Proposed Classification for Biological Assessment of Florida Inland Freshwater Wetlands

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Proposed Classification for Biological Assessment of Florida Inland Freshwater Wetlands
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English
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Doherty, Steven
Lane, Charles R.
Brown, Mark T.
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Center for Wetlands
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Subjects / Keywords:
wetlands
bioassessment
biological indicators
wetlands classification
Spatial Coverage:
United States -- Florida

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33 Pages

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University of Florida
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Florida Natural Areas Inventory Guide to the Natural Communities of Florida

Eighty-one natural communities in Florida are described and classified as Terrestrial,
Palustrine, Lacustrine, Riverine, Subterranean, or Marine/Estuarine. Natural communities
are defined as distinct and reoccurring assemblages of populations of plants, animals, fungi
and microorganisms naturally associated with each other and their physical environment.
This classification/inventory is unique in that it describes pristine natural communities
without human intervention, providing information on reference condition. For each Natural
Community Type brief descriptions of characteristic flora and fauna, physical setting, soil
types, hydropattern, fire frequency, associated communities, and development impact are
given. Synonyms and comparisons with other vegetation classifications are also reported.

Inland freshwater wetlands are generally classified within the Palustrine Group (Table 2),
although 2 Lacustrine types (third level) may be interpreted as wetland
(Flatwoods/Prairie/Marsh Lake and River Floodplain/Swamp Lake). FNAI defines palustrine
natural communities as freshwater wetlands dominated by plants adapted to anaerobic
substrate conditions imposed by substrate saturation or inundation during at least 10% of the
growing season. Nineteen wetland types in 4 categories (Wet Flatlands, Seepage Wetlands,
Floodplain Wetlands, Basin Wetlands) are classified within the Palustrine Group.


Soil Conservation Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture

Twenty-six vegetative communities are identified from soil series and field studies. Aquatic
communities are not included. Ecological communities are described as mature (late
successional) and pristine ecosystems. Community specific information includes: 1)
Occurrence, 2) Description (typical soil, vegetation, wildlife), 3) Land-use Interpretation
(utility as natural land, rangeland, woodland, urban), and 4) Endangered and Threatened
Flora and Fauna. Distribution maps identify locations for each community type within
Florida.

The report also correlates ecological communities with soil series. Matrices identifying plant
species occurrence within climatic zones (North, Central, South, and South Tropical) indicate
the species status for each of the 26 ecological community types as either Characterizing
(typical or indicative) or Occurring (present). Introduced species are noted. Plant species
include: 129 grasses; 41 grass-like sedges and rushes; 127 trees; 470 herbaceous species; 89
vines; and 242 shrubs. From this database, plant species occurrence can be cross-referenced
with soils series, climatic zones and ecological community types. Eleven SCS ecological
communities are classified as wetland (Table 3).












Classification crosswalk summaries: (tot) number of cross-references per wetland class; (avg) mean number of cross-references
per classification for each wetland class.


FWC


11 Freshwater Marsh and Wet
Prairie
12 Cypress Swamp

13 Hardwood Swamp
14 Bay Swamp
15 Shrub Swamp
17 Bottomland Hardwood
3 Pinelands


number of wetland types:
tot. no.of cross-references:
mean no. cross-references per type:


tot avg
30 7.5


SCS


NWI


tot avg
5 1.3


10-Cutthroat Seep


8 2.0 12-Wetland Hardwood Hammock


16-Scrub Cypress
17-Cypress Swamp
20-Bottomland Hardwood
21-Swamp Hardwood
22-Shrub Bog, Bay Swamp
23-Pitcher Plant Bog
24-Sawgrass Marsh
25-Freshwater Marsh
26-Slough
6-7-N, S Florida Flatwoods


number of wetland types:
tot. no.of cross-references:
mean no. cross-references per
type:


R2AB Riverine, Lower Perennial, Aquatic Bed

R2EM Riverine, Lower Perennial, Emergent, non-
persistent
R3AB Riverine, Upper Perennial, Aquatic Bed
R4SB Riverine, Intermittent, Streambed
L1AB Lacustrine, Limnetic, Aquatic Bed
L2AB Lacustrine, Littoral, Aquatic Bed
L2EM Lacustrine, Littoral, Emergent, non-persistent
PAB3 Palustrine, Aquatic Bed, Rooted Vascular
PAB4 Palustrine, Aquatic Bed, Floating Vascular
PEM Palustrine, Emergent
PSS Palustrine, Scrub Shrub
PFO1 Palustrine, Forested, Broad-Leaved Deciduous
PFO2 Palustrine, Forested, Needle-Leaved Deciduous
PFO3 Palustrine, Forested, Broad-Leaved Evergreen
PFO4 Palustrine, Forested, Needle-Leaved Evergreen
PFO6 Palustrine, Forested, Deciduous (mixed)

PFO7 Palustrine, Forested, Evergreen (mixed)


number of wetland types:
tot. no.of cross-references:
mean no. cross-references per type:


Table 16


tot avg
4 1.0

5 1.3

5 1.3
5 1.3
5 1.3
5 1.3
6 1.5
6 1.5
4 1.0
15 3.8
11 2.8
12 3.0
11 2.8
5 1.3
9 2.3
19 4.8

9 2.3











The proposed classification for wetland bioassessments builds on commonalities between
and key elements from prominent classifications (namely HGM, FNAI, and NWI). It is
organized by landscape geomorphology (River, Depression, Lake, Slope, Flats) and
dominant vegetative form (Forested, Herbaceous, Shrub) (Table 22). Additional resolution is
provided through (subclass) descriptors: Hydroperiod (depth, duration and frequency of
inundation); Primary Water Source (rainfall, surface or ground-water); and Soil Type
(organic or mineral).

Limited information on descriptors restricts their application. For example, very little is
known about the hydropattern of isolated basin or depression wetlands. Referencing
hydroperiod modifiers from NWI wetlands database may provide description. Inferences
about hydrology can also be based on vegetative associations described in the literature and
learned from the field. Both FNAI and SCS include plant community characteristics and
descriptions of wetland hydroperiod. Vegetation associations further classify wetlands, either
by cross-reference with other classifications or through use of inventories and descriptions
provided by research (scientific and technical literature) and monitoring (State agency
programs).



Table 22. Proposed classification for biological assessment of Florida inland freshwater wetlands.

1. wetland is primarily forest 2
wetland is primarily herbaceous 3
wetland is shrub dominated Shrub-scrub

2 wetland is within stream channel or floodplain River Swamp
wetland is an isolated depression Depression Swamp
wetland is along a lake edge (permanent water >2 meters deep) Lake Swamp
wetland located on sloped topography Strand / Seepage Swamp
wetland associated with flat landscape; water source primarily precipitation Flatland Swamp

3 wetland is within a stream channel or floodplain River Marsh
wetland is an isolated depression Depression marsh
wetland is along a lake edge (permanent water >2 meters deep) Lake marsh
wetland located on sloped topography with groundwater source Seepage Marsh
wetland associated with flat landscape; water source primarily precipitation Wet Prairie


Descriptors:
Hydroperiod: Depth, duration, and frequency of inundation
Primary water source: rainfall, surface water, groundwater
Soil type: organic, mineral
Plant community association
















Proposed Classification for Biological Assessment
of Florida Inland Freshwater Wetlands





Report to:

Florida Department of Environmental Protection
Contract No. WM68
(Development of a Biological Approach for Assessing Wetland Function and Integrity)



by

S.J. Doherty, C.R. Lane, M.T. Brown


Center for Wetlands
PO Box 116350
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611


May 2000













Table 16. continued. Classification crosswalk summaries: (tot) number of cross-references per wetland class; (avg) mean number of cross-
references per classification for each wetland class.


FNAI


FLUCCS


Hydric Hammock
Marl Prairie
Wet Flatwoods
Wet Prairie
Baygall
Seepage Slope
Bottomland Forest
Floodplain Forest
Floodplain Marsh
Floodplain Swamp
Freshwater Tidal Swamp
Slough
Strand Swamp
Swale
Basin Marsh
Basin Swamp
Bog
Depression Marsh
Dome Swamp
Flatwoods/Prairie/Marsh Lake
River Floodplain Lake/Swamp Lake


number of wetland types:
tot. no.of cross-references:
mean no. cross-references per type:


avg
1.0
1.5
1.3
1.5
1.5
2.3
1.8
2.5
2.3
2.0
2.3
1.3
1.8
1.3
2.3
2.3
2.0
1.8
2.8
1.8
2.3


611 Bay Swamps
613 Gum Swamps
614 Titi Swamps
615 Stream and Lake Swamps
616 Inland Ponds and Sloughs
617 Mixed Wetland Hardwoods
618 Willow and Elderberry
619 Exotic Wetland Hardwood
621 Cypress
622 Pond Pine
623 Atlantic White Cedar
624 Cypress Pine Cabbage Palm
625 Hydric Pine Flatwoods
626 Hydric Pine Savanna
627 Slash Pine Swamp Forest
631 Wetland Scrub
641 Freshwater Marshes
643 Wet Prairies
644 Emergent Aquatic Vegetation
645 Submergent Aquatic Vegetation
646 Treeless Hydric Savanna
653 Intermittent Ponds


number of wetland types:
tot. no.of cross-references:
mean no. cross-references per type:


avg
1.3
2.5
1.8
1.8
1.8
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.8
1.5
1.8
1.8
1.0
1.0
1.0
2.3
3.0
2.8
3.3
2.0
1.3
1.5














Table 18. Soil Conservation Service crosswalk summary.
no. cross-references
per wetland class:
SCS FNAI FLUCCS FWC NWI


10-
Cutthroat
Seep
12-Wetland Hardwood Hammock
16-Scrub
Cypress
17-Cypress
Swamp
20-Bottomland Hardwood
21-Swamp Hardwood
22-Shrub Bog, Bay Swamp
23-Pitcher Plant Bog
24-Sawgrass Marsh
25-Freshwater Marsh
26-Slough
6-7-N, S Florida Flatwoods


no. times class

is cross-referenced:


1 2


1 1 1


no.
classes
cross-referenced:
14 9
9 5 3
1
1 1
1













Table 20. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation crosswalk summary.
no. cross-references
per wetland class:
FWC FNAI SCS FLUCCS NWI

11-Freshwater Marsh and Wet 9 4 6 11
Prairie
12-Cypress 4 2 1 1
Swamp
13-Hardwood 3 2 3 1
Swamp
14-Bay 1 1 1 2
Swamp
15-Shrub 2 2 4 1
Swamp
17-Bottomland Hardwood 4 2 3 1
3-Pinelands 1 2 5 2

no. times class no. classes
is cross-referenced: cross-
referenced:
1 18 9 20 17
2 3 2 1 1










Table 6. USFWS National Wetlands Inventory (Cowardin et al 1979) hierarchy of selected inland
freshwater wetland types represented in Florida (System, Subsystem, Class, Subclass,
Dominance Type).

R Riverine
w/in channel habitats;
Bounded by uplands or wetlands dominated by trees, shrubs or persistent emergents vegetation.
2 Lower Perennial
AB Aquatic Bed
EM Emergent Marsh (non-persistent)
3 Upper Perennial
AB Aquatic Bed

L Lacustrine
Bounded by upland or wetlands dominated by trees, shrubs or persistent emergent vegetation.
(wetland vegetation < 30% coverage)
1 Limetic -- > 2 m depth at low water
2 Littoral -- < 2 m depth at low water; all wetlands in Lacustrine System
AB Aquatic Bed
EM Emergent Marsh (non-persistent)

P Palustrine
Non-tidal wetlands dominated by trees, shrubs, persistent emergent vegetation.
AB Aquatic Bed
EM Emergent Marsh
SS Scrub Shrub
FO Forested
1 Broad-Leaved Deciduous
2 Needle-Leaved Deciduous
3 Broad-Leaved Evergreen
4 Needle-Leaved Evergreen
6 Deciduous
7 Evergreen




inundation (i.e., hydropattern or hydroperiod). Seven hydroperiods are defined (Table 7),
ordered generally from less to more water: Intermittently Flooded, Temporarily Flooded,
Saturated, Seasonally Flooded, Semipermanently Flooded, Intermittently Exposed,
Permanently Flooded.

The National Wetlands Inventory geographic information database using this classification is
available for Florida. Maps were prepared from high altitude aerial photographs and digitally
transformed. Wetlands were identified based on vegetation, visible hydrology and geographic
location. NWI maps reflect the specific year and season of the photography, as well as
interpreter skills and technology limits, affecting the accuracy of wetland locations,
boundaries and classifications.









Other Classification Systems


Ecosystems of Florida (Myer and Ewel 1990)
Thirteen inland freshwater forested wetland types (Swamps) are described by Ewel (1990):
River Swamps (Whitewater Floodplain Forest, Blackwater Floodplain Forest, and Spring
Run Swamp); and Stillwater Swamps (Bay Swamp, Cypress Pond, Cypress Savanna,
Cypress Strand, Gum Pond, Hydric Hammock, Lake Fringe Swamp, Melaleuca Swamp,
Mixed Hardwood Swamp, and Shrub Bog). Environmental variables determining structure
and function of swamps are described (hydroperiod, fire frequency, organic matter
accumulation, and water source). Common woody plants, productivity and nutrient estimates,
wildlife occurrence and changes/impacts are inventoried or described for each swamp type.
A comparison is given with NWI classes and modifiers (water regime, pH, and soil). An
inverse relationship between hydroperiod and plant species richness is proposed, with River
Swamps and Hydric Hammocks having greater number of species than Bay Swamps or
Cypress/Gum Ponds for example. Swamp productivity is shown to generally increase as
groundwater and surface flow become more important water sources than direct rainfall.

Inland freshwater herbaceous wetlands (Marshes) are classified by Kushlan (1990) according
to general physiognomy or by characteristic plants. Marsh distribution is explained using
local and regional topography, rainfall, evapotranspiration, and geology. Five major Marsh
Systems are described for Florida, from higher to lower elevation: Highland, Flatwoods,
Kissimmee, St. Johns and Everglades. Six Marsh Associations are described using dominant
plant species, hydroperiod, fire frequency and organic matter accumulation: Water Lily,
Submersed, Cattail, Flag, Saw Grass, and Wet Prairie. Predominant marsh plant associations
are identified within major marsh systems (regions).

The Nature Conservancy
An alliance-level classification of vegetation of the Southeastern United States includes
multiple hierarchical levels: Division (vegetated, non-vegetated); Order (dominant vegetation
form trees, shrubs, herbaceous-vascular, non-vascular); Class (cover, density estimates -
canopy, crown, height class); Subclass (dominant life form evergreen, deciduous, perennial,
annual, mixed); Group (lifezone temperate, subtropical, tropical); Subgroup (use history -
natural, planted, cultivated); and Formation (hydropattern, drought/temperature tolerance,
vegetation habit). Alliances are defined using dominant plant species or vegetation
associations. Descriptors include successional sere and soil type. An estimated 256
vegetation alliances are identified for Florida.

Lake County Water Authority/Seminole County
A simple dichotomous key for wetland classification using easily identifiable characteristics
applied to summer and winter seasons results in 4 forested wetlands (Cypress Swamp, Hydric
Hammock, Bayhead, Hardwood Swamp) and 3 herbaceous wetlands (Deep Marsh, Shallow
Marsh, Wet Prairie). Typical flora and fauna are described by LCWA. Quantitative
information on water quality (P/N removal),

evapotranspiration, hydroperiod, high/low water levels, recharge potential, peat depth,
wildlife utilization and gross primary productivity is given in Brown et al (1983).














Table 14. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Service inland freshwater wetland habitats and classification cross-reference.

FWC FNAI SCS FLUCCS NWI


Basin Marsh, Depression Marsh, Wet Prairie, 24- LAB, L2AB, L2EM,
Floodplain Marsh, Swale, Marl Prairie, Sawgrs 41,643,644,645, R1AB, R1EM, R2AB,
11 Freshwater Marsh and Wet Prairi Seepage Slope, Flatwoods/Prairie/Marsh wgherass Mao 26-ou 23- 46, 653 R2EM, R3AB, R4SB, PAB,
Lake, River Floodplain Lake/Swamp Lake_ PEM
12 Cypress Swamp Dome Swamp, Slough, Strand Swamp, 16-Scrub Cypress, 17-Cypress 621 PFO2
2 CypressSwampFreshwater Tidal Swamp Swamp
13 Hardwood Swamp Basin Swamp, Bottomland Forest, Hydric 12-Wetland Hardwood Hammock, 613, 616, 617 PFO6
3 Hardwood SwampHammock 21-Swamp Hardwood
14 Bay Swamp Baygall 22-Shrub Bog/Bay Swamp 611 PFO3, PFO7

15 Shrub Swamp Bog, Seepage Slope (Titi Bog), 2-Shrub Bog/Bay Swamp, 26- 14, 618 619, 631 PSS
Slough 614,_618,619,631 _SS
Bottomland Forest, Floodplain Forest, 0-Bottomland Hardwood, 21-
17 Bottomland Hardwood Floodplain Swamp, River Floodplain Swamp Hardwood 15,623,624 PF01
Lake/Swamp Lake _____


3 Pinelands Net Flatwoodsu tta-7-N/S Florida Flatwoods, 10- 22,625, 626, 627, PFO4, PFO7
Pinelands latwoodsutthroat Seeps04, P046























































This project and the preparation of this report were funded in part by a Section 104(b)(3) Water
Quality Improvement grant from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency through a contract
with the Florida Department of Environmental Protection.





PAGE 1

Proposed Classification for Biological Assessment of Florida Inland Freshwater Wetlands Report to: Florida Department of E nvironmental Protection Contract No. WM68 (Development of a Biological Approach for Assessing Wetland Function and Integrity) by S.J. Doherty, C.R. Lane, M.T. Brown Center for Wetlands PO Box 116350 University of Florida Gainesville, FL 32611 May 2000

PAGE 2

This project and the preparation of this report were funded in part by a Section 104(b)(3) Water Quality Improvement grant from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency through a contract with the Florida Department of Environmental Protection.

PAGE 3

Table of Contents List of Tables.............. iii Wetland Classification Background............. 1 Florida Natural Areas Inventory.............. 3 Soil Conservation Service............... 3 Florida Land-use, Cover and Forms Classification System................ 5 Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission................. 6 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Wetlands Inventory.................. 7 Other Classification Systems...................11 Ecosystems of Florida (Myer and Ewel 1990)....................11 The Nature Conservancy.................11 Lake County Water Authority/Seminole County....................11 Hydrogeomorphic Wetland Classification..................12 Classification Crosswalks....................14 Proposed Wetland Classification Approach for Biological Assessment.................15 Literature Cited................32 ii

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List of Tables Table 1. General characteristics for 3 broad categories of inland freshwater wetlands in Florida.................. 2 Table 2 FNAI inland freshwater wetland communities and synonymy................... 4 Table 3. SCS inland freshwater wetland communities.............. 5 Table 4. FLUCCS inland freshwater wetland codes and nomenclature................ 6 Table 5. FWC inland freshwater wetland habitats and percent statewide areas..................... 7 Table 6. NWI hierarchy of selected inland freshwater wetland types represented in Florida.............. 8 Table 7. Water regime modifiers describing NWI wetland and deepwater habitats................. 9 Table 8. Percent Statewide area for NWI inland freshwater wetland systems................10 Table 9. HGM (hydrogeomorphology) determinants of wetland function...............13 Table 10. HGM Peninsular Florida Depression wetland class comparison................14 Table 11. Classification cross-reference of FNAI inland freshwater wetland communities................16 Table 12. Classification cross-reference of SCS inland freshwater wetland communities................17 Table 13. Classification cross-reference of FLUCCS inland freshwater wetland classes................18 Table 14. Classification cross-reference of FWC inland freshwater wetland habitats.....................19 Table 15. Classification cross-reference of NWI inland freshwater wetland systems....................20 iii

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Table 16. Classification crosswalk summaries (total and average number of repeat references).................................21 Table 17. FNAI crosswalk summary...........................................................23 Table 18. SCS crosswalk summary.............................................................24 Table 19. FLUCCS crosswalk summary.....................25 Table 20. FWC crosswalk summary....................26 Table 21. NWI crosswalk summary....................27 Table 22. Proposed classification for biological assessment of Florida inland freshwater wetlands......................28 Table 23. Classification cross-reference of proposed wetland bioassessment classes in Florida.....................30 iv

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Wetland Classification Successful biological monitoring depends on judicious classification: selection of too few classes may overlook important characteristics; too many may unnecessarily complicate development of biocriteria (Karr and Chu 1999). Classifications are used to describe and organize ecosystems and land cover into distinct categories useful to land managers, planners and scientists, according to specific agency goals. The goal of classification for biological assessment is to group ecosystems with similar biological attributes and biological response to human disturbance. Because biological assessments measure ecosystem health relative to reference conditions, classification must distinguish local environments and address regional variability. Geography, landscape position, geomorphology, hydropattern, climate, physical/chemical variables, and biogeographic processes determine the structure and function of local ecosystems. Aspects of these driving forces are incorporated in most hierarchical classification systems, while others are based on plant community structure and species composition. Regardless of the number or resolution of classes, at all levels of classification there is overlap because of common species distributions and intergrading physical environmental conditions. Several classification schemes have been developed to describe Florida's inland freshwater wetlands (Wharton et al. 1977, Cowardin et al 1979, FDOT 1979/1985, SCS 1981, Ewel and Kushlan 1990, FDNR 1988, FNAI 1990, Brinson 1993, Trott et al 1997, TNC 1997). Descriptions of each are given below, followed by crosswalk comparisons between classifications. Although there is considerable overlap between key characteristics and wetland classes, each classification is goal specific. A common approach orders Floridas inland freshwater wetlands into three broad groups (Table 1): wetlands associated with flowing water; wetlands adjacent to ponds and lakes; and depressional or stillwater wetlands. General descriptions, review of plant community associations, and cross-reference of State classifications provide foundations for the development of wetland bioassessment classes. Here a proposed classification for biological assessment of Florida inland freshwater wetlands is described. It is a tiered approach using broad landscape categories (River, Depression, Lake, Strand, Seepage and Flatland) subdivided into forested and non-forested classes. Proposed wetland ecoregions partition the State and further specify wetland classes. Modifiers (hydropattern, water source, and soil type) lend additional resolution. Classification approaches to Florida wetlands are described, and five prominent systems are cross-referenced to generate a framework for common nomenclature and to utilize the best components of existing systems. The proposed classification uses aspects of HGM and FNAI classification structure. Twelve proposed classes are then compared with other descriptions for inland freshwater wetlands to provide cross-reference with other classifications used in Florida. Classification crosswalks are provided in an HTML format for additional utility. 1

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Table 1. Comparisons, general characteristics and plant community associations compared for 3 broad categories of inland freshwater wetlands: a) flowing water, b) lake fringe and c) basin, depression wetland types (adapted from Erwin, Doherty, Brown, Best 1997). General Type Abstracted from Ecosystems of Florida FNAI / FDNR FLUCFCS Other Synonyms General Characteristics Flowing water wetlands River (stream) swamps; blackwater floodplain forest Bottomland forest, floodplain forest, blackwater stream, seepage stream, strand, slough 615 stream and lake swamps; 616 inland ponds and sloughs; 617 mixed wetland hardwoods; 630 wetland forested mixed Swamp forest, swamp hardwoods, bottomland hardwoods, backwater swamps Forested wetlands within stream or river floodplains generally consist of a wide variety of tree species including cypress, blackgum, ash, elm, some oaks, sugar berry, maple, cabbage palm, sweet gum, hickories. Lake fringe wetlands Lake fringe swamps River floodplain lake, swamp lake 615 stream and lake swamps Lake fringe swamp, lake fringe forest Forested wetlands on fringe of lakes; species include cypress, blackgum, ash, elm, some oaks, sugar berry, maple, cabbage palm, sweet gum, hickories; wet tolerant species such as cypress, blackgum and ash found in deeper zone; transitional species commonly landward of the land/water interface. Lake fringe marshes Flatwood/prairie/marsh any 640-series freshwater wetlands, especially 641 freshwater marshes and 644 emergent aquatic vegetation Lake marsh, lake fringe marsh, lake littoral zone Herbaceous emergent vegetation within littoral zone of lake (rushes, bulrushes, beak rushes, fuirena, pickerel weed) or fringing lake border within high water levels (maidencane, blue maidencane, sedges, composites. Stillwater, basin or depression wetlands Cypress ponds/cypress strands, cypress/gum swamps Cypress dome or basin swamp, gum swamp, cypress/gum slough, swale or strand 621 cypress; 613 gum swamps; 624 cypress-pine-cabbage palm Cypress swamp, cypress gum swamp, cypress-gum-bay swamp Cypress and gum swamps are very similar in characteristics and species composition with a shift in dominant species driven primarily by slight differences in fire frequency and hydropattern. Dominant species include cypress, blackgum, loblolly bay, dahoon holly, sweet magnolias and maple. Bay swamps Baygall 611 bay swamps Seepage swamps, bayheads, sandhill bog Bay swamps are generally dominated by loblolly bay and sweet magnolia and maple with some red bay mixed with maple, with cypress and blackgum in deeper portions. Mixed hardwood swamps Bottomland forest 617 mixed wetland hardwoods; 630 wetland forested mixed Swamp forest, wetland hardwood hammocks, freshwater swamp forest Forested wetlands composed of a large variety of hardwoods with varying degrees of tolerance to hydric conditions. Common species include red maple, oaks, bays, cypress, black gum, sweet gum, ash, hickory and pines. Flatwoods/depression marshes Wet flatwoods, wet prairie, depression marsh Any 640 series freshwater wetlands, especially 641 freshwater marshes; 643 wet prairie; 644 emergent aquatic vegetation Hydric flatwood marshes, pine savannahs, marshes, herbaceous wetlands, freshwater marshes Several common types of depression marshes exist. Although most have a mixture of herbs and grasses, a few species generally dominate (maidencane, pickerel weed, arrowhead, arrowroot, needlerush, bullrush, sawgrass and cattail). 2

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Florida Natural Areas Inventory Guide to the Natural Communities of Florida Eighty-one natural communities in Florida are described and classified as Terrestrial, Palustrine, Lacustrine, Riverine, Subterranean, or Marine/Estuarine. Natural communities are defined as distinct and reoccurring assemblages of populations of plants, animals, fungi and microorganisms naturally associated with each other and their physical environment. This classification/inventory is unique in that it describes pristine natural communities without human intervention, providing information on reference condition. For each Natural Community Type brief descriptions of characteristic flora and fauna, physical setting, soil types, hydropattern, fire frequency, associated communities, and development impact are given. Synonyms and comparisons with other vegetation classifications are also reported. Inland freshwater wetlands are generally classified within the Palustrine Group (Table 2), although 2 Lacustrine types (third level) may be interpreted as wetland (Flatwoods/Prairie/Marsh Lake and River Floodplain/Swamp Lake). FNAI defines palustrine natural communities as freshwater wetlands dominated by plants adapted to anaerobic substrate conditions imposed by substrate saturation or inundation during at least 10% of the growing season. Nineteen wetland types in 4 categories (Wet Flatlands, Seepage Wetlands, Floodplain Wetlands, Basin Wetlands) are classified within the Palustrine Group. Soil Conservation Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture Twenty-six vegetative communities are identified from soil series and field studies. Aquatic communities are not included. Ecological communities are described as mature (late successional) and pristine ecosystems. Community specific information includes: 1) Occurrence, 2) Description (typical soil, vegetation, wildlife), 3) Land-use Interpretation (utility as natural land, rangeland, woodland, urban), and 4) Endangered and Threatened Flora and Fauna. Distribution maps identify locations for each community type within Florida. The report also correlates ecological communities with soil series. Matrices identifying plant species occurrence within climatic zones (North, Central, South, and South Tropical) indicate the species status for each of the 26 ecological community types as either Characterizing (typical or indicative) or Occurring (present). Introduced species are noted. Plant species include: 129 grasses; 41 grass-like sedges and rushes; 127 trees; 470 herbaceous species; 89 vines; and 242 shrubs. From this database, plant species occurrence can be cross-referenced with soils series, climatic zones and ecological community types. Eleven SCS ecological communities are classified as wetland (Table 3). 3

