fucceedingoccafions.Married men, becaufe time is at their command, and rhcy may goto it when they lift, ought never to preffe or importune their cnterprife, unkfle they be readie. Audit is better uiideccfttly to failc in hanfcling the nuptiall bed, full of agitation and fits,by waiting for (bmc or other fitter occafion, and more privateopportunitic, left fudden and alarmed, than to fall into a
per-


Cbap.zo.
Tbcfirfl Booke^.
perpetual! mifcric, by apprehending an aftomShmcnt and defperation of the firftreftiSall. Before polfeffion taken, a patient ought by fallies,and divers times, lightly allay and offer himfclfe without vexing or opiniating himfelfe, definitively to convince kimfeifc. Such as know their members docile and tractable by nature, let them only endevour to couinercc-fin their fantafic. Mcnhave rcafon to checke the indocile libertic of this member, for fb importunately infinuating himfelfe when we have no need of him, and fo importunatcly,or as I may fay impertinently failing, at whattime we have rrioft need of him and fb impe-rioufly contesting by his authority with our will,refufing with fuch fiercencsahd obflinacie our lblicitations both mentall and manuall. Neverthelelfe if a man inaSmuch as he doth gormandize and devour his rebellion, and drawesa triall by his condemnation, would pay me for to plead his caufe, I would perad venture make other of our members to be SuSpected to have(inenvy of his importance,and fwcetnefleof his nfc)dcvifed thisimpoffure, and li rimed this let quarrell againft him, and by feme malicious complot*irmcd the world again (I him,envioufly charging him alone with a faultcommon to them all. For I rcferre it to your thought, whether there be any one particular part of our body, that doth not Sometimes refute her particular operation to our will and wiSh, and that doth not often cxercifc and pra-$iSe againft our will. Allofthemhavetheirproper paffions, which without any Ic.we of ours doecithcr awaken or lull them afleepe. How often doe the forced motions and changes of our faces witnellcthefecretcft andmoft lurking thoughts we ha vc.and bewray them to by-ftanders ? Tkc fame caufe that doth animate this membcr,dodialfo, unwitting to us, embolden our heart,our lungs, and our pulSes. The fight of a pleafingobject,rcflecting imperceptibly on us, the flame of a contagious or aguiSh emotion. Is there nought betides thcfemufcles and veines,that rife and fall without theconfcnc,not only of otlr will,but alio of our. thought ? We cannot command our haire to (land anend, norourskinneto ftartlc fordefircorfeare. Our handsare often carried where we direct them not. Ourtbngucand voice arc Sometimes to ftckc of their faculties, the onelofeth her Speech, the other hcrnim-blencffc.Even when wehavenothing to feed upon, we would willingly forbid it: the ap-petitesto eat,or liltto drinkc, doe notleave to move the parts Subject to them, even as this other appetite, and fo, though it beoutoffeafon,forfaketh us, when he thinks good. Thofe itiitrumentsthatferve to difthargcthcbclly,havc their propcrcomprclfionsand dilatations, bcfidesour intent, and againft our meaning, asthefcarc deftined to diScbarge the kidncis. And that which, the better to authorize our wills power, Saint Augufitn alleageth, to have Scene one, who could at all times command hispoflerior, to lecasmany feapes ashe would, and which Pixwendearcth by theexampleofan other in hisdaies, who could let tunable and organized ones, following the tunc of any voice propounded unto his eares, inferreth the pure obedience of that member : than which, none is commonly more in-difereet and tumultuous. Seeing my fclfe know one SbskittiSh and mutinous, that theft forticycarcskeepcshismaftcr in Such awe,that will he,or nillhc, he will with a continuall brcath,con(tant and unintermittcd cuftomc breakc winde at his plcaSurc, and lb brings him. to his grave. And would to God Iknew itbutby Hiftorics, how that many times.ourbe!-ly,being restrained thereof, brings us even to the gates of a pining and languishing death: And that the Emperour, whogavcusfrccleaveto vent at all times, and every where, had alfo given us the power to doe it. But our will, by whofe privilege we advance this re^ proch, how much more likely, and confonant totruethmay we tax it of rebellion, and accuSe it of Sedition, by reafonofitsunrulincfleanddifobedience ? WillShcc at all times doe that, which we would have her willingly to doc ? Is Shee not often willing to effect that,which we forbid her to defire? and that to our manifeft prejudice and dammage? Doth fliefutfer her fclfe to be directed by the conclusions of our reafon ? To conclude, I would urge in defence of my client,thatit would plcafethc Judgesto confider,that concerning this matter,hiscaufcbeing infeperably conjoyncd to a conSort, and indistinctly : yet will not a man addreffe himfelfe but to htm, both by the arguments and charges, whichcannoway appertaine to his Said confort. For, his effect is indeed Sometime importunately to invite, but to refufc never: and alio to invite Silently "and quietly. Therefore is the fawcinelfc and illcgalitic oftheaccufers Scene. Howfoevcr it bc,protclting that Advocates and Judges may wrangle, contend,-and give Sentence, what, and how they pleaSc, Nature will in the mcane time follow her courfe : who, had She endued this member with any particular privilege,
yet


44 ThefirftBookc. Chap.io.
yet had fhe done but right, and fhewedbutrcafon. Author of the only immortall workc, of mortall men. Divine worke according to Socrates; and love, defire of immertalitie, and immortall J> , formetothem belonging was omitted, andwould often tafte whetberthey Wcrctoo hot,
and view them well, and lying along upon his bed, on his bcllie, and all complements performed,only injection excepted, which ceremony ended, the Apothccarie gone, and the patient lying in his bed, even as if he had received a glitter indeed, he found and felt the very fame effect, which they doe that have effectually taken them. And if the Phyfitian faw it had not wrought fufficiently, he would accordingly give him two or three more in the fame manner. My witneffe proteftcth, that the ficke mans wifc,to fave charges (for he paid for them as if he had received them) having fometimes aflaid to make them onely with luke warme watcr,the effect difcovered the craft,and being found not to worke at all, they were forced to returnc to the former, and ufe the Apothccarie. A woman fuppofing to havefwalloweelfl pinnewith her bread, cried and vexed her-felfc, even as if fhe had felt an intolerable paine in hcrthroat,where fhe imagined the fame to fticke; but becaufc there appeared neither fwelliDg or alteration, a skilfull man deeming it to be but a fantafic conceived, or opinion, apprehended by eating of foine gretty pcecc of bread, which haply might pricke her in the fwailow, made her to vomit, and unknowncto her, caft a pinnc in that which fhe had vomited.Which the woman perceiving,and imagining fhe had call the fame, was prefently cafed of her paine. I have knowne a Gentlcman,who having feafted a company of very honeft Gentlemen and Gentlcwomen,in his o wne houfc, by way offporr, and in jeft, boafted two or three daies after (for there was no fuch thing) that he had made them cat of abaked Cat; whereat the Gentlewoman of the companic apprehended fuch horror, that falling into a vioknt ague and diftempcr of her ftomaeke, fhe could by no meancsbe recovered. Even brute beafts,as well as we, arc feene to be fubject to the power of imagination ; witneffefomc Dogs,whofor forrow of their Matters dearh are feene to die,and whom we ordinarily fte to flartlc and barkc in their flecp,and horfts to neigh and ftruggle. But all this may be referred to the narrow future of the Spirit and the body, cntercommunicating their fortunes one unto another.lt is another thing,that imagination doth fbmtimes workc, not only againft her owne body, but alfoagainft that of others. And even as one body eje-cteth adifeafc to his neighbours doth evidently appeare by the plague, pox, or fore eies, that goc from one to another:
Ovld.amMA. Bum fpettar.t ocHlilafos,IadH>tmr&ipfi:
ai 9 MtsltaqHe cerponbHs tranftiont nocent.
Eies become forc,whilc they lookc on fore eies : By paffagemany ills our limmesfurprife. Likcwife the imagination moved and totted by fome vehemence, doth caft fome darts, that may offend a ftrange object. Antiquitie hath held, that certaine women of Scithia<,be-ing provoked and vexed againft fome men, had the power to kill them, only with their looke. The Tortoifes and the Eftriges hatch their egges with their looks only, afigncthat they have fomc cjaculative vertue. And concerning witches they are faid to have offeufivc
r*g.bn.ccl.}, and harme-workingeies.
ioj. Nefcio quit tencros octtlm mihffafcinat agnts. ^


The firfl Bookc.
45
My tender Lambs I cannot fee, By what bad cic,bewitchcd be. Magicians are but ill respondent? forme. So it is, that by experience wee fee women to transferee divers markes ofcheir fantafies,unto children they beare in their wombes: witnes fhcthat brought forth aBlackc-a-.nore.There was alfoprefented unto Char/esK\n of Bohemia, an Etnpcro.ir, a young girle, borne about Fife, all fhagd and-hairy over and over, which her m fther fikl.co have becne conceived fo,by reafon of an image of Saint IohnBap-ri/?,thac Was 1b painted ,and hung over her bcd.That the like is in hearts, is wicneffedby /4-r&f fhcepe,and alio by pattriges and harcs,rhat grow white by the ihowuponmountaines.. There was lately ieene a cat about my owne houfe, fo earncftly eyeing a bird, (Ittingupoiia trec,thathe feeing the Cat, they both fo wirtly fixed their looks one upon another, fo long, that at laft,the bird fell downe as dead in the Cats pawes,either drunken by his owne rtrong imagination, ordrawneby fome attractive power of the Cat. Thole that love hawking, have haply heard theFalkner tale, whoearneftly fixing his light upon a Kite in the aire, laid a wager chat with the only force of his lookc,he would make it come Hooping downe to the ground,and as fom'c report d id it many times.The Hiftories I borrow,I referre to the confeiences of thofe I take them from. Thcdifcourfes 3remine, and hold together by the proofcof reafon, not of experiences: each man miyadde his example to them: and who hath none,confidering the number and varietic of accidents,let him not leave to think,thcre areftorcofthem. If I come not well for my felfc, let another come for me. So in the ftudie wherein I treat of our muincrs and motions, the fabulous teftimonies, alwaics provided rheybe likely and pofflblc, miy fcrveto thepurpofe, as well a$ the true, whether it hapned orno,be itat^;w?,oratP^rir,:o/(>^orPff?r,itisalwaiesatrickeofhumanecapacitie,of j which I am profitably advifed by thisreporr. I fee-it and reape profit by it, as well in fha-dow as in bodie. And in diverslellbns that often hiftories afford, I commonly makcufeof thatjWhichismoft rare and memorable. Some writersthere are, whofe end is but to relate the events. Mine,if I could attainetoit,fhould be todeclare,what may come to pa The


The fir Booke^. Chap.21.
Chap. XXI. The profit of me man u the dammage of another.
DEmades the Athenian condemned a man ofthc Citic, whofe trade was to fell fuch iic^ ccffarics as belonged to burials, under colour, hec asked too much profit for them} and that fuch profit could not come unto him without the death of many people. This judgement fcemcth to be illtaken,becaufc no manprofitcth but by the loffe oforhers: by whichreafonaman fhould condemne all manner of gaine. The Merchant thrives not but by the liccntioufnelTc of youth; the Husbandman by dearth ofcorne; the Architect but by the ruine of houfes; the Lawyer by fuits and controverfies betweene men: Honour it fclfe and practice of religious Minifters, isdrawnc from our death and vices. No Phyfrtiande-lighteth in the health of hit owne friend, faith the ancient Grceke Comike: nor no Souldieris f leafed with the peace of hit Cktt, and ft of the reft. And which is worfe,lct every man found his ownc confcience,hce (hall finde, that our inward defires arc for the mod part nourifned and bred in us by the lofl'c and hurt of others; which when I confidcred, I began to thiake how Nature doth not gaincfay hcrfelfc in this, concerning her generall policie: for Phyfil tians hold,that The birth jncreaft,and augmentation of everything, it the alteration ad corruption of another.
Nam quodcunqnefuiemntattm finiimexit, Continue hoc mors eft iHiue,qnodfnit ante. What ever from it's bounds doth changed paflc, That ftrait is death of that which erft it was.
: i_-

Chat. XXII.
Ofcuome, and how a received law fhould not eafily he changed.
MY opinion is, that hce conceived aright of the force of cuftome, that firft invented this tale; how a country woman having enured herfelfc tochcrifh and beare a young calfc in her armes, which continuing, fhecgot fuch a cuftomc, that when he grew to be a great oxc, fhee carried him (till in her arracs. For truly, Cuftome is a violent and deceiving fchootc-mtJrris.She by little and little, and as it were by ftealth, eftablifhcth the foot of her authoritic in us; by which mild and gentle beginning, if once by th e aid of time, it have fctlcd and planted the fame in us, it will fbonc difcover a furious and tyrannicall countenance unto us, agamft which wc have no more the libertic to lift fb much as our cies: wee may plainly fee her upon every occafion to force the rules of Nature: Vfus effitaeimus return omnium magiftertVfe is the moft cffelluattmaftcr of aKthings.l belccve Platoes den mentioned in his common- wcalth,and the Phyfitians that fb often quit their arts rcafbn by authorise; and the fame King who by mcanesof her, ranged his ftomackc to be nourifhed with poyfon; and the mayden that Albert mcntioneth to have accuftomed hcrfelfc to live upon fpiders: and nowin thenew-found world ofthc Indians, there were found divers populous nations, in farre differing climates, that lived upon them; made provifion of them, and carefully fed them; as alio of grafle-hoppers/piffemircs, lizards, and night-bats; and a toad was fold for fixcrowncsin a time that all fuch meats were fcarccamongft them, which they boyle, roft, bake, and dreffc with divers kinds of fawecj. Others have bceue found to w horn our ufuall flefh and other meats were mortall and venomous. Confnetndtnk magna est vis; Ptrr.ettant venatorts innivt, tnmontibnsuri fefatiuntnr: Pugilescafttbut
eon-


Chap.it. The firft Booker. A
' 1 -:-----~--:---~ ,. ..
contufi,neingemifcuntquidem. Great is the force of cufime: Huntfrnsnwil wmcIq ullmghf in fow,and endure to bee fcorolicd on the hils.- Veneers brufed with find-bags or cy.tigcls, doe not fomnch as groane. 'Thefe forrcin examples are not ftrangc, if wee bur confidcr what we ordinarily finde by travel l,and how cuftome quaileth and weakenchour cuftonlary fenfes. We need not goe leeke what our neighbours report of che Cruarats of Nile; and what Philofophersdeeme of the celcitiail muficke, which is, that the bodies of it's circles, bein<> iblid fm ooth,antl in their rowling morion, touching and rubbing oneagainft another, mu!i of ncceffitic produce wonderfull harmonic : by tire changes and cntcrcaprings pf which, the rcvolutions,motions,cadences,aud carrolsofthe alters and planers are can fed and tranf-portcd. But that univcrfally the hearing fenfes of thefe low worlds creatures,, dizzied and hilled aflcepc, as thofeoftheiEgyptuns are, by the continuation of that found, how loud and great focver it be,cannot fenlibly perceive or ditinguilh the f imc.Smiths,Mil!crs, Forgers, Armorers, and fuch other, could not poffibly endure the noifc that commonly rings in their cares, if it did pierce them as it doth us. >Ay perfumed Jci kin fcrveth for mynofeto fincll unto, but after I have wornc it three or fourcdaies together, not I, but others have the benefit of it. This is more Arrange, that notwithftanding long intermiffions, cume may joyneand cftablifh the effect of her impreffion upon our fenfes5 as they prove that dwell neereto bells or fteeples. I have my lodging ncere unto a tpwer, where both evening and morning a very great bell doth chime Ave marie and Cover-few,'*h\ch jangling doth even make the tower to (hake; at firft itttoublcd me much, but I wasfoonc acquainted with ir, fo that now1 am nothing offended with ir, and many times it cannot waken me out of my flccpcP/rfWdid once chide a child for playing with nuts, who anfwered him, Thou ehidefi me for afmail matter.Cufime (replied Plato) is nfmallmatter.] findethat our greateft vices make their fitil habit in us, from ourinfancie, and that our chiefe government: and educa*, tion,licth in our nurfes hands. Some mothers thinke it good fport to lee a childe wring off a chickens necke, and ftrivctobeatadogorcark And fome fathers arc fo fond- foolifii, that they will conifer as a good Augur or fore-boding of a martiall mindeto fee their fonncs mifufc a poorc peafant, or tug a lackey, that doth not defend himfelfc; and impute it to a ready wit, when by fome wily difloyaltic, or crafty deceit, they fee them coufin and overreach their fcllowes: yet arc they the true feeds or roots of cruelty, of tyranny, and qf treafon. In youth they bud, and afterward grow to ffrcngth, and come to perfection by meanesof cuftome.
And it is a very dangerous infiitution, to excufc fobafe and vile inclinations, with die weakneffe of age,and lightnclfe of the fubject. Firft, it is nature that fpeaketh, whofe voice-is then fhriller, purer, and more native, when itis tender, newcr,and youngefh Secondly > the deformity of the crime confiftcth not in the difference betweene crownes and pinncs; it depends of it felfe finde it more juft to conclude thus: Why fhould not hee as well deceive one of a crowne,as he doth ofa pinnC ? than as commonly fbmedoe,faying, alas,it is but a pinne; I warrant yoiij he will not doe fo' with crownes. A man would carefully teach children to hate vices of their owne geauity; and fo diftinguifh the deformity of them, that they may not only efchew them in their actions, "but above all j hate them in their hearts: and what colour focver they bcarc, the very conceit may fecme odious unto them. I knovy well, that becaufe in my youth I have ever accuftomcd my felfe to tread a plainc beaten path, and have ever hated to cntermcddle any manner of deceipt of coufoning-craft, even in mychildifh fports ( for truly it is to be noted, thatChildrensplayes are not fports, and fhould be deemed as their moft ferious actions.) There is no paftime fo flight,that inward-lie I have not a naturall propenfion, and ferious care, yea extreme contradiction, not to uiea'ny deceipt.I fhuffle and handle the cards, as carneftly for counters, and kcepe as ft rieran accompt,as ifthey weredoubIeduckets,when playing with niy'wife or children,it is in-differentto mee whether I win orlofe, as I doe when Iplay in goodearncft. Howand wherefbeverit bc,mineowneeics willfufficeto kcepe me in office; none clfedoc watchmee fo narrowly; not that I refpect more. It is not long lincein mine owne houfe, I law a little mau, who at Nanteswzs borne without armes,and hath fo well fafhioned his feet to thofe frviecs, his hands fhould have done him, that in truth they havcalmoft forgotten their na-tutall office. In all his diftourfes he uameth them his hands,.he carveth any meat, he char-gethand Ihootsoffapiftole, he thrcds a needle, he fowcth, he writeth,'puts off his p,
combcth