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Table 2. Florida Natural Areas Inventory inland freshwater wetland communities and synonymy (FNAI 1990). Palustrine Wet Flatlands Hydric Hammock (synonyms: wetland hardwood hammock, wet hammock) Marl Prairie (synonyms: scrub cypress, marl flat, dwarf cypress savanna, sedge flat, spikerush marsh) Wet Flatwoods (synonyms: low flatwoods, moist pine barren, hydric flatwoods, pond-pine flatwoods, pocosin, cabbage palm/pine savanna/flatwoods) Wet Prairie (synonyms: sand marsh, savanna, coastal savanna, coastal prairie, pitcher plant prairie) Seepage Wetlands Baygall (synonyms: seepage swamp, bayhead, bay swamp) Seepage Slope (synonyms: herb bog, pitcher plant bog, grass-sedge bog, shrub bog, seep) Floodplain Wetlands Bottomland Forest (synonyms: bottomland hardwoods, river/stream bottom, lowland hardwood forest, mesic hammock) Floodplain Forest (synonyms: bottomland hardwoods, seasonally flooded basins/flats, oak-gum-cypress, river terrace) Floodplain Marsh (synonyms: river marsh) Floodplain Swamp (synonyms: river swamp, bottomland hardwoods, seasonally flooded basins/flats, oak-gum-cypress, cypress-tupelo, slough, oxbow, backwater swamp) Freshwater Tidal Swamp (synonyms: tidewater swamp, rivermouth swamp, sweetbay swamp, tupelo-redbay) Slough Strand Swamp (synonyms: cypress strand) Swale (synonyms: slough, river of grass, glades) Basin Wetlands Basin Marsh (synonyms: prairie, freshwater marsh) Basin Swamp (synonyms: gum swamp, bay, bayhead, swamp) Bog (synonyms: bog swamp, pocosins, evergreen shrub bogs, wet scrub/shrub, peat islands) Depression Marsh (synonyms: isolated wetland, flatwoods pond, St. Johns wort pond, pineland depression, ephemeral pond, seasonal marsh) Dome Swamp (synonyms: isolated wetland, cypress dome/pond, gum pond, bayhead, cypress gall) Lacustrine Flatwoods / Prairie / Marsh Lake (synonyms: flatwoods pond, ephemeral pond, grass pond, St. Johns wort pond, pineland depression, swale, prairie pond) River Floodplain Lake and Swamp Lake (synonyms: cypress pond, gum pond, backwater pond, blackwater pond) 4

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Table 3. Soil Conservation Service (1981) classification of inland freshwater wetland communities. 10 Cutthroat Seeps 12 Wetland Hardwood Hammocks 16 Scrub Cypress 17 Cypress Swamp 20 Bottomland Hardwoods 21 Swamp Hardwoods 22 Shrub Bogs Bay Swamps 23 Pitcher Plant Bogs 24 Sawgrass Marsh 25 Freshwater Marsh 26 Slough 1 Flatwood categories (6-South, 7-North, and 8-Cabbage Palm) may also include wetland communities dependent upon soil type, elevation, proximity to water table, or wetland definition. Florida Department of Transportation Florida Land-use, Cover and Forms Classification System FLUCCS was developed in 1976 (and modified in 1985) by the Thematic Mapping Section of FDOT to provide a uniform and flexible classification system for use by State agencies. Its model was the US Geological Survey classification system (USGS Circular 671). Classes reflect information obtainable from aerial photographic interpretation and satellite multispectral image analysis. There are 4 hierarchical levels, based on photography scale and image resolution (Level 1 scale 1:500,000 or greater; Level IV scale 1:24,000 or less). Wetlands (Level I code 600) are considered areas where the water table is at, near or above the land surface for a significant portion of most years supporting aquatic or hydrophytic vegetation. Twenty-two inland freshwater wetland communities (Level III) are presently described within 5 classes (Level II): 610 Wetland Hardwood Forests; 620 Wetland Coniferous Forest; 630 Wetland Forest Mixed (Scrub); 640 Vegetated Non-Forested Wetlands; and 650 Intermittent Ponds (Table 4). Level IV classifications are indicated for freshwater marshes (641) if 66% or more of the community is comprised of a single species (sawgrass, cattail, spike rush, maidencane, dog fennel/low marsh grasses, arrowroot, giant cutgrass, shrub/vine). Brief community descriptions provide typical plant species and limited density estimates information used in interpretation and analysis of aerial photography and multi-spectral imaging. Information on wetland geomorphology, hydroperiod, soils, or landscape associations is not included. 5

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Table 4. Florida Land-use, Cover and Forms classification of inland freshwater wetlands (FDOT 1976/1985). 610 Wetland Hardwood Forests 611 Bay Swamps 613 Gum Swamps 614 Titi Swamps 615 Stream and Lake Swamps (Bottomland) 616 Inland Ponds and Sloughs 617 Mixed Wetland Hardwoods 618 Willow and Elderberry 619 Exotic Wetland Hardwood 620 Wetland Coniferous Forests 621 Cypress 622 Pond Pine 623 Atlantic White Cedar 624 Cypress Pine Cabbage Palm 625 Hydric Pine Flatwoods 626 Hydric Pine Savanna 627 Slash Pine Swamp Forest 630 Wetland Forested Mixed 631 Wetland Scrub 640 Vegetated Non-Forested Wetlands 641 Freshwater Marshes 643 Wet Prairies 644 -Emergent Aquatic Vegetation 645 Submergent Aquatic Vegetation 646 Treeless Hydric Savanna 653 Intermittent Ponds Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission Florida Land Cover Formerly the Florida Game and Freshwater Fish Commission, FWC developed a classification for a Statewide land-cover map developed from Landsat Thematic Mapper data (Kautz et al 1993). Twenty-two land-cover types were identified and mapped for Florida (35% vegetated uplands, 24% wetlands, 42% disturbed). Inland freshwater wetland habitats were classed into 6 land-cover types: Freshwater Marsh/Wet Prairie, Cypress Swamp, Hardwood Swamp, Bay Swamp, Shrub Swamp, and Bottomland Hardwood Swamp (Table 5). Freshwater Marsh and Wet Prairie, occurring mostly in South Florida, were the most abundant wetland vegetation type (38% of wetlands, 7% State land area). Bay Swamp was difficult to distinguish from Hardwood Swamp. Some natural community/land-cover types may be interpreted as disturbed land-cover types and vice-versa. Cox et al (1994) provide brief wetland plant community descriptions and tabulations of area cover for wetland types by county. 6

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Table 5. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission habitat-community classifications and percent areas for Florida inland freshwater wetland types. habitat code wetand habitat / community type % wetland area % State area 11 Freshwater marsh and wet prairie 38.17 6.88 12 Cypress swamp 22.57 4.07 13 Hardwood swamp 26.63 4.80 14 Bay swamp 2.22 0.40 15 Shrub swamp 9.01 1.62 17 Bottomland hardwoods 1.40 0.25 % totals 100.00 18.03 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Wetlands Inventory This classification for wetland and deepwater habitats of the United States (Cowardin et al 1979) defines wetlands by plants (hydrophytes), soils (hydric soils) and frequency of flooding. It is hierarchical (Table 6), with the highest level, System, defining general hydro-geomorphic or chemical factors (wetland systems include Riverine, Lacustrine, Palustrine). Subsystems define landscape position (Riverine has 3 Lower/Upper Perennial and Intermittent; Lacustrine has 2 Limnetic and Littoral; Palustrine has no subsystem). Within Subsystems, Classes identify substrate, flooding regime (hydropattern), or vegetation form. Florida wetland NWI classes are: Aquatic Bed (dominated by submergent and floating vegetation); Emergent (dominated by emergent herbaceous angiosperms), Scrub-Shrub (dominated by shrubs and small trees); and Forested (tree dominated). Subclass partitions are based on vegetation life form (rooted/floating vascular plants; persistent/non-persistent plants; deciduous/evergreen; needle-leaved/broad-leaved). Only Palustrine Forested classes in Florida have subclasses. The lowest level classification category, subordinate to Subclass, is the Dominance type, defined by dominant plant species and determined by percent area cover. Palustrine systems include all nontidal wetlands (salinity below 0.5 ppt) dominated by trees, shrubs, or persistent emergents or nonvegetated systems less than 8 ha or a low water depth not exceeding 2m. Representative of the majority wetland types, the Palustrine system includes wetlands situated shoreward of lakes and river channels, on floodplains, in isolated catchments, or on slopes. Wetlands classified within Riverine and Lacustrine systems only include open water classes of Aquatic Bed and Emergent non-persistent vegetation. Several modifiers are used to more fully describe wetlands and deepwater habitats: Water Regime, Water Chemistry, Soil, and Human Actions. The water regime modifiers have specific utility for wetland characterization, describing the depth, duration and frequency in 7

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Table 6. USFWS National Wetlands Inventory (Cowardin et al 1979) hierarchy of selected inland freshwater wetland types represented in Florida (System, Subsystem, Class, Subclass, Dominance Type). R Riverine w/in channel habitats; Bounded by uplands or wetlands dominated by trees, shrubs or persistent emergents vegetation. 2 Lower Perennial AB Aquatic Bed EM Emergent Marsh (non-persistent) 3 Upper Perennial AB Aquatic Bed L Lacustrine Bounded by upland or wetlands dominated by trees, shrubs or persistent emergent vegetation. (wetland vegetation < 30% coverage) 1 Limetic -> 2 m depth at low water 2 Littoral -< 2 m depth at low water; all wetlands in Lacustrine System AB Aquatic Bed EM Emergent Marsh (non-persistent) P Palustrine Non-tidal wetlands dominated by trees, shrubs, persistent emergent vegetation. AB Aquatic Bed EM Emergent Marsh SS Scrub Shrub FO Forested 1 Broad-Leaved Deciduous 2 Needle-Leaved Deciduous 3 Broad-Leaved Evergreen 4 Needle-Leaved Evergreen 6 Deciduous 7 Evergreen inundation (i.e., hydropattern or hydroperiod). Seven hydroperiods are defined (Table 7), ordered generally from less to more water: Intermittently Flooded, Temporarily Flooded, Saturated, Seasonally Flooded, Semipermanently Flooded, Intermittently Exposed, Permanently Flooded. The National Wetlands Inventory geographic information database using this classification is available for Florida. Maps were prepared from high altitude aerial photographs and digitally transformed. Wetlands were identified based on vegetation, visible hydrology and geographic location. NWI maps reflect the specific year and season of the photography, as well as interpreter skills and technology limits, affecting the accuracy of wetland locations, boundaries and classifications. 8

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Table 7. National Wetland Inventory water regime modifiers used in classification and mapping of Florida wetland and deepwater habitats (i.e., hydroperiod) (Cowardin et al 1979). A Temporarily Flooded surface water present for brief periods during growing season, but water table usually lies well below soil surface. B Saturated substrate saturated at or near surface during growing season, but surface water is seldom present. C Seasonally Flooded surface water present for extended periods, especially early in growing season, often absent near end; water table often near, at, or above surface. D Seasonally Flooded / Well Drained E Seasonally Flooded / Saturated F Semipermanently Flooded surface water persists throughout growing season in most years; water table very near, at, or above surface. G Intermittently Exposed surface water present throughout year, except in drought years. H Permanently Flooded surface water always present; vegetation is obligate, hydrophytic. J Intermittently Flooded exposed substrates with surface water periodically present; do not necessarily have hydric/wetland soils. K Artificially Flooded amount and duration of surface water controlled by human constructions. Combined water regime modifiers: W Intermittently Flooded / Temporary Y Saturated / Semipermanent / Seasonal Z Intermittently Exposed / Permanent NWI identifies 17 classes of inland freshwater wetlands in Florida covering 23% of the landscape (Table 8) (10 Palustrine, 4 Riverine, and 3 Lacustrine). Within Palustrine systems, Forest subsystems in total account for 53% of State wetlands, followed by the Emergent class (34%) and Scrub-Shrub class (11%). Riverine and Lacustrine wetland classes account for less than 3% of State wetland area, but were included here to enable cross-reference with other classification descriptions of Emergent and Aquatic-Bed vegetation associations. Distributional variation of NWI classes within the 4 proposed wetland regions of Florida is discussed later in the context of bioassessment classes. 9

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Table 8. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) classifications (Cowardin et al 1979) and percent areas for Florida inland freshwater wetlands. NWI code Wetland class description % wetland area % state area R 2 AB Riverine, Lower Perennial, Aquatic Bed 0.07 0.01 R 2 EM Riverine, Lower Perennial, Emergent, non-persistent 0.00 0.00 R 3 AB Riverine, Upper Perennial, Aquatic Bed 0.00 0.00 R 4 SB Riverine, Intermittent, Streambed 0.00 0.00 L 1 AB Lacustrine, Limnetic, Aquatic Bed 0.04 0.01 L 2 AB Lacustrine, Littoral, Aquatic Bed 1.28 0.29 L 2 EM Lacustrine, Littoral, Emergent, non-persistent 0.03 0.01 P AB 3 Palustrine, Aquatic Bed, Rooted Vascular 0.60 0.14 P AB 4 Palustrine, Aquatic Bed, Floating Vascular 0.15 0.03 P EM Palustrine, Emergent 34.17 7.71 P SS Palustrine, Scrub Shrub 11.18 2.52 P FO 1 Palustrine, Forested, Broad-Leaved Deciduous 5.74 1.30 P FO 2 Palustrine, Forested, Needle-Leaved Deciduous 8.58 1.94 P FO 3 Palustrine, Forested, Broad-Leaved Evergreen 4.92 1.11 P FO 4 Palustrine, Forested, Needle-Leaved Evergreen 10.78 2.43 P FO 6 Palustrine, Forested, Deciduous (mixed) 0.01 0.00 P FO 7 Palustrine, Forested, Evergreen (mixed) 22.44 5.06 100.00 % NWI inland freshwater wetlands 22.55 % upland area 63.00 % other (estuarine) wetlands and deepwater habitats 14.44 state total area 100.00 10

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Other Classification Systems Ecosystems of Florida (Myer and Ewel 1990) Thirteen inland freshwater forested wetland types (Swamps) are described by Ewel (1990): River Swamps (Whitewater Floodplain Forest, Blackwater Floodplain Forest, and Spring Run Swamp); and Stillwater Swamps (Bay Swamp, Cypress Pond, Cypress Savanna, Cypress Strand, Gum Pond, Hydric Hammock, Lake Fringe Swamp, Melaleuca Swamp, Mixed Hardwood Swamp, and Shrub Bog). Environmental variables determining structure and function of swamps are described (hydroperiod, fire frequency, organic matter accumulation, and water source). Common woody plants, productivity and nutrient estimates, wildlife occurrence and changes/impacts are inventoried or described for each swamp type. A comparison is given with NWI classes and modifiers (water regime, pH, and soil). An inverse relationship between hydroperiod and plant species richness is proposed, with River Swamps and Hydric Hammocks having greater number of species than Bay Swamps or Cypress/Gum Ponds for example. Swamp productivity is shown to generally increase as groundwater and surface flow become more important water sources than direct rainfall. Inland freshwater herbaceous wetlands (Marshes) are classified by Kushlan (1990) according to general physiognomy or by characteristic plants. Marsh distribution is explained using local and regional topography, rainfall, evapotranspiration, and geology. Five major Marsh Systems are described for Florida, from higher to lower elevation: Highland, Flatwoods, Kissimmee, St. Johns and Everglades. Six Marsh Associations are described using dominant plant species, hydroperiod, fire frequency and organic matter accumulation: Water Lily, Submersed, Cattail, Flag, Saw Grass, and Wet Prairie. Predominant marsh plant associations are identified within major marsh systems (regions). The Nature Conservancy An alliance-level classification of vegetation of the Southeastern United States includes multiple hierarchical levels: Division (vegetated, non-vegetated); Order (dominant vegetation form trees, shrubs, herbaceous-vascular, non-vascular); Class (cover, density estimates canopy, crown, height class); Subclass (dominant life form evergreen, deciduous, perennial, annual, mixed); Group (lifezone temperate, subtropical, tropical); Subgroup (use history natural, planted, cultivated); and Formation (hydropattern, drought/temperature tolerance, vegetation habit). Alliances are defined using dominant plant species or vegetation associations. Descriptors include successional sere and soil type. An estimated 256 vegetation alliances are identified for Florida. Lake County Water Authority/Seminole County A simple dichotomous key for wetland classification using easily identifiable characteristics applied to summer and winter seasons results in 4 forested wetlands (Cypress Swamp, Hydric Hammock, Bayhead, Hardwood Swamp) and 3 herbaceous wetlands (Deep Marsh, Shallow Marsh, Wet Prairie). Typical flora and fauna are described by LCWA. Quantitative information on water quality (P/N removal), evapotranspiration, hydroperiod, high/low water levels, recharge potential, peat depth, wildlife utilization and gross primary productivity is given in Brown et al (1983). 11

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Hydrogeomorphic Wetland Classification U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Developed through the Waterways Experiment Station, the hydrogeomorphic classification approach for wetlands emphasizes external and independent controls that maintain ecosystem functions (Brinson 1993). Thus maintenance of wetland functions is inferred from provision of local hydrogeomorphic controls. Function refers to processes that are necessary for the self-maintenance of an ecosystem. Because biological integrity addresses both community structure (species composition) and ecosystem processes (function), several wetland classification developed for biological assessments have been based on the HGM functional approach. Three determinants are used to define wetland class: 1) geomorphology (topographic position and landscape association); 2) water source (precipitation, surface water, groundwater); and 3) hydrodynamics (direction and strength of flow). First order HGM classes are discriminated by geomorphic settings (Riverine, Depressional, Lake Fringe, Slope, and Flats), and further categorized by dominant hydrologic aspects. Synonyms and descriptions from other classifications are compared with HGM regional classes (Table 9). Regional subclasses can be identified to discriminate classes based on climatic, geographic and other external functions. HGM classification, however, is not designed to discriminate vegetative associations and species compositions. Thus, at the subclass level community descriptions can be employed from other classification systems and based on field inventories to further subdivide wetland types. Development of ecoregions is necessary for consideration of biogeographic aspects such as species distributions. HGM models for Florida, developed by The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Waterways Experiment Station, divide Florida into 2 regions: Panhandle and Peninsula. Each regional class is subdivided into Herbaceous and Forested subclasses. As an example, the HGM Peninsular-Florida-Depression wetland class is compared with other classifications (Table 10). The coarse resolution of HGM functional classes does not distinguish all wetland ecosystem types within a region, and all HGM classes are not necessarily represented within regions or States. Five geomorphic settings may not be distinct, or it may not be possible to identify dominant hydrologic characteristics. In Florida, the HGM class Flats is not readily discriminated from Depression or Slope classes, and several water sources may exist for a wetland type. The classification is designed as a generic approach that defines broad functional classes according to independent physical conditions that determine wetland attributes. As such, the HGM approach provides a uniform and scientific organizing framework for wetland classification. 12

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Table 9. Geomorphic landscape position, water source and directional flow for HGM classes (adapted from Brinson 1993 and Trott et al 1997), with examples of wetlands named from other Florida classification systems (FLUCCS, GFC, FNAI). Water Source Hydrodynamics Plant Community Type: Geomorphology (dominant) (dominant) Forested Herbaceous Riverine Channel, Horizontal Bottomland hardwood Maidencane marsh overbank unidirectional Depressional Groundwater, Vertical, Cypress/Gum Basin marsh surface bidirectional Lake fringe lacustrine, Horizontal, Mixed hardwood Emergent marsh overbank bidirectional Slope Groundwater Horizontal, Baygall Seepage bogs unidirectional Organic flats Precipitation Vertical Hydric savanna Sawgrass marsh Mineral flats Precipitation Vertical Wet flatwoods Wet, marl prairies 13

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Table 10. Comparison of wetland classification nomenclature with HGM Peninsular-Florida-Depression wetland class (adapted from Trott et al. 1997). Classification System Code Wetland (Community) Types Herbaceous-Depression FNAI Depression Marsh Basin Marsh SCS 25 Freshwater Marsh FLUCCS 641 Freshwater Marshes 644 Emergent Aquatic Vegetation FWC 11 Freshwater Marsh and Wet Prairie NWI PEM Palustrine-Emergent Wetland Forest-Depression FNAI Dome Swamp Basin Swamp Bog SCS 17 Cypress Swamp 22 Shrub Bogs, Bay Swamps FLUCCS 616 Inland Ponds and Sloughs 621 Cypress 613 Gum Swamps FWC 12 Cypress Swamp 13 Hardwood Swamp 15 Shrub Swamp NWI PFO Palustrine-Forested Wetland Classification Crosswalks State and Federal wetland classifications are cross-referenced, comparing wetland types and descriptions between systems. An effort was made to be inclusive rather than restrictive in the comparisons. Therefore, wetland types from different classification approaches with similar keying characters were linked as well as wetland types that had possible associations based on broad and general descriptions or limited information. Wetland nomenclature was best fit to corresponding wetlands named in other classifications. Two outcomes came of this: a single class or community type often fit more than one wetland description in another system; and some cross-references although weak were more similar than dissimilar. In addition, some ecosystem types only marginally met generalized wetland criteria but were included to provide cross-reference to like ecosystems identified in other classifications as wetland (partial characterizations included descriptions of hydrophytes, hydric soils, hydroperiods, and landscape position). 14

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It follows that the resolution of cross-references made here is coarse with varying degrees of reliability. Crosswalks are designed to: 1) facilitate comparisons between goal specific classification approaches; 2) identify common nomenclature; 3) relate wetland typology to State databases; 4) utilize organizational and descriptive strengths of existing methods; and 5) provide a framework for wetland regionalization and classifications necessary for biological assessments. Inland freshwater wetlands from 5 Florida classifications are compared: FNAI (1990) Guide to the Natural Communities of Florida (Table 11); SCS (1981) 26 Ecological Communities of Florida (Table 12) FDOT (1976/1985) Florida Land-use, Cover and Forms Classification (Table 13) FWC Florida Landcover (Kautz et al 1993) (Table 14) USFWS National Wetlands Inventory (Cowardin et al 1979) (Table 15). An HTML formatted database links classification nomenclature. This allows users to quickly identify wetland synonyms and provides cross-reference for common approaches and the proposed wetland bioassessment classification. Because each classification approach was designed within specific agency goals, no cross-references are uniform. General trends are evident (Table 16). Total number of possible cross-references increased (from 80 to 160) as the number of classes increased within a classification system (from 7 to 22). Mean number of cross-references per wetland type decreased with increasing number of classes (between 2 and 3 references per class). Tables 17-21 identify frequency and numbers of cross-references for each classification. Wetlands with high numbers of cross-references include: FWC-Freshwater Marsh and Wet Prairie, Bottomland Hardwood, Pinelands; SCS-Bottomland Hardwood, Swamp Hardwood, Freshwater Marsh; NWI-Emergent, Scrub Shrub, Broad-leaved Deciduous, Needle-leaved Deciduous, Forested-mixed (19); FNAI-Floodplain Forest, Dome Swamp; and FLUCCS-Cypress, Freshwater Marsh, Wet Prairie, Emergent Aquatic Vegetation. This indicates agreement on wetland description between classifications and/or generality in nomenclature. Proposed Wetland Classification Approach for Biological Assessment Appropriate consideration of the factors necessary to create homogenous sets for comparing biological condition requires the identification of wetland classes within ecological regions. A tiered and aggregated wetland classification system is presented here that is referenced to preliminary wetland ecoregions and cross-referenced to other classifications used in Florida. The proposed system is a product of several complementary efforts: a literature review on classification methods; cross-referencing of Florida wetland classifications; field trials and visits to typical wetland communities; and consultation with FDEP personnel associated with past efforts and current applications. 15

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Table 11. Florida Natural Areas Inventory inland freshwater wetland communities and classification cross-reference. FNAI SCS FLUCCS FWC NWI Palustrine Wet Flatlands Hydric Hammock 21-Swamp Hardwood 617 13 PFO6 Marl Prairie 16-Scrub Cypress 621, 641, 643 11 PEM, PFO2 Wet Flatwoods 6-7-N/S Florida Flatwoods 3 PFO4, PFO7 Wet Prairie 25-Freshwater Marsh, 23-Pitcher Plant Bog 310, 643 11 PEM Seepage Wetlands Baygall 22-Shrub Bog/Bay Swamp 611, 614 14 PFO3, PFO7 Seepage Slope 23-Pitcher Plant Bog, 12-Wetland Hardwood Hammock 310, 614, 643 11, 15 PEM, PSS Floodplain Wetlands Bottomland Forest 20-Bottomland Hardwood 615, 617, 623, 630 17 PFO1 Floodplain Forest 20-Bottomland Hardwood, 21-Swamp Hardwood 615, 617, 618, 619, 630 17 PFO1, PFO2 Floodplain Marsh 25-Freshwater Marsh 641, 643, 644 11 PEM, R2EM, L2EM, R4SB Floodplain Swamp 20-Bottomland Hardwood, 17-Cypress Swamp 613, 615, 621 17 PFO1, PFO2 Freshwater Tidal Swamp 20-Bottomland Hardwood 613, 615, 621, 623, 624 12 PFO6, PFO7 Slough 26-Slough 621 12 PFO2,PFO6 Strand Swamp 16-Scrub Cypress, 17-Cypress Swamp 621, 618, 619 12 PFO2 Swale 24-Sawgrass Marsh 641, 643 11 PEM Basin Wetlands Basin Marsh 25-Freshwater Marsh 641, 643, 644 11 PEM, PAB Basin Swamp 17-Cypress Swamp, 12-Wetland Hardwood Hammock 613, 616, 617, 621 13, 14 PFO6 Bog 22-Shrub Bog/Bay Swamp 310, 614, 618, 619, 630 15 PSS Depression Marsh 25-Freshwater Marsh 641, 644, 653 11 PEM, PAB Dome Swamp 17-Cypress Swamp, 12-Wetland Hardwood Hammock 613, 616, 621 12, 13, 14 PFO2, PFO3, PFO6 Lacustrine Flatwoods/Prairie/Marsh Lake 25-Freshwater Marsh 641, 643, 644 11 L2EM, PEM River Floodplain Lake/Swamp Lake 20-Bottomland Hardwood 615, 645 11, 17 R2AB, R3AB, L1AB, L2AB 16

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Table 12. Soil Conservation Service inland freshwater wetland communities and classification cross-reference. SCS FNAI FLUCCS FWC NWI 8 Cabbage Palm Flatwoods 624-Cypress-Pine-CabbagePalm 10 Cutthroat Seep 3 PEM,PSS 12 Wetland Hardwood Hammock Seepage Slope, Basin Swamp, Dome Swamp 617-Mixed Wetland Hardwood, 613-Gum Swamp 13 PFO1,PFO6 16 Scrub Cypress Strand Swamp, Marl Prairie 621-Cypress 12 PFO2 17 Cypress Swamp Dome Swamp, Floodplain Swamp, Strand Swamp, Basin Swamp 621-Cypress 12 PFO2,PFO6 20 Bottomland Hardwood Bottomland Forest, Floodplain Forest, Floodplain Swamp, Freshwater Tidal Swamp, River Floodplain Lake/Swamp Lake 615-Stream/Lake Swamp, 622-Pond Pine, 623A tlantic White Ceda r 17 PFO1, PFO6 21 Swamp Hardwood Hydric Hammock, Flooplain Forest 613-Gum Swamp, 618-Willow/Elderberry, 619-Exotic Wetland Hardwood, 623-Atlantic White Cedar, 624-Cypress-Pine-Cabbage Palm 13, 17 PFO1, PFO6 22 Shrub Bog, Bay Swamp Baygall, Bog 611-Bay Swamp, 614-Titi Swamp, 618-Willow/Elderberry, 619-Exotic Wetland Hardwood 14, 15 PFO3, PFO7 23 Pitcher Plant Bog Seepage Slope, Wet Prairie 643-Wet Prairie 11 PEM, PSS 24 Sawgrass Marsh Swale 641-Freshwater Marsh, 644-Emergent Aquatic Vegetation 11 PEM 25 Freshwater Marsh Basin Marsh, Depression Marsh, Floodplain Marsh, Wet Prairie, Flatwoods/Prairie/Marsh Lake 641-Freshwater Marsh, 643-Wet Prairie, 644-Emergent Aquatic Vegetation, 645-Submergent A quatic Vegetation, 653-Intermittent Ponds 11 PEM, R2AB, R2EM, R3AB, R4SB, L1AB, L2AB, L2EM, PAB3, PAB4, PSS 26 Slough Slough 616-Inland Ponds and Sloughs, 653-Intermittent Ponds, 646-Treeless Hydric Savanna 11, 15 PEM 6,7 N, S Florida Flatwoods Wet Flatwoods 625-Hydric Pine Flatwoods, 622-Pond Pine, 626-Hydric Pine Savanna, 646-Treeless Hydric Savanna, 627Slash Pine Swamp Forest 3 PFO4, PFO7 17

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18 Table 13. Florida Land-use, Cover and Forms inland fresh water wetland classes and classification cross-reference. FLUCCS FNAI SCS FWC NWI 610 Wetland Hardwood Forests 611 Bay Swamps Baygall 22-Shrub Bog/Bay Swamp 14 PFO3, PFO6 613 Gum Swamps Basin Swamp, Dome Swamp, Floodplain Swamp, Freshwater Tidal Swamp, River Floodplain/Swamp 21-Swamp Hardwood, 12-Wetland Hardwood Hammock 13 PFO1, PFO6 614 Titi Swamps Seepage Slope, Bog, Baygall 22-Shrub Bog/Bay Swamp 15 PFO1, PFO6 615 Stream and Lake Swamps (Bottomland) Bottomland Forest, Floodplain Forest, Floodplain Swamp, Freshwater Tidal Swamp, River Floodplain Lake/Swamp Lake 20-Bottomland Hardwood 17 616 Inland Ponds and Sloughs Basin Swamp, Dome Swamp 26-Slough 13 PSS, PFO1, PFO6 617 Mixed Wetland Hardwoods Hydric Hammock, Bottomland Forest, Floodplain Forest, Basin Swamp 12-Wetland Hardwood Hammock 13 PFO1, PFO6 618 Willow and Elderberry Bog, Slough, Floodplain Forest 22-Shrub Bog/Bay Swamp, 21-Swamp Hardwood 15 PSS, PFO1, PFO6 619 Exotic Wetland Hardwood Bog, Slough, Floodplain Forest 22-Shrub Bog/Bay Swamp, 21-Swamp Hardwood 15 PSS, PFO6 620 Wetland Coniferous Forests 621 Cypress Dome Swamp, Basin Swamp, Strand Swamp, Floodplain Swamp, Marl Prairie 16-Scrub Cypress, 17-Cypress Swamp 12 PFO2, PFO6 622 Pond Pine Wet Flatwoods 6-7-N/S Florida Flatwoods, 20-Bottomland Hardwood 3 PFO4, PFO7 623 Atlantic White Cedar Bottomland Forest, Freshwater Tidal Swamp 20-Bottomland Hardwood, 21-Swamp Hardwood 17 PFO4, PFO7 624 Cypress Pine Cabbage Palm Wet Flatwoods, Freshwater Tidal Swamp 8-Cabbage Palm Flatwoods, 21-Swamp Hardwood 17 PFO6, PFO7 625 Hydric Pine Flatwoods Wet Flatwoods 6-7-N/S Florida Flatwoods 3 PFO4 626 Hydric Pine Savanna Wet Flatwoods 7-S Florida Flatwoods 3 PFO4 627 Slash Pine Swamp Forest Wet Flatwoods 6-7-N/S Florida Flatwoods 3 PFO4 630 Wetland Forested Mixed 631 Wetland Scrub Bog, Wet Flatwoods, Bottomland Forest, Floodplain Forest, Flatw oods/Prairie/Marsh Lake 22-Shrub Bog/Bay Swamp 15 PSS 640 Vegetated Non-Forested Wetlands 641 Freshwater Marshes Basin Marsh, Depression Marsh, Swale, Marl Prairie, Flatwoods/Prairie/Marsh Lake 25-Freshwater Marsh, 24-Sawgrass Marsh 11 PEM, R2EM, R4SB, L2EM 643 Wet Prairies Wet Prairie, Marl Prairie, Seepage Slope, Swale, Basin Marsh, Flatwwoods/Prairie/Marsh Lake 23-Pitcher Plant Bog, 25-Freshwater Marsh 11 PEM, R2EM, R4SB, L2EM 644 Emergent Aquatic Vegetation Basin Marsh, Depression Marsh, Floodplain Marsh, Flatwoods/Prairie/Marsh Lake 25-Freshwater Marsh, 24-Sawgrass Marsh 11 R2AB, R3AB, L1AB, L2AB, PAB3, PAB4 645 Submerged Aquatic Vegetation River Floodplain Lake/Swamp Lak e 25-Freshwater Marsh 11 R2AB, R3AB, L1AB, L2AB, PAB3 646 Treeless Hydric Savanna Wet Flatwoods 26-Slough 3, 11 PFO4 653 Intermittent Ponds Depression Marsh 25-Freshwater Marsh, 26-Slough 11 PEM1, PUB4

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Table 14. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Service inland freshwater wetland habitats and classification cross-reference. FWC FNAI SCS FLUCCS NWI 11 Freshwater Marsh and Wet Prairie Basin Marsh, Depression Marsh, Wet Prairie, Floodplain Marsh, Swale, Marl Prairie, Seepage Slope, Flatwoods/Prairie/Marsh Lake, River Floodplain Lake/Swamp Lake 25-Freshwater Marsh, 24-Sawgrass Marsh, 26-Slough, 23-Pitcher Plant Bog 641, 643, 644, 645, 646, 653 L1AB, L2AB, L2EM, R1AB, R1EM, R2AB, R2EM, R3AB, R4SB, PAB, PEM 12 Cypress Swamp Dome Swamp, Slough, Strand Swamp, Freshwater Tidal Swamp 16-Scrub Cypress, 17-Cypress Swamp 621 PFO2 13 Hardwood Swamp Basin Swamp, Bottomland Forest, Hydric Hammock 12-Wetland Hardwood Hammock, 21-Swamp Hardwood 613, 616, 617 PFO6 14 Bay Swamp Baygall 22-Shrub Bog/Bay Swamp 611 PFO3, PFO7 15 Shrub Swamp Bog, Seepage Slope (Titi Bog), 22-Shrub Bog/Bay Swamp, 26-Slough 614, 618, 619, 631 PSS 17 Bottomland Hardwood Bottomland Forest, Floodplain Forest, Floodplain Swamp, River Floodplain Lake/Swamp Lake 20-Bottomland Hardwood, 21-Swamp Hardwood 615, 623, 624 PFO1 3 Pinelands Wet Flatwoods 6-7-N/S Florida Flatwoods, 10-Cutthroat Seeps 622, 625, 626, 627, 646 PFO4, PFO7 19

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Table 15. USFWS National Wetland Inventory inland freshwater wetland systems and classification cross-reference. NWI FNAI SCS FLUCCS FWC R2AB Riverine, Lower Perennial, Aquatic Bed 25-Freshwater Marsh 644, 645 11 R2EM Riverine, Lower Perennial, Emergent, non-persistent Floodplain Marsh 25-Freshwater Marsh 641, 643 11 R3AB Riverine, Upper Perennial, Aquatic Bed River Floodplain Lake/Swamp Lake 25-Freshwater Marsh 644, 645 11 R4SB Riverine, Intermittent, Streambed Floodplain Marsh 25-Freshwater Marsh 641, 643 11 L1AB Lacustrine, Limnetic, Aquatic Bed River Floodplain Lake/Swamp Lake 25-Freshwater Marsh 644, 645 11 L2AB Lacustrine, Littoral, Aquatic Bed River Floodplain Lake/Swamp Lake 25-Freshwater Marsh 644, 645 11 L2EM Lacustrine, Littoral, Emergent, non-persistent Floodplain Marsh, Flatwoods/Prairie/Marsh Lake 25-Freshwater Marsh 641, 643 11 PAB3 Palustrine, Aquatic Bed, Rooted Vascular Depression Marsh, Basin Marsh 25-Freshwater Marsh 644, 645 11 PAB4 Palustrine, Aquatic Bed, Floating Vascular Depression Marsh 25-Freshwater Marsh 644 11 PEM Palustrine, Emergent Depression Marsh, Basin Marsh, Floodplain Marsh, Wet Prairie, Marl Prairie, Seepage Slope, Swale, Flatwoods/Prairie/Marsh Lake 25-Freshwater Marsh, 24-Sawgrass Marsh, 23-Pitcher Plant Bog 641, 643, 653 11 PSS Palustrine, Scrub Shrub Bog, Seepage Slope 25-Freshwater Marsh, 23-Pitcher Plant Bog, 10-Cutthroat Seep 614, 616, 618, 619, 631 15 PFO1 Palustrine, Forested, Broad-Leaved Deciduous Bottomland Forest, Floodplain Forest, Floodplain Swamp 12-Wetland Hardwood Hammock, 21-Swamp Hardwood, 20-Bottomland Hardwood 613, 614, 615, 616, 617 17 PFO2 Palustrine, Forested, Needle-Leaved Deciduous Dome Swamp, Strand Swamp, Basin Swamp, Floodplain Forest, Floodplain Swamp, Slough, Marl Prairie 16-Cypress Scrub, 17-Cypress Swamp 621 12 PFO3 Palustrine, Forested, Broad-Leaved Evergreen Baygall, Dome Swamp 22-Shrub Bog/Bay Swamp 611 14 PFO4 Palustrine, Forested, Needle-Leaved Evergreen Wet Flatwoods 6-7-N/S Florida Flatwoods 622, 623, 625, 626, 627, 646 3 PFO6 Palustrine, Forested, Deciduous (mixed) Hydric Hammock, Slough, Basin Swamp, Dome Swamp, Freshwater Tidal Swamp 12-Wetland Hardwood Hammock, 21-Swamp Hardwood, 20-Bottomland Hardwood, 17-Cypress Swamp 611, 613, 614, 615, 616, 617, 619, 621, 624 13 PFO7 Palustrine, Forested, Evergreen (mixed) Wet Flatwoods, Baygall, Freshwater Tidal Swamp 6-7-N/S Florida Flatwoods, 22-Shrub Bog/Bay Swamp 622, 623, 624 14 20

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Table 16 Classification crosswalk summaries: (tot) number of cross-references per wetland class; (avg) mean number of cross-references per classification for each wetland class. FWC SCS NWI tot avg tot avg tot avg 11 Freshwater Marsh and Wet Prairie 30 7.5 10-Cutthroat Seep 5 1.3 R2AB Riverine, Lower Perennial, Aquatic Bed 4 1.0 12 Cypress Swamp 8 2.0 12-Wetland Hardwood Hammock 8 2.0 R2EM Riverine, Lower Perennial, Emergent, non-persistent 53 7 1. 13 Hardwood Swamp 9 2.3 16-Scrub Cypress 5 1.3 R3AB Riverine, Upper Perennial, Aquatic Bed 5 1.3 14 Bay Swamp 5 1.3 17-Cypress Swamp 7 1.8 R4SB Riverine, Intermittent, Streambed 5 1.3 15 Shrub Swamp 9 2.3 20-Bottomland Hardwood 10 2.5 L1AB Lacustrine, Limnetic, Aquatic Bed 5 1.3 17 Bottomland Hardwood 10 2.5 21-Swamp Hardwood 10 2.5 L2AB Lacustrine, Littoral, Aquatic Bed 5 1.3 3 Pinelands 10 2.5 22-Shrub Bog, Bay Swamp 9 2.3 L2EM Lacustrine, Littoral, Emergent, non-persistent 6 1.5 23-Pitcher Plant Bog 6 1.5 PAB3 Palustrine, Aquatic Bed, Rooted Vascular 6 1.5 number of wetland types: 24-Sawgrass Marsh 5 1.3 PAB4 Palustrine, Aquatic Bed, Floating Vascular 4 1.0 tot. no.of cross-references: 81 25-Freshwater Marsh 22 5.5 PEM Palustrine, Emergent 15 3.8 mean no. cross-references per type: 2.9 26-Slough 7 1.8 PSS Palustrine, Scrub Shrub 11 2.8 6-7-N, S Florida Flatwoods 4 1.0 PFO1 Palustrine, Forested, Broad-Leaved Deciduous 12 3.0 PFO2 Palustrine, Forested, Needle-Leaved Deciduous 11 2.8 number of wetland types: 12 PFO3 Palustrine, Forested, Broad-Leaved Evergreen 5 1.3 tot. no.of cross-references: 98 PFO4 Palustrine, Forested, Needle-Leaved Evergreen 9 2.3 mean no. cross-references per type: 2.0 PFO6 Palustrine, Forested, Deciduous (mixed) 19 4.8 PFO7 Palustrine, Forested, Evergreen (mixed) 9 2.3 number of wetland types: 17 tot. no.of cross-references: 136 mean no. cross-references per type: 2.0 21

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Table 16. continued. Classification crosswalk summaries: (tot) number of cross-references per wetland class; (avg) mean number of cross-references per classification for each wetland class. FNAI FLUCCS tot avg tot avg Hydric Hammock 4 1.0 611 Bay Swamps 5 1.3 Marl Prairie 6 1.5 613 Gum Swamps 10 2.5 Wet Flatwoods 5 1.3 614 Titi Swamps 7 1.8 Wet Prairie 6 1.5 615 Stream and Lake Swamps 7 1.8 Baygall 6 1.5 616 Inland Ponds and Sloughs 7 1.8 Seepage Slope 9 2.3 617 Mixed Wetland Hardwoods 8 2.0 Bottomland Forest 7 1.8 618 Willow and Elderberry 8 2.0 Floodplain Forest 10 2.5 619 Exotic Wetland Hardwood 8 2.0 Floodplain Marsh 9 2.3 621 Cypress 11 2.8 Floodplain Swamp 8 2.0 622 Pond Pine 6 1.5 Freshwater Tidal Swamp 9 2.3 623 Atlantic White Cedar 7 1.8 Slough 5 1.3 624 Cypress Pine Cabbage Palm 7 1.8 Strand Swamp 7 1.8 625 Hydric Pine Flatwoods 4 1.0 Swale 5 1.3 626 Hydric Pine Savanna 4 1.0 Basin Marsh 9 2.3 627 Slash Pine Swamp Forest 4 1.0 Basin Swamp 9 2.3 631 Wetland Scrub 9 2.3 Bog 8 2.0 641 Freshwater Marshes 12 3.0 Depression Marsh 7 1.8 643 Wet Prairies 11 2.8 Dome Swamp 11 2.8 644 Emergent Aquatic Vegetation 13 3.3 Flatwoods/Prairie/Marsh Lake 7 1.8 645 Submergent Aquatic Vegetation 8 2.0 River Floodplain Lake/Swamp Lake 9 2.3 646 Treeless Hydric Savanna 5 1.3 653 Intermittent Ponds 6 1.5 number of wetland types: 21 tot. no.of cross-references: 156 number of wetland types: 22 mean no. cross-references per type: 1.9 tot. no.of cross-references: 167 mean no. cross-references per type: 1.9 22

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Table 17. Florida Natural Areas Inventory crosswalk summary. no. cross-references per wetland class: FNAI SCS FLUCCS FWC NWI Hydric Hammock 1 1 1 1 Marl Prairie 1 3 1 2 Wet Flatwoods 1 1 2 Wet Prairie 2 2 1 1 Baygall 1 2 1 2 Seepage Slope 2 3 2 2 Bottomland Forest 1 4 1 1 Floodplain Forest 2 5 1 2 Floodplain Marsh 1 3 1 4 Floodplain Swamp 2 3 1 2 Freshwater Tidal Swamp 1 5 1 2 Slough 1 1 1 2 Strand Swamp 2 3 1 1 Swale 1 2 1 1 Basin Marsh 1 3 1 2 Basin Swamp 2 4 2 1 Bog 1 5 1 1 Depression Marsh 1 3 1 2 Dome Swamp 2 3 3 3 Flatwoods/Prairie/Marsh Lake 1 3 1 2 River Floodplain Lake/Swamp Lake 1 2 2 4 no. times class no. classes is cross-referenced: cross-referenced: 1 3 5 1 9 2 4 5 2 2 3 1 3 1 2 4 2 3 2 5 1 1 2 > 5 3 1 23

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Table 18. Soil Conservation Service crosswalk summary. no. cross-references per wetland class: SCS FNAI FLUCCS FWC NWI 10-Cutthroat Seep 1 1 2 12-Wetland Hardwood Hammock 3 2 1 2 16-Scrub Cypress 2 1 1 1 17-Cypress Swamp 4 1 1 1 20-Bottomland Hardwood 5 3 1 1 21-Swamp Hardwood 2 5 2 1 22-Shrub Bog, Bay Swamp 2 4 2 1 23-Pitcher Plant Bog 2 1 1 2 24-Sawgrass Marsh 1 2 1 1 25-Freshwater Marsh 5 5 1 11 26-Slough 1 3 2 1 6-7-N, S Florida Flatwoods 1 8 1 2 no. times class no. classes is cross-referenced: cross-referenced: 1 14 14 9 2 7 9 5 3 3 1 4 1 1 5 1 24

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Table 19. Florida Land-use, Cover and Forms crosswalk summary. no. cross-references per wetland class: FLUCCS FNAI SCS FWC NWI 611 Bay Swamps 1 1 1 2 613 Gum Swamps 5 2 1 2 614 Titi Swamps 3 1 1 2 615 Stream and Lake Swamps 5 1 1 616 Inland Ponds and Sloughs 2 1 1 3 617 Mixed Wetland Hardwoods 4 1 1 2 618 Willow and Elderberry 2 2 1 3 619 Exotic Wetland Hardwood 3 2 1 2 621 Cypress 6 2 1 2 622 Pond Pine 1 2 1 2 623 Atlantic White Cedar 2 2 1 2 624 Cypress Pine Cabbage Palm 2 2 1 2 625 Hydric Pine Flatwoods 1 1 1 1 626 Hydric Pine Savanna 1 1 1 1 627 Slash Pine Swamp Forest 1 1 1 1 631 Wetland Scrub 6 1 1 1 641 Freshwater Marshes 5 2 1 4 643 Wet Prairies 5 2 1 4 644 Emergent Aquatic Vegetation 4 2 1 6 645 Submergent Aquatic Vegetation 1 1 1 5 646 Treeless Hydric Savanna 1 1 2 1 653 Intermittent Ponds 1 2 1 2 no. times class no. classes is cross-referenced: cross-referenced: 1 5 2 2 2 2 4 3 5 3 6 1 2 2 4 5 1 1 1 5 3 1 1 > 5 1 1 25

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Table 20. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation crosswalk summary. no. cross-references per wetland class: FWC FNAI SCS FLUCCS NWI 11-Freshwater Marsh and Wet Prairie 9 4 6 11 12-Cypress Swamp 4 2 1 1 13-Hardwood Swamp 3 2 3 1 14-Bay Swamp 1 1 1 2 15-Shrub Swamp 2 2 4 1 17-Bottomland Hardwood 4 2 3 1 3-Pinelands 1 2 5 2 no. times class no. classes is cross-referenced: cross-referenced: 1 18 9 20 17 2 3 2 1 1 26

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Table 21. National Wetlands Inventory crosswalk summary. no. cross-references per wetland class: SCS FNAI SCS FLUCCS FWC R2AB Riverine, Lower Perennial, Aquatic Bed 1 1 R2EM Riverine, Lower Perennial, Emergent, non-persistent 1 1 2 1 R3AB Riverine, Upper Perennial, Aquatic Bed 1 1 2 1 R4SB Riverine, Intermittent, Streambed 1 1 2 1 L1AB Lacustrine, Limnetic, Aquatic Bed 1 1 2 1 L2AB Lacustrine, Littoral, Aquatic Bed 1 1 2 1 L2EM Lacustrine, Littoral, Emergent, non-persistent 2 1 2 1 PAB3 Palustrine, Aquatic Bed, Rooted Vascular 2 1 2 1 PAB4 Palustrine, Aquatic Bed, Floating Vascular 1 1 1 1 PEM Palustrine, Emergent 8 3 3 1 PSS Palustrine, Scrub Shrub 2 3 5 1 PFO1 Palustrine, Forested, Broad-Leaved Deciduous 3 3 5 1 PFO2 Palustrine, Forested, Needle-Leaved Deciduous 7 2 1 1 PFO3 Palustrine, Forested, Broad-Leaved Evergreen 2 1 1 1 PFO4 Palustrine, Forested, Needle-Leaved Evergreen 1 1 6 1 PFO6 Palustrine, Forested, Deciduous (mixed) 5 4 9 1 PFO7 Palustrine, Forested, Evergreen (mixed) 3 2 3 1 no. times class no. classes is cross-referenced: cross-referenced: 1 6 4 7 7 2 11 6 8 3 2 3 4 2 5 1 > 5 1 1 1 1 27

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The proposed classification for wetland bioassessments builds on commonalities between and key elements from prominent classifications (namely HGM, FNAI, and NWI). It is organized by landscape geomorphology (River, Depression, Lake, Slope, Flats) and dominant vegetative form (Forested, Herbaceous, Shrub) (Table 22). Additional resolution is provided through (subclass) descriptors: Hydroperiod (depth, duration and frequency of inundation); Primary Water Source (rainfall, surface or ground-water); and Soil Type (organic or mineral). Limited information on descriptors restricts their application. For example, very little is known about the hydropattern of isolated basin or depression wetlands. Referencing hydroperiod modifiers from NWI wetlands database may provide description. Inferences about hydrology can also be based on vegetative associations described in the literature and learned from the field. Both FNAI and SCS include plant community characteristics and descriptions of wetland hydroperiod. Vegetation associations further classify wetlands, either by cross-reference with other classifications or through use of inventories and descriptions provided by research (scientific and technical literature) and monitoring (State agency programs). Table 22. Proposed classification for biological assessment of Florida inland freshwater wetlands. 1. wetland is primarily forest 2 wetland is primarily herbaceous 3 wetland is shrub dominated Shrub-scrub 2 wetland is within stream channel or floodplain River Swamp wetland is an isolated depression Depression Swamp wetland is along a lake edge (permanent water >2 meters deep) Lake Swamp wetland located on sloped topography Strand / Seepage Swamp wetland associated with flat landscape; water source primarily precipitation Flatland Swamp 3 wetland is within a stream channel or floodplain River Marsh wetland is an isolated depression Depression marsh wetland is along a lake edge (permanent water >2 meters deep) Lake marsh wetland located on sloped topography with groundwater source Seepage Marsh wetland associated with flat landscape; water source primarily precipitation Wet Prairie Descriptors: Hydroperiod: Depth, duration, and frequency of inundation Primary water source: rainfall, surface water, groundwater Soil type: organic, mineral Plant community association 28

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Finally, wetland classes are partitioned into proposed wetland ecoregions (Panhandle, North, Central, South). Inventorying NWI wetland classes within 4 proposed wetland ecoregions reveals distributional variation across Florida. Distribution maps are presented in the wetland Regions report here trends are discussed in the context of wetland classes proposed for biological assessments. Twenty-two percent of the Panhandle Region is wetland; 35% of the South Florida Region is wetland; wetlands in the North and Central Regions cover 16% of the landscape. Generally, there is a trend of declining forested wetlands and increasing non-forested wetlands latitudinally from the Panhandle to South Florida. Deciduous-Forest wetlands are most abundant within the Panhandle Region (51%) followed by Needle-leaved-Evergreen-Forests (32%). Emergent wetlands account for less than 4% of the wetlands in the region. In the North Region, the Deciduous-Forest class is again the most common wetland (62%) but Emergent wetland area proportionally increased (13%). Evergreen-Forest classes (Broad and Needle-leaved together) account for 16% of wetlands in the region. In the Central Region, Emergent and Deciduous-Forest classes are equally represented, each about 40% of area wetlands. Evergreen-Forest wetlands decreased to about 10% of the regions wetlands. Shrub-Scrub classes in the Panhandle, North and Central Regions represent 7-9% of regional wetlands. In the South Florida Region, Emergent wetlands are prominent landscape features (61% of wetlands and 22% of landscape). Forested wetlands are less common (Deciduous and Evergreen-Forest classes account for 16% and 5% of area wetlands, respectively). Shrub-Scrub wetlands are more common in South Florida (17% of wetlands in the region). Based on regional differences in distribution and abundance of wetlands across Florida, modifiers and plant community descriptions should be used to generate greater resolution for prominent wetland classes in a landscape. In the Panhandle Region, water source and hydroperiod are likely to discriminate River Swamps into Bottomland and Floodplain Forests. In the South Region, modifiers are likely to discriminate Marshes into Seepage, Prairie or Emergent wetlands. Additional description to Palustrine Emergent Marshes may result from a partitioning of typical or mean annual flooding or water depth (e.g., Shallow and Deep-water). The 12 proposed wetland classes are compared with 5 classification networks to identify synonyms, generate descriptions and provide cross-reference (Table 23). Common nomenclature from the classification crosswalks includes: Bottomland, Floodplain, Dome, Basin, Wet Flatwoods, Strand, Slough, Seep, Marsh, Prairie and Bog. Dominant plant community associations commonly included in classifications are: cypress (needle-leaved deciduous), bay (broad-leaved evergreen), hardwood (mixed deciduous), and sawgrass. For forested wetlands, River Swamp had the greatest number of cross-references (21) and Seepage Swamp had the least (7). For Non-forested wetlands, River Marsh had the greatest number of cross-references (13); Wet Prairie and Seepage Bog each had 9. Groundwater influenced wetlands are unique enough communities to warrant specific consideration in all classifications. In general there is less conflict (greater certainty) among similar categories of Non-forested wetlands than for Forested wetlands (average number of cross-references 11 and 15, respectively). Generally NWI and FLUCCS classifications generated the greatest number of cross-references for proposed classes due both to generality of nomenclature 29

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Table 23. Classification cross-reference of proposed classes for biological assessment of inland freshwater wetlands in Florida. Forested wetlands: River Swamp FNAI: Bottomland Forest, Floodplain Forest, Floodplain Swamp, Freshwater Tidal Swamp, River Floodplain Swamp FLUCCS: 613-Gum Swamp, 615-Stream and Lake Swamp (Bottomland), 617-Mixed Wetland Hardwood, 621-Cypress, 623-Atlantic White Cedar, 624-Cypress-Pine-Cabbage Palm FWC: 12-Cypress, 13-Hardwood Swamp, 17-Bottomland Hardwood NWI: PFO1-Palustrine Forested Broad-leaved Deciduous, PFO2-Palustrine Forested Needle-leaved Deciduous, PFO6-Palustrine Forested Deciduous mixed, PFO7-Palustrine Forested Evergreen mixed SCS: 17-Cypress Swamp, 20-Bottomland Hardwood, 21-Swamp Hardwood Depression Swamp FNAI: Basin Swamp, Bog, Dome Swamp, Baygall FLUCCS: 611-Bay Swamp, 613-Gum Swamp, 617-Mixed Wetland Hardwood, 621-Cypress FWC: 12-Cypress, 13-Hardwood Swamp, 14-Bay Swamp NWI: PFO2-Palustrine Forested Needle-leaved Deciduous, PFO3-Palustrine Forested Broad-leaved Evergreen, PFO6-Palustrine Forested Deciduous mixed SCS: 17-Cypress Swamp, 22-Shrub Bog/Bay Swamp Lake Swamp FNAI: Swamp Lake, Basin Swamp, Bottomland Forest FLUCCS: 613-Gum Swamp, 615-Lake Swamp (Bottomland), Mixed Wetland Hardwood, 621-Cypress, 624-Cypress-Pine-Cabbage Palm FWC: 12-Cypress Swamp, 13-Hardwood Swamp, 17-Bottomland Hardwood NWI: PFO2-Palustrine Forested Needle-leaved Deciduous, PFO6-Palustrine Forested Deciduous mixed SCS: 17-Cypress Swamp, 21-Swamp Hardwoods Strand Swamp FNAI: Strand Swamp FLUCCS: 614-Titi Swamp, 617-Mixed Wetland Hardwood, 618-Willow and Elderberry, 619-Exotic Wetland Hardwood, 621-Cypress, 631-Wetland Scrub FWC: 12-Cypress Swamp, 13-Hardwood Swamp, 15-Shrub Swamp NWI: PFO2-Palustrine Forested Needle-leaved Deciduous, PFO6-Palustrine Forested Deciduous mixed SCS: 12-Wetland Hardwood Hammock, 16-Scrub Cypress, 17-Cypress Swamp Seepage Swamp FNAI: Baygall FLUCCS: 611-Bay Swamp FWC: 14-Bay Swamp NWI: PFO3-Palustrine Forested Broad-leaved Evergreen, PFO7-Palustrine Forested Evergreen mixed SCS: 10-Cutthroat Seep, 22-Shrub Bog/Bay Swamp Flatland Swamp FNAI: Hydric Hammock, Wet Flatwoods FLUCCS: 614-Titi Swamp, 616-Inland Ponds and Sloughs, 618-Willow and Elderberry, 619-Exotic Wetland Hardwood, 622-Pond Pine, 624-Cypress-Pine-Cabbage Palm, 625-Hydric Pine Flatwoods, 626-Hydric Pine Savanna, 627-Slash Pine Swamp Forest FWC: 13-Hardwood Swamp, 3-Pinelands NWI: PFO4-Palustrine Forested Needle-leaved Evergreen, PFO7-Palustrine Forested Evergreen mixed SCS: 6/7-Flatwoods 30