48
TbefirflBookc^.
Chap. .
combeth his head,plaieth at cards and dice j (huffleth and handleth them with a greatdex, teritie as any other man that hath the perfect ufcof his hands: the monie I have lonictimes given him, he hath caricd away with his feet, as well as any other could doc with hishands. I faw another,beinga Childe,that with the bending and winding of his (becauft hee had no hands) would brandifh a two-hand-Sword, and mannageaHolbard,as nimbly as any man could doe with his hands:he would caff them in the aire,then receive them againe, he would throw a Dagger, and make a whip to yarkc and lafh, as cunningly as any Carter iaFrante. Biithereffcdsaremuchbctterdifcovei-edinthe ftrange impreffions, whichic worketh in our mindes where it meetes not fo much rcfiff ance. What cannot (he bring to paffe in our judgements, and in our conceits ? Is there any opinion fo fantaff ical, or conceit (bextravagant(I omit to fpeakeof the groffc impofture ofreligions,wherwith fo many great nations and fo many worthy and fufficient men have beene befottcd,and drunken: For, bc-ingathing beyond rhecompalfc of our humane reafon, it is more cxcufable if a man that is not extraordinarily illuminated thereunto by divine favour,doc lofe and mif-carrie himfclfe therein)orofothcropinions,isthere any fofftangc, that cuffomehath notplanted and cfta? blifhed by lawes in what regions fcever it hath thought good ? And this ancient exclama-CU.Hit.Vtl.i. tionismoff juft: Nonfndet fhyficum, idcsljpeculatorem'venatoremtjuenature, abanimk tonfnetudine tmbmis qustrcre teflimonium vcritatts ? Is it not a Jhame for a naturaWPhilofo-fher, that is the watch-man and huntfman ofnatnre,to feeke the teftimonie of'truth, from mindes endued and double dtde with cufime? Iam of opinion, that no fantafie (b mad can fall into humane imagination, that meetes not with the cxamplcof fomc publikc cuffome, and by confequence that our reafon doth not ground and bring to a (lay. There areccrtainc people, thatturne their backs towards thofc they falute, and never Iookc him in the face whom they wovtld honour or worfhip. There are others, who when the King fpitteth, the mod favoured Ladiein his court dretcheth forth her hand; and in another countrey,whcre the nobled about him, doopctothe ground to gather his ordure in fome fine linnen cloth: Let us here by the way infcrt a tale. A French Gentleman was ever wont to blow his note in his hand, (a thing much againft ourf&fhion ) maintaining his lb doing; and who in witrie jeding was very famous. Heaskcd ineona'cime, whatprivilegethisfuthieexcrcmcnthad, that weeihould have a daintie linnen cloth or handkercher to receive the fame; and which is worfe, fo carefully fold it up, and keepe the fame about us, which fhould be more loath* fome to ones domacke, than to fee it cad away, as wee doe all our other excrements and filth.Mee thought he fpake not altogether without reafon : and cudome had takenfrom me the decerning of this ilrangeneffe, which being reported of an other countrie we dceme (b hideous. Miracles are according to the ignorance wherein we are by nature, and not according to natures effence; u(e brings the fight of our judgement aflecpe. The barbarous heathen are nothing more ftrange to us, thau we are to them: nor with more occafion, as very man would avow, if after he had travelled through theft farre-fetchrcxamples, hee could day himfelft upon the diftourfes, and foundly conferre them. Humane leafon is a tincture in like weight and meafure, infufed into all our opinions and cufiomes, what form foevcr they be of .-infinite in matter rinfifiite in diverfitie. But I will returne ro my theme. There arc certaine people, where, except his wife and children, no man (peaketh to the King, but through atrunke. Another nation, where virgins (hew their fecret parts openly, and married women diligently hide and cover them. To which cudome, this fafhioa ufed in other places, hath fome relation: where chaditie is nothing regarded but for marriage fake; and maidens may at their pleafurc lie with whom they lift; and being with childe, they may without fearc of accufation, fpoyleand caft their children, with certaine medicamentSjWhich they have only for that purpofe. And in another countty,if a Merchant chance to all other Merchants that are bidden to the wedding, are bound to lie with the bride before her husband, and the more they arc in number, the more honour and commendation is hers, for conftancie and capacitic : the like if a gentleman or an officer marrie; and lb of all others : except it be a day-labourer,or feme other of baft cond ition; forthenmuft the Lord or Prince lie with the bride; amougft whom (notwithftanding thisabufivecuftomc) loyaltie in married women is highly regarded, and heldinfpeciall account, during the time they are married. Others there are, where publike brofhel-houfesofracn axe kept, and where open mart of mariiagcs-artCYertobehad: where women


Chap. it. The fir Booker. 49
111-*-1-1----"-!-- '
men goe to the warres with their husband s and haveplacc,notone!y in fight, butaho in command, where they doenot oncly wcare jewels at their nofes, in rheirlip and cheekes, and in their toes j but alfobig wedges of gold through their paps and buttocks, where when they eat, they wipe their fingers on their thighs, oh the bladder of their genitoriesi and the foles of their feet, where not children, but brethren and nephewes inherit; and in fome places, the nephewes onely, except in the fucccfiion of the Prince. Where ro order the communitie of goods, which amongft them is rciigioufly oblerved ccrtaine. So-veraigne Magiftrats have the general! charge of husbandry and tilling of the lands, and efthediftribution of the fruits, according to every mans seed : where they howlc and wcepe at their childrens deaths, and joy and feaft at their old mens deccafc. Where ten or twelve men lie all in one bed with all their wives, where fiich women as lofe their hull bands, by any violent death, may marrie againe, others not: where the condition of women is fo detefted, that they kill all the maiden children, fo foonc as they are borne, and to fupply their naturall need they buy women of their neighbour?. Where men may at their pleafure,without alleagingany'caufe,put away their wives,but they ( what juft reafon fo-cverthcyhavc) can never put away their husbands. Where husbands may lawfully fell their wivcSjiftuey be barren. Where they caufe dead bodies fid! to be boyled,and then to be brayed in a mortcr, fo long till it come to a kind of pap, which afterward they mingle with their wine, and fodrhikeir. Where the moll defired fcpulcher that fome wifh for, is to bee devoured of doggcs,and in fome places ofbirds. Where fome thinke, that bleffcd loules hv in alllibetty,in ccrtaine plealant fields (lorcd with al commodities,and that from them pro-ceedsthat Eccho>vih\ch we heare. Where they fight in the water, and fhoot exceeding true with their bowes as they are fwimming. Where in figne of fubjecTtion men 'mult raife their fliouldcrs and (loope with their heads, and put off their fhoocs when they enter their Kingshoufes. Where Eunuchs that have religious women in keeping, becaufe they fhall not be loved, have alfo their nofes and I ips cut off. And Priedsthat they may the betcer acquaint themfclvcs with their Demos,md take their Oracles,put eut their eye3.Whcrc every manmakeshimfelfeaGodofwhathe p!eafeth:thehuntcrofa Lion or a Fox; thefifher,. ofaccrtaine kindeof Fifh; and frame thcmfelves Idolsof every humane action or palfion : thcSunne, thcMoone, and the earth are their chicfed Gods: the forme of fwcaring is to touchthe ground looking upon the Sunne, and where they eat both fleih and fifh raw* Whercthcgrcatcd oath istofweareby the name ofibmcdcceafcd man, that hath lived in good reputation in the countrie, touching his grave with the hand. Where the ncw-ycares giftsthat Kings fend unto Princes their vaflals every ycare, isibmefirc, which when it is brought,all the old fi re is clcane put out: of which new fire all the neighbouring people are bound upon paine Ufie majeftatis ,to fetch forthcirufes. Where,when the King (which often comvneth to pafic ) wholly to give himfclfe unto devotion, giveth over his charge, his' ncxtfuccefforisboundto doc like, and convayeth the right of the Kingdome unto the third heirc. Where they diverfific the forme of policie, accordingas their affaires ieeme to require: and where they depofe their Kings,whcn they thinke good, and appoint them cer-taincancicnt "rave men to undertake and weald the Kingdoms government, which fome-< times is alio committed to thecommunaltie. Where both men and women arc equally cir-cumcifed,and alike baptifed. Where the Souldier, that in one or divers combats hath presented hisKing with feven enemies heads, is made neble. Where fome live under that lb rare and unfociablc opinion of the mortalitie of foules. Where women arc brought abed without paine or griefe. Where women on boththcir legs wcare greaves of Copper J and if aloufebitethcm they arc bound by duty ofmagnanimitie to bite it againe:and no maid da'remarrie, except fhe havcfirft made offer of her Virginitieto the King, Where they falute one another laying the forefinger on thcground,and then lifting it up toward heaven: where all men beare burthens upon their head,and women on their moulders. Where women piffe Handing, and men cowring. Wherein figne of true friendfhip they fend one anotherfome ofcheir owne blond, and offer incenfe to men which they incend to honour, asthey doetotheirGods : whercnot onely kindred and confanpuinitie in the fourth degree, but in any furthelloff, can by no mcanes be tolerated in marriages : where children fuckctill they be four,and fomctimcs twelve yeares old, in which place they dceme it a dif-mallthingto give achildcfiickcthefirft day ofliisbirth. Where fathers hayethe charge to
F puuifh


Thefirftfteoke-,. Ckap.zi.
punifh their male-childrcn,and mothers ondy maid-children, and whofepunifhmcutis to nangthem up by the feet and fo to fmoke them. Where women are circumcifed; where they eat allmanncr of herbes, without other distinction, but to refufe thofe that have ill favour : where all things arc open, and how fairc and rich focver their houfes be, they have neither doorcs nor windowes,nor any cheflsto loeke; yet are all thecves much more feverc-ly punifhed thcrc,than any whereclSe;where,asmonkicsdoe,tliey kill lice with theirteeth, and thinke it a horrible matter to fee them crufht betw cen their nailes; where men fo long as they live never cut their haire,nor pairc their nailes: another place where rhcy onely pairc the nailes of their right hand, and thofe of the left are never cut, but very curioufly maintai-nedrwhercthey indcYOur to chcrifh all the haire growing on the right fide,as long as it will grow: and very often Shave away that of the left-fide: where in fome Provinces ncere unto us, fome women cherifh their haire before, and otherfome that bchinde, and fha vc the con-traric: where fathers lend rhckfhtldren, and husbands their wives to their gucfls, fo that they pay ready mony : where men may lawfully get their mothers with childe: where fathers may lie with their daughters, and with their fonncs: whcre5infblcmneaffembliesand banquets,withoutany difiinction of bloud orIIiancc,mcn will lend one another their children. In fome places men feedc upon humane flcfh,and in others, where it is deemed an office of pietie in children to kill their fathers at a ccrtaine age: in other places fathers appoint what children fhall live, and be prefcrved, and which die and be cart our, whikftthcy are yetin their mothers wombc: where old husbands lend their wives to yong men, for what ufe Soever they pleafc:In other places,whcre al women arc common without finne or offence: yea in fomcplaceSjWhcre for a badge of honour, they wcare as many frienged taficls, fattened to the skirt oftheir garment as they have laine with fcvetall men. Hath not cuffome alfo made a (cvcrall common-wealth of women ? hath it not taught them to manage Amies ? to kvie Armies, to marfhall men, & to deliver battles ? Aid that which Strict-Searching Phi-lofbphic could never perfwade the wifeft-doth fhc not of her ownc naturall inftinct teach it to the grofeft headed vu!gar?For wc know whoknations,wheredcath is not only condemned,but chcrifhed; wheie children offcvai ycares ofage,without changing of countenance, or fnewing any figne ofdilInay,cndurcd to be whipped to death; where nchee and worldly pelfe was fo defpifed and holdcn fo contemptible, that the miferablefl and nccdkft wretch ofaCitie would have fcomcd to ftoopeforapuilcfuliofgold.Havewcnot heard ofdivcrs moft fertile regions,plentcoufly yeelding almancr ofueccflary vitftuals,where nevcrchekfle the moft ordinary cates and daintielt diflies,werc but brcad,water-crelles,& waterf Did not cuffome worketnis wonder in C/&*/,that during the fpacc of feven hundred yctes it was ne ver found or heard of,that any woman or maiden had her honor or honeftic called in question? And to conclude,thcre is nothing in mine opinion,that cither She doth not,orcannot: and with reafon doth Pindar us, as I have heard Say, Caliber the Qneene and Emprcffe of all thewer/d. He that was metbeatingof hisfather,anfwcred, /twos the cuffome of his houfe; that his father had fo beaten his grandfathered he his great-grandfather,, & pointing to hu fonneS&Ajthis childJhaHalfo beat mee, when hefhaftcome to my age. And the father,whom thefonne haled and dragged throughthicke and thinnc in the ftrcct, commanded him to ftay at a certahiedoore,for himfelfhad dragged his father nofurthenwhich wcrcthe bounds of the hereditarie and injurious demeanours the children ofthat family were wont to Shew their fathers.ffy cujlomefi\t\i Ar')Aoiie,asoftenatbyfickneJfe,doe we fee women tug andttare theirhaires,bite their nailes, and eat cole and earth: and mere by eufiome than bynature doe men meddle and abufe themfelves with men. The lawes of confcicncc, which wc fay to proceed from nature,nfcand proc eed ofcuftome : every man holding in Special regard, and inward veneration the opinions approved, and cuftomcs received about him, cannot without remorft leave them, nor without applauftapplic himfelfe unto them: when thofe of Crett would in former ages curfe any man.they bcSbught theGods to engage him in fome bad cuffome. But the chicfeft effect of her power is to Seize upon us, and fo to entangle us, that it fhall hardly lie in us, to free our Selves from her hold-faft, and come into our wits againe, to difcourfe and reafon of her ordinances; verily,becaufe wee fuckethem with the milke of our birth, and forafmuch asthc worlds viSage prefents it felfcin that cftatc unto our firft view, it fcemeth we arc borne with a condition to follow that courSc. And the common imaginations we findc in credit about us, and by our fathers feed infufWin out feule, feeme
to


The fir ft Book^.
to be the gencrall and naturalh Whereupon ic followeth that vvhatlbever is beyond the eompaffe of cuftome, weedeeine likcwifc to bee beyond the eompaffe of reafon ; God knovyes how for the molt part, unreafonably. if as wc.whofiudy our felvcs, have learned rodoc, every "man that hearctba juftfentencc, would prcfcnrly coniidcr, how it may-in any fort belonging unto his private ft ate, each man fhould finde, that this is not fo much a good word, as a good blow- to the ordinary fottifhncffc of his judgement. But men receive the admonitions of truth and her precepts, as directed to the vulgar, and never to theinfel v.e/S.3 and inliew of applying them to their maners, roofi men nicit fcoiifhly and unprofitably apply them to their mcmorie. But let us rcturnc to cuftomcs foveraignry: fuch as are brought up to libertie, and to command thcmftlves, cfteemc ail other forme of policie as monftrous and againft nature. Thcfe that are enured to Monarchic doc the like. And what faciliticfoever fortune affoordeth them to change, even when with great diffkultie they havefhaken off the importunitie of a tutor, they run to plant a new one with ftm.bj.able difficulties, becaufe they cannot refolvethemfelves to hate tutorfhip. It is by the inedita-R tion of cuftomc, that every man is contented with the place where nature hath fetled: .hits J-and the lavage people of Scotland have nought to doe with Teuraine, nor the Scithians> ^ithThejfalie. Darius demanded of ceftaine Grecians, For what they would tak npon\ them the Indians cufiome,to eat their deceafed fathers. ( For fuch was their manei^thioking they could not poffibly give them a more noble and favourable tom.be, than in their pwnc> bowels) they anfwered him. Thatnothtngin the worldjhottld ever lying them to embrace fo inhumane a cufome .'But having alfo attempted to perlwadc the Indians to leave their fato fhion, and take the Grxcians,which was to burne their corpes, shey were much more afto-nied thereat. Every man doth fo, forlbmuch as cuftome doth fobleare us that we cannot diftinguifh the true viftgc of things.
l^iladeo magnum, nec tarn mirabile qUicquam Lite. I. i.tztf.
Vrincipio,qHodnonm\nuammirarieromnes
Paulatim, t&ijnQ feuio*snfi'<) nfjeo) r.otd* ii nh hoc jnwos anol e 3orii
Nothing at firft fo wontIrous is, lb great, But all, t'admire,by little flake their hear. Having other times gone about'to endcarc, and make ibmc one of our obfervations to be offorcc,and which was withrtfolutc aucloritie received in moft parts aboutus,and notde-liring,asmoft men doe,oncly tocftablifh the fame by the force oflawesand examples,, buc having ever bin from her beginning,! found the foundation of it fo wcak.that my felfe,who was to confirme it in others, had much adocto keepe my countenance. This is the receipt by which Plato undertakcth to banifh the unnaturall andprepolterous loves of his time, and which hee eftccmeth Sovcraigne and principalkTo wit, that publike opinion may con-demncthem; thatPocts,and all men clfc may tell horrible tales of them. A reccit by mcancs whereof the faireft Daughters winne no more the love of their fathers, nor brethren molt excellent inbeautic, the love of their filters. The very fables of l'hyesles;o Oedipm,wd,o tMacareus, having with the plcafurc of their longs infufed this profitable opinion, in the tender conceit of children. Ccrtcs, chaftitic Ujgu excellent vcrtuc, the comrnoditie whereof is very well kiiownc :buttoufcit,and according to nature toprcvailc with it,isashard as it iseafie, to endeare it and toprcvailc with it according to cuftome, to lawes and precepts. The fitft and univerfall rcafons are of a hard pcrfcrutation. Ad our Matters paffe thentovei! inglcaning,or in hot daring fo much as totaftethctrij at firft light caft thcmftlves headlong into the libertie or fanctuarie of cuftome.Thofe that will not fatter themftlves to be drawne our ofhis originall fource, do alfo commit a greater error, and fubmit themftlves to lavage opinions : witncflc Chryfppus; who in fbmanyfevcrall places ofhis compoiitions,infcrted the linall accompt he made ofconjunctions, how inceftuqusfoever they were.Hee that will fieehimfelfe from this violent prejudice of cuftome, fhall find divers things received with an undoubted refblution, that have no other anker but the hoarie head and frowning wrim-pics of cuftomc, which ever attends them : which maske being pulled off, and referring all matters to truth and reafon, he fhall perceive his judgement, as it were ovcrtumed,and j>Ia-ced ina much furer ftate. As for example,I wil then aske him,what thing can be moreftrage than to fee a people bound to follow lawes,he never underftoodPBeing in all his domeftical aftaircs,as marriages,donations,tcftaments,.putchafes, and falcs,iicCcfTarily bound.tq cuft.o-
F a iriajry


rnary rules, which forfomuch as they were never written nor ptibiifheci in his owne tongue, he cannot understand, and whereof he mufi of neceffity purchafe the interpretation and ufe. Not according to the ingenious opinion of Ifocrates, who counfcllerh his Kino to make the Trafikesandnegotiationsofhisfub]ctts,fiee,er7fa
troverfies, and quarrels burthenfome, and chargedwith great fubfdtes, and impositions: But according to a prodigious opinion, to make open fale, and traftickc of reaibn it lclfc, and to give lawes acourfeofmetchandize,isvery Strange. I commend fortune, for that (as our Historians report) it was a Gentleman of Gaskonie, and my Countrimart, thatfirfl oppolcd himfelfcagainft Charles the great, at what time he went about to cftablifhthc Latineand Imperiall lawes amongfl us. What is more barbarous than to fee a nation, where by lawful cuftome the charge of judging is fold,and judgements are paid for with teadie money; and where jullice is lawfully denied him,that hath not whcrewithallro pay for it; and that this merchandize hath fo great credit, that in a political! government there Should be letup afourtheftateofLawyershrcarh-fcllers, and pettifoggers, and joyncd to the three ancient States,to wit,the Clcrgic,theNobility,and the Communaltie; which fourth State havingthe charge of la wes,and fometimes auctoritic ofgoods and lives,fhouldmake abody,apart,and* fcvcrall from that ofNobilitic, whence double Lawes mud follow; thofe of honour, and thofe of juftice; in many things very contraric do thofe as rigoroufly condemnc a lie pocketed up, as thefe a lie revenged : by the law and right of armes he that puttcth up an injurie Shall be degraded of honour and nobilitie; and h^thatrevbngfcth bimlelfeofit, Shall by the civill Law incurre a capitall punilhment. Hec that Shall addreffe himfelfc to the Lawes to have reafon for fomc offencewonc unto his honour, diShonoreth himfelfc. And who doth not So, isbythcLawespunifhed and chaltifcd. And ofthefefb different parts, both never-theleffe having reference to one head; thofe having peace, thefe war committed to their charge; thofe having the gainc,thefe the honor: thofe knowledge,thefe verrue:thofe reafon, thefe Strength :thofe the word,theSeacuon:thbfe jumce,thefejalour:tholercafon,theleforcc: thofe alonggownc,andthcSca Short coat,in partage and fhare.Touching indiffcrcntthings, asclothesand garments, whofbevcr will reducethcrrito their true end, which isthclcrvice and commodity of the bodit, whence depend eth their original! grace and comlincs, for the moftfantafticallto my humour that maybe imagine'd,amoiigft others I willgive them out Square caps; that long hood of plaited velvet, that hangs over out womehs heads, with his parti-coloured traile,and that vaineand unprofitable model! ofa member, which we may not fo much as name with modeftic, whereof notwithstanding wc make publike Shew, and open demonstration. Thefe confiderations do ncvertheleffe never diffract a man of understanding from following the common guile. Rather on the contrary ,nic Secmcth,that all fe-verall,ftrangc, and particular fafhions proceed rather offollie, or ambitious affcctation,than oftrue reafon rand that a wife man ought inwardly to retire his mindc from the common prefTe, and hold the fame liberty and power to judge freely of all things, but for outward matterSjhe ought absolutely to folfow thefafhions and forme cuftomaiily rcceivcd.Publike focictie hath nought to do with our thoughts; but for other thingSjas our actions, our travel, our fortune, and our life, that rnuft be accommodated and left to it's lervice and com-monopinions: as that good and great Socrates, whorefufedtofavehis life by dilbbeying themagiftrate,ycaa magistrate moft wicked andUnjuSt. Forthatistheruleofrulcs,andge-nctall law of lawcSjfbr every man to obfervcthbSe of the place wherein he liveth.
N 'atxiif iwtSt. tsTw \y%!yit iy./\ir. GnemAtat*. lawes of 0 ,miv(i placCj
To follow, isagracc.
Loeherc fome of another kind. Thefe rifeth a great doubt, whether any fo evident pro-fitmaybc found in the change ofa received law, of what nature Soever, as there is hurt in removingthe fame; forfomuch asa well fctlcd policie may be compared to a frame or buil-dingofdivers parts joyncd together with fuch a ligament as it is impoffiblc to ftirre or dif-placeone, but the whole body muftnccdesbe'fhaken,and Shewafeeling of it. The Thu-rians Law-giver infiitutcd,thzt,whofoe ver would goe abont^itherto abolifk any one of the old Lowes,or attempt to eftablifh a liewjhonldprefeni himfelfbefore the people with a roape about his neeke, to the end,that if his invention were not approved of all men, heJhouJdprefently bee firangled.Knd he of Lacedtmon laboured all his lite to get an affflred promife of his citizens,
Wm that
I
m