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Table 23 continued. Cross-reference of wetland types with proposed bioassessment classification. Non-forested wetlands : River Marsh FNAI: Floodplain Marsh FLUCCS: 641-Freshwater Marsh, 644-Emergent Aquatic Vegetation FWC: 11-Freshwater Marsh and Wet Prairie NWI: R2AB-Riverine Lower Perennial Aquatic Bed, R2EM-Riverine Lower Perennial Emergent Non-persistent, R3AB-Riverine Upper Perennial Aquatic Bed, R4SB-Riverine Intermittent Streambed, PAB3-Palustrine Aquatic Bed Rooted Vascular, PAB4-Palustrine Aquatic Bed Floating Vascular, PEM-Palustrine Emergent SCS: 25-Freshwater Marsh Depression Marsh FNAI: Basin Marsh, Bog, Depression Marsh FLUCCS: 641-Freshwater Marsh, 644-Emergent Aquatic Vegetation, 653-Intermittent Pond FWC: 11-Freshwater Marsh and Wet Prairie NWI: PAB3-Palustrine Aquatic Bed Rooted Vascular, PAB4-Palustrine Aquatic Bed Floating Vascular, PEM-Palustrine Emergent SCS: 25-Freshwater Marsh, 24-Sawgrass Marsh Lake Marsh FNAI: Flatwoods/Prairie/Marsh Lake, Basin Marsh FLUCCS: 641-Freshwater Marsh, 644-Emergent Aquatic Vegetation, 645-Submergent Aquatic Vegetation FWC: 11-Freshwater Marsh and Wet Prairie NWI: L1AB-Lacustrine Limnetic Aquatic Bed, L2AB-Lacustrine Littoral Aquatic Bed, L2EM-Lacustrine Littoral Emergent non-persistent, PAB3Palustrine Aquatic Bed Rooted Vascular, PAB4Palustrine Aquatic Bed Floating Vascular, PEM-Palustrine Emergent SCS: 25-Freshwater Marsh Seepage Bog FNAI: Swale, Slough, Seepage Slope FLUCCS: 641-Freshwater Marsh, 643-Wet Prairie FWC: 11-Freshwater Marsh and Wet Prairie NWI: PEM-Palustrine Emergent SCS: 10-Cutthroat Seep, 23-Pitcher Plant Bog Wetland Prairie FNAI: Wet Prairie, Marl Prairie FLUCCS: 643-Wet Prairie, 646-Treeles Hydric Savanna FWC: 11-Freshwater Marsh and Wet Prairie NWI: PEM-Palustrine Emergent SCS: 25-Freshwater Marsh, 26-Slough, 24-Sawgrass Marsh Shrub Scrub FNAI: Seepage Slope, Bog, Slough FLUCCS: 631-Wetland Scrub, 614-Titi Swamp, 616-Inland Pond and Slough, 618-Willow and Elderberry, 619-Exotic Wetland Hardwood FWC: 15-Shrub Swamp NWI: PSS-Palustrine Scrub Shrub SCS: Shrub Bog/Bay Swamp 31

PAGE 37

(NWI) and to different organizing foundations (FLUCCS). Approaches utilizing a combination of factors (hydrology, geomorphology and biology) result in descriptive and more consistent classifications than those developed for technological application. FNAI provides the most comprehensive descriptions for its communities, using species lists and typical hydroperiods (and other information) to classify biologically distinct wetlands organized by landscape position. SCS also provides ecosystem attributes but does not include hydrology or geomorphology as keying characters, resulting in less distinct community types. FLUCCS is not organized by landscape features, rather by dominant vegetation readily identifiable through remote sensing, resulting in nomenclature that is not descriptive for biological assessment. The NWI system first divides wetlands by landscape features followed by dominant vegetative form, but classification, while hierarchical, often lacks resolution for assessing biological condition and the nomenclature is not conducive to localities. FWC habitats were chosen based on imaging criteria and with only 7 wetland habitats is too aggregated for biological description. The wetland classification approach proposed here is a preliminary effort to group similar wetlands together for purposes of detecting biological condition. Considerations have been made to keep the system simple and user-friendly, but robust enough to generate a consistent wetland typology. Field studies are needed to test differences between 12 wetland classes in 4 regions across the State. Proposed classes and regions should be peer reviewed by agency personnel involved in past efforts and current programs. Literature Cited Brinson (1993) A hydrogeomorphic classification for wetlands. Technical Report WRP-DE-4, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Waterways Experimental Station, Vicksburg, MS. Brown, M.T. and E.M. Starnes. 1983. A wetlands study of Seminole County: Identification, evaluation, and preparation of development standards and guidelines. University of Florida Center for Wetlands Technical Report 41, Seminole County and Florida Department of Community Affairs. 284 pp. Brooks, R.P., C.A. Cole, D.H. Wardrop, L. Bishel-Machung, D.J. Prosser, D.A.Campbell, and M.T. Gaudette. 1996. Wetlands, Wildlife, and Watershed Assessment Techniques for Evaluation and Restoration. Vol. 1: Evaluating and implementing watershed approaches for protecting Pennsylvanias wetlands. Cowardin, L.M., V. Carter, F.C. Golet and E.T. Laroe. 1979. Classification of Wetlands and Deepwater Habitats of the United States. FWS/OBS-79/31. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service / Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C. 103 pp. Florida Department of Transportation. 1976/1985. Florida Land Use, Cover and Forms Classification System. 2 nd edition, Procedure no. 550-010-001-a. State Topographic Bureau, Thematic Mapping Section. 32

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Florida Natural Areas Inventory. 1990. Guide to the natural communities of Florida. Prepared by FNAI and Florida Department of Natural Resources, Tallahassee FL. 111 pp. Karr, J.R. and E.W. Chu. 1999. Restoring life in running waters better biological monitoring. Island Press. 206 pp. Lake County Water Authority. Our Vital Wetlands. Informational brochure made in conjunction with St. Johns River Water Management District, Taveres, FL. 28 pp. Mitsch, W.J. and J.G. Gosselink. 1993. Wetlands, 2 nd ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, NY. 722 pp. The Nature Conservancy. 1997. An alliance level classification of the vegetation of the Southeastern United States. Report to Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit and the National Gap Analysis Program. Trott, K.L., M.M. Davis, L.M. Grant, J.W. Beever, R.K. Evans, B.E. Gunsalus, S.L. Krupa, C.V. Noble and K.J. Liudahl. 1997. DRAFT Technical Report WRP-DE-XX. Peninsular Florida herbaceous depressional wetlands hydrogeomorphic (HGM) regional guidebook. Prepared for U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS. 33









Table 9. Geomorphic landscape position, water source and directional flow for HGM classes
(adapted from Brinson 1993 and Trott et al 1997), with examples of wetlands named
from other Florida classification systems (FLUCCS, GFC, FNAI).


Water Source Hydrodynamics


Geomorphology (dominant)


(dominant)


Plant Community Type:


Forested


Herbaceous


Riverine
marsh


Depressional


Lake fringe


Slope


Organic flats

Mineral flats


Channel,

overbank


Groundwater,
surface


lacustrine,
overbank


Groundwater


Precipitation

Precipitation


Horizontal


unidirectional

Vertical,
bidirectional

Horizontal,
bidirectional

Horizontal,
unidirectional


Vertical

Vertical


Bottomland hardwood Maidencane


Cypress/Gum


Mixed hardwood


Baygall


Hydric savanna

Wet flatwoods


Basin marsh


Emergent marsh


Seepage bogs


Sawgrass marsh

Wet, marl prairies


~














Table 12. Soil Conservation Service inland freshwater wetland communities and classification cross-reference.


SCS FNAI FLUCCS FWC NWI


8 Cabbage Palm Flatwoods 624-Cypress-Pine-Cabbage Palm
10 Cutthroat Seep 3 PEM, PSS
12 Wetland Hardwood Hammock Seepage Slope, Basin Swamp, Dome Swamp 317-Mixed Wetland Hardwood, 613-Gum Swamp 13 PF01,PFO6
16 Scrub Cypress Strand Swamp, Marl Prairie 321-Cypress 12 PFO2
Dome Swamp, Floodplain Swamp, Strand
17 Cypress omemp w, a wamptrand 621-Cypress 12 PFO2,PFO6
0 Bottomland Hardwoodottomland Forest, Floodplain Forest, 615-Stream/Lake Swamp, 622-Pond Pine, 623-
20 Bottomland Hardwood Floodplain Swamp, Freshwater Tidal Swamp, tlantic White Cedar PF01, PF06
River Floodplain Lake/Swamp Lake
613-Gum Swamp, 618-Willow/Elderberry, 619-Exotic
21 Swamp Hardwood Hydric Hammock, Flooplain Forest Wetland Hardwood, 623-Atlantic White Cedar, 624- 13,17 PFO1, PFO6
Cypress-Pine-Cabbage Palm
22 Shrub Bog, Bay Swamp Baygall, Bog 611-Bay Swamp, 614-Titi Swamp, 618- Hardwood PF3,PF
Willow/Elderberry, 619-Exotic Wetland Hardwood 1 5P3F
23 Pitcher Plant Bog Seepage Slope, Wet Prairie 343-Wet Prairie 11 PEM, PSS

4 Sawgrass Marsh Swae 41-Freshwater Marsh, 644-Emergent Aquatic 11 PEM
Marsh wae Vegetation
PEM,R2AB,
Basin Marsh, Depression Marsh, Floodplain 641-Freshwater Marsh, 643-Wet Prairie, 644- R2EM, R3AB,
25 Freshwater Marsh Marsh, Wet Prairie, Flatwoods/Prairie/Marsh Emergent Aquatic Vegetation, 645-Submergent 11 R4SB, L1AB, L2AB
Lake Aquatic Vegetation, 653-Intermittent Ponds L2EM, PAB3,
PAB4, PSS
26 Slough Slough 616-Inland Ponds and Sloughs, 653-Intermittent 11, 15 PEM
Ponds, 646-Treeless Hydric Savanna
625-Hydric Pine Flatwoods, 622-Pond Pine, 626-
,7 N, S Florida Flatwoods Wet Flatwoods Hydric Pine Savanna, 646-Treeless Hydric Savanna, 3 PF4, PFO7
_627- Slash Pine Swamp Forest





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Proposed Classification for Biological Assessment of Florida Inland Freshwater Wetlands Report to: Florida Department of E nvironmental Protection Contract No. WM68 (Development of a Biological Approach for Assessing Wetland Function and Integrity) by S.J. Doherty, C.R. Lane, M.T. Brown Center for Wetlands PO Box 116350 University of Florida Gainesville, FL 32611 May 2000

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This project and the preparation of this report were funded in part by a Section 104(b)(3) Water Quality Improvement grant from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency through a contract with the Florida Department of Environmental Protection.

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Table of Contents List of Tables.............. iii Wetland Classification Background............. 1 Florida Natural Areas Inventory.............. 3 Soil Conservation Service............... 3 Florida Land-use, Cover and Forms Classification System................ 5 Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission................. 6 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Wetlands Inventory.................. 7 Other Classification Systems...................11 Ecosystems of Florida (Myer and Ewel 1990)....................11 The Nature Conservancy.................11 Lake County Water Authority/Seminole County....................11 Hydrogeomorphic Wetland Classification..................12 Classification Crosswalks....................14 Proposed Wetland Classification Approach for Biological Assessment.................15 Literature Cited................32 ii

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List of Tables Table 1. General characteristics for 3 broad categories of inland freshwater wetlands in Florida.................. 2 Table 2 FNAI inland freshwater wetland communities and synonymy................... 4 Table 3. SCS inland freshwater wetland communities.............. 5 Table 4. FLUCCS inland freshwater wetland codes and nomenclature................ 6 Table 5. FWC inland freshwater wetland habitats and percent statewide areas..................... 7 Table 6. NWI hierarchy of selected inland freshwater wetland types represented in Florida.............. 8 Table 7. Water regime modifiers describing NWI wetland and deepwater habitats................. 9 Table 8. Percent Statewide area for NWI inland freshwater wetland systems................10 Table 9. HGM (hydrogeomorphology) determinants of wetland function...............13 Table 10. HGM Peninsular Florida Depression wetland class comparison................14 Table 11. Classification cross-reference of FNAI inland freshwater wetland communities................16 Table 12. Classification cross-reference of SCS inland freshwater wetland communities................17 Table 13. Classification cross-reference of FLUCCS inland freshwater wetland classes................18 Table 14. Classification cross-reference of FWC inland freshwater wetland habitats.....................19 Table 15. Classification cross-reference of NWI inland freshwater wetland systems....................20 iii

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Table 16. Classification crosswalk summaries (total and average number of repeat references).................................21 Table 17. FNAI crosswalk summary...........................................................23 Table 18. SCS crosswalk summary.............................................................24 Table 19. FLUCCS crosswalk summary.....................25 Table 20. FWC crosswalk summary....................26 Table 21. NWI crosswalk summary....................27 Table 22. Proposed classification for biological assessment of Florida inland freshwater wetlands......................28 Table 23. Classification cross-reference of proposed wetland bioassessment classes in Florida.....................30 iv

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Wetland Classification Successful biological monitoring depends on judicious classification: selection of too few classes may overlook important characteristics; too many may unnecessarily complicate development of biocriteria (Karr and Chu 1999). Classifications are used to describe and organize ecosystems and land cover into distinct categories useful to land managers, planners and scientists, according to specific agency goals. The goal of classification for biological assessment is to group ecosystems with similar biological attributes and biological response to human disturbance. Because biological assessments measure ecosystem health relative to reference conditions, classification must distinguish local environments and address regional variability. Geography, landscape position, geomorphology, hydropattern, climate, physical/chemical variables, and biogeographic processes determine the structure and function of local ecosystems. Aspects of these driving forces are incorporated in most hierarchical classification systems, while others are based on plant community structure and species composition. Regardless of the number or resolution of classes, at all levels of classification there is overlap because of common species distributions and intergrading physical environmental conditions. Several classification schemes have been developed to describe Florida's inland freshwater wetlands (Wharton et al. 1977, Cowardin et al 1979, FDOT 1979/1985, SCS 1981, Ewel and Kushlan 1990, FDNR 1988, FNAI 1990, Brinson 1993, Trott et al 1997, TNC 1997). Descriptions of each are given below, followed by crosswalk comparisons between classifications. Although there is considerable overlap between key characteristics and wetland classes, each classification is goal specific. A common approach orders Floridas inland freshwater wetlands into three broad groups (Table 1): wetlands associated with flowing water; wetlands adjacent to ponds and lakes; and depressional or stillwater wetlands. General descriptions, review of plant community associations, and cross-reference of State classifications provide foundations for the development of wetland bioassessment classes. Here a proposed classification for biological assessment of Florida inland freshwater wetlands is described. It is a tiered approach using broad landscape categories (River, Depression, Lake, Strand, Seepage and Flatland) subdivided into forested and non-forested classes. Proposed wetland ecoregions partition the State and further specify wetland classes. Modifiers (hydropattern, water source, and soil type) lend additional resolution. Classification approaches to Florida wetlands are described, and five prominent systems are cross-referenced to generate a framework for common nomenclature and to utilize the best components of existing systems. The proposed classification uses aspects of HGM and FNAI classification structure. Twelve proposed classes are then compared with other descriptions for inland freshwater wetlands to provide cross-reference with other classifications used in Florida. Classification crosswalks are provided in an HTML format for additional utility. 1

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Table 1. Comparisons, general characteristics and plant community associations compared for 3 broad categories of inland freshwater wetlands: a) flowing water, b) lake fringe and c) basin, depression wetland types (adapted from Erwin, Doherty, Brown, Best 1997). General Type Abstracted from Ecosystems of Florida FNAI / FDNR FLUCFCS Other Synonyms General Characteristics Flowing water wetlands River (stream) swamps; blackwater floodplain forest Bottomland forest, floodplain forest, blackwater stream, seepage stream, strand, slough 615 stream and lake swamps; 616 inland ponds and sloughs; 617 mixed wetland hardwoods; 630 wetland forested mixed Swamp forest, swamp hardwoods, bottomland hardwoods, backwater swamps Forested wetlands within stream or river floodplains generally consist of a wide variety of tree species including cypress, blackgum, ash, elm, some oaks, sugar berry, maple, cabbage palm, sweet gum, hickories. Lake fringe wetlands Lake fringe swamps River floodplain lake, swamp lake 615 stream and lake swamps Lake fringe swamp, lake fringe forest Forested wetlands on fringe of lakes; species include cypress, blackgum, ash, elm, some oaks, sugar berry, maple, cabbage palm, sweet gum, hickories; wet tolerant species such as cypress, blackgum and ash found in deeper zone; transitional species commonly landward of the land/water interface. Lake fringe marshes Flatwood/prairie/marsh any 640-series freshwater wetlands, especially 641 freshwater marshes and 644 emergent aquatic vegetation Lake marsh, lake fringe marsh, lake littoral zone Herbaceous emergent vegetation within littoral zone of lake (rushes, bulrushes, beak rushes, fuirena, pickerel weed) or fringing lake border within high water levels (maidencane, blue maidencane, sedges, composites. Stillwater, basin or depression wetlands Cypress ponds/cypress strands, cypress/gum swamps Cypress dome or basin swamp, gum swamp, cypress/gum slough, swale or strand 621 cypress; 613 gum swamps; 624 cypress-pine-cabbage palm Cypress swamp, cypress gum swamp, cypress-gum-bay swamp Cypress and gum swamps are very similar in characteristics and species composition with a shift in dominant species driven primarily by slight differences in fire frequency and hydropattern. Dominant species include cypress, blackgum, loblolly bay, dahoon holly, sweet magnolias and maple. Bay swamps Baygall 611 bay swamps Seepage swamps, bayheads, sandhill bog Bay swamps are generally dominated by loblolly bay and sweet magnolia and maple with some red bay mixed with maple, with cypress and blackgum in deeper portions. Mixed hardwood swamps Bottomland forest 617 mixed wetland hardwoods; 630 wetland forested mixed Swamp forest, wetland hardwood hammocks, freshwater swamp forest Forested wetlands composed of a large variety of hardwoods with varying degrees of tolerance to hydric conditions. Common species include red maple, oaks, bays, cypress, black gum, sweet gum, ash, hickory and pines. Flatwoods/depression marshes Wet flatwoods, wet prairie, depression marsh Any 640 series freshwater wetlands, especially 641 freshwater marshes; 643 wet prairie; 644 emergent aquatic vegetation Hydric flatwood marshes, pine savannahs, marshes, herbaceous wetlands, freshwater marshes Several common types of depression marshes exist. Although most have a mixture of herbs and grasses, a few species generally dominate (maidencane, pickerel weed, arrowhead, arrowroot, needlerush, bullrush, sawgrass and cattail). 2

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Florida Natural Areas Inventory Guide to the Natural Communities of Florida Eighty-one natural communities in Florida are described and classified as Terrestrial, Palustrine, Lacustrine, Riverine, Subterranean, or Marine/Estuarine. Natural communities are defined as distinct and reoccurring assemblages of populations of plants, animals, fungi and microorganisms naturally associated with each other and their physical environment. This classification/inventory is unique in that it describes pristine natural communities without human intervention, providing information on reference condition. For each Natural Community Type brief descriptions of characteristic flora and fauna, physical setting, soil types, hydropattern, fire frequency, associated communities, and development impact are given. Synonyms and comparisons with other vegetation classifications are also reported. Inland freshwater wetlands are generally classified within the Palustrine Group (Table 2), although 2 Lacustrine types (third level) may be interpreted as wetland (Flatwoods/Prairie/Marsh Lake and River Floodplain/Swamp Lake). FNAI defines palustrine natural communities as freshwater wetlands dominated by plants adapted to anaerobic substrate conditions imposed by substrate saturation or inundation during at least 10% of the growing season. Nineteen wetland types in 4 categories (Wet Flatlands, Seepage Wetlands, Floodplain Wetlands, Basin Wetlands) are classified within the Palustrine Group. Soil Conservation Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture Twenty-six vegetative communities are identified from soil series and field studies. Aquatic communities are not included. Ecological communities are described as mature (late successional) and pristine ecosystems. Community specific information includes: 1) Occurrence, 2) Description (typical soil, vegetation, wildlife), 3) Land-use Interpretation (utility as natural land, rangeland, woodland, urban), and 4) Endangered and Threatened Flora and Fauna. Distribution maps identify locations for each community type within Florida. The report also correlates ecological communities with soil series. Matrices identifying plant species occurrence within climatic zones (North, Central, South, and South Tropical) indicate the species status for each of the 26 ecological community types as either Characterizing (typical or indicative) or Occurring (present). Introduced species are noted. Plant species include: 129 grasses; 41 grass-like sedges and rushes; 127 trees; 470 herbaceous species; 89 vines; and 242 shrubs. From this database, plant species occurrence can be cross-referenced with soils series, climatic zones and ecological community types. Eleven SCS ecological communities are classified as wetland (Table 3). 3

PAGE 9

Table 2. Florida Natural Areas Inventory inland freshwater wetland communities and synonymy (FNAI 1990). Palustrine Wet Flatlands Hydric Hammock (synonyms: wetland hardwood hammock, wet hammock) Marl Prairie (synonyms: scrub cypress, marl flat, dwarf cypress savanna, sedge flat, spikerush marsh) Wet Flatwoods (synonyms: low flatwoods, moist pine barren, hydric flatwoods, pond-pine flatwoods, pocosin, cabbage palm/pine savanna/flatwoods) Wet Prairie (synonyms: sand marsh, savanna, coastal savanna, coastal prairie, pitcher plant prairie) Seepage Wetlands Baygall (synonyms: seepage swamp, bayhead, bay swamp) Seepage Slope (synonyms: herb bog, pitcher plant bog, grass-sedge bog, shrub bog, seep) Floodplain Wetlands Bottomland Forest (synonyms: bottomland hardwoods, river/stream bottom, lowland hardwood forest, mesic hammock) Floodplain Forest (synonyms: bottomland hardwoods, seasonally flooded basins/flats, oak-gum-cypress, river terrace) Floodplain Marsh (synonyms: river marsh) Floodplain Swamp (synonyms: river swamp, bottomland hardwoods, seasonally flooded basins/flats, oak-gum-cypress, cypress-tupelo, slough, oxbow, backwater swamp) Freshwater Tidal Swamp (synonyms: tidewater swamp, rivermouth swamp, sweetbay swamp, tupelo-redbay) Slough Strand Swamp (synonyms: cypress strand) Swale (synonyms: slough, river of grass, glades) Basin Wetlands Basin Marsh (synonyms: prairie, freshwater marsh) Basin Swamp (synonyms: gum swamp, bay, bayhead, swamp) Bog (synonyms: bog swamp, pocosins, evergreen shrub bogs, wet scrub/shrub, peat islands) Depression Marsh (synonyms: isolated wetland, flatwoods pond, St. Johns wort pond, pineland depression, ephemeral pond, seasonal marsh) Dome Swamp (synonyms: isolated wetland, cypress dome/pond, gum pond, bayhead, cypress gall) Lacustrine Flatwoods / Prairie / Marsh Lake (synonyms: flatwoods pond, ephemeral pond, grass pond, St. Johns wort pond, pineland depression, swale, prairie pond) River Floodplain Lake and Swamp Lake (synonyms: cypress pond, gum pond, backwater pond, blackwater pond) 4

PAGE 10

Table 3. Soil Conservation Service (1981) classification of inland freshwater wetland communities. 10 Cutthroat Seeps 12 Wetland Hardwood Hammocks 16 Scrub Cypress 17 Cypress Swamp 20 Bottomland Hardwoods 21 Swamp Hardwoods 22 Shrub Bogs Bay Swamps 23 Pitcher Plant Bogs 24 Sawgrass Marsh 25 Freshwater Marsh 26 Slough 1 Flatwood categories (6-South, 7-North, and 8-Cabbage Palm) may also include wetland communities dependent upon soil type, elevation, proximity to water table, or wetland definition. Florida Department of Transportation Florida Land-use, Cover and Forms Classification System FLUCCS was developed in 1976 (and modified in 1985) by the Thematic Mapping Section of FDOT to provide a uniform and flexible classification system for use by State agencies. Its model was the US Geological Survey classification system (USGS Circular 671). Classes reflect information obtainable from aerial photographic interpretation and satellite multispectral image analysis. There are 4 hierarchical levels, based on photography scale and image resolution (Level 1 scale 1:500,000 or greater; Level IV scale 1:24,000 or less). Wetlands (Level I code 600) are considered areas where the water table is at, near or above the land surface for a significant portion of most years supporting aquatic or hydrophytic vegetation. Twenty-two inland freshwater wetland communities (Level III) are presently described within 5 classes (Level II): 610 Wetland Hardwood Forests; 620 Wetland Coniferous Forest; 630 Wetland Forest Mixed (Scrub); 640 Vegetated Non-Forested Wetlands; and 650 Intermittent Ponds (Table 4). Level IV classifications are indicated for freshwater marshes (641) if 66% or more of the community is comprised of a single species (sawgrass, cattail, spike rush, maidencane, dog fennel/low marsh grasses, arrowroot, giant cutgrass, shrub/vine). Brief community descriptions provide typical plant species and limited density estimates information used in interpretation and analysis of aerial photography and multi-spectral imaging. Information on wetland geomorphology, hydroperiod, soils, or landscape associations is not included. 5

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Table 4. Florida Land-use, Cover and Forms classification of inland freshwater wetlands (FDOT 1976/1985). 610 Wetland Hardwood Forests 611 Bay Swamps 613 Gum Swamps 614 Titi Swamps 615 Stream and Lake Swamps (Bottomland) 616 Inland Ponds and Sloughs 617 Mixed Wetland Hardwoods 618 Willow and Elderberry 619 Exotic Wetland Hardwood 620 Wetland Coniferous Forests 621 Cypress 622 Pond Pine 623 Atlantic White Cedar 624 Cypress Pine Cabbage Palm 625 Hydric Pine Flatwoods 626 Hydric Pine Savanna 627 Slash Pine Swamp Forest 630 Wetland Forested Mixed 631 Wetland Scrub 640 Vegetated Non-Forested Wetlands 641 Freshwater Marshes 643 Wet Prairies 644 -Emergent Aquatic Vegetation 645 Submergent Aquatic Vegetation 646 Treeless Hydric Savanna 653 Intermittent Ponds Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission Florida Land Cover Formerly the Florida Game and Freshwater Fish Commission, FWC developed a classification for a Statewide land-cover map developed from Landsat Thematic Mapper data (Kautz et al 1993). Twenty-two land-cover types were identified and mapped for Florida (35% vegetated uplands, 24% wetlands, 42% disturbed). Inland freshwater wetland habitats were classed into 6 land-cover types: Freshwater Marsh/Wet Prairie, Cypress Swamp, Hardwood Swamp, Bay Swamp, Shrub Swamp, and Bottomland Hardwood Swamp (Table 5). Freshwater Marsh and Wet Prairie, occurring mostly in South Florida, were the most abundant wetland vegetation type (38% of wetlands, 7% State land area). Bay Swamp was difficult to distinguish from Hardwood Swamp. Some natural community/land-cover types may be interpreted as disturbed land-cover types and vice-versa. Cox et al (1994) provide brief wetland plant community descriptions and tabulations of area cover for wetland types by county. 6

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Table 5. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission habitat-community classifications and percent areas for Florida inland freshwater wetland types. habitat code wetand habitat / community type % wetland area % State area 11 Freshwater marsh and wet prairie 38.17 6.88 12 Cypress swamp 22.57 4.07 13 Hardwood swamp 26.63 4.80 14 Bay swamp 2.22 0.40 15 Shrub swamp 9.01 1.62 17 Bottomland hardwoods 1.40 0.25 % totals 100.00 18.03 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Wetlands Inventory This classification for wetland and deepwater habitats of the United States (Cowardin et al 1979) defines wetlands by plants (hydrophytes), soils (hydric soils) and frequency of flooding. It is hierarchical (Table 6), with the highest level, System, defining general hydro-geomorphic or chemical factors (wetland systems include Riverine, Lacustrine, Palustrine). Subsystems define landscape position (Riverine has 3 Lower/Upper Perennial and Intermittent; Lacustrine has 2 Limnetic and Littoral; Palustrine has no subsystem). Within Subsystems, Classes identify substrate, flooding regime (hydropattern), or vegetation form. Florida wetland NWI classes are: Aquatic Bed (dominated by submergent and floating vegetation); Emergent (dominated by emergent herbaceous angiosperms), Scrub-Shrub (dominated by shrubs and small trees); and Forested (tree dominated). Subclass partitions are based on vegetation life form (rooted/floating vascular plants; persistent/non-persistent plants; deciduous/evergreen; needle-leaved/broad-leaved). Only Palustrine Forested classes in Florida have subclasses. The lowest level classification category, subordinate to Subclass, is the Dominance type, defined by dominant plant species and determined by percent area cover. Palustrine systems include all nontidal wetlands (salinity below 0.5 ppt) dominated by trees, shrubs, or persistent emergents or nonvegetated systems less than 8 ha or a low water depth not exceeding 2m. Representative of the majority wetland types, the Palustrine system includes wetlands situated shoreward of lakes and river channels, on floodplains, in isolated catchments, or on slopes. Wetlands classified within Riverine and Lacustrine systems only include open water classes of Aquatic Bed and Emergent non-persistent vegetation. Several modifiers are used to more fully describe wetlands and deepwater habitats: Water Regime, Water Chemistry, Soil, and Human Actions. The water regime modifiers have specific utility for wetland characterization, describing the depth, duration and frequency in 7

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Table 6. USFWS National Wetlands Inventory (Cowardin et al 1979) hierarchy of selected inland freshwater wetland types represented in Florida (System, Subsystem, Class, Subclass, Dominance Type). R Riverine w/in channel habitats; Bounded by uplands or wetlands dominated by trees, shrubs or persistent emergents vegetation. 2 Lower Perennial AB Aquatic Bed EM Emergent Marsh (non-persistent) 3 Upper Perennial AB Aquatic Bed L Lacustrine Bounded by upland or wetlands dominated by trees, shrubs or persistent emergent vegetation. (wetland vegetation < 30% coverage) 1 Limetic -> 2 m depth at low water 2 Littoral -< 2 m depth at low water; all wetlands in Lacustrine System AB Aquatic Bed EM Emergent Marsh (non-persistent) P Palustrine Non-tidal wetlands dominated by trees, shrubs, persistent emergent vegetation. AB Aquatic Bed EM Emergent Marsh SS Scrub Shrub FO Forested 1 Broad-Leaved Deciduous 2 Needle-Leaved Deciduous 3 Broad-Leaved Evergreen 4 Needle-Leaved Evergreen 6 Deciduous 7 Evergreen inundation (i.e., hydropattern or hydroperiod). Seven hydroperiods are defined (Table 7), ordered generally from less to more water: Intermittently Flooded, Temporarily Flooded, Saturated, Seasonally Flooded, Semipermanently Flooded, Intermittently Exposed, Permanently Flooded. The National Wetlands Inventory geographic information database using this classification is available for Florida. Maps were prepared from high altitude aerial photographs and digitally transformed. Wetlands were identified based on vegetation, visible hydrology and geographic location. NWI maps reflect the specific year and season of the photography, as well as interpreter skills and technology limits, affecting the accuracy of wetland locations, boundaries and classifications. 8

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Table 7. National Wetland Inventory water regime modifiers used in classification and mapping of Florida wetland and deepwater habitats (i.e., hydroperiod) (Cowardin et al 1979). A Temporarily Flooded surface water present for brief periods during growing season, but water table usually lies well below soil surface. B Saturated substrate saturated at or near surface during growing season, but surface water is seldom present. C Seasonally Flooded surface water present for extended periods, especially early in growing season, often absent near end; water table often near, at, or above surface. D Seasonally Flooded / Well Drained E Seasonally Flooded / Saturated F Semipermanently Flooded surface water persists throughout growing season in most years; water table very near, at, or above surface. G Intermittently Exposed surface water present throughout year, except in drought years. H Permanently Flooded surface water always present; vegetation is obligate, hydrophytic. J Intermittently Flooded exposed substrates with surface water periodically present; do not necessarily have hydric/wetland soils. K Artificially Flooded amount and duration of surface water controlled by human constructions. Combined water regime modifiers: W Intermittently Flooded / Temporary Y Saturated / Semipermanent / Seasonal Z Intermittently Exposed / Permanent NWI identifies 17 classes of inland freshwater wetlands in Florida covering 23% of the landscape (Table 8) (10 Palustrine, 4 Riverine, and 3 Lacustrine). Within Palustrine systems, Forest subsystems in total account for 53% of State wetlands, followed by the Emergent class (34%) and Scrub-Shrub class (11%). Riverine and Lacustrine wetland classes account for less than 3% of State wetland area, but were included here to enable cross-reference with other classification descriptions of Emergent and Aquatic-Bed vegetation associations. Distributional variation of NWI classes within the 4 proposed wetland regions of Florida is discussed later in the context of bioassessment classes. 9

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Table 8. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) classifications (Cowardin et al 1979) and percent areas for Florida inland freshwater wetlands. NWI code Wetland class description % wetland area % state area R 2 AB Riverine, Lower Perennial, Aquatic Bed 0.07 0.01 R 2 EM Riverine, Lower Perennial, Emergent, non-persistent 0.00 0.00 R 3 AB Riverine, Upper Perennial, Aquatic Bed 0.00 0.00 R 4 SB Riverine, Intermittent, Streambed 0.00 0.00 L 1 AB Lacustrine, Limnetic, Aquatic Bed 0.04 0.01 L 2 AB Lacustrine, Littoral, Aquatic Bed 1.28 0.29 L 2 EM Lacustrine, Littoral, Emergent, non-persistent 0.03 0.01 P AB 3 Palustrine, Aquatic Bed, Rooted Vascular 0.60 0.14 P AB 4 Palustrine, Aquatic Bed, Floating Vascular 0.15 0.03 P EM Palustrine, Emergent 34.17 7.71 P SS Palustrine, Scrub Shrub 11.18 2.52 P FO 1 Palustrine, Forested, Broad-Leaved Deciduous 5.74 1.30 P FO 2 Palustrine, Forested, Needle-Leaved Deciduous 8.58 1.94 P FO 3 Palustrine, Forested, Broad-Leaved Evergreen 4.92 1.11 P FO 4 Palustrine, Forested, Needle-Leaved Evergreen 10.78 2.43 P FO 6 Palustrine, Forested, Deciduous (mixed) 0.01 0.00 P FO 7 Palustrine, Forested, Evergreen (mixed) 22.44 5.06 100.00 % NWI inland freshwater wetlands 22.55 % upland area 63.00 % other (estuarine) wetlands and deepwater habitats 14.44 state total area 100.00 10

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Other Classification Systems Ecosystems of Florida (Myer and Ewel 1990) Thirteen inland freshwater forested wetland types (Swamps) are described by Ewel (1990): River Swamps (Whitewater Floodplain Forest, Blackwater Floodplain Forest, and Spring Run Swamp); and Stillwater Swamps (Bay Swamp, Cypress Pond, Cypress Savanna, Cypress Strand, Gum Pond, Hydric Hammock, Lake Fringe Swamp, Melaleuca Swamp, Mixed Hardwood Swamp, and Shrub Bog). Environmental variables determining structure and function of swamps are described (hydroperiod, fire frequency, organic matter accumulation, and water source). Common woody plants, productivity and nutrient estimates, wildlife occurrence and changes/impacts are inventoried or described for each swamp type. A comparison is given with NWI classes and modifiers (water regime, pH, and soil). An inverse relationship between hydroperiod and plant species richness is proposed, with River Swamps and Hydric Hammocks having greater number of species than Bay Swamps or Cypress/Gum Ponds for example. Swamp productivity is shown to generally increase as groundwater and surface flow become more important water sources than direct rainfall. Inland freshwater herbaceous wetlands (Marshes) are classified by Kushlan (1990) according to general physiognomy or by characteristic plants. Marsh distribution is explained using local and regional topography, rainfall, evapotranspiration, and geology. Five major Marsh Systems are described for Florida, from higher to lower elevation: Highland, Flatwoods, Kissimmee, St. Johns and Everglades. Six Marsh Associations are described using dominant plant species, hydroperiod, fire frequency and organic matter accumulation: Water Lily, Submersed, Cattail, Flag, Saw Grass, and Wet Prairie. Predominant marsh plant associations are identified within major marsh systems (regions). The Nature Conservancy An alliance-level classification of vegetation of the Southeastern United States includes multiple hierarchical levels: Division (vegetated, non-vegetated); Order (dominant vegetation form trees, shrubs, herbaceous-vascular, non-vascular); Class (cover, density estimates canopy, crown, height class); Subclass (dominant life form evergreen, deciduous, perennial, annual, mixed); Group (lifezone temperate, subtropical, tropical); Subgroup (use history natural, planted, cultivated); and Formation (hydropattern, drought/temperature tolerance, vegetation habit). Alliances are defined using dominant plant species or vegetation associations. Descriptors include successional sere and soil type. An estimated 256 vegetation alliances are identified for Florida. Lake County Water Authority/Seminole County A simple dichotomous key for wetland classification using easily identifiable characteristics applied to summer and winter seasons results in 4 forested wetlands (Cypress Swamp, Hydric Hammock, Bayhead, Hardwood Swamp) and 3 herbaceous wetlands (Deep Marsh, Shallow Marsh, Wet Prairie). Typical flora and fauna are described by LCWA. Quantitative information on water quality (P/N removal), evapotranspiration, hydroperiod, high/low water levels, recharge potential, peat depth, wildlife utilization and gross primary productivity is given in Brown et al (1983). 11

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Hydrogeomorphic Wetland Classification U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Developed through the Waterways Experiment Station, the hydrogeomorphic classification approach for wetlands emphasizes external and independent controls that maintain ecosystem functions (Brinson 1993). Thus maintenance of wetland functions is inferred from provision of local hydrogeomorphic controls. Function refers to processes that are necessary for the self-maintenance of an ecosystem. Because biological integrity addresses both community structure (species composition) and ecosystem processes (function), several wetland classification developed for biological assessments have been based on the HGM functional approach. Three determinants are used to define wetland class: 1) geomorphology (topographic position and landscape association); 2) water source (precipitation, surface water, groundwater); and 3) hydrodynamics (direction and strength of flow). First order HGM classes are discriminated by geomorphic settings (Riverine, Depressional, Lake Fringe, Slope, and Flats), and further categorized by dominant hydrologic aspects. Synonyms and descriptions from other classifications are compared with HGM regional classes (Table 9). Regional subclasses can be identified to discriminate classes based on climatic, geographic and other external functions. HGM classification, however, is not designed to discriminate vegetative associations and species compositions. Thus, at the subclass level community descriptions can be employed from other classification systems and based on field inventories to further subdivide wetland types. Development of ecoregions is necessary for consideration of biogeographic aspects such as species distributions. HGM models for Florida, developed by The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Waterways Experiment Station, divide Florida into 2 regions: Panhandle and Peninsula. Each regional class is subdivided into Herbaceous and Forested subclasses. As an example, the HGM Peninsular-Florida-Depression wetland class is compared with other classifications (Table 10). The coarse resolution of HGM functional classes does not distinguish all wetland ecosystem types within a region, and all HGM classes are not necessarily represented within regions or States. Five geomorphic settings may not be distinct, or it may not be possible to identify dominant hydrologic characteristics. In Florida, the HGM class Flats is not readily discriminated from Depression or Slope classes, and several water sources may exist for a wetland type. The classification is designed as a generic approach that defines broad functional classes according to independent physical conditions that determine wetland attributes. As such, the HGM approach provides a uniform and scientific organizing framework for wetland classification. 12

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Table 9. Geomorphic landscape position, water source and directional flow for HGM classes (adapted from Brinson 1993 and Trott et al 1997), with examples of wetlands named from other Florida classification systems (FLUCCS, GFC, FNAI). Water Source Hydrodynamics Plant Community Type: Geomorphology (dominant) (dominant) Forested Herbaceous Riverine Channel, Horizontal Bottomland hardwood Maidencane marsh overbank unidirectional Depressional Groundwater, Vertical, Cypress/Gum Basin marsh surface bidirectional Lake fringe lacustrine, Horizontal, Mixed hardwood Emergent marsh overbank bidirectional Slope Groundwater Horizontal, Baygall Seepage bogs unidirectional Organic flats Precipitation Vertical Hydric savanna Sawgrass marsh Mineral flats Precipitation Vertical Wet flatwoods Wet, marl prairies 13

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Table 10. Comparison of wetland classification nomenclature with HGM Peninsular-Florida-Depression wetland class (adapted from Trott et al. 1997). Classification System Code Wetland (Community) Types Herbaceous-Depression FNAI Depression Marsh Basin Marsh SCS 25 Freshwater Marsh FLUCCS 641 Freshwater Marshes 644 Emergent Aquatic Vegetation FWC 11 Freshwater Marsh and Wet Prairie NWI PEM Palustrine-Emergent Wetland Forest-Depression FNAI Dome Swamp Basin Swamp Bog SCS 17 Cypress Swamp 22 Shrub Bogs, Bay Swamps FLUCCS 616 Inland Ponds and Sloughs 621 Cypress 613 Gum Swamps FWC 12 Cypress Swamp 13 Hardwood Swamp 15 Shrub Swamp NWI PFO Palustrine-Forested Wetland Classification Crosswalks State and Federal wetland classifications are cross-referenced, comparing wetland types and descriptions between systems. An effort was made to be inclusive rather than restrictive in the comparisons. Therefore, wetland types from different classification approaches with similar keying characters were linked as well as wetland types that had possible associations based on broad and general descriptions or limited information. Wetland nomenclature was best fit to corresponding wetlands named in other classifications. Two outcomes came of this: a single class or community type often fit more than one wetland description in another system; and some cross-references although weak were more similar than dissimilar. In addition, some ecosystem types only marginally met generalized wetland criteria but were included to provide cross-reference to like ecosystems identified in other classifications as wetland (partial characterizations included descriptions of hydrophytes, hydric soils, hydroperiods, and landscape position). 14

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It follows that the resolution of cross-references made here is coarse with varying degrees of reliability. Crosswalks are designed to: 1) facilitate comparisons between goal specific classification approaches; 2) identify common nomenclature; 3) relate wetland typology to State databases; 4) utilize organizational and descriptive strengths of existing methods; and 5) provide a framework for wetland regionalization and classifications necessary for biological assessments. Inland freshwater wetlands from 5 Florida classifications are compared: FNAI (1990) Guide to the Natural Communities of Florida (Table 11); SCS (1981) 26 Ecological Communities of Florida (Table 12) FDOT (1976/1985) Florida Land-use, Cover and Forms Classification (Table 13) FWC Florida Landcover (Kautz et al 1993) (Table 14) USFWS National Wetlands Inventory (Cowardin et al 1979) (Table 15). An HTML formatted database links classification nomenclature. This allows users to quickly identify wetland synonyms and provides cross-reference for common approaches and the proposed wetland bioassessment classification. Because each classification approach was designed within specific agency goals, no cross-references are uniform. General trends are evident (Table 16). Total number of possible cross-references increased (from 80 to 160) as the number of classes increased within a classification system (from 7 to 22). Mean number of cross-references per wetland type decreased with increasing number of classes (between 2 and 3 references per class). Tables 17-21 identify frequency and numbers of cross-references for each classification. Wetlands with high numbers of cross-references include: FWC-Freshwater Marsh and Wet Prairie, Bottomland Hardwood, Pinelands; SCS-Bottomland Hardwood, Swamp Hardwood, Freshwater Marsh; NWI-Emergent, Scrub Shrub, Broad-leaved Deciduous, Needle-leaved Deciduous, Forested-mixed (19); FNAI-Floodplain Forest, Dome Swamp; and FLUCCS-Cypress, Freshwater Marsh, Wet Prairie, Emergent Aquatic Vegetation. This indicates agreement on wetland description between classifications and/or generality in nomenclature. Proposed Wetland Classification Approach for Biological Assessment Appropriate consideration of the factors necessary to create homogenous sets for comparing biological condition requires the identification of wetland classes within ecological regions. A tiered and aggregated wetland classification system is presented here that is referenced to preliminary wetland ecoregions and cross-referenced to other classifications used in Florida. The proposed system is a product of several complementary efforts: a literature review on classification methods; cross-referencing of Florida wetland classifications; field trials and visits to typical wetland communities; and consultation with FDEP personnel associated with past efforts and current applications. 15

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Table 11. Florida Natural Areas Inventory inland freshwater wetland communities and classification cross-reference. FNAI SCS FLUCCS FWC NWI Palustrine Wet Flatlands Hydric Hammock 21-Swamp Hardwood 617 13 PFO6 Marl Prairie 16-Scrub Cypress 621, 641, 643 11 PEM, PFO2 Wet Flatwoods 6-7-N/S Florida Flatwoods 3 PFO4, PFO7 Wet Prairie 25-Freshwater Marsh, 23-Pitcher Plant Bog 310, 643 11 PEM Seepage Wetlands Baygall 22-Shrub Bog/Bay Swamp 611, 614 14 PFO3, PFO7 Seepage Slope 23-Pitcher Plant Bog, 12-Wetland Hardwood Hammock 310, 614, 643 11, 15 PEM, PSS Floodplain Wetlands Bottomland Forest 20-Bottomland Hardwood 615, 617, 623, 630 17 PFO1 Floodplain Forest 20-Bottomland Hardwood, 21-Swamp Hardwood 615, 617, 618, 619, 630 17 PFO1, PFO2 Floodplain Marsh 25-Freshwater Marsh 641, 643, 644 11 PEM, R2EM, L2EM, R4SB Floodplain Swamp 20-Bottomland Hardwood, 17-Cypress Swamp 613, 615, 621 17 PFO1, PFO2 Freshwater Tidal Swamp 20-Bottomland Hardwood 613, 615, 621, 623, 624 12 PFO6, PFO7 Slough 26-Slough 621 12 PFO2,PFO6 Strand Swamp 16-Scrub Cypress, 17-Cypress Swamp 621, 618, 619 12 PFO2 Swale 24-Sawgrass Marsh 641, 643 11 PEM Basin Wetlands Basin Marsh 25-Freshwater Marsh 641, 643, 644 11 PEM, PAB Basin Swamp 17-Cypress Swamp, 12-Wetland Hardwood Hammock 613, 616, 617, 621 13, 14 PFO6 Bog 22-Shrub Bog/Bay Swamp 310, 614, 618, 619, 630 15 PSS Depression Marsh 25-Freshwater Marsh 641, 644, 653 11 PEM, PAB Dome Swamp 17-Cypress Swamp, 12-Wetland Hardwood Hammock 613, 616, 621 12, 13, 14 PFO2, PFO3, PFO6 Lacustrine Flatwoods/Prairie/Marsh Lake 25-Freshwater Marsh 641, 643, 644 11 L2EM, PEM River Floodplain Lake/Swamp Lake 20-Bottomland Hardwood 615, 645 11, 17 R2AB, R3AB, L1AB, L2AB 16

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Table 12. Soil Conservation Service inland freshwater wetland communities and classification cross-reference. SCS FNAI FLUCCS FWC NWI 8 Cabbage Palm Flatwoods 624-Cypress-Pine-CabbagePalm 10 Cutthroat Seep 3 PEM,PSS 12 Wetland Hardwood Hammock Seepage Slope, Basin Swamp, Dome Swamp 617-Mixed Wetland Hardwood, 613-Gum Swamp 13 PFO1,PFO6 16 Scrub Cypress Strand Swamp, Marl Prairie 621-Cypress 12 PFO2 17 Cypress Swamp Dome Swamp, Floodplain Swamp, Strand Swamp, Basin Swamp 621-Cypress 12 PFO2,PFO6 20 Bottomland Hardwood Bottomland Forest, Floodplain Forest, Floodplain Swamp, Freshwater Tidal Swamp, River Floodplain Lake/Swamp Lake 615-Stream/Lake Swamp, 622-Pond Pine, 623A tlantic White Ceda r 17 PFO1, PFO6 21 Swamp Hardwood Hydric Hammock, Flooplain Forest 613-Gum Swamp, 618-Willow/Elderberry, 619-Exotic Wetland Hardwood, 623-Atlantic White Cedar, 624-Cypress-Pine-Cabbage Palm 13, 17 PFO1, PFO6 22 Shrub Bog, Bay Swamp Baygall, Bog 611-Bay Swamp, 614-Titi Swamp, 618-Willow/Elderberry, 619-Exotic Wetland Hardwood 14, 15 PFO3, PFO7 23 Pitcher Plant Bog Seepage Slope, Wet Prairie 643-Wet Prairie 11 PEM, PSS 24 Sawgrass Marsh Swale 641-Freshwater Marsh, 644-Emergent Aquatic Vegetation 11 PEM 25 Freshwater Marsh Basin Marsh, Depression Marsh, Floodplain Marsh, Wet Prairie, Flatwoods/Prairie/Marsh Lake 641-Freshwater Marsh, 643-Wet Prairie, 644-Emergent Aquatic Vegetation, 645-Submergent A quatic Vegetation, 653-Intermittent Ponds 11 PEM, R2AB, R2EM, R3AB, R4SB, L1AB, L2AB, L2EM, PAB3, PAB4, PSS 26 Slough Slough 616-Inland Ponds and Sloughs, 653-Intermittent Ponds, 646-Treeless Hydric Savanna 11, 15 PEM 6,7 N, S Florida Flatwoods Wet Flatwoods 625-Hydric Pine Flatwoods, 622-Pond Pine, 626-Hydric Pine Savanna, 646-Treeless Hydric Savanna, 627Slash Pine Swamp Forest 3 PFO4, PFO7 17

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18 Table 13. Florida Land-use, Cover and Forms inland fresh water wetland classes and classification cross-reference. FLUCCS FNAI SCS FWC NWI 610 Wetland Hardwood Forests 611 Bay Swamps Baygall 22-Shrub Bog/Bay Swamp 14 PFO3, PFO6 613 Gum Swamps Basin Swamp, Dome Swamp, Floodplain Swamp, Freshwater Tidal Swamp, River Floodplain/Swamp 21-Swamp Hardwood, 12-Wetland Hardwood Hammock 13 PFO1, PFO6 614 Titi Swamps Seepage Slope, Bog, Baygall 22-Shrub Bog/Bay Swamp 15 PFO1, PFO6 615 Stream and Lake Swamps (Bottomland) Bottomland Forest, Floodplain Forest, Floodplain Swamp, Freshwater Tidal Swamp, River Floodplain Lake/Swamp Lake 20-Bottomland Hardwood 17 616 Inland Ponds and Sloughs Basin Swamp, Dome Swamp 26-Slough 13 PSS, PFO1, PFO6 617 Mixed Wetland Hardwoods Hydric Hammock, Bottomland Forest, Floodplain Forest, Basin Swamp 12-Wetland Hardwood Hammock 13 PFO1, PFO6 618 Willow and Elderberry Bog, Slough, Floodplain Forest 22-Shrub Bog/Bay Swamp, 21-Swamp Hardwood 15 PSS, PFO1, PFO6 619 Exotic Wetland Hardwood Bog, Slough, Floodplain Forest 22-Shrub Bog/Bay Swamp, 21-Swamp Hardwood 15 PSS, PFO6 620 Wetland Coniferous Forests 621 Cypress Dome Swamp, Basin Swamp, Strand Swamp, Floodplain Swamp, Marl Prairie 16-Scrub Cypress, 17-Cypress Swamp 12 PFO2, PFO6 622 Pond Pine Wet Flatwoods 6-7-N/S Florida Flatwoods, 20-Bottomland Hardwood 3 PFO4, PFO7 623 Atlantic White Cedar Bottomland Forest, Freshwater Tidal Swamp 20-Bottomland Hardwood, 21-Swamp Hardwood 17 PFO4, PFO7 624 Cypress Pine Cabbage Palm Wet Flatwoods, Freshwater Tidal Swamp 8-Cabbage Palm Flatwoods, 21-Swamp Hardwood 17 PFO6, PFO7 625 Hydric Pine Flatwoods Wet Flatwoods 6-7-N/S Florida Flatwoods 3 PFO4 626 Hydric Pine Savanna Wet Flatwoods 7-S Florida Flatwoods 3 PFO4 627 Slash Pine Swamp Forest Wet Flatwoods 6-7-N/S Florida Flatwoods 3 PFO4 630 Wetland Forested Mixed 631 Wetland Scrub Bog, Wet Flatwoods, Bottomland Forest, Floodplain Forest, Flatw oods/Prairie/Marsh Lake 22-Shrub Bog/Bay Swamp 15 PSS 640 Vegetated Non-Forested Wetlands 641 Freshwater Marshes Basin Marsh, Depression Marsh, Swale, Marl Prairie, Flatwoods/Prairie/Marsh Lake 25-Freshwater Marsh, 24-Sawgrass Marsh 11 PEM, R2EM, R4SB, L2EM 643 Wet Prairies Wet Prairie, Marl Prairie, Seepage Slope, Swale, Basin Marsh, Flatwwoods/Prairie/Marsh Lake 23-Pitcher Plant Bog, 25-Freshwater Marsh 11 PEM, R2EM, R4SB, L2EM 644 Emergent Aquatic Vegetation Basin Marsh, Depression Marsh, Floodplain Marsh, Flatwoods/Prairie/Marsh Lake 25-Freshwater Marsh, 24-Sawgrass Marsh 11 R2AB, R3AB, L1AB, L2AB, PAB3, PAB4 645 Submerged Aquatic Vegetation River Floodplain Lake/Swamp Lak e 25-Freshwater Marsh 11 R2AB, R3AB, L1AB, L2AB, PAB3 646 Treeless Hydric Savanna Wet Flatwoods 26-Slough 3, 11 PFO4 653 Intermittent Ponds Depression Marsh 25-Freshwater Marsh, 26-Slough 11 PEM1, PUB4

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Table 14. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Service inland freshwater wetland habitats and classification cross-reference. FWC FNAI SCS FLUCCS NWI 11 Freshwater Marsh and Wet Prairie Basin Marsh, Depression Marsh, Wet Prairie, Floodplain Marsh, Swale, Marl Prairie, Seepage Slope, Flatwoods/Prairie/Marsh Lake, River Floodplain Lake/Swamp Lake 25-Freshwater Marsh, 24-Sawgrass Marsh, 26-Slough, 23-Pitcher Plant Bog 641, 643, 644, 645, 646, 653 L1AB, L2AB, L2EM, R1AB, R1EM, R2AB, R2EM, R3AB, R4SB, PAB, PEM 12 Cypress Swamp Dome Swamp, Slough, Strand Swamp, Freshwater Tidal Swamp 16-Scrub Cypress, 17-Cypress Swamp 621 PFO2 13 Hardwood Swamp Basin Swamp, Bottomland Forest, Hydric Hammock 12-Wetland Hardwood Hammock, 21-Swamp Hardwood 613, 616, 617 PFO6 14 Bay Swamp Baygall 22-Shrub Bog/Bay Swamp 611 PFO3, PFO7 15 Shrub Swamp Bog, Seepage Slope (Titi Bog), 22-Shrub Bog/Bay Swamp, 26-Slough 614, 618, 619, 631 PSS 17 Bottomland Hardwood Bottomland Forest, Floodplain Forest, Floodplain Swamp, River Floodplain Lake/Swamp Lake 20-Bottomland Hardwood, 21-Swamp Hardwood 615, 623, 624 PFO1 3 Pinelands Wet Flatwoods 6-7-N/S Florida Flatwoods, 10-Cutthroat Seeps 622, 625, 626, 627, 646 PFO4, PFO7 19