Cnap.". Thefirft Booker. 55
that they would never infringe any oneof his ordinances. That Ephore or Tribune} who lb rudely cut oft'thc two firings/hat Phtinis had added unto inuficke, refpecteth not whether muficke be better or no with them, or whether the accords of ir be better filled, he hath fuf* ficicnt reafon to condemnc them,becaufe it isan alteration of the old forme. It is that Which theoldruftiefwordofjuftice of MarfeiHe didfignifie. I am diltaffed with novehie, what countenance foever it (hew : and I have reafon fo to be, for I have fecne very hurtfbll effects followthc fame. Thatwhich fbmanyyeares finccdothfoprcfleus, hath not yet exploited all. But fome may allcage with apparancc. tha: by accidenr, it hath produced and engeu-dred all,yea both the mifchicfes and ruincs,that fince are committed without and againif it: it is that a man fhould blame and finde fault with.
Hen pat tot telis vnlnetafafta meis, 0v-^
Alas I iijffcr finart [ tbjl^Z. Procur'd by mineowne dart. Thofe which attempt to make an Eftate^rc commonly the firff overthrewneby the fall of it: hctbat is firff mover ofthefame, reapcthnoc alwayes the fruit of fiich troubles; he bcatsand troubleth the water for others to fifh in. The contexture and combining of this monarchie,and great building,having bin difmift and difolvcd by it, namely m Ijerold yeares,giveth as much overture and entrance as a man will to like injuries. Royall Majcflie doth more hardly fall from rhe top to the middle, than it turtibleth downe from the middle to the bottom. But if the inventors are mdre damageable,the Imitators are more vicious,to caff them felves into examples, of which they have both felt and punifhed the horror and mifchiefe. And if rhcre be any degree of honour, even in ill doing, thefe are indebted to others for the glory of the invention, and courage of the firff attempt. All forts of ntW hceatioufiielfe doc haply draw out of this originall andfriiitfullfourcc, the images and patternsio trouble our common- wealth. We may rcade in our very la we*, made for rhc remedieofthe firft evill, theapprcntifage and excufeof all forts of wicked cnterprifes; And in favour of publikc vices, they are named with new and more pleafing words for their cxcufcSjbatiardlzing & allaying their true titles: yet it isto rcformc our conferences and our conceits, HoKeftaoratioefi.lt is an honefijpeechandwcllfaid.)l\\ttt\cbeft pretence ofinno- j j a
vation or noveltie is moff dangerous: Adet nihil motnmex antiquo probabile efi. So nothing Ttrj!!\ movedontof the firft place HaUowabte:Ytt?kt\mt\\^
guoth a great fellc-love and prefumption,for a man to eilccme his opinions fo far, thatfor to eftabliih them,a man muff be faine to fubvert a publike pcace,and introducefo many inevitable mifchicfes, and lb horrible a corruption of manners,as civill warres,artd altcrationsof a (latebring with them, in matters of luch confequcncc, and to bring them into his oWnc countrie.Is it not ill husbanded to advance fo many ccrtaine and knowne vices, for to com-bate contcllcd and debatable errors? Isthere any worfekinde of vices, than thofe which ihockea mans owneconfcienccand naturall knowledge ? The Senate durfl give thisdefeace in payment about the controversies betweene it and the people for the myftcrie of their religion: Addcos.idmagrs qnam adfepertineretipfosvifnros,ne factafuapeHuantut:That that didtathSr belong to the Gods than to them, and the Godsjhonld loolreto it, thattheit due t'ttet were not polluted. Agreeing With that, which the Oracle anfwered thofe of Delphos, inthc Median warre,fearing the invafions of the Pirfians.Thcy demanded of that God what they fhould doc with the treafures confecrated tcj his Tertiple, Whether hide,or cary them away: who anfwered them, that they mould rembve nothing, but take care ofthemfelvcs, for he was able to provide for1 all things that werb fit for him. Ghf-iftian religion hath all the marker of extreme juftice and profit, but none more apparent than the exact commendation of obedience due unto magiltrateS,and manutehtion ofpolicis:what wondctfullexample hath divine wiidomc lcrt us, which roeflablifhithtweMareof humane kinde, and to Conduct this glorious viciorie of hcrsagainft death and (inne,would not doit but at the mercy ofoUr politik ordcr.and hath fubmittcd the progreflcof it,andthc conduct offo high and worthie e'ffc-&,to theblindnclfc and injultice of our obfervations and Cuff omcs,fuffcring the innocent Kloud offo many her favored elect to run, and allowing a long loffe of ycares for the ripa-r-'.ngofthisine(limable fruit? There is much difference betweene the caiife of him that rolloweth the formes and lawes of his countric, and him that undertaketh to governc and lange them. The firff alleagech for hiJexc-ufejfimpIicitic^bedicncCjandcxample; what-
F 3 foever


54 Thefirft BooktL,. .22.
Cic.dh.l.u focvcr he doth cannot be malice, at the moft it is but ill lucke. Quit cfienim, quemnon mo-vcatclartfiimis monumentis tefiata confignataq3 antiquitas ? For who is. he whom antiquitte rvillnot move,being wttnejfed & figned with former monuments? Beiidcs that vv Inch Ifocrates ( faith,tbat defttb hath more part in moderation,than hath excejfe. The other is in much worfe cafe. For he that medleth with chufjng aud changing, ulurpcth the authoritie of judging: and muft rcibl vc himfelfe to fee the fault of what lie hunteth for, and the good of what he bringeth in. This lb vulgar consideration hath confirmed me in my ft-atc,and re (trained my youth, that was mure rafh, fromburthening my flioulderswith ib filthiea burthen, as to make my lelferefpondentoffo important a Science. And in this todarc,what in lbund judgement J durft not in the cafieft ofthofe wherein I hadbecne inStructcd,and wherein the raflr-nes of judging is of no prejudice. Seeming moft impious to me,to goe about to liibmit pub-' liKeconffitutionsandunmoveableobfcrvanccSjtothcinftabilitieof a privatefanraiie (private reafon is but a private jurifdidtion) and to undertake that on divinc-lawcs, which no policic would tolerate incivill law. Wherein although mans reafon have much morecom-merce, yetarc they foveraignly judges of their judges : and their extreme fuflicicnciefervcth to expound cuftomcand extend the ulc,.that of them is received, and nor to divert and innovate the fame. If at any time divine providence hath gone beyond the rules, to which it hath neccflary constrained us,it is not to give us a dilpenlation from thcm.They are blowes of her divine handjWhich we ought not imitate, but admire : as cxtraordinarie.examples, markes otan cxpreflc and particular avowing of the feverall kinds qf\yondcrs,which forateftimo-nie of her omnipotencie it offereth us,bcyond our orders and fovces,v\ hich it is follieand im-pictie to goe about to reprcfent, and which we ought nor follow but contemplate with admiration, and meditate with aftonifhment. Acts of her pcribnage, and not of ours. Cotta C't VtNat ptotcfteth very opportunely; ghtHm dereligioneagttur T, Corttncanmn, P. Scipionem, P.ScaaJolam,Pontifieesmaxtmos,nonZeponem,aut\Cleanthem,aw Chrjfippum,feqttor.When wetalke of religion, I fellow Titus Comncanus,Pnblw Sciph,P.Sc?vola,-atid the profeffors of religion,notZeno,Cleanthes,orChryfippM.
May God know it in our prefent quarell, wherein are p bundled articles, yea, great and deepe articles,to be removed and altered, although roan-y.f. .ere are, who may boaltto have exactly futvaid the reafons and fouudationsof one and other fiction.lt is a number, if it be a number, that mould have no greatmcanc to trouble us. ^But whither goeth all thjs other throng? Under what colours doth it quarter it felfe? Ir follower h of tlieirs,as of other weakc and ill applied medicines, the humors, that it would have purged in us, it hathenflamed, exafperatcd, and fharpned, by her conflict, and ftill do rernaine in our bodies. It could not by,reafon of her weakneffe purge us, but hath rather weakned us; lb that we cannot now void it, and by her operation we reap nothing but long^qntinualI,and inteftinc griefesaiid aches,yetisit,thatfortune,cverrefcrving her authoritie above our difcourfe^loth >mtimes prefent us the-urgent neceffitic, that lawes muft needs yccld her fome place: And when a man rcliftcththc increafeofan innovation, brought in by violence, to keepe himfelfe each-where and altogether in rule and bridle againft thofe that have the kcyes of field s, to whom all things arc la wfull, that may in any fort advance rheir dellcjgne,' that have not: law, nor order, but to follow their advantage, it. is a dangerous obligation,-ud prejudicialliup
49nEfer V'M-.i.Ai\ Miiiu.tr 7 d 1 .iw^-w^ -rii'l..- adbml "
Stn.Otd.Ali4. Adttumnocediperfidopr aflat fides.
fietl, ...... Trull in th'untruftie, may
To hurt make openway. ;di29#ifl
For lb much as the ordinaricdifciplinc of aneflate, tbjat^ath his perfect, health, doth not provide for thefe cxtraordinarie accidents, it preluppofeth. a bodie holding it felfe in his principall members and offiecs,and aeommoiyconSehttoobScrveand obey.ir. Lawfullpro-cccding isacold,dull,hcavicand forced proceeding: and is not like to hold put againft a licentious and unbridled proceeding. Itis yet as allmcn know,a reproach to thofctwo great perlbnagcs, OUavitu and Cato, in ta$ir c.iyiH warres; the one of Scii'a, the other of Cafar> becaufethey rather fuftcrcd their to incur all extremities,, than by her lawesto aid her,or to innovate any thing. For rruly in thefe laft nec cSiities, where nothing is left to take hold by, it were pcradvenrurc better, to ifiriigthe Shoulders, floopethe head,and iome-what yecld to the Stroke, than beyond pojHrbjlitie to make head and refift, and be nothing fcv:cl t 4 "the


The firfl Book^.
Chap. 23.
. 1 j i *-;----------
thebettcr., and give violence occafion to trample al! underfoot: and better were it to force the lawesto defirebut what they may, fince they may not what they would. So did he that ordained themtofleep foureandtwentic homes: And he who for a time removed one day from the Calender : And another who of the moncth of Iune made a fecond May. The Lacedemonians thcmfclves, fo ftriot obfervcrs of their countries ordinances, being urged by their Lawes,which prcclfely forbad and inhibited to chuleone man twice to be their Admiral Land on the other fide their affaires ncceffa ri'I y requiring,that Lyfinder fhould once more take that charge upon him,thcy created one zAracus Admiral!, but inftitutedZ^p^rfu-.perintcndcntofall maritine caufes. And with the fame futteltie, one of their Ambaffadors being fent to the Atheniansfor to obtains thechangc offome ordinance, Periclesalleaging, .that if wasexprefly forbid to remove the table, wherein a law had once beene fetdowne per-fwaded him but to turne it,forthar was not forbiddcn.lt isthat whereof P lutarke commea. dcth Philopamen who being borne to command,could not oncly command according to the kwes,but the.lawcs thcmfelves,whenfbevcr publike necelfitie required ir? tW*v -vfc 4*ro* t i. -.. vc**W';^u^m
55
mrt.
hap. XXIII,
/-
fa
Diners events from onefelfefame connfeL
I.Ames Amiot,oxezt Aim oner of France, did once tell me this fiorie, to the honour ofone of our Princes, (and fo he was indeed by very good tokens, albeit by off-fpring he were a (hanger) that during our firft troubles, at the fiege of Roane the find Prince being adver-tifed by the Queene-mdther of a confpiracie and enterprife,that fhould be attempted a'gainft his life, and by letters particularly informed him of the partie that fhould pcrformc it, who was agcntlc-man of A%]mv,o.iiManfe,and whoto that purpofc did ordinarily frequent the faid Princescourt; henever.impartcd rhat fecret or communicated that warning to any sman, but the next morrow walking upon Saint Catherins hill, whence our battctie played agaififl the towneffor it \Va53 at what time wc laid fiege to Roane) with the faid Lord great .Almoner :and another Bifliopbyhistides hcchanceci to defcriethefaidgentleman, whom the Quccne-mother had defenbed unto him,and caufed him to be called, who being come before hisprefcnce,faid thus unto him, perceiving him alreadic to wax pale, and tremble at the alarums of his confeieuce : Mafier, fitch a one, I am fully perfwadedyott fore-imagine what 1wiH chargeyou wit h^indyour countenance doth plainly fhewityou can conceale nothing from me : for I amfowellinfiru&edofyourbufineffe, thatwouldyougoe about to hide it, you jkould but marrcallyeu have perfect knowledge of this and this thing, (which were the chie-f eft props and devicesof the lcercrcft drifts of his complotand confpiracie) failenot therefore as ym tenderyour life, to confeffc thetruth of all your purpofc. Whenthe filly man faw himfeltc lb lurprized and convicted ( for the whole matter had becne difcovered unto the t^iiccneby one of the complices) he had no other way, but to lift up his hands and beg tor grace and mcrcicatthe Princes hands,at whole fecte he would have proftratcd liimfclfc, Jbut that he would not let him: thus following his difcourfc; Come hither my friend, faid he, Did lever doe you any difjleafurc ? HaveI ever through any particular hatred, wrongedot of ended any ftendof ours? 11 is not yet three weekesfince I knew you ,whaireafon might move jon to onfpire and etterprife my death ? The Gentleman with a faint trembling voyce, and Icltc-accuiing lookc,anfwered him,that no particular occafion had ever moved him to that, theintercfi ofthcgenetallcaufc of his fiction, and thatfomc of them had pcrfwaded vif^-aCt010Gt; CUCJaiidin what manner foever, to make away fo great an enemy df their reIigion,would be an execution fulIofpietie,and-a vvorke offupercrogafion. Then laid the Vnncc JwittjbcwyoK how much tberclig^
you make profffion.-yours hath perfwaded you to kill me,without hearing me, having never been of endedby me: ad mine, commandsme to pardonoie, convtued'as jou are, that you won Uf0 treacheroufly and without caufe have killed me. Goe your way, withdraw your felfe, -etmee never fie you here againe, andifyou be wife, hence-forward in your cnterprifes take defter men for yourcom fellers;th an thofc ofyour reltgion.Tix Emperbttr Augufius being
in


6 Tbefir Booker. Ghap.i*,
in G4/r,rccciycd ccrtaine advcrtifcmcnt of a confpiracic,that L. Cinna complottcd againft him,whercofhepurpofedtobeavenged,andforthatpurpofcfcntto all his friends againft the next morrow for advice and counfell,but paffed the fore-going night with great anxietic and uweft, confidcring that following his intent, he fhould bring a yong Gentleman, well borne,of a noble houfe,and great Pompeyes nephew, to his death : which pctplexitie produced divers ftrangadifeourfes and confideration in him. What? faid he unto himfelfe, Shall it everbereportedjhat I doe live infeare, and fif er mine enemie to walke at hts pfeafure and Ii. bertie? Snail hethen geeftckjhathath attempted and refolvedto deprive me of my life, whieh both by fea and landl have favedfiomfi> many civiHwarres,andfrom fo many battels ? tAnd now that I have efiablifhed an univerfallpeacein the worldfhallhe be abfolvedandgoe unpu-nifleedithathath not only determined to mnrther,bnt tofacrifice me ? (For,thecomplot of the conlpiracie was to murther him, when he fhould be at Sacrifice,) After that, having taken fome reft with himfelfe, he with alowder voice began to exclaime and cry out againft him-felfe,faying,^Ar liveft then,ifthe lives of fo many depend en thy death ? Shall thy vengeance and cruelties never have an end? Is thy life ofthat worth, as it may countervatle the fnndry vrifchiefesthat are liketoenfnt,ifttbepreferved? Livia his wifebcinginbed with him,pcr-cciving his agonic,and hearing his Specches,Said thus unto him : Andmay not women s eonn-fels be admitted? Doe at Phyfitians are worn, who when their ordinarie receipts wiHnet werke, have recenrfe to the contrarie. Hitherto thou con/deftnever doe any goodwith fiveritie : Le-pidus4f/e/W/Savidienus,Murea Lcpidus,Cccpio Murcna, Egnatius Sccepio; begin now to prove what good lenitie and clemencie wiHdoe thee. Cinna is conviiled, pardon him t To annoy or hurt thee now,he is not able,and thou fhalt thereby increafe thy glory. sAuguftut Seemed very glad to havefound an Advocatcof his humour, and having thanked his wife, and countermanded his friends, whom he had fummonedto the Counftll, commanded Cinna tobe brought before him alone.Then fending all men out of his chambcr,and a chaire prepared for Cinna to fit in, he thus befpake him: Fir ft Cinna, I require to have gentle au-ditr.ee jwd that thou wilt not inttrrnpt my fl> etch,which ended, I will give thee time and lea-fur e to anf wer me: Thon knowe(ob Cinna) that when I hadtaken thee prifoner in mine enemies campe,who wast not only become, but borne my foe \ Ifavedthee, then put thee in quiet foffeffion ofthygoods,andat laft,have fo enrichedthce,andplaccdtbee in fo high a degreejthat even the conquer ours are become envious over the conquered. The Priefts office, which thou begged ft at my hands, I freely beftowed on thee, having firft refufedthe fame to others,whofe fathers and friends hadin many battels fhed their bloudftr me: After all which benefits, and that I had in dutie tied thee fifaft unto me, thou haft notwithftandtng undertaken to kill me. To whom-fimta replied, crying alowd, That he had never fo much as conceivedfo wicked a thought,much leffe entertained the fame. Oh Cinna,/his is not according to thypremifc, nfwered then Augnftus,which was,that thou wonldeft not Interrupt me: What I fay, it true, thou ha undertaken to murther me,tn fuch a pi ace,on fitch a day,tn fitch a company,<& m finch manner:and feeing himfo amazed in heart,and by hit evidence firucken dumbe,moved thereunto,not by theconditionofhispromife, but by the guilt of bis feife-accufing confidence; why wonldeft thou doe itfeplted he, it becanfethouwouldeft be Emperour ?7ruelytbe commonwealth is but tn hard condition, if none but my felfe hinder thee from the Empire. 7 'beu can ft not fo much as defend thine owne houfe, and didft but lately lofe aproceffe, only by the favor of afeely libertine. What ? haft thou no meant orpowerin any other matter,but to attempt Ca-fars life? Iquitit,iftherebenomanbntmy felfe to impeach thy hopes. SuppofeftthouthatViulus, that Fa.biw>,that the Coffeniani or the Servtianes will ever permit thee? Andfo great a troupe of'noble men,noble,not only tn name,but fuch as by their Virtues honour their nobiinic,will ever [nfferit? After many other fuch likcdifcourfes(fbr he talked with him morerhan 2. houres)*"' he faid unto him; Away,oh Cinna,*hatlifewhich once I gave thee,as to an enemie,!now give thee againe, as to a trahour, anda patricide :let a true fiiendfhtp from this day forward begin tetweine us,let us rive together,which ofus two -with a better faith Jhallout-goe the other,& whether lhavegiventhy life,orthou haft received the fame with great confidence: and lb left him.Shortly after he gave him the ConfulShip,blaming him that he drft not askc it of him. And ever after held him as hisdeere friend, and made him alone, heire and executor of his goods. Now after this aceidenf,which hapned to tAuguftm in thexl.yeare ofhisage,there wasnevcranyconfpirasieor enterprise attempted agam/l hirfljand he received a juft reward