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Table 15. USFWS National Wetland Inventory inland freshwater wetland systems and classification cross-reference. NWI FNAI SCS FLUCCS FWC R2AB Riverine, Lower Perennial, Aquatic Bed 25-Freshwater Marsh 644, 645 11 R2EM Riverine, Lower Perennial, Emergent, non-persistent Floodplain Marsh 25-Freshwater Marsh 641, 643 11 R3AB Riverine, Upper Perennial, Aquatic Bed River Floodplain Lake/Swamp Lake 25-Freshwater Marsh 644, 645 11 R4SB Riverine, Intermittent, Streambed Floodplain Marsh 25-Freshwater Marsh 641, 643 11 L1AB Lacustrine, Limnetic, Aquatic Bed River Floodplain Lake/Swamp Lake 25-Freshwater Marsh 644, 645 11 L2AB Lacustrine, Littoral, Aquatic Bed River Floodplain Lake/Swamp Lake 25-Freshwater Marsh 644, 645 11 L2EM Lacustrine, Littoral, Emergent, non-persistent Floodplain Marsh, Flatwoods/Prairie/Marsh Lake 25-Freshwater Marsh 641, 643 11 PAB3 Palustrine, Aquatic Bed, Rooted Vascular Depression Marsh, Basin Marsh 25-Freshwater Marsh 644, 645 11 PAB4 Palustrine, Aquatic Bed, Floating Vascular Depression Marsh 25-Freshwater Marsh 644 11 PEM Palustrine, Emergent Depression Marsh, Basin Marsh, Floodplain Marsh, Wet Prairie, Marl Prairie, Seepage Slope, Swale, Flatwoods/Prairie/Marsh Lake 25-Freshwater Marsh, 24-Sawgrass Marsh, 23-Pitcher Plant Bog 641, 643, 653 11 PSS Palustrine, Scrub Shrub Bog, Seepage Slope 25-Freshwater Marsh, 23-Pitcher Plant Bog, 10-Cutthroat Seep 614, 616, 618, 619, 631 15 PFO1 Palustrine, Forested, Broad-Leaved Deciduous Bottomland Forest, Floodplain Forest, Floodplain Swamp 12-Wetland Hardwood Hammock, 21-Swamp Hardwood, 20-Bottomland Hardwood 613, 614, 615, 616, 617 17 PFO2 Palustrine, Forested, Needle-Leaved Deciduous Dome Swamp, Strand Swamp, Basin Swamp, Floodplain Forest, Floodplain Swamp, Slough, Marl Prairie 16-Cypress Scrub, 17-Cypress Swamp 621 12 PFO3 Palustrine, Forested, Broad-Leaved Evergreen Baygall, Dome Swamp 22-Shrub Bog/Bay Swamp 611 14 PFO4 Palustrine, Forested, Needle-Leaved Evergreen Wet Flatwoods 6-7-N/S Florida Flatwoods 622, 623, 625, 626, 627, 646 3 PFO6 Palustrine, Forested, Deciduous (mixed) Hydric Hammock, Slough, Basin Swamp, Dome Swamp, Freshwater Tidal Swamp 12-Wetland Hardwood Hammock, 21-Swamp Hardwood, 20-Bottomland Hardwood, 17-Cypress Swamp 611, 613, 614, 615, 616, 617, 619, 621, 624 13 PFO7 Palustrine, Forested, Evergreen (mixed) Wet Flatwoods, Baygall, Freshwater Tidal Swamp 6-7-N/S Florida Flatwoods, 22-Shrub Bog/Bay Swamp 622, 623, 624 14 20

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Table 16 Classification crosswalk summaries: (tot) number of cross-references per wetland class; (avg) mean number of cross-references per classification for each wetland class. FWC SCS NWI tot avg tot avg tot avg 11 Freshwater Marsh and Wet Prairie 30 7.5 10-Cutthroat Seep 5 1.3 R2AB Riverine, Lower Perennial, Aquatic Bed 4 1.0 12 Cypress Swamp 8 2.0 12-Wetland Hardwood Hammock 8 2.0 R2EM Riverine, Lower Perennial, Emergent, non-persistent 53 7 1. 13 Hardwood Swamp 9 2.3 16-Scrub Cypress 5 1.3 R3AB Riverine, Upper Perennial, Aquatic Bed 5 1.3 14 Bay Swamp 5 1.3 17-Cypress Swamp 7 1.8 R4SB Riverine, Intermittent, Streambed 5 1.3 15 Shrub Swamp 9 2.3 20-Bottomland Hardwood 10 2.5 L1AB Lacustrine, Limnetic, Aquatic Bed 5 1.3 17 Bottomland Hardwood 10 2.5 21-Swamp Hardwood 10 2.5 L2AB Lacustrine, Littoral, Aquatic Bed 5 1.3 3 Pinelands 10 2.5 22-Shrub Bog, Bay Swamp 9 2.3 L2EM Lacustrine, Littoral, Emergent, non-persistent 6 1.5 23-Pitcher Plant Bog 6 1.5 PAB3 Palustrine, Aquatic Bed, Rooted Vascular 6 1.5 number of wetland types: 24-Sawgrass Marsh 5 1.3 PAB4 Palustrine, Aquatic Bed, Floating Vascular 4 1.0 tot. no.of cross-references: 81 25-Freshwater Marsh 22 5.5 PEM Palustrine, Emergent 15 3.8 mean no. cross-references per type: 2.9 26-Slough 7 1.8 PSS Palustrine, Scrub Shrub 11 2.8 6-7-N, S Florida Flatwoods 4 1.0 PFO1 Palustrine, Forested, Broad-Leaved Deciduous 12 3.0 PFO2 Palustrine, Forested, Needle-Leaved Deciduous 11 2.8 number of wetland types: 12 PFO3 Palustrine, Forested, Broad-Leaved Evergreen 5 1.3 tot. no.of cross-references: 98 PFO4 Palustrine, Forested, Needle-Leaved Evergreen 9 2.3 mean no. cross-references per type: 2.0 PFO6 Palustrine, Forested, Deciduous (mixed) 19 4.8 PFO7 Palustrine, Forested, Evergreen (mixed) 9 2.3 number of wetland types: 17 tot. no.of cross-references: 136 mean no. cross-references per type: 2.0 21

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Table 16. continued. Classification crosswalk summaries: (tot) number of cross-references per wetland class; (avg) mean number of cross-references per classification for each wetland class. FNAI FLUCCS tot avg tot avg Hydric Hammock 4 1.0 611 Bay Swamps 5 1.3 Marl Prairie 6 1.5 613 Gum Swamps 10 2.5 Wet Flatwoods 5 1.3 614 Titi Swamps 7 1.8 Wet Prairie 6 1.5 615 Stream and Lake Swamps 7 1.8 Baygall 6 1.5 616 Inland Ponds and Sloughs 7 1.8 Seepage Slope 9 2.3 617 Mixed Wetland Hardwoods 8 2.0 Bottomland Forest 7 1.8 618 Willow and Elderberry 8 2.0 Floodplain Forest 10 2.5 619 Exotic Wetland Hardwood 8 2.0 Floodplain Marsh 9 2.3 621 Cypress 11 2.8 Floodplain Swamp 8 2.0 622 Pond Pine 6 1.5 Freshwater Tidal Swamp 9 2.3 623 Atlantic White Cedar 7 1.8 Slough 5 1.3 624 Cypress Pine Cabbage Palm 7 1.8 Strand Swamp 7 1.8 625 Hydric Pine Flatwoods 4 1.0 Swale 5 1.3 626 Hydric Pine Savanna 4 1.0 Basin Marsh 9 2.3 627 Slash Pine Swamp Forest 4 1.0 Basin Swamp 9 2.3 631 Wetland Scrub 9 2.3 Bog 8 2.0 641 Freshwater Marshes 12 3.0 Depression Marsh 7 1.8 643 Wet Prairies 11 2.8 Dome Swamp 11 2.8 644 Emergent Aquatic Vegetation 13 3.3 Flatwoods/Prairie/Marsh Lake 7 1.8 645 Submergent Aquatic Vegetation 8 2.0 River Floodplain Lake/Swamp Lake 9 2.3 646 Treeless Hydric Savanna 5 1.3 653 Intermittent Ponds 6 1.5 number of wetland types: 21 tot. no.of cross-references: 156 number of wetland types: 22 mean no. cross-references per type: 1.9 tot. no.of cross-references: 167 mean no. cross-references per type: 1.9 22

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Table 17. Florida Natural Areas Inventory crosswalk summary. no. cross-references per wetland class: FNAI SCS FLUCCS FWC NWI Hydric Hammock 1 1 1 1 Marl Prairie 1 3 1 2 Wet Flatwoods 1 1 2 Wet Prairie 2 2 1 1 Baygall 1 2 1 2 Seepage Slope 2 3 2 2 Bottomland Forest 1 4 1 1 Floodplain Forest 2 5 1 2 Floodplain Marsh 1 3 1 4 Floodplain Swamp 2 3 1 2 Freshwater Tidal Swamp 1 5 1 2 Slough 1 1 1 2 Strand Swamp 2 3 1 1 Swale 1 2 1 1 Basin Marsh 1 3 1 2 Basin Swamp 2 4 2 1 Bog 1 5 1 1 Depression Marsh 1 3 1 2 Dome Swamp 2 3 3 3 Flatwoods/Prairie/Marsh Lake 1 3 1 2 River Floodplain Lake/Swamp Lake 1 2 2 4 no. times class no. classes is cross-referenced: cross-referenced: 1 3 5 1 9 2 4 5 2 2 3 1 3 1 2 4 2 3 2 5 1 1 2 > 5 3 1 23

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Table 18. Soil Conservation Service crosswalk summary. no. cross-references per wetland class: SCS FNAI FLUCCS FWC NWI 10-Cutthroat Seep 1 1 2 12-Wetland Hardwood Hammock 3 2 1 2 16-Scrub Cypress 2 1 1 1 17-Cypress Swamp 4 1 1 1 20-Bottomland Hardwood 5 3 1 1 21-Swamp Hardwood 2 5 2 1 22-Shrub Bog, Bay Swamp 2 4 2 1 23-Pitcher Plant Bog 2 1 1 2 24-Sawgrass Marsh 1 2 1 1 25-Freshwater Marsh 5 5 1 11 26-Slough 1 3 2 1 6-7-N, S Florida Flatwoods 1 8 1 2 no. times class no. classes is cross-referenced: cross-referenced: 1 14 14 9 2 7 9 5 3 3 1 4 1 1 5 1 24

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Table 19. Florida Land-use, Cover and Forms crosswalk summary. no. cross-references per wetland class: FLUCCS FNAI SCS FWC NWI 611 Bay Swamps 1 1 1 2 613 Gum Swamps 5 2 1 2 614 Titi Swamps 3 1 1 2 615 Stream and Lake Swamps 5 1 1 616 Inland Ponds and Sloughs 2 1 1 3 617 Mixed Wetland Hardwoods 4 1 1 2 618 Willow and Elderberry 2 2 1 3 619 Exotic Wetland Hardwood 3 2 1 2 621 Cypress 6 2 1 2 622 Pond Pine 1 2 1 2 623 Atlantic White Cedar 2 2 1 2 624 Cypress Pine Cabbage Palm 2 2 1 2 625 Hydric Pine Flatwoods 1 1 1 1 626 Hydric Pine Savanna 1 1 1 1 627 Slash Pine Swamp Forest 1 1 1 1 631 Wetland Scrub 6 1 1 1 641 Freshwater Marshes 5 2 1 4 643 Wet Prairies 5 2 1 4 644 Emergent Aquatic Vegetation 4 2 1 6 645 Submergent Aquatic Vegetation 1 1 1 5 646 Treeless Hydric Savanna 1 1 2 1 653 Intermittent Ponds 1 2 1 2 no. times class no. classes is cross-referenced: cross-referenced: 1 5 2 2 2 2 4 3 5 3 6 1 2 2 4 5 1 1 1 5 3 1 1 > 5 1 1 25

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Table 20. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation crosswalk summary. no. cross-references per wetland class: FWC FNAI SCS FLUCCS NWI 11-Freshwater Marsh and Wet Prairie 9 4 6 11 12-Cypress Swamp 4 2 1 1 13-Hardwood Swamp 3 2 3 1 14-Bay Swamp 1 1 1 2 15-Shrub Swamp 2 2 4 1 17-Bottomland Hardwood 4 2 3 1 3-Pinelands 1 2 5 2 no. times class no. classes is cross-referenced: cross-referenced: 1 18 9 20 17 2 3 2 1 1 26

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Table 21. National Wetlands Inventory crosswalk summary. no. cross-references per wetland class: SCS FNAI SCS FLUCCS FWC R2AB Riverine, Lower Perennial, Aquatic Bed 1 1 R2EM Riverine, Lower Perennial, Emergent, non-persistent 1 1 2 1 R3AB Riverine, Upper Perennial, Aquatic Bed 1 1 2 1 R4SB Riverine, Intermittent, Streambed 1 1 2 1 L1AB Lacustrine, Limnetic, Aquatic Bed 1 1 2 1 L2AB Lacustrine, Littoral, Aquatic Bed 1 1 2 1 L2EM Lacustrine, Littoral, Emergent, non-persistent 2 1 2 1 PAB3 Palustrine, Aquatic Bed, Rooted Vascular 2 1 2 1 PAB4 Palustrine, Aquatic Bed, Floating Vascular 1 1 1 1 PEM Palustrine, Emergent 8 3 3 1 PSS Palustrine, Scrub Shrub 2 3 5 1 PFO1 Palustrine, Forested, Broad-Leaved Deciduous 3 3 5 1 PFO2 Palustrine, Forested, Needle-Leaved Deciduous 7 2 1 1 PFO3 Palustrine, Forested, Broad-Leaved Evergreen 2 1 1 1 PFO4 Palustrine, Forested, Needle-Leaved Evergreen 1 1 6 1 PFO6 Palustrine, Forested, Deciduous (mixed) 5 4 9 1 PFO7 Palustrine, Forested, Evergreen (mixed) 3 2 3 1 no. times class no. classes is cross-referenced: cross-referenced: 1 6 4 7 7 2 11 6 8 3 2 3 4 2 5 1 > 5 1 1 1 1 27

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The proposed classification for wetland bioassessments builds on commonalities between and key elements from prominent classifications (namely HGM, FNAI, and NWI). It is organized by landscape geomorphology (River, Depression, Lake, Slope, Flats) and dominant vegetative form (Forested, Herbaceous, Shrub) (Table 22). Additional resolution is provided through (subclass) descriptors: Hydroperiod (depth, duration and frequency of inundation); Primary Water Source (rainfall, surface or ground-water); and Soil Type (organic or mineral). Limited information on descriptors restricts their application. For example, very little is known about the hydropattern of isolated basin or depression wetlands. Referencing hydroperiod modifiers from NWI wetlands database may provide description. Inferences about hydrology can also be based on vegetative associations described in the literature and learned from the field. Both FNAI and SCS include plant community characteristics and descriptions of wetland hydroperiod. Vegetation associations further classify wetlands, either by cross-reference with other classifications or through use of inventories and descriptions provided by research (scientific and technical literature) and monitoring (State agency programs). Table 22. Proposed classification for biological assessment of Florida inland freshwater wetlands. 1. wetland is primarily forest 2 wetland is primarily herbaceous 3 wetland is shrub dominated Shrub-scrub 2 wetland is within stream channel or floodplain River Swamp wetland is an isolated depression Depression Swamp wetland is along a lake edge (permanent water >2 meters deep) Lake Swamp wetland located on sloped topography Strand / Seepage Swamp wetland associated with flat landscape; water source primarily precipitation Flatland Swamp 3 wetland is within a stream channel or floodplain River Marsh wetland is an isolated depression Depression marsh wetland is along a lake edge (permanent water >2 meters deep) Lake marsh wetland located on sloped topography with groundwater source Seepage Marsh wetland associated with flat landscape; water source primarily precipitation Wet Prairie Descriptors: Hydroperiod: Depth, duration, and frequency of inundation Primary water source: rainfall, surface water, groundwater Soil type: organic, mineral Plant community association 28

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Finally, wetland classes are partitioned into proposed wetland ecoregions (Panhandle, North, Central, South). Inventorying NWI wetland classes within 4 proposed wetland ecoregions reveals distributional variation across Florida. Distribution maps are presented in the wetland Regions report here trends are discussed in the context of wetland classes proposed for biological assessments. Twenty-two percent of the Panhandle Region is wetland; 35% of the South Florida Region is wetland; wetlands in the North and Central Regions cover 16% of the landscape. Generally, there is a trend of declining forested wetlands and increasing non-forested wetlands latitudinally from the Panhandle to South Florida. Deciduous-Forest wetlands are most abundant within the Panhandle Region (51%) followed by Needle-leaved-Evergreen-Forests (32%). Emergent wetlands account for less than 4% of the wetlands in the region. In the North Region, the Deciduous-Forest class is again the most common wetland (62%) but Emergent wetland area proportionally increased (13%). Evergreen-Forest classes (Broad and Needle-leaved together) account for 16% of wetlands in the region. In the Central Region, Emergent and Deciduous-Forest classes are equally represented, each about 40% of area wetlands. Evergreen-Forest wetlands decreased to about 10% of the regions wetlands. Shrub-Scrub classes in the Panhandle, North and Central Regions represent 7-9% of regional wetlands. In the South Florida Region, Emergent wetlands are prominent landscape features (61% of wetlands and 22% of landscape). Forested wetlands are less common (Deciduous and Evergreen-Forest classes account for 16% and 5% of area wetlands, respectively). Shrub-Scrub wetlands are more common in South Florida (17% of wetlands in the region). Based on regional differences in distribution and abundance of wetlands across Florida, modifiers and plant community descriptions should be used to generate greater resolution for prominent wetland classes in a landscape. In the Panhandle Region, water source and hydroperiod are likely to discriminate River Swamps into Bottomland and Floodplain Forests. In the South Region, modifiers are likely to discriminate Marshes into Seepage, Prairie or Emergent wetlands. Additional description to Palustrine Emergent Marshes may result from a partitioning of typical or mean annual flooding or water depth (e.g., Shallow and Deep-water). The 12 proposed wetland classes are compared with 5 classification networks to identify synonyms, generate descriptions and provide cross-reference (Table 23). Common nomenclature from the classification crosswalks includes: Bottomland, Floodplain, Dome, Basin, Wet Flatwoods, Strand, Slough, Seep, Marsh, Prairie and Bog. Dominant plant community associations commonly included in classifications are: cypress (needle-leaved deciduous), bay (broad-leaved evergreen), hardwood (mixed deciduous), and sawgrass. For forested wetlands, River Swamp had the greatest number of cross-references (21) and Seepage Swamp had the least (7). For Non-forested wetlands, River Marsh had the greatest number of cross-references (13); Wet Prairie and Seepage Bog each had 9. Groundwater influenced wetlands are unique enough communities to warrant specific consideration in all classifications. In general there is less conflict (greater certainty) among similar categories of Non-forested wetlands than for Forested wetlands (average number of cross-references 11 and 15, respectively). Generally NWI and FLUCCS classifications generated the greatest number of cross-references for proposed classes due both to generality of nomenclature 29

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Table 23. Classification cross-reference of proposed classes for biological assessment of inland freshwater wetlands in Florida. Forested wetlands: River Swamp FNAI: Bottomland Forest, Floodplain Forest, Floodplain Swamp, Freshwater Tidal Swamp, River Floodplain Swamp FLUCCS: 613-Gum Swamp, 615-Stream and Lake Swamp (Bottomland), 617-Mixed Wetland Hardwood, 621-Cypress, 623-Atlantic White Cedar, 624-Cypress-Pine-Cabbage Palm FWC: 12-Cypress, 13-Hardwood Swamp, 17-Bottomland Hardwood NWI: PFO1-Palustrine Forested Broad-leaved Deciduous, PFO2-Palustrine Forested Needle-leaved Deciduous, PFO6-Palustrine Forested Deciduous mixed, PFO7-Palustrine Forested Evergreen mixed SCS: 17-Cypress Swamp, 20-Bottomland Hardwood, 21-Swamp Hardwood Depression Swamp FNAI: Basin Swamp, Bog, Dome Swamp, Baygall FLUCCS: 611-Bay Swamp, 613-Gum Swamp, 617-Mixed Wetland Hardwood, 621-Cypress FWC: 12-Cypress, 13-Hardwood Swamp, 14-Bay Swamp NWI: PFO2-Palustrine Forested Needle-leaved Deciduous, PFO3-Palustrine Forested Broad-leaved Evergreen, PFO6-Palustrine Forested Deciduous mixed SCS: 17-Cypress Swamp, 22-Shrub Bog/Bay Swamp Lake Swamp FNAI: Swamp Lake, Basin Swamp, Bottomland Forest FLUCCS: 613-Gum Swamp, 615-Lake Swamp (Bottomland), Mixed Wetland Hardwood, 621-Cypress, 624-Cypress-Pine-Cabbage Palm FWC: 12-Cypress Swamp, 13-Hardwood Swamp, 17-Bottomland Hardwood NWI: PFO2-Palustrine Forested Needle-leaved Deciduous, PFO6-Palustrine Forested Deciduous mixed SCS: 17-Cypress Swamp, 21-Swamp Hardwoods Strand Swamp FNAI: Strand Swamp FLUCCS: 614-Titi Swamp, 617-Mixed Wetland Hardwood, 618-Willow and Elderberry, 619-Exotic Wetland Hardwood, 621-Cypress, 631-Wetland Scrub FWC: 12-Cypress Swamp, 13-Hardwood Swamp, 15-Shrub Swamp NWI: PFO2-Palustrine Forested Needle-leaved Deciduous, PFO6-Palustrine Forested Deciduous mixed SCS: 12-Wetland Hardwood Hammock, 16-Scrub Cypress, 17-Cypress Swamp Seepage Swamp FNAI: Baygall FLUCCS: 611-Bay Swamp FWC: 14-Bay Swamp NWI: PFO3-Palustrine Forested Broad-leaved Evergreen, PFO7-Palustrine Forested Evergreen mixed SCS: 10-Cutthroat Seep, 22-Shrub Bog/Bay Swamp Flatland Swamp FNAI: Hydric Hammock, Wet Flatwoods FLUCCS: 614-Titi Swamp, 616-Inland Ponds and Sloughs, 618-Willow and Elderberry, 619-Exotic Wetland Hardwood, 622-Pond Pine, 624-Cypress-Pine-Cabbage Palm, 625-Hydric Pine Flatwoods, 626-Hydric Pine Savanna, 627-Slash Pine Swamp Forest FWC: 13-Hardwood Swamp, 3-Pinelands NWI: PFO4-Palustrine Forested Needle-leaved Evergreen, PFO7-Palustrine Forested Evergreen mixed SCS: 6/7-Flatwoods 30

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Table 23 continued. Cross-reference of wetland types with proposed bioassessment classification. Non-forested wetlands : River Marsh FNAI: Floodplain Marsh FLUCCS: 641-Freshwater Marsh, 644-Emergent Aquatic Vegetation FWC: 11-Freshwater Marsh and Wet Prairie NWI: R2AB-Riverine Lower Perennial Aquatic Bed, R2EM-Riverine Lower Perennial Emergent Non-persistent, R3AB-Riverine Upper Perennial Aquatic Bed, R4SB-Riverine Intermittent Streambed, PAB3-Palustrine Aquatic Bed Rooted Vascular, PAB4-Palustrine Aquatic Bed Floating Vascular, PEM-Palustrine Emergent SCS: 25-Freshwater Marsh Depression Marsh FNAI: Basin Marsh, Bog, Depression Marsh FLUCCS: 641-Freshwater Marsh, 644-Emergent Aquatic Vegetation, 653-Intermittent Pond FWC: 11-Freshwater Marsh and Wet Prairie NWI: PAB3-Palustrine Aquatic Bed Rooted Vascular, PAB4-Palustrine Aquatic Bed Floating Vascular, PEM-Palustrine Emergent SCS: 25-Freshwater Marsh, 24-Sawgrass Marsh Lake Marsh FNAI: Flatwoods/Prairie/Marsh Lake, Basin Marsh FLUCCS: 641-Freshwater Marsh, 644-Emergent Aquatic Vegetation, 645-Submergent Aquatic Vegetation FWC: 11-Freshwater Marsh and Wet Prairie NWI: L1AB-Lacustrine Limnetic Aquatic Bed, L2AB-Lacustrine Littoral Aquatic Bed, L2EM-Lacustrine Littoral Emergent non-persistent, PAB3Palustrine Aquatic Bed Rooted Vascular, PAB4Palustrine Aquatic Bed Floating Vascular, PEM-Palustrine Emergent SCS: 25-Freshwater Marsh Seepage Bog FNAI: Swale, Slough, Seepage Slope FLUCCS: 641-Freshwater Marsh, 643-Wet Prairie FWC: 11-Freshwater Marsh and Wet Prairie NWI: PEM-Palustrine Emergent SCS: 10-Cutthroat Seep, 23-Pitcher Plant Bog Wetland Prairie FNAI: Wet Prairie, Marl Prairie FLUCCS: 643-Wet Prairie, 646-Treeles Hydric Savanna FWC: 11-Freshwater Marsh and Wet Prairie NWI: PEM-Palustrine Emergent SCS: 25-Freshwater Marsh, 26-Slough, 24-Sawgrass Marsh Shrub Scrub FNAI: Seepage Slope, Bog, Slough FLUCCS: 631-Wetland Scrub, 614-Titi Swamp, 616-Inland Pond and Slough, 618-Willow and Elderberry, 619-Exotic Wetland Hardwood FWC: 15-Shrub Swamp NWI: PSS-Palustrine Scrub Shrub SCS: Shrub Bog/Bay Swamp 31

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(NWI) and to different organizing foundations (FLUCCS). Approaches utilizing a combination of factors (hydrology, geomorphology and biology) result in descriptive and more consistent classifications than those developed for technological application. FNAI provides the most comprehensive descriptions for its communities, using species lists and typical hydroperiods (and other information) to classify biologically distinct wetlands organized by landscape position. SCS also provides ecosystem attributes but does not include hydrology or geomorphology as keying characters, resulting in less distinct community types. FLUCCS is not organized by landscape features, rather by dominant vegetation readily identifiable through remote sensing, resulting in nomenclature that is not descriptive for biological assessment. The NWI system first divides wetlands by landscape features followed by dominant vegetative form, but classification, while hierarchical, often lacks resolution for assessing biological condition and the nomenclature is not conducive to localities. FWC habitats were chosen based on imaging criteria and with only 7 wetland habitats is too aggregated for biological description. The wetland classification approach proposed here is a preliminary effort to group similar wetlands together for purposes of detecting biological condition. Considerations have been made to keep the system simple and user-friendly, but robust enough to generate a consistent wetland typology. Field studies are needed to test differences between 12 wetland classes in 4 regions across the State. Proposed classes and regions should be peer reviewed by agency personnel involved in past efforts and current programs. Literature Cited Brinson (1993) A hydrogeomorphic classification for wetlands. Technical Report WRP-DE-4, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Waterways Experimental Station, Vicksburg, MS. Brown, M.T. and E.M. Starnes. 1983. A wetlands study of Seminole County: Identification, evaluation, and preparation of development standards and guidelines. University of Florida Center for Wetlands Technical Report 41, Seminole County and Florida Department of Community Affairs. 284 pp. Brooks, R.P., C.A. Cole, D.H. Wardrop, L. Bishel-Machung, D.J. Prosser, D.A.Campbell, and M.T. Gaudette. 1996. Wetlands, Wildlife, and Watershed Assessment Techniques for Evaluation and Restoration. Vol. 1: Evaluating and implementing watershed approaches for protecting Pennsylvanias wetlands. Cowardin, L.M., V. Carter, F.C. Golet and E.T. Laroe. 1979. Classification of Wetlands and Deepwater Habitats of the United States. FWS/OBS-79/31. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service / Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C. 103 pp. Florida Department of Transportation. 1976/1985. Florida Land Use, Cover and Forms Classification System. 2 nd edition, Procedure no. 550-010-001-a. State Topographic Bureau, Thematic Mapping Section. 32

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Florida Natural Areas Inventory. 1990. Guide to the natural communities of Florida. Prepared by FNAI and Florida Department of Natural Resources, Tallahassee FL. 111 pp. Karr, J.R. and E.W. Chu. 1999. Restoring life in running waters better biological monitoring. Island Press. 206 pp. Lake County Water Authority. Our Vital Wetlands. Informational brochure made in conjunction with St. Johns River Water Management District, Taveres, FL. 28 pp. Mitsch, W.J. and J.G. Gosselink. 1993. Wetlands, 2 nd ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, NY. 722 pp. The Nature Conservancy. 1997. An alliance level classification of the vegetation of the Southeastern United States. Report to Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit and the National Gap Analysis Program. Trott, K.L., M.M. Davis, L.M. Grant, J.W. Beever, R.K. Evans, B.E. Gunsalus, S.L. Krupa, C.V. Noble and K.J. Liudahl. 1997. DRAFT Technical Report WRP-DE-XX. Peninsular Florida herbaceous depressional wetlands hydrogeomorphic (HGM) regional guidebook. Prepared for U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS. 33










Table 23. Classification cross-reference of proposed classes for biological assessment of inland
freshwater wetlands in Florida.

Forested wetlands:
River Swamp
FNAI: Bottomland Forest, Floodplain Forest, Floodplain Swamp, Freshwater Tidal Swamp, River
Floodplain Swamp
FLUCCS: 613-Gum Swamp, 615-Stream and Lake Swamp (Bottomland), 617-Mixed Wetland
Hardwood, 621-Cypress, 623-Atlantic White Cedar, 624-Cypress-Pine-Cabbage Palm
FWC: 12-Cypress, 13-Hardwood Swamp, 17-Bottomland Hardwood
NWI: PFO1-Palustrine Forested Broad-leaved Deciduous, PFO2-Palustrine Forested Needle-leaved
Deciduous, PFO6-Palustrine Forested Deciduous mixed, PFO7-Palustrine Forested Evergreen
mixed
SCS: 17-Cypress Swamp, 20-Bottomland Hardwood, 21-Swamp Hardwood
Depression Swamp
FNAI: Basin Swamp, Bog, Dome Swamp, Baygall
FLUCCS: 611-Bay Swamp, 613-Gum Swamp, 617-Mixed Wetland Hardwood, 621-Cypress
FWC: 12-Cypress, 13-Hardwood Swamp, 14-Bay Swamp
NWI: PFO2-Palustrine Forested Needle-leaved Deciduous, PFO3-Palustrine Forested Broad-leaved
Evergreen, PFO6-Palustrine Forested Deciduous mixed
SCS: 17-Cypress Swamp, 22-Shrub Bog/Bay Swamp
Lake Swamp
FNAI: Swamp Lake, Basin Swamp, Bottomland Forest
FLUCCS: 613-Gum Swamp, 615-Lake Swamp (Bottomland), Mixed Wetland Hardwood, 621-
Cypress, 624-Cypress-Pine-Cabbage Palm
FWC: 12-Cypress Swamp, 13-Hardwood Swamp, 17-Bottomland Hardwood
NWI: PFO2-Palustrine Forested Needle-leaved Deciduous, PFO6-Palustrine Forested Deciduous
mixed
SCS: 17-Cypress Swamp, 21-Swamp Hardwoods
Strand Swamp
FNAI: Strand Swamp
FLUCCS: 614-Titi Swamp, 617-Mixed Wetland Hardwood, 618-Willow and Elderberry, 619-Exotic
Wetland Hardwood, 621-Cypress, 631-Wetland Scrub
FWC: 12-Cypress Swamp, 13-Hardwood Swamp, 15-Shrub Swamp
NWI: PFO2-Palustrine Forested Needle-leaved Deciduous, PFO6-Palustrine Forested Deciduous
mixed
SCS: 12-Wetland Hardwood Hammock, 16-Scrub Cypress, 17-Cypress Swamp
Seepage Swamp
FNAI: Baygall
FLUCCS: 611-Bay Swamp
FWC: 14-Bay Swamp
NWI: PFO3-Palustrine Forested Broad-leaved Evergreen, PFO7-Palustrine Forested Evergreen mixed
SCS: 10-Cutthroat Seep, 22-Shrub Bog/Bay Swamp
Flatland Swamp
FNAI: Hydric Hammock, Wet Flatwoods
FLUCCS: 614-Titi Swamp, 616-Inland Ponds and Sloughs, 618-Willow and Elderberry, 619-Exotic
Wetland Hardwood, 622-Pond Pine, 624-Cypress-Pine-Cabbage Palm, 625-Hydric Pine
Flatwoods, 626-Hydric Pine Savanna, 627-Slash Pine Swamp Forest
FWC: 13-Hardwood Swamp, 3-Pinelands
NWI: PFO4-Palustrine Forested Needle-leaved Evergreen, PFO7-Palustrine Forested Evergreen mixed
SCS: 6/7-Flatwoods










Table 3. Soil Conservation Service (1981) classification of inland freshwater wetland
communities.


10 Cutthroat Seeps
12 Wetland Hardwood Hammocks
16 Scrub Cypress
17 Cypress Swamp
20 Bottomland Hardwoods
21 Swamp Hardwoods
22 Shrub Bogs Bay Swamps
23 Pitcher Plant Bogs
24 Sawgrass Marsh
25 Freshwater Marsh
26 Slough

1 Flatwood categories (6-South, 7-North, and 8-Cabbage Palm) may also include wetland
communities dependent upon soil type, elevation, proximity to water table, or wetland
definition.



Florida Department of Transportation Florida Land-use, Cover and Forms
Classification System

FLUCCS was developed in 1976 (and modified in 1985) by the Thematic Mapping Section
of FDOT to provide a uniform and flexible classification system for use by State agencies. Its
model was the US Geological Survey classification system (USGS Circular 671). Classes
reflect information obtainable from aerial photographic interpretation and satellite
multispectral image analysis. There are 4 hierarchical levels, based on photography scale and
image resolution (Level 1 scale 1:500,000 or greater; Level IV scale 1:24,000 or less).

Wetlands (Level I code 600) are considered areas where the water table is at, near or above
the land surface for a significant portion of most years supporting aquatic or hydrophytic
vegetation. Twenty-two inland freshwater wetland communities (Level III) are presently
described within 5 classes (Level II): 610 Wetland Hardwood Forests; 620 Wetland
Coniferous Forest; 630 Wetland Forest Mixed (Scrub); 640 Vegetated Non-Forested
Wetlands; and 650 Intermittent Ponds (Table 4). Level IV classifications are indicated for
freshwater marshes (641) if 66% or more of the community is comprised of a single species
(sawgrass, cattail, spike rush, maidencane, dog fennel/low marsh grasses, arrowroot, giant
cutgrass, shrub/vine). Brief community descriptions provide typical plant species and limited
density estimates information used in interpretation and analysis of aerial photography and
multi-spectral imaging. Information on wetland geomorphology, hydroperiod, soils, or
landscape associations is not included.









Table 16. Classification crosswalk summaries (total and average number of
repeat references).......... ..................... ..... ......... ..21

Table 17. FN AI cross alk sum m ary.......... .. ............. ................. ........................23

Table 18. SCS cross alk sum m ary.......... .. ............ .................. .......................... 24

Table 19. FLUCCS crosswalk summary........... .................................25

Table 20. FWC crosswalk summary........ ..... ............................ .............26

Table 21. NW I cross alk sum m ary................. ............. ............................ 27

Table 22. Proposed classification for biological assessment of Florida
inland freshwater wetlands .......... ... .........................28

Table 23. Classification cross-reference of proposed wetland
bioassessment classes in Florida. ......... ..... .......... .................. 30











Hydrogeomorphic Wetland Classification U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

Developed through the Waterways Experiment Station, the hydrogeomorphic classification
approach for wetlands emphasizes external and independent controls that maintain ecosystem
functions (Brinson 1993). Thus maintenance of wetland functions is inferred from provision
of local hydrogeomorphic controls. Function refers to processes that are necessary for the
self-maintenance of an ecosystem. Because biological integrity addresses both community
structure (species composition) and ecosystem processes (function), several wetland
classification developed for biological assessments have been based on the HGM functional
approach.

Three determinants are used to define wetland class:
1) geomorphology (topographic position and landscape association);
2) water source (precipitation, surface water, groundwater); and
3) hydrodynamics (direction and strength of flow).

First order HGM classes are discriminated by geomorphic settings (Riverine, Depressional,
Lake Fringe, Slope, and Flats), and further categorized by dominant hydrologic aspects.
Synonyms and descriptions from other classifications are compared with HGM regional
classes (Table 9). Regional subclasses can be identified to discriminate classes based on
climatic, geographic and other external functions. HGM classification, however, is not
designed to discriminate vegetative associations and species compositions. Thus, at the
subclass level community descriptions can be employed from other classification systems
and based on field inventories to further subdivide wetland types.

Development of ecoregions is necessary for consideration of biogeographic aspects such as
species distributions. HGM models for Florida, developed by The U.S. Army Corps of
Engineers Waterways Experiment Station, divide Florida into 2 regions: Panhandle and
Peninsula. Each regional class is subdivided into Herbaceous and Forested subclasses. As an
example, the HGM Peninsular-Florida-Depression wetland class is compared with other
classifications (Table 10).

The coarse resolution of HGM functional classes does not distinguish all wetland ecosystem
types within a region, and all HGM classes are not necessarily represented within regions or
States. Five geomorphic settings may not be distinct, or it may not be possible to identify
dominant hydrologic characteristics. In Florida, the HGM class Flats is not readily
discriminated from Depression or Slope classes, and several water sources may exist for a
wetland type. The classification is designed as a generic approach that defines broad
functional classes according to independent physical conditions that determine wetland
attributes. As such, the HGM approach provides a uniform and scientific organizing
framework for wetland classification.










Table 17. Florida Natural Areas Inventory crosswalk summary.
no. cross-references
per wetland class:
FNAI SCS FLUCCS FWC NWI


Hydric
Hammock
Marl Prairie
Wet
Flatwoods
Wet Prairie
Baygall
Seepage
Slope
Bottomland
Forest
Floodplain
Forest
Floodplain
Marsh
Floodplain
Swamp
Freshwater Tidal Swamp
Slough
Strand
Swamp
Swale
Basin
Marsh
Basin
Swamp
Bog
Depression
Marsh
Dome
Swamp
Flatwoods/Prairie/Marsh Lake
River Floodplain Lake/Swamp
Lake


1 1 1


3 1
1


4 1 1

5 1 2

3 1 4

3 1 2


4 2 1


3 3 3


no. times class

is cross-referenced:


no.
classes
cross-referenced:


1 3 5 1 9
2 4 5 2 2
3 1 3 1 2
4 2 3 2










Table 2. Florida Natural Areas Inventory inland freshwater wetland communities and synonymy
(FNAI 1990).

Palustrine
Wet Flatlands
Hydric Hammock (synonyms: wetland hardwood hammock, wet hammock)
Marl Prairie (synonyms: scrub cypress, marl flat, dwarf cypress savanna, sedge flat,
spikerush marsh)
Wet Flatwoods (synonyms: low flatwoods, moist pine barren, hydric flatwoods, pond-pine
flatwoods, pocosin, cabbage palm/pine savanna/flatwoods)
Wet Prairie (synonyms: sand marsh, savanna, coastal savanna, coastal prairie, pitcher plant
prairie)
Seepage Wetlands
Baygall (synonyms: seepage swamp, bayhead, bay swamp)
Seepage Slope (synonyms: herb bog, pitcher plant bog, grass-sedge bog, shrub bog, seep)
Floodplain Wetlands
Bottomland Forest (synonyms: bottomland hardwoods, river/stream bottom, lowland
hardwood forest, mesic hammock)
Floodplain Forest (synonyms: bottomland hardwoods, seasonally flooded basins/flats, oak-
gum-cypress, river terrace)
Floodplain Marsh (synonyms: river marsh)
Floodplain Swamp (synonyms: river swamp, bottomland hardwoods, seasonally flooded
basins/flats, oak-gum-cypress, cypress-tupelo, slough, oxbow, backwater swamp)
Freshwater Tidal Swamp (synonyms: tidewater swamp, rivermouth swamp, s\\ ctban
swamp, tupelo-redbay)
Slough
Strand Swamp (synonyms: cypress strand)
Swale (synonyms: slough, river of grass, glades)
Basin Wetlands
Basin Marsh (synonyms: prairie, freshwater marsh)
Basin Swamp (synonyms: gum swamp, bay, bayhead, swamp)
Bog (synonyms: bog swamp, pocosins, evergreen shrub bogs, wet scrub/shrub, peat islands)
Depression Marsh (synonyms: isolated wetland, flatwoods pond, St. John's wort pond,
pineland depression, ephemeral pond, seasonal marsh)
Dome Swamp (synonyms: isolated wetland, cypress dome/pond, gum pond, bayhead,
cypress gall)
Lacustrine
Flatwoods / Prairie / Marsh Lake (synonyms: flatwoods pond, ephemeral pond, grass pond,
St. John's wort pond, pineland depression, swale, prairie pond)
River Floodplain Lake and Swamp Lake (synonyms: cypress pond, gum pond, backwater
pond, blackwater pond)












Table 21. National Wetlands Inventory crosswalk summary.
no. cross-references
per wetland class:
SCS FNAI SCS FLUCCS FWC

R2AB Riverine, Lower 1 1
Perennial, Aquatic Bed
R2EM Riverine, Lower Perennial, Emergent, non- 1 1 2 1
persistent
R3AB Riverine, Upper 1 1 2 1
Perennial, Aquatic Bed
R4SB Riverine, Intermittent, 1 1 2 1
Streambed
L1AB Lacustrine, Limnetic, 1 1 2 1
Aquatic Bed
L2AB Lacustrine, Littoral, 1 1 2 1
Aquatic Bed
L2EM Lacustrine, Littoral, Emergent, non-persistent 2 1 2 1
PAB3 Palustrine, Aquatic Bed, 2 1 2 1
Rooted Vascular
PAB4 Palustrine, Aquatic Bed, 1 1 1 1
Floating Vascular
PEM Palustrine, Emergent 8 3 3 1
PSS Palustrine, Scrub Shrub 2 3 5 1
PFO1 Palustrine, Forested, Broad-Leaved 3 3 5 1
Deciduous
PFO2 Palustrine, Forested, Needle-Leaved 7 2 1 1
Deciduous
PFO3 Palustrine, Forested, Broad-Leaved 2 1 1 1
Evergreen
PFO4 Palustrine, Forested, Needle-Leaved 1 1 6 1
Evergreen
PFO6 Palustrine, Forested, 5 4 9 1
Deciduous (mixed)
PFO7 Palustrine, Forested, 3 2 3 1
Evergreen (mixed)

no. times class no. classes
is cross- cross-
referenced: referenced:
1 6 4 7 7
2 11 6 8
3 2 3
4 2
5 1
>5 1 1 1 1












Table 8. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) classifications
(Cowardin et al 1979) and percent areas for Florida inland freshwater wetlands.
%
wetland % state
NWI code Wetland class description area area


R 2 AB Riverine, Lower Perennial, Aquatic Bed
R 2 EM Riverine, Lower Perennial, Emergent, non-persistent
R 3 AB Riverine, Upper Perennial, Aquatic Bed
R 4 SB Riverine, Intermittent, Streambed
L 1 AB Lacustrine, Limnetic, Aquatic Bed
L 2 AB Lacustrine, Littoral, Aquatic Bed
L 2 EM Lacustrine, Littoral, Emergent, non-persistent
P AB 3 Palustrine, Aquatic Bed, Rooted Vascular
P AB 4 Palustrine, Aquatic Bed, Floating Vascular
P EM Palustrine, Emergent
P SS Palustrine, Scrub Shrub
P FO 1 Palustrine, Forested, Broad-Leaved Deciduous
P FO 2 Palustrine, Forested, Needle-Leaved Deciduous
P FO 3 Palustrine, Forested, Broad-Leaved Evergreen
P FO 4 Palustrine, Forested, Needle-Leaved Evergreen
P FO 6 Palustrine, Forested, Deciduous (mixed)
P FO 7 Palustrine, Forested, Evergreen (mixed)



% NWI inland freshwater wetlands
% upland
area
% other (estuarine) wetlands and deepwater habitats
state total
area


0.07 0.01
0.00 0.00
0.00 0.00
0.00 0.00
0.04 0.01
1.28 0.29
0.03 0.01
0.60 0.14
0.15 0.03
34.17 7.71
11.18 2.52
5.74 1.30
8.58 1.94
4.92 1.11
10.78 2.43
0.01 0.00
22.44 5.06
100.00

22.55
63.00

14.44
100.00











Table 4. Florida Land-use, Cover and Forms classification of inland freshwater wetlands (FDOT
1976/1985).

610 Wetland Hardwood Forests
611 Bay Swamps
613 Gum Swamps
614 Titi Swamps
615 Stream and Lake Swamps (Bottomland)
616 Inland Ponds and Sloughs
617 Mixed Wetland Hardwoods
618 Willow and Elderberry
619 Exotic Wetland Hardwood
620 Wetland Coniferous Forests
621 Cypress
622 Pond Pine
623 Atlantic White Cedar
624 Cypress Pine Cabbage Palm
625 Hydric Pine Flatwoods
626 Hydric Pine Savanna
627 Slash Pine Swamp Forest
630 Wetland Forested Mixed
631 Wetland Scrub
640 Vegetated Non-Forested Wetlands
641 Freshwater Marshes
643 Wet Prairies
644 -Emergent Aquatic Vegetation
645 Submergent Aquatic Vegetation
646 Treeless Hydric Savanna
653 Intermittent Ponds




Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission Florida Land Cover

Formerly the Florida Game and Freshwater Fish Commission, FWC developed a
classification for a Statewide land-cover map developed from Landsat Thematic Mapper data
(Kautz et al 1993). Twenty-two land-cover types were identified and mapped for Florida
(35% vegetated uplands, 24% wetlands, 42% disturbed). Inland freshwater wetland habitats
were classed into 6 land-cover types: Freshwater Marsh/Wet Prairie, Cypress Swamp,
Hardwood Swamp, Bay Swamp, Shrub Swamp, and Bottomland Hardwood Swamp (Table
5). Freshwater Marsh and Wet Prairie, occurring mostly in South Florida, were the most
abundant wetland vegetation type (38% of wetlands, 7% State land area). Bay Swamp was
difficult to distinguish from Hardwood Swamp. Some "natural" community/land-cover types
may be interpreted as disturbed land-cover types and vice-versa. Cox et al (1994) provide
brief wetland plant community descriptions and tabulations of area cover for wetland types
by county.









Wetland Classification


Successful biological monitoring depends on judicious classification: selection of too few
classes may overlook important characteristics; too many may unnecessarily complicate
development of biocriteria (Karr and Chu 1999). Classifications are used to describe and
organize ecosystems and land cover into distinct categories useful to land managers, planners
and scientists, according to specific agency goals. The goal of classification for biological
assessment is to group ecosystems with similar biological attributes and biological response
to human disturbance. Because biological assessments measure ecosystem health relative to
reference conditions, classification must distinguish local environments and address regional
variability.

Geography, landscape position, geomorphology, hydropattern, climate, physical/chemical
variables, and biogeographic processes determine the structure and function of local
ecosystems. Aspects of these driving forces are incorporated in most hierarchical
classification systems, while others are based on plant community structure and species
composition. Regardless of the number or resolution of classes, at all levels of classification
there is overlap because of common species distributions and intergrading physical
environmental conditions.

Several classification schemes have been developed to describe Florida's inland freshwater
wetlands (Wharton et al. 1977, Cowardin et al 1979, FDOT 1979/1985, SCS 1981, Ewel and
Kushlan 1990, FDNR 1988, FNAI 1990, Brinson 1993, Trott et al 1997, TNC 1997).
Descriptions of each are given below, followed by crosswalk comparisons between
classifications. Although there is considerable overlap between key characteristics and
wetland classes, each classification is goal specific. A common approach orders Florida's
inland freshwater wetlands into three broad groups (Table 1): wetlands associated with
flowing water; wetlands adjacent to ponds and lakes; and depressional or stillwater wetlands.
General descriptions, review of plant community associations, and cross-reference of State
classifications provide foundations for the development of wetland bioassessment classes.

Here a proposed classification for biological assessment of Florida inland freshwater
wetlands is described. It is a tiered approach using broad landscape categories (River,
Depression, Lake, Strand, Seepage and Flatland) subdivided into forested and non-forested
classes. Proposed wetland ecoregions partition the State and further specify wetland classes.
Modifiers (hydropattern, water source, and soil type) lend additional resolution.
Classification approaches to Florida wetlands are described, and five prominent systems are
cross-referenced to generate a framework for common nomenclature and to utilize the best
components of existing systems. The proposed classification uses aspects of HGM and FNAI
classification structure. Twelve proposed classes are then compared with other descriptions
for inland freshwater wetlands to provide cross-reference with other classifications used in
Florida. Classification crosswalks are provided in an HTML format for additional utility.









Finally, wetland classes are partitioned into proposed wetland ecoregions (Panhandle, North,
Central, South). Inventorying NWI wetland classes within 4 proposed wetland ecoregions
reveals distributional variation across Florida. Distribution maps are presented in the wetland
Regions report here trends are discussed in the context of wetland classes proposed for
biological assessments. Twenty-two percent of the Panhandle Region is wetland; 35% of the
South Florida Region is wetland; wetlands in the North and Central Regions cover 16% of
the landscape. Generally, there is a trend of declining forested wetlands and increasing non-
forested wetlands latitudinally from the Panhandle to South Florida.

Deciduous-Forest wetlands are most abundant within the Panhandle Region (51%) followed
by Needle-leaved-Evergreen-Forests (32%). Emergent wetlands account for less than 4% of
the wetlands in the region. In the North Region, the Deciduous-Forest class is again the most
common wetland (62%) but Emergent wetland area proportionally increased (13%).
Evergreen-Forest classes (Broad and Needle-leaved together) account for 16% of wetlands in
the region. In the Central Region, Emergent and Deciduous-Forest classes are equally
represented, each about 40% of area wetlands. Evergreen-Forest wetlands decreased to about
10% of the region's wetlands. Shrub-Scrub classes in the Panhandle, North and Central
Regions represent 7-9% of regional wetlands. In the South Florida Region, Emergent
wetlands are prominent landscape features (61% of wetlands and 22% of landscape).
Forested wetlands are less common (Deciduous and Evergreen-Forest classes account for
16% and 5% of area wetlands, respectively). Shrub-Scrub wetlands are more common in
South Florida (17% of wetlands in the region).

Based on regional differences in distribution and abundance of wetlands across Florida,
modifiers and plant community descriptions should be used to generate greater resolution for
prominent wetland classes in a landscape. In the Panhandle Region, water source and
hydroperiod are likely to discriminate River Swamps into Bottomland and Floodplain
Forests. In the South Region, modifiers are likely to discriminate Marshes into Seepage,
Prairie or Emergent wetlands. Additional description to Palustrine Emergent Marshes may
result from a partitioning of typical or mean annual flooding or water depth (e.g., Shallow
and Deep-water).

The 12 proposed wetland classes are compared with 5 classification networks to identify
synonyms, generate descriptions and provide cross-reference (Table 23). Common
nomenclature from the classification crosswalks includes: Bottomland, Floodplain, Dome,
Basin, Wet Flatwoods, Strand, Slough, Seep, Marsh, Prairie and Bog. Dominant plant
community associations commonly included in classifications are: cypress (needle-leaved
deciduous), bay (broad-leaved evergreen), hardwood (mixed deciduous), and sawgrass.

For forested wetlands, River Swamp had the greatest number of cross-references (21) and
Seepage Swamp had the least (7). For Non-forested wetlands, River Marsh had the greatest
number of cross-references (13); Wet Prairie and Seepage Bog each had 9. Groundwater
influenced wetlands are unique enough communities to warrant specific consideration in all
classifications. In general there is less conflict (greater certainty) among similar categories of
Non-forested wetlands than for Forested wetlands (average number of cross-references 11
and 15, respectively). Generally NWI and FLUCCS classifications generated the greatest
number of cross-references for proposed classes due both to generality of nomenclature









Table of Contents


L ist o f T ab le s ............. ................... ............................. ............. iii

Wetland Classification Background ............................................................. 1

Florida Natural Areas Inventory.................................................... ........ 3

Soil Conservation Service.............. .. .................. ............. ................... 3

Florida Land-use, Cover and Forms Classification System........... ........ ............... 5

Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission.......................... ...... ......... 6

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service -National Wetlands Inventory........... ................... 7

Other Classification Systems ......................... ........................ ......... 11
Ecosystems of Florida (Myer and Ewel 1990) ........... ................................ 11
The Nature Conservancy................... ................................................ 11
Lake County Water Authority/Seminole County......................................... 11

Hydrogeomorphic Wetland Classification....................................................... 12

Classification Crosswalks ............. ............... ........................ 14

Proposed Wetland Classification Approach for Biological Assessment.......................15

Literature Cited..................................... ............................. .......... 32












Table 15. USFWS National Wetland Inventory inland freshwater wetland systems and classification cross-reference.

NWI FNAI SCS FLUCCS FWC


R2AB Riverine, Lower Perennial, Aquatic Bed 25-Freshwater Marsh 644, 645 11
R2EM Riverine, Lower Perennial, Emergent, non-persistent Floodplain Marsh 25-Freshwater Marsh 641,643 11
R3AB Riverine, Upper Perennial, Aquatic Bed River Floodplain Lake/Swamp Lake 25-Freshwater Marsh 644, 645 11
R4SB Riverine, Intermittent, Streambed Floodplain Marsh 25-Freshwater Marsh 641,643 11
L1AB Lacustrine, Limnetic, Aquatic Bed River Floodplain Lake/Swamp Lake 25-Freshwater Marsh 644, 645 11
L2AB Lacustrine, Littoral, Aquatic Bed River Floodplain Lake/Swamp Lake 25-Freshwater Marsh 644, 645 11

L2EM Lacustrine, Littoral, Emergent, non-persistent FloodplainM Marsh 25-Freshwater Marsh 41,643 11
Flatwoods/PrAB3 Palustrine, Aquatic Bed, Rooted Vascular expression Marsh, Basin Marsh 5-Freshwater Marsh 44,64 11
PAB4 Palustrine, Aquatic Bed, Floating Vascular Depression Marsh, Basin Marsh 25-Freshwater Marsh 644645 11
PAB4 Palustrine, Aquatic Bed, Floating Vascular Depression Marsh 25-Freshwater Marsh 644 11
Depression Marsh, Basin Marsh, 25-Freshwater Marsh, 24-
PEM Palustrine, Emergent Floodplain Marsh, Wet Prairie, Marl Sawgass r 41,643,653 11
Sawgrass Marsh, 23-Pitcher 641,643, 653 11
Prairie, Seepage Slope, Swale, Plant Bog
Flatwoods/Prairie/Marsh Lake _
25-Freshwater Marsh, 23-
PSS Palustrine, Scrub Shrub Bog, Seepage Slope Pitcher Plant Bog, 10- 3 61 8 15
Cutthroat Seep19,631
12-Wetland Hardwood
PF01 Palustrine, Forested, Broad-Leaved Deciduous Bottomland Forest, Floodplain Forest, Hammock, 21-Swamp 13, 614, 615, 17
Floodplain Swamp Hardwood, 20-Bottomland 16,617
Hardwood
Dome Swamp, Strand Swamp, Basin 6-Cyress Scrub, 17
PFO2 Palustrine, Forested, Needle-Leaved Deciduous Swamp, Floodplain Forest, Floodplain Cypress wamp 621 2
Swamp, Slough, Marl Prairie sswap
PFO3 Palustrine, Forested, Broad-Leaved Evergreen Baygall, Dome Swamp 22-Shrub Bog/Bay Swamp 611 14

PFO4 Palustrine, Forested, Needle-Leaved Evergreen Wet Flatwoods 6-7-N/S Florida Flatwoods 622,62, 625, 3
626,627, 646
12-Wetland Hardwood
Hydric Hammock, Slough, Basin Hammock, 21-Swamp 611,613, 614,
PFO6 Palustrine, Forested, Deciduous (mixed) Swamp, Dome Swamp, Freshwater Hardwood, 20-Bottomland 615, 616, 617, 13
Tidal Swamp Hardwood, 17-Cypress 619,621,624
Swamp _
PFO7 Palustrine, Forested, Evergreen (mixed) e Flatwoods, Baygall, Freshwater 6-7-N/S Florida Flatwoods, 22623624 14
PF07 Palustrine, ForestedEvren([Tidal Swamp 22-Shrub Bog/Bay Swamp 6












Table 13. Florida Land-use, Cover and Forms inland freshwater wetland classes and classification cross-reference.