------1---:-~-:--1- v. ..-
Chap.!}. Tbefirfi Booker. 57
for his fo great clemency. But the like Succeeded not to our Prince, for his mildneffe and Ienitie could notfb warrant him,butthat afterward he fell into the Snares ofthe Iiltctreafbn: fo vaine and frivolous a thing is humane wifdomc : and contrary to all projects, devices, counfels,& prccautioiiSjfortunc doth ever keepe a full fway and pofleffion of all events. We count thofc Phyfitians happ/ajid fucceflcful,that iucccfiefully end a defperatc cure,or come to a good ifluc: as ifthere were no otherart but theirs, thatcould not fubfift of itfelfc, and whofe foundations were too feeble to (land and relicupon herOwnedrength: and asiftlierc wercjone but it.that (lands in need of fortunes hclpc-aftbording hand, for the effect ing of her operations. My conceit of it, is both the worft and the bed a man may imagine: for thankesbetoGod,thereis nocommcrcc betweeneus:lam contrary toothers; forlcver defpife it, and when I am fiek, in (lead of entring into league or composition with it, I then begtnnc to hate and fcareitmoft : and anfwer fuch as urge mec to take Phyfickc, that at lead they will tarietill fuch titiie as I have recovered my health and llrength againe; that then I may the better be enabled to endure the violence and hazard of their potions.! let nature worke,and prcfuppofe unto my felfe,that (he hath provided her felfe, both ofteeth and clawes, to defend herfclffrom fuch affauits as (hall befct her, and to maintainethiscontexture or frame,whofedi(folution itfo much hateth. In liew of bringing helpeunto herj'whcn fhee mod driveth, and is combated by fickneffe, I greatly fearelcft I bring Succor unto her ad vcrfarie,ind furcharge her with new encmies.NowI concludc,that not onely in Phyficke, but likewiSe in Sundry more ccrtainearts fortune hath great (hare in them. The Poetical! furies, which ravifh and tranfport their Author beyond nimfelfe, why (hall we notafcribe them to his good fortune, (ince himfelfe confeffeth, that they exceed his (Ircngth and fuffi-cieneie, and aeknowlcdgcth to proceed from elfewhere, than from himfelfe, and that they ate not in his power, bo more than Orators fay to have thole tlrange motions and extraordinary agitations that in their arttranlport them beyond their purpofe? The like wee fee bo bee in painting, for Sometimes the Painters hand Shall draw certaine lines or draughts,Sb farre exceeding his conception or skill, that himfelfe is forced to enter into admiration and amazement. But fortune yet doth much more evidently Shew the Share Shce hath in all .... their workeSjby the graces and beauties that oftcrftrc found in them, not onely beyond the intent, but befidesthe very knowledge oftlic workman. A hcedy Reader Shall often ditco-vcr in other mens compoiitions, perfections farre-diftcring from the Authors meaning, and fuch as haply he never d teamed of,and illudrateth them with richer fenfes, and more excellent constructions. As for military cnterpriles, no man is fo biindc but fceth what Share fortune hath in them: even in our counfels and deliberations, fomc chance or good lucke mud needs be joyncd to them, for whatfocvci our wifdome can effect, is no great matter. The (harperand quickeritis, more wcakncllc findesitinitlelfe,andfomuchthe moredothlt diStrud it felfe, Iamofo**iif^/op"inion :and whenlnearedconfidcrthe inoft glorious exploits of warrc, me thinkes I fee, that tho(e who have the conduct of thern, employ neither counfdl nor deliberation about them, but for fafhion-fakc, and leavethc bed part of ""> ;; theenterprifc to fortune, and on the confidence they have in her ayd they Still go beyond the limits of all difcourfe. Cafuall rejoycings, and drangc furies enfuc among their dclibe-vationSjWhkli forthe mod induce them to take the counfcll lead grounded upon apparancd orrcafon, and which quaile their courage beyond reaSbn; whence it hath Succeeded unto divers great Captaines, by giving credit to fuch raSh counfcls, andalkaging to thcit fbul-diers, that by Some divine inspiration, and other fignes and prognodications, they were encouraged to fuch and fuch enterprifes. Lee here wherefore in this uncertainty and perpk-xitic, which the impuiffancesandiriabilitic doth bring us to fee and chufe what is molt com- -.i'i rapdious, for the difficulties which the divers accidents and circumdances of everie thiag ovawwith them : thcfuicdway, if other confidcrations did not invite us thereto, is, in my conceit, to follow the partie, wherein is mod honcflie and judice; and Since a man doubteth ofthe ncared way, ever ro kcepc the right. As in thefe two examples I have lately mentioned, there is.no doubt,but that it was more commendable and generous in riim,who had received the offence, to remit and pardon the fa me, than to have done other wife. If the firflhad but ill fucceffc, his good intent is notto beblamcd; and no roan knoweth,had he take the contrary way,whethcr he Should have eScapcd the end, to which his deftinieTalled him; and then had he lod the glorie and commendations offofcld-fec-p.ehuraamtic. Sun-
dric


- 5 8 Tbefirfl 'Booke^, Chap. 15.
drymenpofleSfed with this feare, are read-of in ancient'Histories; the greatcfl part of Which have followed the way offorc-running the conspiracies, which were cotnplottcd' a-gainft them,by revenge or tortures, but I fee very few, that by this remedy have received any good; witneffefo manyRomancEmpcrburs. Hcc that perceivcth himfelfe to bee in this danger, ought not much to relie upon his power, or hope in his vigilancje. For, how hard a matter is it, for a man to warrant and Safeguard himfelfe frem an encmic, that masks under the vifage ofthe moft officious and heartic-lecming friend we have? And to know the inward thoughts and minde-couccalcd meanings of fuch as daily attend, and arc continually with us ? ft will littleavaile him to have forraine nations to his guard, arid ever to be encircled about with troupes of Armed men ? whoibever he be -that refolveth to con-demne his owne life, may at any time become Maftcr of other mens lives.
Moreover that continuall fufpition which makes the Prince'to millruit every body, ihouldbc a wondcrfull vexation to his minde. And therefore when Dion was advertifed that Calif pus watched to kill him, could never finde in his heart to inform? himfelfe of it : affirming; He ha.dra.ther die once, than ever live tn feare and mifer'te,and to guard himfelfe not onely from his enemies, but from his very fiends..Which thing Alexander prefented more lively and undantedly by effcct,who by a letter of Parmerito having received advertifement, that Fhilif his neereflandbeff regarded Phyfitiati had with money beene fuborned and corrupted by Darius, to poifon him, who at the very inflant that he gave Philip the letter to rcade,fwallowed downe a potion he nad given him: was it not toexprefle hisreiblution, that if his friends would kill him, foe would not fhu n. them, but confeut to their treachery ? This Prince is the Soveraiguepatterne of hazardous attempts : yet know I not whether in all his life,he fhewed an act of more refolute conftancic, than this, nor an ornament fo many wayes famous. Thofe which daily preach and buzzc in Princes eares, under colourof their fafetie,a hecdy diffidence and ever-wari.e diftrutifulncffc, doe nought but tcil them of their ruine, and further their ihamc and downefall. Nonobleact isatchieved without danger. I know one by his owne complexion ofa right martialcourage,and readyfor any refolution, whofc good and hopefullfottuncisdayly corrupted by fuch verball perflations; as firft to ke'epeclofe with his friends; never to liflen to any reconciliation with his old enemies: to (land upon his owne guard ; never to commit himfelfe to any Stronger than himfelfe, what faire promifc focver they make him,or whatfoevet apparant profit they fceme to contained alfo know anothcr,who becaufc hedid ever follow rhecontrarie counfcll,and would never liflen to fuch fchoole-rcafons,hath beyond all hope raifcd his fortune above the common reach. ThatboldneSlcwherewith they f greedily gape after glory, is alwayes at h'and,when ever need fliall be,asglorioufly in a doublet as in an armour; in a cabinet as in a campe; the armc held downe,as lifted up. A wifdomefo tenderly precifc, andfoprccife-ly circumfpedb, is a mortall encmic to haughty executions. Saf to, to found the depth of Sifhax intent, and to difcover his minde; leaving his armic, and abandoning theyetunfer-led country ofSfaine which under his new coiiqucft of it, was likaly to be fufpected, he I fay,could paSlc into Affrikeqiwly with two Simple Ships orfmall barkes, tocommit himfelfe in a ftrange arid foe countrie, to engage his perfon under the power ofa barbarousi KingjUnderanunknowne faith, without either hoftagc, or letters of credence, yea without' any body, but onely upon the affurancc ofthe grcatneffe of his courage, of his fucccffefull good fortune, and ofthe promifeof his high-railed hopes. Habita fides iffitm flerumque fidem obligat. Most commonly trufiing obiigeth trufiineffe. To an ambitious and famc-aipi-ring minde, conrrariwife, a man muff yeeldlitdc, and cary a hard hand againft fufpitions: Feareanddiftruftdravvonoffcncesandallurc them. The moft miftrufifull of our Kings cflablifhed his affaires,and fetled his eftate,eSpecially becaufe he had voluntarily given oyc^j abandoned and committed his life and libertic,to thchands,and mercy of his enemies: Sec mingto put his, whole confidence in them,thatfo they might likewife conceive an undoub ted affiance in hirn. Cafar did onely confront his mutinous legions, and oppofe his hardly-ruled Armies, with the minde-qiiclliag authoritie of his countenance, and awe-moving fierccneffe of his words: and did fo much trufl himlelfeand his fortune,that he no whit feared to abandon and commit himfelfe to a Seditious and rebellious Armie. m&lfjfc- L fietit agger efuhi
Ca^tntreftdmvultu^ermtqueumen


Chap.t 3 The firji Bookc.
LI """ "" L 11,1
NtlmetuiHS.
He ona rampart flood ofturfeuprear'd, Fearelcffc, and fearing none was to be fcar'd. True it is, that this undaunted affurance cannot fo fully and lively be represented but by thofc in whom the imagination ot apprchenfion of death and of the worfl that may happen, can ftrike no amazement at all: for, torcprcfcnt itfearefully-trcmbling doubt-full and uncertaine, for the Service of an important reconciliation, is to effect no great matter : It is an excellent motive to gainc the heart and good will of ot hers, for, a man to go and Submit himfelfe to them, provided it be done freely, and wirhiut constraint of any neccfli-tic, and in fuch fort, that a man bring a pure and unfpotted confidence with him, and at leaft his countenance void ofall Scruple. Being yctachildc, I faw a gentleman who had the command of a great Citie, and by a commotion ofa fed itioufly furious people greatly put to his plunges, who to fuppreffc the riling fire of this tumult, refblved to fally out from a ftrongly allured place, where he was Safe, and yecld himfelfcto that many-headed mon-ftermutinousrowt; thrived fo ill by it, that he was miftrably fJainc amongff them : yet dccmelnothisoverfighttohavebeencfbgreatin ifluingout, his memorie being of moft men condemned, asbecaufc hctookca way of fubmiffion, and rcmlffenefle, and attempted to extinguish that tagc 3nd hurly-butly, rather by way of following, than of guiding, and by requiringfute, than by demonftrarive refolution : andldccme, a gratiouily tnilde ftveritie, with a militaric commandement, full ofconfidence and fccuiitie, beSeeming his rankc, and the dignitie of his charge, had bcttcravailed him, had becne more fucceflefull, at leaft with more honour, and well Seeming eomlinctfc. There is nothing Ieffe to bee expected or hoped for at the hands of this monftrous faced multitude, thus agitated by furic, than humanitie and gentlencffe; it will much fooner receive reverence, and admit feare. f might alfo blame him,that having undertaken a refolution (in my judgement, rather brave than rafh) to caft himfelfe inconfiderately, weake and unarmed, amidst a tempeftuous O-ceanoffenfcleffcandmadmcn, he fhould have gone through flitch with it, and not leave theperfbn he reprefented in the briers, whereas after he had perceived the danger at hand, hecbanccdtoblcedatthe noft; and then to change that dcmifle and flattering countenance he had undertaken, into a difmaid and drooping looke, filling both voice and tyes with aftoniflimcnt and repentance : and fcckingtolquathimicife, lice the more en- flamed, and called them upon him. It was determined, there fhould be a gcr.erall mufter nudeofdivers troupes of armed men (a place fittcft for fecret revenges, and where they may Safeft be atchicved ) there were moft apparantrcafbns, that the place was very unfurc, oratlcaftjtobefufpected, by fuch as were to have the principal! and neceffary charge to furvey them. Divers counfels were propofed, fundry opinions heard,as in a Subject of great difficuitic, and on which depended lb many wcightie conftquences. My advice was, they fhould carefully avoid togive any rdtimohic of lufpitiou, or fhew of doubt, and that our troupes fhould be asfull as might be, and the Fyles orderly ranked, and every Souldier fhew an undaunted carriage ,and undifmayed countenance, and in ftcad of keeping ibme ofour forcesbacke (which thing moft opinions aimed at) all Captaincsfhould be putin minde to admonifh their Souldicrs to make their fallies as orderly and as Strong as might be, in honour of the afiiftance; and fpare no powder, which would fcrvc as a jgratification toward theft fufpectfull troupes, which afterward cauftd a mutuall and profitable confidence. Ifindcthecourfethat////Crfprheldtobcthebeftaman may take : Firft heaf-fayedbyclcmencieto purchafcthe love of his very enemies, contenting himfelfe in thecon-v^piracics that were difcovered unto him, limply to fhew they were not unknowen to him, *Hbuthad perfect norice of them. That done,he tookc a moft noble refolution, which was, without dread or difinay,or any care-taking,to attend whatfocver might betide him,wholy abandoning and remitting himfelfe into the hands ofthe Gods and of fortune. For certaine-Iy,it is the ftate wherein he was, when he was murthered in the Senate, A ftranger haying publifhcd every wherc^thathe could KzchDionyJtMs the tyrant ofSirttHfit a way to understand and 1 i (cover the very ccttaintic of all the practices,his Subjects or any elfc fhould pra-ctife aga inft him, if he would beflow a good fumme of money upon him: DUnyfitu being therofad vcrtiftd.fent for him,to diScover the fecret and understand the truth of fo ncceflaric an art for his preferyatiomthc ftranger told him, there was no other skill in his art, but that


6q The firft Bookz-,: Chap. 24, I.. -_------.-.___
he fhould deliver him a talent, andthenboadheehad learned theufoof fo unvaluablc a Secret of him.Pio^/w allowed of his invention, and forthwith cauied fix hundred crowncs to be delivered him.lt is not likely that ever he would have given fb great a fumme of mony to an unknowne man, but in reward of a moft profitable initruction 5 for by way of this reputation he kept his enemies (till in awe. And therefore doe Princes wifely publ'ifh fuch advertifements as they receive of theglotsconfpired, and treafons praclifed againll their lives and Ifates, thereby to make men belceve,.that nothing can beattcmpted againff them, but they fhall have knowledge ofit. The Duke o? Athens committed many fond overlights in the eftablifhingof his latctyrannie upon the Florentines, but this the chicfeff,that havino received the firft advertifemcnt of the Monopolies agd Complots the Florentines contrived againff him,by Mathewfmwmcd Moroz,o,ow:ohht complices,thinkingtofupprcife this warning, and concealethat any in the Citie were offended at him, or grudged at his rule, caufedhimimmediatlytobeputtodcath. I remember to have heretofore read the iloric ofaRomane (amanoffpecialldignitie) who flying the tyrannie of the Triumvirate, had many times by the futteltie of his invention, efcapedthofe who purfued him. It fortuned upon a day, that a troupe of horfe-men, who had the charge to apprehend him palling alongf! ahedge,underwhich belay lurking,had well-nighdifcoveredhim ; which he pcr-ceiving,and confidering the dangers and difficulties he had folongendured,thinking to fave himfelfc from the continuall and daily fcarches that every where were made after him, apd calling to hiinde the fmall pleafure he might hope offuch alife,and how much Better it were for him to die once, than live in fuch continuall feare and agonie, himfiifc called them, and voluntarily difcovered his lurking hole, and that he might rid them and himfelfc from further purfuit and care, did willingly yeeld unto their cruehie. For a man to call his enemies to aid him, is acounfell fomewhatrafh, yet think c I,it were better to embrace it, than remaine flill in the continuall fit offuch a fever that hath no remedie. Butlince the provi-lions of man may apply unto it,are full ofunquietncfle and uncertaintic, much better is it with a full affurance toprepare himfelfe patiently to endure whatfoever may happen, and draw fome comfort from that,which a man is never fure fhall come to palfe.
Chap. XXIV. Of Pedantifmc^.
IHave in my youth oftentimes beene vexed, to fee a Pedant brought in, in moft of Italian comedies, for a vice or fport-maker, and the nicke-naine of Magisher to be of no better Signification amongft us. For, my ftlfe being committed to their tuition, how could I chufe but be fome what jealous of their reputation ? In deed I fought to exotic them by rca-ibnofthenaturalldifproportion that isbetweenc the vulgar fort, and rare and excellent men, both in judgement and knowledge .-forfomuch as they take a clcane contraric courfc onefrom another. But when I confidcrcd, the choyftft men were they, that mod contemned them, I was far to fceke, and as it were loft my ftlfe, witnelle our good Be Hay : Mais je hay far fur toutun fcavoirpedantefque. A pedant knowledge, I Deteftoutofallcry.
Yet is this cuflome very ancient; for Plutarch faitfy/W Grecke and Scholer,rvere ammgttS, the Romans,words of reproach and imputation. Andcomming afterwards to yeares ofmore diftretion, I have found they had great reafbn, and that magis magnos cler'tcos^on funt ma-gis magnos fipientes: The moft great Clerkesare not the moft wifeft men.But whence it may proceed,that a mindc rich in knowledge, and offo many things, becommeth thereby never livelier nor more quicke-fighted ; and a grofe-headed & vulgar Spirit may without amendment containe the diftourfe and judgement of the moft excellent wits the world ever produced,! flill remaine doubtfull.To receivefo imany,fo ftrange,yca and fo great wits, it muft needs fcdlowffaid once a Lady unto me, yea one ofour-chiefeft Princeflcs, lpeakipg of fome
body)


Chap.* 4; The firft Bookc. 61
body) th'Uamtns oweyw, foree, droope, and as it werediwixifi it ftlfe, to make roomefcr others. I might fiy, that as plants are choked by ovcr-muchmoifture, and lamps dammed with too much oyle, Co are the actions of rhc mind over-whelmed by over-abundance of matter and Sbi'Sic : which occupied and intangled with fogreatadivcrfitieof thmgs,lofeth themcanctofprcadand cleare it fcifc ; and that furcharge keepeth it low-drooping and faint. But it isotherwifc,for our mind (trctcheth the more by how much more it is replenished. And in examples of former timcs,the contrary islccne,of fufficientmen in tlic managing of publike affaires, of great Captaines,aud notable Counfcllcrs in matters of effate, to have been thcicwitbail excellently wife. And concerning Philofophers, retired from all publike negotiations, they have indeed fometimcs been vilified, by thecomikclibmieof their times, their opinions and demcanois ycelding them ridiculous. Will you make them Judges ofthcrightofa proccffe,or of the actions of a man ? They arc readiefor it.They -quire whetherthcre be any life yet remaining, whether any motion. Whether man beany thing but an Oxc, what working or fuffering is; what Strange hearts law andjufticearej Speakc they oftheMagiltrate,orfpeake they unto him ; they do it wirh an unreverenc and uncivill libcrtie. Heare they a Prince or a King commended? is but a Shepherd to them,as idle as a Swainc bulicd about milking of his cattcll,or Shearing of his Shccpe: but yet more rudcl .Efteemc you any man the greater for poSfcftmg two hundred acres of land? They fcoffc at him,as men accuftomed to embrace all the wotld,as their poSlefTion. Do you boafl of your Nobilitic, becauSe you can blazon your defcent of feven or eight rich Grandfathers ? They will but little regard you, as men that conceive not the univerfall image of nature, and how many predecessors every oneof us hath had, both rich and poore, Kings and groomeSjGrcckcsand Barbarians. Andwereyou lineally deSccnded in the fiftieth degree from Hercnles, they deemc it a vanitie to vaunt or allcagc this gift of fortune. So did. the vulgar fort difdaine them as ignorant of the firft and common things, and as prefump-tuous and infolent. But this Platonicall Iuftte is fir from that which our men Stand in need of.They were envied as being beyond the common fbrr,as defpifing publike actions,as having propofcd unto themfclves particular and inimitable life, aiming and directed at cer-tainc high difcourfes,and from the common ufe:thefe aredifdained as men beyond the ordinary faShion,as incapable of publike chargcs.as leading an unfbciable lifc,& protesting baft and abject cuftomes,after the vulgar kind. Odi homines ignavos opera,Ph*lofophos fentetttia, paenv'w Litf. I hate men that arefooles in workjng,& Pht/ofophers in freaking. As for thole Philofophers, /. 1.1. i o. I fay, that as they were gre^lt lnimowlcdge, So were they grearer in all action. And even as they report ofthat Sjracufan Geometrician, whobcing taken from hisbookiSh contemplation, to Shew Some practice of his skill, forthedefenceofhiscountrie, reared fodainly certaine terror-moving engines, and Shewed effects farre exceeding all mens conceit, him-felfc notwithstanding difdaining all this his handie-worke, fuppoling he had thereby corrupted thedignitic of his art; his engines and manuall works being but the apprentifhips, and trials of his skill in Sport: Sothey,if at any time they have been put to the trial! ofany action,they have been Seen to flic fo high a pitch,and with fo loftic a flight,that men mighc apparantly fee their mind sand Spirits were through the intelligence of things,bccome wonderfully rich and great. But fome perceiving the feat of politike government poSfcffcd by unworthy and incapable men,have wit'ndrawnethemfelves from ir. And hec who deman- ^ ded of Cratesyhovi long men Should Philofophize,rcceived this anfwer,UntiII Such time as they whohave the conduct ofour Armies be no longer blockiSh alfcs. Heraclttns refigned the royaltic unto his brother. And to thcEphcfians,who reproved him for fpending his time hi playing with children before the temple: hec anfwered, And is it not better to doe lb, than to governc the publike affaires in your companic? Others having their imagination placed beyond fortune and the world, found the feat of justice, and die thrones of Kings, to be but bafe and vile. And Empedoclesrefuted theroyaltie, which the Agrigentines offexed him. /ifjfometimcsaccufingthccarke and care men tooke about good husbandry ,and how to grow rich ; Some replied unto him, that he did as theFox,becaufe he could not at-taine unto it himSelfe : which hearinghy way of fport he would needs Ihcwby experience how he could at his plealure become both thriftic and rich; and bending his wits togaine and profit,cicctcd a traftikc, which within one yearc brought him fuch riches, as the skil-fulleft in the trade ofthriving.-could hardly in all their life devife how to get the like. That
G which


6l
Tbefirftftook^.
Chap. 14.
which Arifiotle rcportcth of fomc, who called both him,and Anaxagoras, and fuch like mcn,wUc,aiid notprudent,becaulc they caved not for things more profitable r betides, I doc not vcrie well digefl this nice difference of words, that fcrvcth my find-fault people for no excufc rand to fee thebaic and ncediefortune,wherewiththey are content, we might rather have j'ulf caufc to pronounce them, neither wife nor prudent. I quit this firft reafon, and thinkc it better to fay, that this evill proceedeth from the bad couric they take to follow fciences j and that reSpcct ingthc manner wcarc inft ructed in them,it is no wonder if neither Schollcrsnpr Maffers, howbeit they prove more learned, become no whit more fufficicnt. Verily the daily care,and continuall charges of ourfathcrs, aymeth at nothing fo much, as to ftoic our heads with knowledge and learning; as for judgement and vertue, that is never fpoken of.If a man palfe by,cric out to our people; Oh what a wife man geethyonder ? And of another: Oh what a good man is yonder ? He will not faile to calf his eyes and refpect toward the formcr.A third crier were needfull,to Cay,Oh what blocke-heads are thofc '. Wc are everreadieto askc, Hath he any skjdinthe Greeke andLatme tongue ? can he write well? doth bee write in profs or verfet&ut whethet hce begrowne better or wifer,which Should be thechiefeft of his drift,that is never fpoken of,we Should rather enquire who is better wife, than w ho is more wife. We labour,and toylc,andplod to fill the memorie, and leave both understanding and confidence emptic. Even as birds flutter and skip from field to field to pecke up cornc,or any grainc,and without tafting the fame, carric it in their bils, therewith to feed their little ones; fo doe our pedants gleane and pickc learning from bookes, and never lodge it further rhan their lips,only to degorge and caft it to the wind. It is ftrange how fitly fbttifhneflc takes hold of mine example. Is not that which I doe in the grcateftpart of this competition, all one and felfe fame thing ? I am ever heere and there picking and culling, from this and that booke, the Sentences that pleafc me, not to keepethem ( for I have no ftorc-houfe to refervc them in)but to tranfport them into this r where, to fay truth, they J are no more mine,than in their fir ft place: we are (in mine opinion) never wife,but by pre-
sent learning, not by that which is paft,and as little by that which is to come. But which is worfe,their Schollers,and their little ones are never a whit the more fed or better nourifhed: but palfeth from hand to hand,to this end only,thereby to make a glorious fhe w,therewith to entertaine others, and with it's helpeto frame fomc quaint ftories,or prettie talcs, as of a light and counterfeit coyne^ unprofitable for any uft or imployment, but to reckon and caft attempts. Apud aliosloqui didicemnt,non ipfifecnm.Non eftloquendum,fedgubcrnandum, $M/(/J.lo. They have learned to Jpeake with others, not with themfelves: freaking is not fo requifite as government. Nature, to fhew that nothing is favage in whatfbever Sheproduceth,cau-feth oftentimes, even in rudeft and moft unarted nations, productions of Spirits to arife, that confront andwreftle with the moft artift productions. As concerning mydifcourfe, is not the Gaskonieproverbe, drawnc from a bag-pipe, prertieand quaint ? Bouba pron bou-ha,mas a remuda lota dtts quern. Ton may blow long enough, but if once you fiirreyourfingers, joumaygo feeke. Wee can talkeand prate, Cieero&ith thus, Theft aTePlatoescu-flomes,Thefe arethe veric words of Ar'tfiotle; but what fay we our ftlvcs ? what doe wc ? what judge we? APcroquctwouldfayasmuch.Thisfafhionputsmeinmind of that rich Romane, who to his exceeding great charge had beeneverieinduttriousrofindeoutthe moft fufticient men in all fciences, which he continually kept about him, that if at any time occafion fhould bee moved amongft his friends to fpcake of any matter pertaining toSchollerfhip, they might fupplichis place, andbercadictoaffifthim : ionic with.dii-courfe,fbme with a verfe of Homer, othcrfbme with afentence, eachonc according to his skill or profeffion; who petfwaded himftlfe that all fuch learning was his ownc, beeauft it was contained in his fervants minds. As they doewhofe fufficiencie is placed in their" Sumptuous libraries. Iknowfbmc, whom if I aske what he knowcth, hce will require a booke to demonftratc thefame, and durft not dare to tell me that his pofteriors arc Scabious, except he turne over his Lexicon to fee what pofteriors and Scabious is, wee take the opinions and knowledge of others into our protection, and that is all: I tell you they muff be enfeoffed in us, and made our owne. Wee may verie well be compared unto him, who having need of fire, Should goe fetch Some at his neighbours chimney, where finding a good fire, Should there flay to warme himSelfe, forgetting to carric fbmc home, what >vailcs it us to have our bellies fullof meat, if it be not digefled i If it beenottranfehanged


Chap.*4-
The fir ft Booths.
*5
frncrbJonb.
lKVtlul.fll.%.
ck.FmikM.ifi
in us ? except it nourifh.augment, and ftrcngthen us ? May we imagine that LucuHus^hom learning made and framed lb greara Captatnc without experience,would have taken it after our manner' We relic fo much upon other mens armcs,that wcdifauull our owne strength. Willlarmemy fclfcagainftthefearcofdcath? it is at SenecaescoR : will I draw comfort cirhcr for my lclfc,or any other ? I borrow the lame of Cicero. I would have takcH-it in my iclfc,rnd I been exercifed unto it* I love not this relative and begd-for fufiicieucie. Suppolc we may be learned by other mens learning* Sure I am, wc can never be wife, but by our owne wifdome.
That w ife man I cannot abide,
That for hiroftlfc cannot provide, Ex que Ennim.* Nequidquam fafetefafientem,qtti if ftJibifrodejfe non quint. Whereupon Smiut. faith Ennius; That wife man is vatnlj wife^who could not frofit himfe/fe.
-ficufidustji
Vanus*, & Enganea quantumvis vilior agna.
If covctous,it vaine (not wife)
Than any lambcmorcbafc, more nice* NonenimfaYanda nobisfelum,fedfiuendafafientia est. For,weemuftnetontj furchaft wifdometbut enjoy and emfloy the fame. cDionjftusfcoffcth at thofe Gramarians,who ploddingly labour to know the mifcrics ofVljrjfes, and are ignorant of their owne; mockcth thole Mufitians, that fo attentively tunc their instruments, and never accord their manners % derideth thole Oratoi s,that ftudic to fpcake of justice, and never put it in exccution.Except our mind be the better, unlclfconr judgement be the founder, I had rather my fthollcrhad imployed histime in playing at Tennis; lam fure his bodie would be the nimbler.See but one of theft our univerfitie men or bookiflifchollersrcturnc from fchole, after he hath there (pent ten or twelve yearcs Under a Pedants charge: who is lb unapt for any matter ? who fo unfit for any companie ? who lb to fecke if he come into die word ? all the advantage you diftovcr in hjm, is, that his Ratine andGrcckchavc made him more fbttifh, more ftu-pid, and more prcfumptuous, than before he went from home. Whereas he lliould returnc with a mind full-fraught, he returncs with a wind-puft conceit: in (lead of plum-fceding* the fame,he hath only Ipunged it up with vanitic. Theft Masters, as Plato fpeaketh of S04 philters (their eg/in Gcrmanes) of all men, arc thofe that promiic to be moft profitable unto men,and alonc,among(t all, that not only amend not what is committed to their charge, as doth a carpenter or a mafon, butempaire and destroy the fame, and yet they muft full dearely be paied. If the law which Protagoras ftooofed to his difciplcsj were followed, which was,that either they fhould pay him according to hisword,or fwcarc in the temple, how much they esteemed theprofitthcy had reccivedby hisdifciplinc, and accordingly fa- tisfte him for his paines, my Pedagogues would be aground, efpccially if they would stand totheoathof my experience. My vulgar Perigordin^pecch doth vcrie plcafantly terme fiichfclfe-conceited wifards,Leftcr^fcrits,asifchey would fay lettctvftrucken men,to whom (as the common faying is)lctters havd given a blow with a mallet. Verily for the molt part they ftcmctobc dillractcd even from common ienfe. Note but the plaine husbandman, or the unwilic fhoomakcr, and you fee them (imply and naturally plod on their courfe, ipca*-kingonlyof whatthcy knovv, and no further; whereas thefcicttcr-puft pedants, becaufe they would faineraiic themselves aloft, and with their litcrall doctrine which floteth up and downe the fuperficies of their braine, arme themfelves beyond other men, they unccf-fantly intricate and entangle therhlelvcs: they utter loftie words, and fpeakc golden fenten-ces-,but fo that another man doth place,fit,and applie them. They are acquainted with Ga* /f,but know not the difcafe. Thry will ft u fie your head with lawes, when God wot they have not yet conceived the ground of the cafe. They know the Theorike of all things, but you muft ftcke who fhall put it in practice. I have feene a friend of mine, in mine owne houle.who by way of fport talking with one of theft pedanticall gulls, counterfeited a kind of fuftian tongue, and fpakcacertainegibtifh, without rimeor rcafon, fans head or foot, a hotch-pot of divers things, but that he did often enterlacc it with inkc-pot termcs, incident to their difputations, toammufcthebookifhfotfor a whole day long with debating and contending; ever thinking he answered the Objections made unto him; yet was he a
G a man
17


64
ThefirflBooker.
Chap.* 4,
Perf.fit.t.6i,
Juvm. fat.it,. 14-
man of letters and reputation, a graduate, and wore a goodly formal! long gowne. Vos 0 fatrttim fanguis qnos viverefar est Occipiti c*co,fofticd eccnrritefauna. You noble blouds, who with a noddle blind, Shoud live,meet with the mocke that's made behind. -Whoibcver Shall narrowly looke into this kind of pcople,which far and wide hath Spied itfilfe,he fhall find (as I have done,) that for the moft patt, they neither understand them-felves, nor others, and that their memorie is many times fuffkienrly full fraught, but their judgement ever hollow and emptierexcept their natural inclination havcofit lclfe otherwife fafhioncd them. As 1 have fcene Adrianns Turnebns,who having never profcllcd any thing but ftudie and letters, wherein he was, in mine opinion, the worthicft man that lived thele thoufand yeaires, and who notwithstanding had no Pedahticall thing about him, but the wearing of his gowne,and Some externall fafhions,that could not wellbe rcduced,and incii vilizcdtothccouitiers cut; things of no confequencc. And I naturally hate our people,that will more hardly endurca long robe uncurioufly worne, than a croffc skittifli mind: and thatobferve what leg,or reverence he makes,notehisgarbe or demeanor, view his boots,or his bat, and markc what manner of man he is. For his inward parrs, I decme him to have been one of the molt unfpotted and truly honest minds that ever was .1 have fundry times of purpofc urged him to fpeak of matters furthest from his ftudy,whcrin he was fo clcarc-figh-red, and could with fo quicke an apprehenfion conceive, and with fo found a judgement distinguish them,that hefeemed never to haveprofetfed or studied other facultiethan warrc, and matters of ftatc.Such fpirits,fuch natures may be termed worthy, goodly, and fblid.
-- qnis arte benign*
Et meliorelitto fnxit fraterdia Titan. Whole bowels heavens-bright-Sunne compofed Of better mold,art wel difpofed. That maintaine thcmftlves against any bad inftitution. Now it fufficeth not that our institution marre us not, it mult change us to the better. There arc fome of our Parliaments iand Courts, Who when they are to admit of any officers, doc only examine them of their ^learning; others- that by prcfenting them the judgement of fome law cafes, endevourto foimd their understanding. Me thinks the latter keep the better stile: And albeit theft two parts are ncceffarie, and both ought to concur in one, yet truly fhould that of learning be Icfle prized than judgement.'this may wellbewithout the other, and notthe other without this. For as the Greekeverfe faith. fi-V *S\ri u&Svw, hum y*t mrf: Learningnought worth doth lie, Be not diicrerion bj
Whereto ferveth learning, if understanding be not joynedtb.it ? Oh would to God, that for the good of our juftice,the Societies of Lawyers were aswel llorcd with judgerrcnt,dif-StK-epifl. io6.f. cretion;andconfcience, as they are with learning and wir, Nonvit*,fedfchol*difcimns. We leamenotfor ouriife,but for ibe frboele.lt is not enough to joync learning and knowledge to theimnde,itfliouldbeincorporateduntoit:it must notbeiprincklcd,butdyed with it; and if it change not and better her eft arc(which is imperfcct)it were much better to leave it. It is a dangerous Ssvqrd,and which hindrethand offendeth her mafter,if it be in a wcakchand, and which hath not the skill to manage the n\i\e:Ftfnerit melius nen didiciffe: Se as it were better that we hadnot learned^ It is perad venture the caufc,that neither wc,nor divinitic require not much learning in-women ;:and that Francis Duke of Brhannie, Sonne to Iobn the fifth,whcn he was fpoken unto for amarriagcbctwecnehim and Ifabel a daughter ofScotland; and fome told him ITie was but meanly brought upj and without any instruction of learning,anfvvercd-,hcc loved her the bctterfor it,and that a woman was wife enough, if She could but makes difference bctwecne the fhirt and dublet of her husbands. It is aifo no fuch wonder ( as fome fay ht that our aunceftcrs did never snake any great accompt of Letters, and that even at this day (except it be by chauncc) they arc not often found in our Kings or Princes chiefdi couhccls and confutations: And if thcend to grow rich by them, which now adaiesisaltogctherpropofcd unto us by theftudieof Law, of Phificke, ofpe-dantifmc,and of Divinitic; did not keep them in credit, without doubt you Should fee them
Comm. Grac.r &f.Hlt.
as


Cnap.2-4- Thefirft Bookc-. 6^
as beggarly and needy, and as much vilified as ever they were. And what hurt I pray you, fincc they neither reach us to think weIl,nor doc w eli ? Poflquam dohfrodiderunt,boni de- SefJ funt.Sinccmen became ledredsgoid men fitted. Each other fcience is prjudiciel unto him, ** 9 that hath not the fcicncc of gooJncdc But may not the rcifon I whilom fought for, alfo proceed thence ? That our fludic la Vr.mces having as it were no other aime but profit, but thofc letic whom nature hath produced ro more generous offices, than lucrative, giving rhcmflves unto learning,or fo briefely (before they have apprehended any liking of them, retired unto a profefiion that hath no communitie with bookes) there are then houc lefr,al-together to engage themfelvcs to ttudieand Bookes, but the meaner kind of people, and fuch as are borne to bafe fortune, and who by learning and letters fck fome meane to live, and enrich thcmfclvcs-. The niindsof which peoplebcing both by naturall inclination, by example, and familiar institution, of the bafeli llampe, doe falfly reap the fruit of learning. Foi It is not in her power to give light untothe mind, that hath none, nor to make a blind nun to icc.Thcmyftcric ofit is not to affoord him fight, but to direct it for him, to addrcfic hisgoings,alwais provided he have feet of his ownc, and good, lirait, and capable iegv. Knowledge is an excellent drug,b'iitno drug is lufHcicntly strong to preferveit felfe without alteration or corruption, accord ing ro the fault of the veffell, that contaiucs it. Some man hath a clcarc fight, that is not right-lighted ; and by conlqucncc leech what good is, and doth not follow it ; and feeketh knowledge,but makes no ufcof it. The chiefeft ordinance o Plato in hiscommon wealth is, to give unto his Citizens their charge, according to their natuie.Naturc can doeall,and doth all.Tne crookt backt,or dcformcd,are unfit for any ex-ercifc ofthc bodie, arid crooked and mif- fhapen minds unproper for exert ifes ofrhc mindc. Thcbatf ard and vulgar fort arc unworthy of PhilofophieiWhen wc feea man ill fhod,if he chance to be a Shoomnkr, wee fay it is no wonder, for commonly nonegoes worle fhod than they. Even foitfeemes,that experience doth often fh"wus,a Phyfittan lelfchcahhv.a Divine lcfl'c reformed, and itioft commonly a Wifcmanleffe fuffirienr than ahorher. Ariflo Chittt had heretofore rcafon to fiy, that Philofophcrs did much hurt ro their auditors, roi-af much as the great'eft number of minds arc noc apr to profit by fuch inftructions, which, if they take not a good,thcy will follovvabadrourfe:(j5>n)w* ex Arijttppe, acerbot ex Zeno- fJ-f ^ nkfcho'la exire. They froceedlicentious out of the Schoole of Ariltippus, but bitter out of the ifa jt ScholeafZen.ln that excellent institutionwhich Zenefhon giveth the Pcrfians, wee find, that as other Nations teach their children Letters, lb they taught theirs verrue. 'PlatoCiia the eldest bornelbnne,'ui their royall fucceffion, was thus taught; Aslboneas he was borne, he was delivered; not to women, but to fuch Eunuchs, as by reafbn of their vcrtue wCrein chiefeft authorite about the King. Their Ipeciall charg was first to fhapen his limmcs and bodic,goodly and healthy ; and at leven yeares ofagc,they instructed and inured him to fit on horfebacke, and to ride a hunting : when he came to the age of fourteene, they delivered him into the hands of fburc men, that isto fay, the wifft, the jufteft, the molt temperate, and the molt valiantofall thenatlon. The first taught him religion ; the fcond, to be ever upright and ttuc ; the third, ro become Master ofhisowne dlires; and che fourth to fcare nothing. It is a thing worthy great confidcration, that in that excellent, and as I may terme it, niatchleife policic of bycurgus, and in truth, by lcafbnof her pcifcCtion,monitrous,yct notwithflanding, lb carcfull for rhc education of children, as of her principall charge, and even in rhe Mates boibirte and retting-place, there is fo little mention made of learning : as if that generous youth difdaining all other yokes but ofveitue, ought only bfurnifhcd, in licw of tutors of learns ig.with matters ot valour, of ju(ticc,ofwitHome,and of temperance. An example which Plato hath imitated in hisLawes. The manner of cheir diiciplinewas, to propound quctli onsunto them, teaching the judgement of men and bfthciractions : and if by way of rcafon ordifcourfc,they condemned or praifed, cither this man, or that deedj they mull bctold the truth and bell : by which meancs at once they fharpned their wits, and learned the righr. ftiagesin Ze'ofhoncalleth Cyrui tbanaccomptof hislatt lelfon : It is (faith hc)that a great Ian in our Scnoolc, havingalirtle coat, gave It to one of his fcl-lowcs, that was of leflcr ftarurc than himfelfc, andtooke his coat from him, which was roo big fot hun : our Matter having made me judge of that difference, I judged that things mutt be left in the It uc they were in, and that both fcemcd to be better fitted as they were; VV hereupon he flic wed me, I had done ill ; becaufe I had not only, considered the comclii
G 3 neffe,


TbefirftBookc-. Chap 24.
ncflc where I fhoald chiefly have refpected ju(tice,which rcquircd,that none Should befor-ccd in any thing which properly belonged to him, and laid, he was whipt for it,as wc are inourcountric-towncs, when we hiwe forgotten the firlt pretfrperfect miih ov Aonje of m'rfa. My Repent might long enough make me a prolixe and cunning Oration ingenere de- monftratwoyn the oratorie kind ofpraife or dijpraife,before ever hee 'fhoold perfwad e rac his Schoolc is worth that. They have gone about to make the way Shorter: and fince Sciences (even when they ate right taken) can teach us nothing but wifdome, honelie,integritic,and rciblution ; they have at firft fight? attempted to put their children to the proper of effects, and instruct them, not by hearc-fiiy, but by allay ofation, lively modelling and framing them, not only by precepts and words, but principallyby examples and works, thatit might not be a Science in their mind, but rathct his complexion and habitude; not to pur-chafe,buta naturall inheritance.
To this purpofe when Agefdaus was demanded,what his opinion Was, children Should lcarne: anfwcred,wW they jhould doe being men. It isnomarvell, itluch an inltitution have produced fb admirable effects. Some lay, that in other Cities of Greecethcy went to feckeforRhetOf icians,for Painters,and for Musicians ; whereas in Lacedemon, they fought for Law-givers, for Magistrates, and Generals of armies: In ^Athens men learn'd to lay well, but here, to doc well : there to rcfolvc a fophifticall argument, aiid to confound the imposture and amphibologie of words, captioufly enter laced together; here to Shake off the allurements of voluptuouShcfle, and with an undanted courage to contemne the threats offortune,and reject the menaces of death : thoS buSied and laboured thcmfelvcs about idle words, thef after martiall things : there the tongue was ever in continual! cxerciSe of Speaking, here the mindc in an iincelfant practice of wcll-doing.And therfore was it not Strange, if Antipater requiring fiftic of their children for hoftages,they anfwercdcleane contrarie to that we would doe jhat they wouldrather deliver him twice[0 many men ; fo much did they valueand eStceme the loffeoftheir countries education. When Agefilam \nm\x\\Xenophon to fend his children to Sparta, there to be brought up ; it is not, becauS'e they Should learne Rhetorike,or Logikc,but,as himSlfe faith, to the end they may learne the worthiefi and beft fciencc that may bee, to wit, the knowledge how to obey, andthe sktllhow to command. It is a Sport to iee Socrates, after his blunt -manner, to mocke Hippias, who reportcth unto him, what great lummcs of money he had gained, especially in certaine little Cities, and final] townes of Sicily, by keeping fchoole, and teaching letters, and that at Sparta he could not octa Shilling. That they were but Idiots and fool ifh people, who can neither meafiire nor eftecme;nor makeno accompt of Giammer3or of Rythmes ; and who only ammufethem-felves to know the fucceflion of Kings, thceftablifhinganddeclinationofeflates, aiid fuch liketraSh of flim-flam tales. Which done, Socrates forcing him particularly to allow the excellencie of their forme of publike government, the happinelfc and verrue of their private life,remitsunto him to gueSfe the conclusion of thounprofitableneSle of his arts. Examples teach us both in this martiall policie, andinall fuch like, that the Studieof Sciences doth more weaken and effeminate mens minds, than corroborate and adapt them to warre. The mightieft,ycathe beflfetled eftate, that is now in the world, is that of the Turkes, a nation equally instructed to the eSteemc of armes, anddifefteeme of letters. I find Some to have bcencmoft valiant,when it wasleaft learned .The moft warlike nations of our daies,are the rudeft and moft ignorant. TheScirhians,thc Parthians,and Tambitrlane,(erve to vrifie my faying.Wheh rbe Gothes over-ran and ravaged Greece; that which Saved all their Libraries from the Sire,was,that one among them,fcattered this opinion,thatfuchtraSh of bookesand papers muft be left untoucht and whole for their enemics,asthe only meatie,and proper in-Strumentto divert them from allmilitariecxcrcils,and ammuS themtoidle,Secure,and Se-dentaric occupations. When our King Charles the eight, in a manner without unfheathing hisfword, Saw himflfe abSblute Lord of the whole Kingdome of Naples, and of a great ozxt of Thttfcanie, the Princes and Lords of histraine alcribed this fbdainc, and unhoped for victorie, and facilitie of fo noble and prodigious a conqueSt, only to this, that mod of thePrinces and nobilitic of Italie ammufed themfclves rather to become ingenious and, wife by lcarning,than vigorous and warriers by militarie cxcrcifcs.
Cm a Pa


Cbap.ij.
Thefirft Bookc^.
7
Chap. XXV,
,,.,u r;i, ;:}{; vJH el fnov.* *v, w.-^v^.'-w-. bnA.*.^-iw .!) nW^\>\i w JilgiiOTC pn.wio.was
0/inftitution and education ofQbildren i to the Ladie Diana ofFoixfiou nteffe ofGurfon.
INever knew father, how crooked and deformed Soever his Tonne were, rhat would either altogether caft him off,ornot acknowledge him for his owne rand yec(unleffehe be nicercly befotted or blinded in his affe6tion)it may not be faid,but he plainly perceivcth his uefc6ts,andhath afeeling ofhis imperfec~tions.Butfo itis,he is his ownc.So is it in my felfe, J ice better than any man elfe, that what I have let downe, is nought but the fond imaginations of him, who in his youth hath tarred nothing but the paring, and Seen but the fuper-ficicsof rrue learning : whereof he hath retained but a generall and fhap'clelfe forme : a f>nackc ofevery thing in generall,but nothing to the purpofe in particular: After the French manner.TobcfhortjIknow'.thcreisanartof Philicke; a cqurfeof lawes ; fourepartsof the Mathematikes; and I am not altogether ignorant, what they tend unto. And perhaps I alfo know the fcope and drift of Sciences in general 1, to be for the ferviee of our life. But to wade further,or that ever I tired my felfe with plodding upon Ariftoth (the Monarch of our modernedoctrine) or obstinately continued inthefearch ofany one Science: I confefie I never didir. Nor is there any one art, whereof I am ablefo much as to draw thefirft lineaments. And there is no fcholler (be he of the lowcft forme) that may not repute himlelfc wifer than I, who am not able to appofe him in his firft lefibn : and if J be forced to it,I am conff rained veric impertinently to draw in matter from Some generall difcourfe, whereby I examine, and give a gueile at his naturall judgement: a lefibn as much unknowuetorhem, as theirs is to me. I have not dealt or had commerce with any excellent bookc, except Pin-urkeot Seneca,, from whom (as the Danaides) I draw my water,unceifantly filling,and as fait emptying :lbme thing whereof I fallen ro this papcr,but to my felfe nothing at all. And touching bookes: Hiftone is my chicfeftudie,Poefie my only delight, towhich lam particularly affected: for as Cleanthes Said-, that as the voice being forciblie pent in thenarrow gullet of a trumpct,at laft ilfueth forth more flrong and Shrillcr,fo me lcemcs,that a Sentence cunningly and cloicly couched in meafurc-keeping Pofie,darts it fclfeforth morefurioufly, and wounds me even to the quicke. And concerning the naturall ficulties that ate in me, (whereof behold here an eflay) I pcrceivethem to faint under their owne burthen; my conceits, and my judgement march but uncertaine, and as it were groping, Staggering, and Stumbling at every rulh : And when I have gone as far as I can, I have no whit plealed my felfe: forthefurtherIfaile,themorelandIdefcrie, and that So dimmed with fogges, and over-caSt with clouds,that my fight is fo wcaknedj cannot diftinguiSh thefame. And then undertaking tofpeakc indifferently of all thatprcfents it felfe unto myfihtafie, and having nothing but mine ownc naturall meancs to imploy thcicin, ifit be my hap ( as commonly it is) among good Authors, to light upon thofc verie places which I have undertaken to treat ofl,as even now I did in Ptutarkc^ reading his difcouifc ofthc power of imagination wherein in regard of thole wife men,I acknowledge my felfe lb weake,and fo poore,fo dell and grofe-headcd,as I am forced both to pittie and difdainc my felfe,yet am I plcafed with this, that my opinions have often the grace to jump with theirs, and that I follow them a loofe-oft",and thereby poSfeffc at leaft,that which all other men have not; which is, that I know thcutmoft difference betweene them and my felfe: all which notwithltanding I Suffer my inventiousto run abroad, as weake andfainr, as I have produced them, without bungling and botching the faults, which this companion hath diSco'vered to me in thcirti A man had need have a Strong backc, to undertake to march foot to foot with thelS kind of men. The indifcreer writers of our age, amidSt their trivial! compofirions, intermingle and wrcllin whole Sentences taken from ancient Authors, luppolingby Such filch-ing-theft to purchale honour and reputation to themfelves,doe clcane contrarie. For, this infinitevatietic anddilfemblanceofluftres,makesafacc fo wan,So il-favorcdjandfouglie., inreipectof theirs, that they lofe much more than gaine thereby. Thefe were twocon-
, trarlc


68
The firfl Book^.
trarie humours: The Philofopher Chrifippus was wont to foiit -in amongft his bookes, not only whole fentenccs,and other long-long difcourfes, but whole bookes of other Authors, as in onCjhc brought in Euripides his Medea.hn&Apollodorus was wont to fay of him, that ifonefhould draw from out his bookes, what he had ftolne from others, hispaper would remaine blanke. Whcreasf^/rw/wclcanccontrarictohim in three hundred volumes, he left behind him, had not made ufe of one allegation. It was my fortune not long fince to light upon fuch a place: I had languifhingly traced after fome French words, fo naked and Shallow, and fo void either of fence or matter, that at laitlfound them to be nought but meetcFrench words; and after a tedious and wearifbme travell,l chanced to Rumble upon an high, rich, and even to the clouds-railed piece, thedelcent whereof had it been Somewhat more pleaSant or eafic, or the afeent reaching a little further, it had been cxcufable, andtobeborne-withallj butitwasfuchaftcepiedowne-fall, and by mecre Strength he-wen outafthemaincrocke,thatbyreadingofthefirSlSix words, me thought I was carried into another world : whereby I perceive the bottomc whence I came to be So low and deep, as Idurftnevermoreadvcnturetogothroughit; for,ifI didftuffeany one of my difeour-fes with thoft rich Spoiles, it would manifestly cauSe the SbttiShneSfe of others to appeare. To reprove mine owne faults mothers, Secmes to me no more unfurterable, tlian to reprehend (as I doc often) thoft of others in my felfc. They ought to be accuftd every wherc,and have all places ofSanctuarie taken from them*: yet do I know how over-boldly,at all times I adventure to equall my ftlfc unto my filchiugs,and tcymarch hand in hand with them;not without a fond- hardie hope, that I may perhaps be able to bleare the eyes of the Judges from difcerningthem.But it is as much forthe benefit ofmy application, as for the good of mine invention and force. And I doe not furiouSly front, andbodictobodie wrcltlewith thoft old champions tit is but by Sleights,advantagcs,and falfe-oSfers I Seek to come within them,and if I can,ro give them a fall. I doc not raShly take them about thenecke,I doc but touch them, nordoelgofo farasbymy bargainc I wouldftemeto doe; could I but keepe even with them, I Should then beanhoneft man; forlfeckcnot to venture on them, but where they ate Strongest. To doe as I have feen fome, that is, to Shroud themfelvcs under others armes,not daring So much as to Show thcirfingers ends unarmed,and to botch up all their works (as it is an cafic matter in a common fubject,namely for the wiftr fort) with ancient inventions, here and there hudlcd-up together. And in thoft who endevoured to hide what they havefilchcd from othcrs,and make it their owne,ic is firft a mauifeft note of inju-SticCjthan a plaine argument of cowardlinelfe; who having nothing of any worth in themfelvcs tomake Show of, will yet under the counteuanccof others iufficicncie goeabout to make a fairc offer: Moreover (oh grcar fooIifhncffe)co ftck by fuch cofening tricks to forestall the ignorant approbation of the common Sort, nothing fearing to diftover their ignorance to men of underftanding(whoSe praifconly is of value) who will Sbone trace out fuch borrowed ware. As for me,thcre is nothing I willdoe leffe.I never Spake of others,but that I may themorefpeakeof my ftlfc. This concerncth not thoft mingle-manglcs of many kinds of ftuffe,or as the Grecians call them Rapfodiesjh&t for fuch are published, of which kind I have ( fince I came to ycarcsof diftretion) Seen divers molt ingenious and wittie; amongft others, one under the name ofCapiluput; befides many of the ancient Stampc. Theft are wits of fuch excellence,asboth here and clfewhere rhey will foone be perceived ,as our late famous writer Lipjiusjn his learned and laborious work of rhe Politikesryct whatsoever come of it, for fo much as they are but follies, my intent is not to fmothcr them, no inore than a bald and hoariepictureofmine, where a Painter hath drawnenot a perfect vi-fage,but mine owne. For, howfoever, theft arc but my humors and opinions, and I deliver them but to Show what my conceit is,and not what ought to be belecved.Whcnn Iaymeat nothing but to dilplay my iclfe,who pcradventure (if a new preptifhip change me) Shall be anotherto morrow.I have no authoritie to purchafe beliefe,neither do I defire it; knowing well that I am not Sufficiently taught to instruct others. Some having read my precedent Chapter, told me not long fince in mine owne houft, I Should Some what more have extended my ftlfc in the dilcourfe concerning the institution of children. Now ( Madam ) if there were any fuftkiencie in me, touching that Subject, I could not better employ the fame, than to beftow it as a preftnt upon that little lad, which ere long threatneth to make a hap-pic iffue from out your honorable wombe : for(Madame) you are too generous to begin
with


Chap. 15-
The fir [I Bookc.
with other thin a mm chilcie. A'ld hiving had So great a pave in the conduct of your Sue-ccSlfulI mirriage, I .nay challcng: tome right and intcrcll in the greatnefle and profperitie ofall that fh ill proceed from it : moreover, che ancient and rig'itfull poffeflton, which you from time to time have ever had, and (till have over my Service, urgeth me with more than, ordinarierefpects, to with all honour, well-fare and advantage to whatfocver may in any fort corcetne you and yours. And truly, my meaning is,but to llicw, that the greatest difff-cultic,and importing all humane knowledge, Scenicth to be in this point, where the nurture aiidinfticutionof young children is in question.- For, as in matters of husbandrie,the labor that mull be ufed before fowiug,fctting,and planting.yea 'in planting it (clfc.ismotl certaine and eafie. But when that which was foweii,Scc and plantcd,commcch to take life ; before it come to ripendle,mueh adoe,and great varietic of proceeding bclongeth to it. So in men,it is no great mittcr to gecthem, but being borne, what continuall cares, what diligent attcn* dancejWhat doubts and feares, doe daily wait on their parents and tutors, before they can be nurtured and brought toany good ? The fore-Shew of their inclination whileit they are young is fo unccrtainc, their humours lb variable, their promtes Sbchanging, their hopes lb falf.iiid their proceedings lb doubtful,that it is very li3rd,(yeafor the wiSffjto ground any certaine julgementjOr allured fucceffc upon them. Behold rzw5*,view Themiftocles,m a tjioufand others, how they have differed, and fallen to better from themtl ves, and deceive the expectation of fuch as knew them. The young whelps both of Dogges and Beares, at firlt fight fnwtheirnaturalldifpo(ition,butmen headlong imbiacingthis cuSlomcorfafhi-on,followingthat humor or opinion,admitting this or that palfion,allowing of that or this lavv,arc eafily changcd,and Soonc dilguiied; yet is it hard to force the naturall propenfion or jeadinelfc ofthe mi,ut,whereby it followcth,that for wantofheedie fore-fight irithol that could not guide their courfe wdl,they often employ much time in vaine, to addrelfc young children in thofe matters,whcrcunto they are not naturally addicted. AH which difficulties notwithstanding, mine opinion is, to bring them up in the belt and profitable!! ftudies,and thata man Should Slightly pane over thol fond preSges, and deceiving prognoftikes, which we over prccifely gather in their infancie. And (without offence be it Siid)me thinks, thitP/ato in his common-wealth allowcth them too-too much authoritie.
Madame, Learning joyned with true knowledge is an efpcciall and gracefull ornament^ and an irnplement of wonderfull ufc and conlcquciice, namely in perfons railed to that decree of fortune, wherein you arc. And in good truth, learning hath not her owne true rormc, nor can flic mike Shew of her beauteous lineaments, if She fall into the hands of bale and vile perfons. [ For, as famous Torqnate Tajjo faith ; Philolbphie being a rich and noble Quecnc,and knowing her owne worth, graciouflyfmileth upon, and lovingly cmbra-ccth Princes and noblemen, if they become filters to her, admitting them as her mini-ons,and .gently affoovdingthem allthefavous fhecan ; whereas upon the contrarie, if She be wooed, and Sued unto by clownes, mcchanicall fcllowcs, and Such baSe kind of people, file holds her felfc difparaged and dilgraccd,as holding no proportion with them. And ther-forc fee we by experience ,that if a crue Gentlcman,or nobleman follow her with any atten-tion,and wooed her with importunicie, hcflialllcamc and know more of her, and prove a better lchollcr in one ycare,than an ungentle or bale fellow Shall in Seven, though hepurfue her never lb attentively, j She is much more rcadie and fierce to lend her furtherance and direction in the conduct of a warrc,to attempt honorable actions, to command a pcople,to treat a peace with a prince of forrainc nation,than She is to forme an argument in Logick,to devi(aSyIlogilm?,tocunvafeacafcatthcbarrc,or to prefcribe a receit of pills. So (noble Ladie) forfomuch as I cannot perfwademy felfc, that you will cither forget or neglect this point,concerning the inll itution of yours,efpccially having tailed the fweemeffe thcrCoand being defcended of lb noble and learned a race. For wc yct-polfellthe learned compositions oftho ancicntand noble Earles of Fotx, from out whole heroicke loynesyour husband and you take your of-fpriug. And Francis Lord ofCandateyonx worthieuncle, dothdaily bring forth fuch fruits thereof, as the knowledge of thematchlcffc qualitie ofyourhoufc Sliall hereafter extend It felfc to many ages ; I will thercfoi'e make you acquainted with one conccitof mine, which contrarie to the common ufe I hold, and.that is all I am able to affoord you, concerning that matter. The charge of th Tutor, whichyou Shall appoint youx Sonne, in the choice of whom conlificth the whole fubttance of his education and
bringing


70
The firft Booke^.
Chp.ie.
bringing-up; on which arc many branches depending, which (forasmuch as I can adde ao-thing otany moment to ir)I will not touch at all. Andforthatpouit,whcrcinlprclumcto advifc him,hc may fo farforth give credit unto it, as he ihall fee juft caufe. To a gentleman borne of noble parcntage,and heitc of a houfe,that aymeth at true learning, and in it would be difciplincd, not fo much for game or commoditie to himielfe ( becaufe fo abject an end is far unworrhic the grace and tavour of the Mufcs, and betides, hath a regard or dependence of others) nor for externall flicw and ornament,but toadornc and enrich his inward mindc, defiring rather to fhapc and inftitutcan ablcandfufficicntman, than a bare learned man. My defire is therefore, thatthe parcntsor ovcrfecrsof fuch a gentleman be very cir-cumfpcct,and carcfullin chufing his director, whom I would rather commend for harina a well compofed and temperate braine,than a fill ftufr head,ycr borh will doe well. And [ would rather prefer wifdome,judgemcnt,civillcuflomes, and modeit behaviour,than bare and mccrc litcrall learning; and that in his chargehe hold a new courfe. Some never ceafc brawling in their fchollevs cares (as if they were ftill pouring in atonell) to follow their bookc, yet is their charge nothing elfc, but to repeat, what hath beenc told them before. I would have a tutor to correct this part, and that at fitft entrance, according to the capacitie of the wit he hath in hand,hc fhould begin to make fhew of it,making him to have a fmacke ofall things, and how to chufe and dilHnguifh them, without helpe of others, fometimes opening him the way,other times leaving him to open it by himflfe. I would not have him to invent and fpeake alonc.but futfer his difciple to ipeake when his turne commetb Socrates, and after him lArcefiUus, madetheir fchollers to pcak firit, and then would fpeake C*. VtUatM. i. them- fclvcs.Obcf plerumqne its qnidtfeere valuv, anbtoritas eorum qui decent. Mo ft commonly the anthoritie of them that tettch,hinders them thatwoufdlearne.
It is therefore mcet,that he make him firit trot-on before him, whereby he may thebctter judge of his pace, and fo gueffe how long he will hold out, that accordingly he may fit his strength: for want ofwhich proportion, weofren marre all. And to know how to make a good choicc,and how far forth one may proceed ({till keeping a due mcafure) is one ofthe hardeft labours I know.Itis a figneofa noble,and effect ofan undanted fpirir,to know how tofecond, and how far forth he fhall condclcend to his childith proceedings, and how to guide them. As for my clfe, I can better and with more ft rcngth walkc up, than downe a hill. Thofc which according to our common fafhion,undcrtake wirh one feJfc-fame leflbn, and likemaner of education, to direct mauy fpiritsof divers formesand different humours, it isno marvell if among a multitude of children, they fcarfc meet with two or three, thac reap any good fruit by their difciplinc, orthat come to any perfection. I would not only have him to demand an accompt ofthe words contained in his leflon, but of thcftnfcand fubftance theteof,and judge ofthe profit he hth madeof ic,nt by the tcftimonic of his mc-morie,butbythewitncfieofhislife. That what he lately learned, he cauf him to fet forth and pourtray the fame into fundrie fhapes,and then to accommodate icto as many different and feverall fubject s; whereby he fhal percci ve,whethcr he have yet apprehended the fame, and therein enfeoffed hirnfclfe, at due times taking his inftruction from the inftitution given by Plato. It is a figne ofcruditie and indigcttion for a man to yeeld up his meat, even as he {wallowed the fame: the (tomacke hath not wrought his full operacion,unlcfle it have changed forme,and altered fafh ion of that which was given h im to boyle and concoCt.
[ Wee fee men gape after no reputation but learning, and when they fay, fuch a one isa learned man, they thinkethey have faid enough ; ] Our minde doth move at others pl-fure, as tyed and forced ro fervethc fantafics of others, being brought under by authentic, and forced to ftoope to the lure of their bare leffon; wee have beene fo subjected to harpe upon one firing, that we have no way left ustodefcant upon voluhtarie : our vigor and libertic isclcanc extinct. Nunquam tutela fua fiunt. They nevercometo their owne tuition. It was my haptobec familiarlic acquainted with an honcfl man at Pifa, but fuch an driftotelian* as he held this infallible pofition; that a conformitie to rtftotles doctrine was the true touchstone and fquire ofall folid imaginations, and perfect vcri-tic; for, whatfocver had no coherencie with it, was but fond Chimeraes, and idle humours; inafmuchas he had knowne all, fecue all, and faid all. Thispropofition of his, being fomewhat over amply and injuriouQy interpreted by fome, made him a longtime after tobe troubled ia the inquisition of Rome. I would have him make his fcholler narrowly


The firji Booker.
7l
rowly to fiftall things wich discretion, and harbour nothing in his head by mecre authori-tie,or upon ttuft. Anfiotlcs principles fhall be no more axiomcs unto him,than the Stoikes or Epicurians. Let this di vcrlitie of judgements be propofed unto himJf hccan,he fhall be able to diltinguifli the truth from fallehood,ifnot,he will remaincdoubtfulh
. Che no No leil'c it pleafeth me, Cant, 11.48,
To doubt,t!i.m wife to be. For if by his o wne d ifcourfe he embrace the opinions of Xenophon,or of Plate,thcy fhall be no longer theirs,but his.Hc that mecrely followethanother,tracethnothing, and fecketh nothing: 'PToafamits fub Rege,Jibi quifqite fevindicet. We are not under a Kings command, Stn.cftfi jj* every onemAy challenge himfelfe,for let him atleafiknow that he know eth. It is requisite he endevoviras much to iced himfelre with their conceits, as labour to learne their precepts; which^foheknowhowcoapplie, let him hardly forget, where, or whence he had them* Truth and reafon are common to all,and arc no more proper unto him that fpake them here-toforCjthan unto him that fhall fpcake them hereafter. And it is no more according to Pla-toes opinion, than to mine, finceboth he and I understand and fee alike. The Bees doe here and there fuckc this, and cull that flower, but afterward they produccthe hony, which is peculiarly their owne,then is it no more Thyme or Majoram, Soofpeeces borrowed of 0-thcrs,he may lawfully altcr,transforme, and confound them, to fhape out of chem a perfect pecceofworke,altogetherhisownc; alwaics provided, his judgement, his traveil, ftudie, and inftitution tend to nothing, but to frame the fame perfect* Let him hardly concealc, where, or whence he hath had any hclpc, and make no (hew ofany thiug,but of that which he hath made himfelfc. Pirates,filchers,and borrowcrs,make a (hew oftheir purchac and buildings, but not of that which they have taken from others : you fee not the fecrct Fees or bribes La wyers take of their Clients, but you Shall manifestly difcovcr the alliances they make, the honours they getforthcit children, and the goodly houfes they build. No man makes open flicw ofhis^cceitSjbut every one of his gettings.The good that comes offtudie (or at leaft fhould come ) is to prove better, wifcr, and honefter. It is the understanding powcr(faidEpicharmus) thatteethandhcareth,itisit,thatprofitcthall,anddifpofcthall, that movcth,fwaycth, and ruleth all: all things clfc ate but blind, fcnfelcffc, and without Ipirit.And truly in barring him of libertic to doe any thing of himfelfc, wemake him thereby more fcrvileand more coward. Who would ever enquire of his fchollcr what he thin-keth of Rhetorikc,ofGrammar,ofthis,br of that fentence ofCicero? Which things throughly tethered (as if they were oracles) are let flie into our memoric; in which both letters and Syllables are fubftantiall parts ofrhe Subject. To know by toatisno perfect koowledge,but to keep what one hath committed to his memories charge, is commendable: what a man directly knoweth,that will he difpofc-of, without turning Still to hisbooke,or looking to his pattern. A mcerc bookiflifufficiencieis unplcafaut. All I expect ofit,isanimbcllilhing of my actions,and not a foundation of them,according to Platoes mind,who faich,contlan-cie,faith,and fiuccritic, arc true Pfiilolbphic; as for other Scicnces,and tendingelfc. where, they are but garifh paiurings.I would rainc hncPaluel oxPompeythofc two excellent daun-cers of our time, witli all their nimblcncflc,tcach any man to doe their loftic tricks,and high capers,only with feeing them done, and withoutStirring out of his placc,as fome Pedanti-callfello wes would initruct our minds without moving or putting it in practice. And glad would I be to find one, that would teach us how. to manage afiorfe, to tolfe a pike, to ihoote-off a pecce,to play upon the lute,or to warble with the voice,without any cxercifc, asthefe kind ofmcn would teich us to judge, and how to fpeake well, without any excrcife of Speaking or judging. In which kind of life, or as I may tcrme it,Prcntifhi.p, what action orobject Soever prctents it-felfe miro our eics, may Serve us in (lead of a fufticientbooke. A prcttie prankc of a boy,a knaviihtrickeofapagc, afoolifhpartofa lackey, an idletale oranydifcourfeclfc, Spoken either in jcSt or earnest, at the table or incompanie,areevcnas new Subjects for us to worke-upon : for furtherance whereof,cominerce or common focic-tic among men, vihtingofforraine countries, and obferving of flrangefaShions, arevcrie necefiary,not only to bcablc(after thematincr of our yong gallants ofFr4 how
t


7i Tbefirftftook^.
how much longer or broader the face of Nero is, which they havcftcr.em fomc oldruir.es of Italic, thaiuhat which is made for him in other old monuments elfe-where. But they fliould principally obfervc,and be able to make ccrtainc relation of the humouisand fafhi-ons of thofc countries they have fecne, that they may the better know how to correct and prepare their wits by thole of others. I would therefore have him begin even from his in. fancie to travcll abroad; and firft, that at one fhoot he may hit two markes, he fliouid fee neighbour-countries, namely whcrelanguagcs arc moftdiffcrent from ours; for, unlcfica mans tongue befafhioned unto them in hisyouth,hefhalI never attaine to the true pronun-tiation ofthem,ifhe once grow in ycares.Moreover, we fee it received as a common opinion ofthe wiferfort,thatit agrecth not with reafon, that a childe bealwaies nuzzled, cockered, dandled, and brought up in hisparents lap or iight; forfomuch as their naturall kindneffe, or (as I may call it)tenderfGndncffc,cauleth often, even the wiled to prove lb idle, fo over-nice, and fo bale-minded. For parents are not capable, neither can they find in their hearts to fee them checkt,correted, or chaflifcd,rtor indurc to lire them brought up lb meanly,and fo far from daintinefle,and many times lb dangeroufly,as they mud needs be. And it would grieve them to fee theit children come home from thofc exercifes, that a Gentleman mud necefTarily acquaint himfelfc with,lbmctimes all wet and bemyred,other times fwcatie,and full of dud, and to drinkc being either extreme hot, or exceeding cold; and it would trouble them to fee him ride a rough-untamed horfe, or with his weapon furioufly incounter a skilfull Fencer, or to handle and (hoot-off a musket; againd whichthcre is no remedy, if he will make him prove a fufficient, compleat,or honed man: he mud not be fpared in his youth; and it will come to paffc, that he fliall many times have occafion and be forced to fhockc the rules of Phyficke.
i#,i.f.i.4' Vitamqtte jitb d'to & trepidis agat
Itrcbw.-
Leade he his life in open aire, And in affaircsfull ofdefpaire. It is notfiifficient to make his miadc thong, his muskks mud alfo be drengthncd: the minde is over-borne if it be not feconded : and it is too much for her alone to discharge two offices. I have a feeling how mine pahtethj being joyned to lb tender and fenfible a bodie, and that lieth fo heavie upon it. And in my lecture, I often perceive how my Authors in their writings fometimcs commend examples formagnauimiric and force, that rather pro-, cecd from a thicke skin and hardncs ofthe bones. I have knowne men, women and children borne of lb hard a conditution,thata blow with a cudgell would lefle hurt thcm,thau afilip would doe me, and lb dull and blockilh, that they will neither dir tongue nor eye-browes, beat them never fbmuch. When wrcdlers goc about to counterfeit the Philofo-phers patience, they rather fhew the vigoroftheir finncwes,than oftheir heart.Forthccu-
ci T C lit "omcto bearc travell,is to tolerate griefe: Labor caUttntobducitdolorit Labourworketh a '*' hardneffe upon forrove. Hee mud be enured to fuffcr the paine and hardneffe of exercifes, that fb he may be induced to endure the paine of the colicke, of cauterie, of fals, of fprains, and othcrdilcafes incidentto mans bodie: yea, if need require, patiently to bcareimprifou-ment, and other tortures, by which fuffcrancc he (hall come to be had in more cdecme and accompt: for according to time and place, the good as well as the bad man may haply fall intothem; we have fcen it by experience. Wholbever drivcth againd the lawes, threats good men with mifchicfeandextortion.Moreovcr,theauthoritic of the Tutor (who (hould be foYeraigne over him) is by the cockering and prcfcncc of the parents, hindrcd and interrupted : befidestheawcandrefpectwhichthehoufholdbeareshim,andtheknowlegdeof the meanes, poflibilities, and greatneffe of his houfc, are in my judgement, no fmall lets in a young Gentleman. In this fchoole of commcrcc,and focictie among mcn,I have often noted this vicc,that in lieu of taking acquaintance ofothers, we only endevour to make our fclves lenowncto them: and we aremoreready to utter fuch merchandize as we have, than to in-groffeandpurchaftncwcommodities.Silcuceand modedie are qualities veric convenient to civil converfation.lt is alio necclfary,that a young man be rather taught to be difcreetiy-fpa-ring,and cloft-handed,thanprodigally-wadfull and lavilh in his cxpcnces,and moderate in husbanding his wealth when hethallcometo poflefle it. And not to take pepper in thenofc for every fbolifh talc that dial befpoken in hisprcfcncc,becauftitis an uncivil importunity,
to


*> Sert.cp'fl.
Chap. 1 y. The firfl Bookc^,. 75
to contradict,wnatfbever is not agreeing to out humour: Jet him bepleafed to correct hira-fclfe. And let him not feeme to blame that in others, which herefufeth todoehimfelfe,nor goe about to withstand common fiafhion*, Licet fapere finepompa,fine invidiam A man may bee wife without os~ientation,without envte: Let him avoid-thole imperious images of the world,thofeuncivil behaviours,and childifh ambition, w-fiercwith God W'or, too-toomany ate poflcft: that is,to make a fairc Shew of that, which is nor in him : endevouring to he reputed other than indeed he is; and as if reprebenfion and new devices were hard to come by, he would by that meanc acquire unto himlelfe the nameof foitic peculiar vcrtuc. As itper-taineth but to great Poets to ufcthelibcrtieofarts; fo is it tolerable bur in noble minds, and great fpirits to have a preheminence above ordinarie fafh.ions. Si quid Socrates & An- ^ 0^fifcj, fiippus contra morem & confuetudmem fecerunt, idem fibt ne arbitretar licere: Magis enim Hli&dtvinis bonk hanclicentiam aJJ'equebamur.IfSocritcs and Ariftippus have done ought againfi cuftome or good manner, let not a man thtnke he may doe the fame: for they obtained this licence by their great and excellent goodparts: He Shall be taught,not to enter rafhly ir-to difcourie or contesting but when he fhall encounter with a Champion, worthie his Strength j. And then would I not have him imploy all the tricks that may fit his turne, but only Such as may Stand him in molt Stead. That he be taught to be curious in making choice of his reafons,loving pertinency,and by confequence brevitic. That above all, he be instructed to yeekt,yca to quit his weapons unto tiuth,as foone as he Shall difecrne the fime,whe-ther it proceed from his ad verfane,or upon better advice from himlelfe; for,hc Shall not be preferred to anyplace of cminencie above othcrs,for repeating of aprefcript part; and he is not engaged to defend any caufe, further than he may approove it; nor Shall he bee of that trade, where the libertic for a man torcpentand re-advife himlelfe is fold forrcadie money. Neque,ut omnia, qua prafcripta & imperatafin', defendat, neccfiiiate cogitur. Nor is he cic.Jcad.qHt inforced by any neccfiitieto defend and make goodallthat is prefcribed and commanded him. Itb.t,. if his tutor agree with my humour, he Shall frame his affeetion,itobe a molt loyalland true fubject to his Princc,and a moft affect ionate and couragious Gentleman,in al that may con-ccrnethe honor of hisSoveraignc,or the good of hiscountrie. And endevourrofuppreflein him all manci; ofaffection to undertake any action other wife than for a publikc good and dutic. BeSidesmany inconvenicnccs,which greatly prejudice our libertic,by rcafonofthefe particularbonds; the judgement of amanthacis waged and bought, either it is letfe free 8c honelt, or clfe it is blcmiSht with oversight and ingratitude. Amccrcand precile Courtier can ncitherhave law nor will to fpeake or thinke, other wife than favourablie of his Mafter, who among fo many thoufands of his Subjects, hath made choice of him alone, to institute and bring him up with hisownehand. Thcfe favours, with the commodities that foliow minion Courtiers, corrupt (not without feme colour of reafbn) his libertic, anddazle his judgement. It is therefore commonly feene, rhat the Courtiers-language differs from other mens, in the fame State, and to be of nogrcat credit in fuch matters. Let therefore his conscience and vcrtuc Shine in his Speech, and rcafon be hischicfedirection. Let him be taught toconfcflctuchfaultsashefhalldifcovcrin his ownc dilcourfes, albeit none other perceive them but himftlfc; for it is an evident Shew of judgcmcnt,and effect of linccritie, which arc thcchicfclt qualities he aymcthar. That wilfully to Strive, and obstinately to conteSt in words,arc common qualities,moltapparentinbaScStmindcs tThatto re-advife^and correct himfelfc, and when one ismoStcarncft,toleavcanill opinion, are rave, noble, and Phi-lofophicall conditions. Being in companie, he Shall be put in minde, to caSt his eyes round about, and every where : Fori note, that the chiefe places are ufually feazed upon by the moft unworthic,andleffe capable; and thatheight offortuncis feldome joyned with fuffi-ciencic. lhavefcene, that whilst they atthe upper end of a board werebulie entertaining themfelvcs, with talking ofthebcautie of the hangings about a chamber, or of thetatte offomc good cup of wine, many good difcourfes at the lower end haveuttcrly been loft. He fliall weigh thccarriagc of every man in his calling, a Hcardsman,a Mafbn, a Stranger, or a traveller; all mull be imployed; every one according to his worth; for all helps to make up houShold; yea, the follicand the iimplicitic of others Shall be as instructions to him. By controlling the graces and manners of others, he Shall acquire unto himfelfecnvie of the good,and contempt ofthc bad. Let him hardly bepoSTcfl with an honeft curiofitieto
Scarchout the nature and caufes of all things
let him furvay what-foCYer is rare and fingu-II lar


74
The firfl Book^.
Chap, 25.
lar about him; abui!ding,afountaine,a man, a place where any battdl hath been fought, or the paffages of Citfar or Gharlemame. Tt$fAt\tlil^. v~ Quatellus fit lent a gela,quaputris ab <$~fu,
Ventus in Italian* quit bene vela ferat. What land is parent with heat, what cleg'd with frcft, What wind drives kindly to Italian coaft. He fhal! endevourto be familiarly acquainted with the cuftorncs, with themeanes, with the ftate, with the dependances and alliances of a 11 Princes; they arerhings foonc and plea-fant to be leamed,and mod profitable to be kno wne. In this acquaintance of men, my meaning is, that hcechiefely comprehend them, that live but by the memorie ofbookes. He fhall,by the help ofHiftorics, informe himfelfe of the worttueft minds thatwere in thebeft ages. It is a frivolous ft udic, if a man liftjbut of unvaluable worth to ftich as can make ufe of it. And a.s Plato faith, theonely fiudie the Lacedemonians refcrved for rhemfelves. Whatprofitfhallhcnot reap, touching this point, readingthe lives of-our PlutarkJ Al-waycsconditionedjthemafttr bcthinke himfelfe whereto his charge tendcth, and that he imprint not fo much in his fchollers mind the date of the ruinc of Carthage, as the manners of Hannibalhnd Scipio,nor fo much where MarcelluS died,asbecaufehe wasunworthy of hisdevoirehe died there : that heteach him-not fomuch to know Hiftorics, as to judge of them. It is,amongft things that belt agree with my humour,the fubject to which our fpirits doc mofi diverfly appliethcmfelves. I hayeread in Titus Livius a number of things, which peradventure others never read, in whom Plutarke haply read a hundred more, than ever I could read, and which perhaps the author himfelfe did never intend to fet downe. To fome kind ofmen, it isa mecre gramaticall Itudic, but to others a perfect anatomic of Phi-lofophie; by meanesw hereof, the fecrcteft part of our nature is icarched-into. There are in Plutarke many ample difcoutfesmoft worthy to be knowne: for in my judgement, he is the chicfc work-mafteroffuch works, whercofthcrc area thoufaud whereat he hath but -; flightly glanced ; for with his finger he doth but point us out a way to Walke in, if we'lift;
> and ib'lbmctimcs pleafed togiye but a touch at thequickeft and maine point of a difcourfc,
frotin whence they are by diligent Itudie to be drawne, and fo brought into open market. As that faying of his. That the inhabitants of Ajia ferved but one alonebecaufe they could not pronounce one oncly fyllablc,whichis Non, gave perhaps both fibjeet and occalionto my friend 2?>tt> to compofchisbookcofvoluutariefcrvitude. If it were no more but to kePlutarke wreit a flight action to mans life; or a word that fecmeth to beare no fuch fence,it will fcrve for a whole difcourfe. Itispittiemenofundcrltanding Should fo much love brevitie,without doubt their reputation is thereby better, but we the worfe. Plutarke had rather we Should commend him for his judgement, than for his knowledge, he lovcth tetter to leave a kind oflonging-dcfirein usofhim,thanafacietie.Heknew verie w ell,that even in good thmgs,too much may befaid: and that Alexandria"as did juflly reprove him, wlio {pake verie eoodfentencestothepyE)er, butthey were over tedious. Ohfinnger, quoth he, thou fpeakeft what thou onghtelf, othcrwifethenthou fhouldeft. Thofc that have leanc and thin bodies ftuffe them up with bumbafting. And fuch as have but poorc matter, will puffe it up with loftie words. There is a marvelous cleereneffc, or as I may tcrme itan enlightning ofmansjudgementdrawnefrom the commerce ofmen, and by frequenting abroad in the world : we are all fo contrived and compact in our felves, that our fightis made fhorfer by the length of our note. VJhenSocrates wasdemaunded whence he was,heanfwered,notof^r^/,butoftheworld; for he, who bad his imagination more fuH, and farther Stretching, embraced all the world for his native Citie, andcxtended his acquaintance, his focietie, and affections to all man-kind rand not as we do, that lookeno further than our feet. If thefroft chance ro nip the vines about my village, my Pricft doth prefenriy argue, that the wrath of God hangs over our.head, and th'reatneth all mankind: and judgeth that the Pippc is alrcadicfalne upon rhcCanibals.
In viewing thefeinteftine and civill broilcs of ours, who doth not exclaime, that this v, '01 Ids vaft-framc is nccre unto a diffolution,and that the day of judgement is rcadic to fall on ">? never remembring that many worfe revolutions have been fcenc,and thatwhileft we are'plunged in griefe, and overwhelmed in Sorrow, athoufand other parts of the world belides are bleffcd with all happinefle, and wallow in pleafures, and never thinke on us ?
whereas


Chap. 25. The firfl Bookc.
whereas, when I behold our lives our licence, and impunitic I wonder to fee them lb mildcand ealie. He on wliofc head ithaileth, thinks nil thcHemifphearebcfidcstobein a ftorme and temped. And as that diili-pated Savoyard fzid, that ifche feelieKing of France could cunningly have managed his fortune, he might veric well have made himfclfe chiefc Steward of his Lords hou(hold,whoSe imagination conceived no other grcatneffe than his Matters; wc are all infenfible of this kind ofcrrour : anerrour of great conlcquencc and orejudicc. But whofoeverfhall ptefentunto his inward eyes, as it were in a Table, the Idea of the great image of our univerfal! mother Nature, attired in her richefi robes, fitting in the throne of her Majeftie and in hervifagc (hall read, fo generall, and fo condanta va-rictie; he that therein fhall view himfeIfe,not himfelfe alone,but a whole Kingdome, to be in refpectofa great circle; but the fmalled point that can be imagined heonely can value things accordingto their clfentiall grcatneffe and proportion. This great univerfc (which lome multiplie as Species under one Genus)\s the truelooking-glaffe wherin we muff looke, ifwe will know whether we be of a good If amp, or in the right by aft. To conclude,! would havethis worlds-frame to be my SchoIIcrschoife-bookc: So many drange humours, fun-dricfc&s, varying judgements, diverle opinions, different lawes, and fantafticall culforaes teach us to judgerightly of ours, and inltruct otir judgement to acknowledge his imperfections and naturall wcakneffe, which is no ealie an apprcntifhip : So many innovations of cllates, fo many fals of Princes, and changes of publike fortune, may and ought to teach us, not to make fo great accompt of ours: So many names, fo many victories, and fo many conquefts buried indarkc oblivion, makes rhc hope to perpetuate our names,but ridiculous, by the furprifing often Argo-lettiers, orofafmall cottage, which is knowne but by his fall. The pride and fiercenefie of lb many ftrange and gorgeous fhewes: the pride-puft (, majeftie of lb many courts, and of their greatneffc, ought to confirme and allure our fight, undauntedly to beare the affronrs and thunder-claps of ours, without feeling our eyes : So manythoufindsofmen, low-laidc in theirgraves afore us, may encourage us, not tofcare, orbedifmaiedtogomectfogoodcompauieinthe other World; and fo of all things elfc. Our life (faid Pithagoras) drawes neare unto the great and populous affemblies of the Olympikcgames, whcicin fomc, to get the gloric, and to win the goale ofthe games, cxer-cife their bodies w ith all indudiic; others, for greedineltc of gainc, bring thither marchan-difc to fell: others there are (and thofe be nor the wor(t) that ieek after no other good, but to marke,how,whercfore,and to what end, all things arc done : and to be Spectators or ob-fervcrs of other mens lives and actions, that fo they may the better judge and direct their owne. Unto examples may all the mod profitable Difcourfts of Philofophic be forted, which ought to be the touch-done of humane actions, and a rule to fquare them by, to whom may be faid,
.-quidfosoptare,quidalper fcrffat.^o.
Vtilenummuixhabct, patria chartfquepropinquh
Quantum elargiri due at, quern te Deus ejfe
Iufftt,& humanaquapartclocatus es inrc, *
Qnidfumuty autquidnam vtftnrigignimurr
Whatthou maicft wifh, what profit may come cleare,
From ncw-dampt coyne, to friends and countrie deare,
What thou ought'ft give: whom God would have thee bee,
And in what patt mongd men he placed thee.
What we are, and wherefore,
To live heer we were bore. What it is to know, and not to know (which oughtto be the fcopeofftudie) what valour, what temperance and what judice is: what difference there is bctwecne ambition and avarice, bondage and frcedome, Subjection and libertie, by which markes a man may didinguifh true and perfect contentment, and how far-forth one ought tofcare or apprehenddeath, griefc, or Shame.
Ft quo quemque modofugiatqueferatque laborem. ykg.Aai.lHX
How ev'ry labour he may phe, tfi
And beare, or ev'ry labour die. What wards or Springs move us, and thecaufesoffo many motions in us: For me fee-
H a rncth,


7tS Tbefirfl Booker Ctap.z5t
metb, that the frrft difcourfes,whcrcwith his conceit fhould be fprinkled,ought to be thofe, that rule his manners, and direct his fenfe; which will both teach him ro know himfclfe, and how to live,and how to die well. Among the liberall Sciences, let us begin with that which makes us free: Indeed they may all in fome fort ftead us as an instruction to out life,and ufe of it, as all other things elfeferve the fame to fome purpofe or other. But Ictus make efpeciall choice of that, which may directly and pertinently ferve the fame. If we could rcftrainc and adapt the apputtcnances of our lifctotheir right byafe and naturall limits, we fhould find the belt part of the Sciences that now are in ufc, cleane out offafhion with us: yea, and in thofc that are moft in ufc, there arc ccrtainc by-wayes and deep-flows moltprofitable, which we fhould do well to leave, and according to the institution of Socrates, limit thecourie of our ftudies in thofe where profit is warning.
-fapere aude,
^"^o U Jncipe: Vivendi qut reEie prorogat her am,
JRufticusexpeElat dum defluat amnis,at Hie
Labitur, & labetur in omne volubilis avum.
Be bold to be wife: to begin, be ftrong,
Hethatto live well doth the time prolong,
Clownc-like expects, till downe the ftreame be run;
Thatruns,and will run, till the world bedone. It is more fimplicitie to teach our children.
Quid moveant Pifces, animofaquefigna Leonis, TtepM*. il 1.' Lews & Hefperia quid Capricornus aqua.
What Pifces move, or hot-brcath'd .Lwbeames,
OtCapricornusbata'd inwefterncflrcamcs. The knowledge ofthe ltarres,and the motion of the eighth fpheare,before their owne.
What longs it to the leaven Stars, and me, Or thofc about Bones be.
Anaximenes writing to Pythagoras, faith, with what fenfe can 1ammiife my felfe to the fecrets ofthe Starres, having continually death or bondage before mine eyes ? For at that time the Kings of Per fa were making preparations to war againit his Countrie. All men ought to fay fo. Being beaten with ambition, with avarice, with rafhnefic, and with fuperllition, and having fuch other enemies unto life within him. Wherefore fhall I fludy and take care about the mobility and variation ofthe world? When lice isonce,taught what is fit to make him better and wifer,he fhall becntettained with Logicke,naturallPhilofophy,Geometry, and Rhetoricke, then having fctied hisj'udgement, lookc what feience he doth moft addict himfclfcunto, he fhall in fhort timeattaine to the perfection of it. His lecture fhall be Sbm-timesby way oftalkc and fonitimes by booke: his tutor may now & then fupply him with the fame Author, as an end & motive of his inftitution : Sometimes giving him thepith and fubftance of it ready chewed. And if of hhdfclrc he be not fo throughly acquainted with bookes,that hee may readily find fo many notable difcourfs as arc in them to effect his pur-pofe,it fhall not be amiffe, that fome learned man being appointed to kcepehim company, who at any time of need, may furnifh him with fuch munition, as hee {hall (land in need of; that hecmay afterward distribute &difpeufe them to his belt ufe. And that this kind ofleffon be morecafie and naturall than that of Gaz,a,^ho will make queftion? Thofe are but harfii, thornie,& unpleafantprecepts; vaine, idle Si immateriall words,on whichfmall hold may betaken; wherein isnothing toquicken the oiinde. In this,the fpiritfindeth Substance to bide and feed upon. A fruit without all com'pari lbn much better,and that will foone be ripe. It is athing worthy confiderarion,to fee w'hat ftatethings are brought unto in this our age; & how Philofophie,even to the wifeff, and men of belt underftanding, is but an idle, vaine and fantafticalloamCjOf fmall uic,and Ielle worth,both in opinion and effect. I thinke thefc Sophiftricsarcthecaufeofir, which have foreftalled the wayes tb come unto it: They doc very ill,that goeaboutto makd it feeme as it were inacceffiblc for children to come unto,fet--: v ting it foorth with a wrimplcd,gaftlie,and frowning vifagc; who hath masked her withfo
counterfet,pale,and hidcousa countenance? There is nothing more beauteous, nothing more delightfullmothing morcgamcfome; and as I may faymothing more fondly wanton: Airu : for


Chap. 15. Tbe firfi Bookc. 77
for fhe prefcnteth nothing to our eyes,and prcachcth nothing to our cares,bat Iporr and pa-ftimc. A fad and lowringlooke plainly declareth,tbatthatisnot her haunt. Demetrius the Gramarian,finding a cornpanieof Philofophers fitting clof together inthcTcmple of Del-phosfai unto ihtm,Either Iamdeceived,orbyyourplaufibleandpleafantlookes,youxrenot in any feriotu andearne dtfcourfe amongst your fdves; to whom one of them named Hera-cJeonthe Megarian anfwercd, That belongeth to them,who be themfetves in feekjng, whe* the future tenfe ofthe verbe hath a double ^, or that labour to find the derivation ofthe comparatives, x?*, i*vf>r,and of'the fuperlatives ^f/eiser, $kxnsw, it is they, that mu chafe in mtertaining themfelves with their faence : as for difcourfes of Philofophie they are wont to of ad, rejoyce, andnot to vex and m>lefi thofc that ufe them. Deprendas animi tormenta latentis in agro
Corporejeprendat & gaudia,fumitutrumque luven ft.f,it.
In de habt tum fades.
You may perceive the torments of the mind,
Hid in ficke bodic, you the joyes may find,
The face fuch habit takes in either kind. Thatmind which harbourcthPhiloibphie, ought by reafon of her found health, make that bodiealfo found and healthie: it ought to make.her contentment to through-fhinein all exteriour parts: it oughtto fhapen and modell all outward demeanours to the modcll of it: and byconfequencearme him that doth pofcffc it,with a gracious ftoutnelfe, and lively audacitie, with an active and pleaiing gefture, and with fetled and chcerefull countenance. The molt evident token, and apparant (ignc oftrue wifdome, is a conff ant, and unconftrai-ncd rejoycing, \ 1 ft elf ate is like unto all things above the Moone, that is,evercleare,al* waies bright.lt is Baroco and Bs,ratipton, that makes their followers prove fo baft and idle, and not Philofophie; rhey know-her not,but by hearc-fay; what? Is it not fhce,thatcleereth allftormcs ofthe minci ? And tcachcth miferie,faminc,and ficknefleto laugh ? Not by reafon of fome imaginaricEpicicIcs, but by naturall and palpable reaibns. Shce aymcth at nothing but vertue: it is vertue fheeftekes after; which as the fthoole faith, isuotpitchtou the top ofan high,ftccpie,or inacceffible hill; for rhey that have come unto her,affirme,that cleanc-contraric, fhee keeps her ftand, and holds her manfion, in a faire, flourifhing, and pleafantplaine,whcnceas from an high warch tower, fhe furvaieth all things, to beiubject unto her, to whom any man may with great facilitic come, if he but know the way or entrance to her palace: for, thepathes that lead unto her,are certaine fiefh,and fhadie greene allieSjfwect and flowrie waics,whoft afcent is even,eafie,and nothing wearifome, like unto that of heavens-vaults. Forfomuch as they have not frequented this vertue, who gloriouQy, as in athrone of Majefticfitsibveraigne,goodly, triumphant, lovely,equally delicious,and coiiragious,prote(ling her felfe to be a profeffed and irreconciliablccnemie to all fharpnefle, aufteritie, feare, and compulfion; having nature for her guide, fortune and voluptuoufuefie for her companions;they according to their weakneflehaveimaginarily faiiied her,to have a foolifiiTAd,grim,quarelous,fpitcfull,threatning,anddifdainfull vifage, with an horrideand unplcafant looke; and have placed her, upon a craggic, fharpc, and unfrcquenred roeke, amidft dclertclirres, and uncouth crags, as a skar-crow, or bug-bcare,to affright the common people with. Now the tutour,which oughtto know,that he fhould rather feek to fill thcmind,and ftorethe will ofhisdifciple,asmuch,orrathermore, with love and affection, than with awe, and reverence unto vertue, may fhew and tell him, that Poets follow common humours, making him plainly to perceive, and as it were palpably to feele, that the Gods have rather placed labourand fweatatthe entrances, which lead to Venus chambers, than atthe doores,thatditect to Pallas cabinets.
And when he fhall perceive his fcholler to have a ftnfible feeling of himftlfe, prcftucing Bradamant, or Angelica before him, as a Miftreffc to enjoy, embelifhed.with a naturall, active,generous,and unlpotted beautie,not uglic, or Giant-like, but blithe and livelie,in re-fpect of a wanton, loft, affected, and artificiall-flaring beautie; the oue artircd like unto a young man, coyftd with a bright-fhining helmet, the other dilguiftd and dreft about the head like unto an impudent harlot,with embroyderies,frizclings,and earcanetsofpcarlcs: hcwillnedoubtdeemehisownclovetobcamanandno woman, if in his choice he differ from that effeminate fhepheard of Phrygia.la this new kind ofleffon, he fhall declare unto
H 1 him,


78 Thefirftftookeu. Chap.
5
him,that the prize,the gloric,and height of true vertuc, confifted in the facilitie, profit, and pleafure of kisexercifts: fo far from diflicultic, and incumbrances; that children as well as men, the fimp$e as foonc as the wife, may come unto her. Difcretion and temperance-, not force or way-wardnefTe are the mftrumcnts to bring him unto her, Socrates ( vertucs chiefe favorite) that he might the better walke in the plcafant,uaturall,and open path,of her pro-grefles,doth voluntarily and in good earncft,quit all compulfion.Shecis the nurfe and foftcr-mother of all humane pIeafures,who in making them juft and upright, fhe alfo makes them furc and Sincere. By moderating them,fhc kecpeth them in urc and breath. In limiting and cutting them off, whom flic refufcth; fhe whets us on toward rhoftfheleavcth unto us; and plenteeufly leaves us them, which Nature pleofcth, and like a kind mother giveth us over unto facictie,if not unto weariforoneffe, uiilcffe we will peradventure fay, that the rule and bridle, which ftayeth the drunkard before drunkennefie, the glutton before furfetting, and the letcher before the lofing of his haire, be the enemies of ourpleafures. Ifcemmon fortune faile her,it cleerely fcapes her; or fhe cares not for her, or fhe frames another unto herfelfe,altogether her owbc, not f fleeting, nor fo rowling. She knovveth the way how to be rich,mightie and wifc,and how to liejn Tweet-perfumed beds.Shc loveth life; fhe delights in beautie,in glorie,and in health. But her proper and particular office is,firft to know how to ufc fuch goods temperately, and how to lofethem conflantly. An office much more nc-blc,than fcvcrCjWithout which, all courfe of life is lumaturall, turbulent, and deformed, to which one may lawfully joyne thofe rocks, thofe incumbrances, and thoft hideous mon-flers. Iffo it happen, that hisDifciple prove offo different a condition, that he rather love to give eare to an idle fable, than to the report of fornc noble voiage, or other notable and wife difcourfc, when he fhall heare it; that at the found of a Drum, or clang ofa Trumpet, which are wonttorowzcand arme the youthly heat of biscompanions,turneth toanother thatcalleth him to fee a play,tumbling, jugling tricks, or other idle loft-time fports; and who for pleafures fake doth not deeme it more delightfome to returne all fwcatie and wca-rie from a victorious combat, from wreftling, or riding of ahorfe, rhan from a Tennis-court, or dancing fthoole, with the prize or honour of fuch exercifes; The beff remedy I know for fuch a one,is,to put him prcntife to fbmc bafc occupation, in fame good towne or other,yea,wcre he the fbnue of a Duke; according to Platoes rule, who faith, That children mufi be placed,notaccording to theirfathers conditions ,but the faculties of their mind. Since it isPhilofbphiethatteacheth us to live, and that infancie as well as other ages, may plainly read her leflbns in the fame, why fhould it notbe imparted unto young Schollers i L Vdum&molUlutumes~l,nuncKuncvroperandut,&acri
Fingendusjinepnerota.
He's moift and foft mould,and muff by and by
Be cafl,made up,whilc wheclc whirl's readily. We arc taught to live, when our life is well-nigh fpent. Many fchollers have been infrared with that loathlbmc and marrow-wafting difcafe, before ever they came to read Ari-jf/rJtreatift of Temperance. Cicero Was wont to fcy,That could he out-live the lives of two men, hefhontd never find leafure to fiudy the Ljrike Poets. And I find theft Sophiftcrs both worfe and more unprofitable. Our childe is engaged in greater matters; And but the firft fifteenc or fixtcenc ycarcs of his life, arc due unto Pedantifmc, the reft unto action: let us therefore imploy fo Short timc,as we have to live,in more neceffarie inftrudtions. It is an abuft; remove theft thornie quiddities of Logike, whereby our life can no whit be amended, and betake our ftlves to the fimplediftourfesofPhilofbphy; know haw tochufeand fitly to make ufe of them: they are much more eafie to be conceived than one ofBocaee his tales. Achildecommingfromnurfeis more capableof them, than he is to learne to read r write. Philofbphy hath diftourfes, whereof infancie as well asdecayingold-age may make good uft. I am of Plutarkesmmd, which is,that Ariftetlc didnot fo muchammufc bis great Diftiple about the arts how to frame Syllogifmes,or the principles of Geometric, as he endc voured to inftruct him with good preccpts,concerning valour, proweffe, magna-nimitie,and temperance, andanundantcd afluranccnottofcarc'any thing; andwithtuch munition heftnthim, being yet veric young, to fiibdue the Empircofthc world,only with 30000. footmen, 4000. horftraen, and 42000. Crownes in monic. As for other arts and fcicnecs,- he faith Alexander honored them, and commended their excellence and comli-. J} R ncflc;


Chap, a 5 The firft Bookc^. 79
neffe; but for any plcafurc he tookc in them, his affection could not cafily bcdrawneto exercife them.
-petite hincjuvenefqtie fenefqui Sat. J. 4.
Fintm animo certum,miferifque viatica cants.
Young men andold,draw hence (in your affaires)
Your minds fet markc,provi(ion for gray haires. It isthat which Epicurus faid in the beginning of his letter to Menieeus: Neither let the yeungeftJbm, nor the oldsflwearte himfelfe inphilofiphying, for who doth otherwift feemeth to fay, that either th'efeafon to livehappily is not yet corae,or is already p<*/?. Yet would Inot havcthis young gentleman pent-up,norcarclc(ly cafl-off to the hccdleffc cho!er,or melancholy humour of the half y Schoole-malf er. I would nor have his budding Spirit corrupted with keeping him fa(i-tied,and as it were labouring foureteenc or fiftecne homes a day poa-ringonhisbookc,asfomedoe, as if he were aday-laboaringman j neither doe I thinke it fit,if at any timc,by realbn of Some folitarlc Or melancholy complexion, he fhould be feenc with an over-indifcrcet application given to hisbookc, it fhould be chcrifhed in him; for, that doth often make him both unapt for civill converfation, and diffracts him from better imploymcnts : How many have Ileene in my daics,byan over-greedy defi re of knowledge, become as it were foolilh ? Qarneades was fo deeply plunged, and as I may fay bcSotted in it, that he could never havcleafure to cut hishairc,-or pare his nailes: nor would I have his noble manners oblcured by the incivilitie and barbarifme of others. The French wifdomc hath long fince proverbially becnlpoken of, as verieaptto conceive Study in her youth, but molt unapt to keepc it long. In good truth, we lee at this day, that there is nothing lovelier to behold, than the young children of'France: but for the molf part, they deceivethe hope which was fore-apprehended of them: for when they once become men, there is no excellence at all in them. I have heard men of undcrHanding hold this opinion, that tjie Colleges to which they are font ( of which there are ftorc ) doe thus befot them: whereas to our fcholler, a cabinet, agardin, the table, the bed,a iblitarinelfe, a companie,morning and eve* ning, and all hourcs (hall be alike unto him, all places (hall be a ftudy for him: for Philo. fophy ( as a former of judgements, and modeler of cud omes) fhail be his principall leflon, having the privilege to cntcrmeddlc her telfe with ail things,and in all places. Ifocrates the Orator,being once requdtcd at a great banket tofpeakeofhisarr, when all thought he had reafon toanfwer,faid,/t is not now time to doe what I can, Eanic affembled together to be mcrrie, and make goodcheere, would be but a medlyof arfh and jarring mtifickc.The (ike may be fitd ofall other Sciences.But touching Philofo-. phy,namely in that point where it trcatcth ofman,aud of his dutics,and offices, it hath hcen the common judgement of the wifeft,that in regard of thepleafantneffc of her converfation, fhcoughtnot to be rejected, neither at banquets, nor at (ports. And Plata having invited her to his foiemnc fcaft, we fee how kindly (he cntertaincth the companie with a inildc behaviour, fidy fining herfclfeto time and place, notwithstanding it be one of his learned'ft and profitablediftourfts.
lAiquepauperibusprodeftJoeupleitbHS aqur, W./.l.0.Uf. Et negleEla aque puerisfenibufque nocebit. Poore men alike, alike rich men iteafeth, Alike it (corned,old and young dilpleaftth. So doubtleffc he (hall leife be idle than others 5 for even as the paces we beftow walking in a gallcric,although they be twice as many more,wcavie us not fo much as thofe we Spend in going a fet journey : So our Ieflbn being paft over, as it were, by chance, or way of encounter, without Strict: obfervance of time or place,bcing applied to al 1 our actions, Shall be digc(ted,and never felt. All Sports and exercifcs Shall be a part of his Study ^ running,wreft-Iing,mufickc, dancing, hunting, and managing of armcs, andhorfts. I would havctheex-tcrior demeanor or deccncie,and thedifpodtionof his pcrforito befafhioned together with his mind : for,it is not a mitid,it is not a body that we crect.but it is a man,and we mult not make two parts of him. And as Plato faith fThey mufi n0t be eretted one without another,but equally be direBed, no otherwift than a CoUpleof horfes matched to draw in one felfe-fame teeme. And to heare him, doth hcnotfrcmetoiinploymorc time and care in the exerdies
of