FLUCCS FNAI SCS FWC NWI
10 Wetland Hardwood Forests
611 Bay Swamps Baygall 22-Shrub Bog/Bay Swamp 14 PF03, PF06
Basin Swamp, Dome Swamp, Floodplain Swamp, 21-Swamp Hardwood, 12-Wetland Hardwood
613 Gum Swamps Freshwater Tidal Swamp, River Hammock 13 PF01,PF06
Floodplain/Swamp
614 Titi Swamps Seepage Slope, Bog, Baygall 22-Shrub Bog/Bay Swamp 15 PF01, PF06
615 Stream and Lake Swamps Bottomland Forest, Floodplain Forest, Floodplain
(Bottomland) Swamp, Freshwater Tidal Swamp, River 20-Bottomland Hardwood 17
(Bottomland)Floodplain Lake/Swamp Lake
616 Inland Ponds and Sloughs Basin Swamp, Dome Swamp 6-Slough 13 PSS, PFO1, PF06

617 Mixed Wetland Hardwoods Hydric Hammock, Bottomland Forest, Floodplain 2-Wetland Hardwood Hammock 13 PF01, PF06
Forest, Basin Swamp
618 Willow and Elderberry Bog, Slough, Floodplain Forest 2-Shrub Bog/Bay Swamp, 21-Swamp 15 PSS, PF1, PF06
Hardwood
619 Exotic Wetland Hardwood Bog, Slough, Floodplain Forest 2-Shrub Bog/Bay Swamp, 21-Swamp 15 PSS, PF06
___________________Hardwood
620 Wetland Coniferous Forests

621 Cypress Dome Swamp, Basin Swamp, Strand Swamp, 16-Scrub Cypress, 17-Cypress Swamp 12 F02, PF06
621-CypressFloodplain Swamp, Marl Prairie
622 Pond Pine Wet Flatwoods 6-7-N/S Florida Flatwoods, 20-Bottomland 3 PFO4, PFO7
Hardwood
623 Atlantic White Cedar Bottomland Forest, Freshwater Tidal Swamp 0-Bottomland Hardwood, 21-Swamp 1 PF04, PF07
_______________________________ Hardwood
624 Cypress Pine Cabbage Palm et Flatwoods, Freshwater Tidal Swamp -Cabbage Palm Flatwoods, 21-Swamp 17 PF6, PF07
_______~____________*_______~ ~Hardwood
625 Hydric Pine Flatwoods et Flatwoods 6-7-N/S Florida Flatwoods 3 PF04
626 Hydric Pine Savanna et Flatwoods 7-S Florida Flatwoods 3 PF04
627 Slash Pine Swamp Forest et Flatwoods 6-7-N/S Florida Flatwoods 3 PF04
630 Wetland Forested Mixed

631 Wetland Scrub Bog, Wet Flatwoods, Bottomland Forest 2-Shrub Bog/Bay Swamp 15 PSS
Floodplain Forest, Flatwoods/Prairie/Marsh Lake
640 Vegetated Non-Forested Wetlands

641 Freshwater Marshes Basin Marsh, Depression Marsh, Swale, Marl 5-Freshwater Marsh, 24-Sawgrass Marsh 11 PEMR2EM, R4SB,
Prairie, Flatwoods/Prairie/Marsh Lake L2EM
643 Wet Prairies et Prairie, Marl Prairie, Seepage Slope, Swale, 23-Pitcher Plant Bog, 25-Freshwater Marsh 11 EM, R2EM, R4SB,
Basin Marsh, Flatwwoods/Prairie/Marsh Lake L2EM
644 Emergent Aquatic Vegetation ai Mar Ma plain 5-Freshwater Marsh, 24-Sawgrass Marsh 11 2B,RAB, AB,
Marsh, Flatwoods/Prairie/Marsh Lake _2AB, PAB3, PAB4
R2AB, R3AB, L1AB,
645 Submerged Aquatic Vegetation River Floodplain Lake/Swamp Lake 25-Freshwater Marsh 11 L2AB, RAB, ,
2AB, PAB3
646 Treeless Hydric Savanna Wet Flatwoods 26-Slough 3, 11 PF04
653 Intermittent Ponds Depression Marsh 25-Freshwater Marsh, 26-Slough 11 PEM1, PUB4











Table 10. Comparison of wetland classification nomenclature with HGM Peninsular-
Florida-Depression wetland class (adapted from Trott et al. 1997).


Classification System

Herbaceous-Depression
FNAI

SCS
FLUCCS

FWC
NWI

Forest-Depression
FNAI


SCS

FLUCCS


FWC


NWI


Code Wetland (Community) Types


Depression Marsh
Basin Marsh
25 Freshwater Marsh
641 Freshwater Marshes
644 Emergent Aquatic Vegetation
11 Freshwater Marsh and Wet Prairie
PEM Palustrine-Emergent Wetland


Dome Swamp
Basin Swamp
Bog
17 Cypress Swamp
22 Shrub Bogs, Bay Swamps
616 Inland Ponds and Sloughs
621 Cypress
613 Gum Swamps
12 Cypress Swamp
13 Hardwood Swamp
15 Shrub Swamp
PFO Palustrine-Forested Wetland


Classification Crosswalks

State and Federal wetland classifications are cross-referenced, comparing wetland types and
descriptions between systems. An effort was made to be inclusive rather than restrictive in
the comparisons. Therefore, wetland types from different classification approaches with
similar keying characters were linked as well as wetland types that had possible associations
based on broad and general descriptions or limited information. Wetland nomenclature was
'best fit' to corresponding wetlands named in other classifications. Two outcomes came of
this: a single class or community type often fit more than one wetland description in another
system; and some cross-references although weak were more similar than dissimilar. In
addition, some ecosystem types only marginally met generalized wetland criteria but were
included to provide cross-reference to like ecosystems identified in other classifications as
wetland (partial characterizations included descriptions of hydrophytes, hydric soils,
hydroperiods, and landscape position).










Table 23 continued. Cross-reference of wetland types with proposed bioassessment classification.

Non-forested wetlands:
River Marsh
FNAI: Floodplain Marsh
FLUCCS: 641-Freshwater Marsh, 644-Emergent Aquatic Vegetation
FWC: 11-Freshwater Marsh and Wet Prairie
NWI: R2AB-Riverine Lower Perennial Aquatic Bed, R2EM-Riverine Lower Perennial Emergent Non-
persistent, R3AB-Riverine Upper Perennial Aquatic Bed, R4SB-Riverine Intermittent Streambed,
PAB3-Palustrine Aquatic Bed Rooted Vascular, PAB4-Palustrine Aquatic Bed Floating Vascular,
PEM-Palustrine Emergent
SCS: 25-Freshwater Marsh
Depression Marsh
FNAI: Basin Marsh, Bog, Depression Marsh
FLUCCS: 641-Freshwater Marsh, 644-Emergent Aquatic Vegetation, 653-Intermittent Pond
FWC: 11-Freshwater Marsh and Wet Prairie
NWI: PAB3-Palustrine Aquatic Bed Rooted Vascular, PAB4-Palustrine Aquatic Bed Floating
Vascular, PEM-Palustrine Emergent
SCS: 25-Freshwater Marsh, 24-Sawgrass Marsh
Lake Marsh
FNAI: Flatwoods/Prairie/Marsh Lake, Basin Marsh
FLUCCS: 641-Freshwater Marsh, 644-Emergent Aquatic Vegetation, 645-Submergent Aquatic
Vegetation
FWC: 11-Freshwater Marsh and Wet Prairie
NWI: L1AB-Lacustrine Limnetic Aquatic Bed, L2AB-Lacustrine Littoral Aquatic Bed, L2EM-
Lacustrine Littoral Emergent non-persistent, PAB3- Palustrine Aquatic Bed Rooted Vascular,
PAB4- Palustrine Aquatic Bed Floating Vascular, PEM-Palustrine Emergent
SCS: 25-Freshwater Marsh
Seepage Bog
FNAI: Swale, Slough, Seepage Slope
FLUCCS: 641-Freshwater Marsh, 643-Wet Prairie
FWC: 11-Freshwater Marsh and Wet Prairie
NWI: PEM-Palustrine Emergent
SCS: 10-Cutthroat Seep, 23-Pitcher Plant Bog
Wetland Prairie
FNAI: Wet Prairie, Marl Prairie
FLUCCS: 643-Wet Prairie, 646-Treeles Hydric Savanna
FWC: 11-Freshwater Marsh and Wet Prairie
NWI: PEM-Palustrine Emergent
SCS: 25-Freshwater Marsh, 26-Slough, 24-Sawgrass Marsh
Shrub Scrub
FNAI: Seepage Slope, Bog, Slough
FLUCCS: 631-Wetland Scrub, 614-Titi Swamp, 616-Inland Pond and Slough, 618-Willow and
Elderberry, 619-Exotic Wetland Hardwood
FWC: 15-Shrub Swamp
NWI: PSS-Palustrine Scrub Shrub
SCS: Shrub Bog/Bay Swamp













List of Tables

Table 1. General characteristics for 3 broad categories of inland freshwater
w wetlands in Florida ............ ... .............. .. .......... ................. 2

Table 2 FNAI inland freshwater wetland communities and synonymy...................... 4

Table 3. SCS inland freshwater wetland communities..................................... 5

Table 4. FLUCCS inland freshwater wetland codes and nomenclature...................... 6

Table 5. FWC inland freshwater wetland habitats and percent statewide
areas ................... ...................................... ..... .. 7

Table 6. NWI hierarchy of selected inland freshwater wetland types
represented in Florida ................. .................................. 8

Table 7. Water regime modifiers describing NWI wetland and deepwater
habitats ................... ................................... .. ... ... 9

Table 8. Percent Statewide area for NWI inland freshwater wetland
system s ............. ................... ........................... .......... 10

Table 9. HGM (hydrogeomorphology) determinants of wetland function..... ............. 13

Table 10. HGM Peninsular Florida Depression wetland class comparison ................. 14

Table 11. Classification cross-reference of FNAI inland freshwater wetland
com m unities.............. .. ............... .. .......... .......... 16

Table 12. Classification cross-reference of SCS inland freshwater wetland
communities....... ... ........ ....... .............. 17

Table 13. Classification cross-reference of FLUCCS inland freshwater
w etland classes ..................................................... ............. 18

Table 14. Classification cross-reference of FWC inland freshwater wetland
habitats ................... ............... .................. ... ....... 19

Table 15. Classification cross-reference of NWI inland freshwater wetland
system s................... ...................................... .........20









Table 7. National Wetland Inventory water regime modifiers used in classification and mapping of
Florida wetland and deepwater habitats (i.e., hydroperiod) (Cowardin et al 1979).


A Temporarily Flooded surface water present for brief periods during growing season, but water
table usually lies well below soil surface.

B Saturated substrate saturated at or near surface during growing season, but surface water is
seldom present.

C Seasonally Flooded surface water present for extended periods, especially early in growing
season, often absent near end; water table often near, at, or above surface.

D Seasonally Flooded / Well Drained
E Seasonally Flooded / Saturated

F Semipermanently Flooded surface water persists throughout growing season in most years;
water table very near, at, or above surface.

G Intermittently Exposed surface water present throughout year, except in drought years.

H Permanently Flooded surface water always present; vegetation is obligate, hydrophytic.

J Intermittently Flooded exposed substrates with surface water periodically present; do not
necessarily have hydric/wetland soils.

K Artificially Flooded amount and duration of surface water controlled by human constructions.

Combined water regime modifiers:
W Intermittently Flooded / Temporary
Y Saturated / Semipermanent / Seasonal
Z Intermittently Exposed / Permanent




NWI identifies 17 classes of inland freshwater wetlands in Florida covering 23% of the
landscape (Table 8) (10 Palustrine, 4 Riverine, and 3 Lacustrine). Within Palustrine systems,
Forest subsystems in total account for 53% of State wetlands, followed by the Emergent class
(34%) and Scrub-Shrub class (11%). Riverine and Lacustrine wetland classes account for
less than 3% of State wetland area, but were included here to enable cross-reference with
other classification descriptions of Emergent and Aquatic-Bed vegetation associations.
Distributional variation of NWI classes within the 4 proposed wetland regions of Florida is
discussed later in the context of bioassessment classes.









Table 5. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission habitat-community classifications
and percent areas for Florida inland freshwater wetland types.
habitat wetand habitat / % wetland % State
code community type area area

11 Freshwater marsh and wet prairie 38.17 6.88
12 Cypress swamp 22.57 4.07
13 Hardwood swamp 26.63 4.80
14 Bay swamp 2.22 0.40
15 Shrub swamp 9.01 1.62
17 Bottomland hardwoods 1.40 0.25

% totals 100.00 18.03





U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Wetlands Inventory

This classification for wetland and deepwater habitats of the United States (Cowardin et al
1979) defines wetlands by plants (hydrophytes), soils hydricc soils) and frequency of
flooding. It is hierarchical (Table 6), with the highest level, System, defining general hydro-
geomorphic or chemical factors (wetland systems include Riverine, Lacustrine, Palustrine).
Subsystems define landscape position (Riverine has 3 Lower/Upper Perennial and
Intermittent; Lacustrine has 2 Limnetic and Littoral; Palustrine has no subsystem). Within
Subsystems, Classes identify substrate, flooding regime (hydropattern), or vegetation form.
Florida wetland NWI classes are: Aquatic Bed (dominated by submergent and floating
vegetation); Emergent (dominated by emergent herbaceous angiosperms), Scrub-Shrub
(dominated by shrubs and small trees); and Forested (tree dominated). Subclass partitions are
based on vegetation life form (rooted/floating vascular plants; persistent/non-persistent
plants; deciduous/evergreen; needle-leaved/broad-leaved). Only Palustrine Forested classes
in Florida have subclasses. The lowest level classification category, subordinate to Subclass,
is the Dominance type, defined by dominant plant species and determined by percent area
cover.

Palustrine systems include all nontidal wetlands (salinity below 0.5 ppt) dominated by trees,
shrubs, or persistent emergents or nonvegetated systems less than 8 ha or a low water depth
not exceeding 2m. Representative of the majority wetland types, the Palustrine system
includes wetlands situated shoreward of lakes and river channels, on floodplains, in isolated
catchments, or on slopes. Wetlands classified within Riverine and Lacustrine systems only
include open water classes of Aquatic Bed and Emergent non-persistent vegetation.

Several modifiers are used to more fully describe wetlands and deepwater habitats: Water
Regime, Water Chemistry, Soil, and Human Actions. The water regime modifiers have
specific utility for wetland characterization, describing the depth, duration and frequency in









It follows that the resolution of cross-references made here is coarse with varying degrees of
reliability. Crosswalks are designed to: 1) facilitate comparisons between goal specific
classification approaches; 2) identify common nomenclature; 3) relate wetland typology to
State databases; 4) utilize organizational and descriptive strengths of existing methods; and
5) provide a framework for wetland regionalization and classifications necessary for
biological assessments. Inland freshwater wetlands from 5 Florida classifications are
compared:

FNAI (1990) Guide to the Natural Communities of Florida (Table 11);
SCS (1981) 26 Ecological Communities of Florida (Table 12)
FDOT (1976/1985) Florida Land-use, Cover and Forms Classification (Table 13)
FWC Florida Landcover (Kautz et al 1993) (Table 14)
USFWS National Wetlands Inventory (Cowardin et al 1979) (Table 15).

An HTML formatted database links classification nomenclature. This allows users to quickly
identify wetland synonyms and provides cross-reference for common approaches and the
proposed wetland bioassessment classification.

Because each classification approach was designed within specific agency goals, no cross-
references are uniform. General trends are evident (Table 16). Total number of possible
cross-references increased (from 80 to 160) as the number of classes increased within a
classification system (from 7 to 22). Mean number of cross-references per wetland type
decreased with increasing number of classes (between 2 and 3 references per class). Tables
17-21 identify frequency and numbers of cross-references for each classification. Wetlands
with high numbers of cross-references include: FWC-Freshwater Marsh and Wet Prairie,
Bottomland Hardwood, Pinelands; SCS-Bottomland Hardwood, Swamp Hardwood,
Freshwater Marsh; NWI-Emergent, Scrub Shrub, Broad-leaved Deciduous, Needle-leaved
Deciduous, Forested-mixed (19); FNAI-Floodplain Forest, Dome Swamp; and FLUCCS-
Cypress, Freshwater Marsh, Wet Prairie, Emergent Aquatic Vegetation. This indicates
agreement on wetland description between classifications and/or generality in nomenclature.


Proposed Wetland Classification Approach for Biological Assessment

Appropriate consideration of the factors necessary to create homogenous sets for comparing
biological condition requires the identification of wetland classes within ecological regions.
A tiered and aggregated wetland classification system is presented here that is referenced to
preliminary wetland ecoregions and cross-referenced to other classifications used in Florida.
The proposed system is a product of several complementary efforts: a literature review on
classification methods; cross-referencing of Florida wetland classifications; field trials and
visits to typical wetland communities; and consultation with FDEP personnel associated with
past efforts and current applications.














Table 11. Florida Natural Areas Inventory inland freshwater wetland communities and classification cross-reference.

FNAI SCS FLUCCS FWC NWI
Palustrine
Wet Flatlands
Hydric Hammock 21-Swamp Hardwood 317 13 PF06
Marl Prairie 16-Scrub Cypress 621,641,643 11 PEM, PF02
Wet Flatwoods 6-7-N/S Florida Flatwoods 3 PF04, PF07
Wet Prairie 25-Freshwater Marsh, 23-Pitcher Plant Bog 310,643 11 PEM
Seepage Wetlands
Baygall 22-Shrub Bog/Bay Swamp 611,614 14 PF03, PF07

Seepage Slope 23-Pitcher Plant Bog, 12-Wetland Hardwood 310,614,643 11,15 PEM, PSS
Seepe S e Hammock
Floodplain Wetlands
Bottomland Forest 20-Bottomland Hardwood 315,617,623, 630 17 PF01
Floodplain Forest 20-Bottomland Hardwood, 21-Swamp Hardwood 315, 617, 618, 619, 630 17 PF01, PF02
Floodplain Marsh 25-Freshwater Marsh 641,643, 644 11 PEM, R2EM, L2EM, R4SB
Floodplain Swamp 20-Bottomland Hardwood, 17-Cypress Swamp 313,615,621 17 PF01, PF02
Freshwater Tidal Swamp 20-Bottomland Hardwood 313, 615, 621, 623, 624 12 PF06, PF07
gh u6-S26-Slough 21 12 PF02, PF06
Strand Swamp 16-Scrub Cypress, 17-Cypress Swamp 321, 618, 619 12 PF02
Swale 24-Sawgrass Marsh 341, 643 11 PEM
Basin Wetlands
Basin Marsh 25-Freshwater Marsh 341,643, 644 11 PEM, PAB

Basin Swamp 17-Cypress Swamp, 12-Wetland Hardwood 613,616, 617,621 13, PF06
Sammock13,_616, 617, 621 13, 14 =FO6
Hammock
Bog 22-Shrub Bog/Bay Swamp 310, 614, 618, 619, 630 15 PSS
Depression Marsh 25-Freshwater Marsh 341,644, 653 11 PEM, PAB

Dome Swamp 17-Cypress Swamp, 12-Wetland Hardwood 613,616,621 12,13,14 PF02,PF03,PF06
Slammock_ 13,616, 621 12, 13, 14 _FO2, PFO3, PFO6
Hammock
Lacustrine
Flatwoods/Prairie/Marsh Lake 25-Freshwater Marsh 341,643, 644 11 L2EM, PEM
River Floodplain Lake/Swamp Lake 20-Bottomland Hardwood 615, 645 11,17 R2AB, R3AB, L1AB, L2AB









(NWI) and to different organizing foundations (FLUCCS). Approaches utilizing a
combination of factors (hydrology, geomorphology and biology) result in descriptive and
more consistent classifications than those developed for technological application.

FNAI provides the most comprehensive descriptions for its communities, using species lists
and typical hydroperiods (and other information) to classify biologically distinct wetlands
organized by landscape position. SCS also provides ecosystem attributes but does not include
hydrology or geomorphology as keying characters, resulting in less distinct community
types. FLUCCS is not organized by landscape features, rather by dominant vegetation readily
identifiable through remote sensing, resulting in nomenclature that is not descriptive for
biological assessment. The NWI system first divides wetlands by landscape features followed
by dominant vegetative form, but classification, while hierarchical, often lacks resolution for
assessing biological condition and the nomenclature is not conducive to localities. FWC
habitats were chosen based on imaging criteria and with only 7 wetland habitats is too
aggregated for biological description.

The wetland classification approach proposed here is a preliminary effort to group similar
wetlands together for purposes of detecting biological condition. Considerations have
been made to keep the system simple and user-friendly, but robust enough to generate a
consistent wetland typology. Field studies are needed to test differences between 12 wetland
classes in 4 regions across the State. Proposed classes and regions should be peer reviewed
by agency personnel involved in past efforts and current programs.



Literature Cited


Brinson (1993) A hydrogeomorphic classification for wetlands. Technical Report WRP-DE-4, U.S.
Army Corps of Engineers Waterways Experimental Station, Vicksburg, MS.

Brown, M.T. and E.M. States. 1983. A wetlands study of Seminole County: Identification,
evaluation, and preparation of development standards and guidelines. University of Florida
Center for Wetlands Technical Report 41, Seminole County and Florida Department of
Community Affairs. 284 pp.

Brooks, R.P., C.A. Cole, D.H. Wardrop, L. Bishel-Machung, D.J. Prosser, D.A.Campbell, and M.T.
Gaudette. 1996. Wetlands, Wildlife, and Watershed Assessment Techniques for Evaluation and
Restoration. Vol. 1: Evaluating and implementing watershed approaches for protecting
Pennsylvania's wetlands.

Cowardin, L.M., V. Carter, F.C. Golet and E.T. Laroe. 1979. Classification of Wetlands and
Deepwater Habitats of the United States. FWS/OBS-79/31. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service /
Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C. 103 pp.

Florida Department of Transportation. 1976/1985. Florida Land Use, Cover and Forms
Classification System. 2nd edition, Procedure no. 550-010-001-a. State Topographic Bureau,
Thematic Mapping Section.














Table 1. Comparisons, general characteristics and plant community associations compared for 3 broad categories of inland freshwater
wetlands: a) flowing water, b) lake fringe and c) basin, depression wetland types (adapted from Erwin, Doherty, Brown, Best 1997).


General Type Abstracted from FNAI/ FDNR FLUCFCS Other Synonyms General Characteristics
Ecosystems of Florida

Flowing water River (stream) swamps; Bottomland forest, 615 stream and lake swamps; Swamp forest, swamp Forested wetlands within stream or river floodplains
wetlands blackwater floodplain floodplain forest, 616 inland ponds and sloughs; hardwoods, bottomland generally consist of a wide variety of tree species including
forest blackwater stream, 617 mixed wetland hardwoods, backwater cypress, blackgum, ash, elm, some oaks, sugar berry, maple,
seepage stream, strand, hardwoods; 630 wetland swamps cabbage palm, sweet gum, hickories.
slough forested mixed

Lake fringe Lake fringe swamps River floodplain lake, 615 stream and lake swamps Lake fringe swamp, lake Forested wetlands on fringe of lakes; species include
wetlands swamp lake fringe forest cypress, blackgum, ash, elm, some oaks, sugar berry, maple,
cabbage palm, sweet gum, hickories; wet tolerant species
such as cypress, blackgum and ash found in deeper zone;
transitional species commonly landward of the land/water
interface.

Lake fringe marshes Flatwood/prairie/marsh any 640-series freshwater Lake marsh, lake fringe Herbaceous emergent vegetation within littoral zone of lake
wetlands, especially 641 marsh, lake littoral zone (rushes, bulrushes, beak rushes, fuirena, pickerel weed), or
freshwater marshes and 644 fringing lake border within high water levels (maidencane,
emergent aquatic vegetation blue maidencane, sedges, composites.

Stillwater, basin Cypress ponds/cypress Cypress dome or basin 621 cypress; 613 gum Cypress swamp, cypress Cypress and gum swamps are very similar in characteristics
or depression strands, cypress/gum swamp, gum swamp, swamps; 624 cypress-pine- gum swamp, cypress-gum- and species composition with a shift in dominant species
wetlands swamps cypress/gum slough, cabbage palm bay swamp driven primarily by slight differences in fire frequency and
swale or strand hydropattern. Dominant species include cypress, blackgum,
loblolly bay, dahoon holly, sweet magnolias and maple.

Bay swamps Baygall 611 bay swamps Seepage swamps, Bay swamps are generally dominated by loblolly bay and
bayheads, sandhill bog sweet magnolia and maple with some red bay mixed with
maple, with cypress and blackgum in deeper portions.

Mixed hardwood swamps Bottomland forest 617 mixed wetland Swamp forest, wetland Forested wetlands composed of a large variety of
hardwoods; 630 wetland hardwood hammocks, hardwoods with varying degrees of tolerance to hydric
forested mixed freshwater swamp forest conditions. Common species include red maple, oaks, bays,
cypress, black gum, sweet gum, ash, hickory and pines.

Flatwoods/depression Wet flatwoods, wet Any 640 series freshwater Hydric flatwood marshes, Several common types of depression marshes exist.
marshes prairie, depression wetlands, especially 641 pine savannahs, marshes, Although most have a mixture of herbs and grasses, a few
marsh freshwater marshes; 643 wet herbaceous wetlands, species generally dominate (maidencane, pickerel weed,
prairie; 644 emergent aquatic freshwater marshes arrowhead, arrowroot, needlerush, bullrush, sawgrass and
vegetation cattail).












Table 19. Florida Land-use, Cover and Forms crosswalk summary.


no. cross-references
per wetland class:
FNAI SCS FWC NWI


611 Bay
Swamps
613- Gum
Swamps
614- Titi
Swamps
615 Stream and Lake Swamps
616 Inland Ponds and Sloughs
617 Mixed Wetland Hardwoods
618 Willow and Elderberry
619 Exotic Wetland Hardwood
621 Cypress
622- Pond
Pine
623 Atlantic White Cedar
624 Cypress Pine Cabbage
Palm
625 Hydric Pine Flatwoods
626 Hydric Pine Savanna
627 Slash Pine Swamp Forest
631 Wetland
Scrub
641 Freshwater Marshes
643 Wet
Prairies
644 Emergent Aquatic Vegetation
645 Submergent Aquatic
Vegetation
646 Treeless Hydric Savanna
653 Intermittent Ponds

no. times class
is cross-referenced:


1 1 1 2

5 2 1 2

3 1 1 2


no. classes
cross-
referenced:
2 2 2
3 5
1 2 2
1 1 1
3 1 1
1 1


FLUCCS


I











Florida Natural Areas Inventory. 1990. Guide to the natural communities of Florida. Prepared by
FNAI and Florida Department of Natural Resources, Tallahassee FL. 111 pp.

Karr, J.R. and E.W. Chu. 1999. Restoring life in running waters better biological monitoring. Island
Press. 206 pp.

Lake County Water Authority. Our Vital Wetlands. Informational brochure made in conjunction with
St. Johns River Water Management District, Taveres, FL. 28 pp.

Mitsch, W.J. and J.G. Gosselink. 1993. Wetlands, 2nd ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, NY. 722 pp.

The Nature Conservancy. 1997. An alliance level classification of the vegetation of the Southeastern
United States. Report to Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit and the National Gap
Analysis Program.

Trott, K.L., M.M. Davis, L.M. Grant, J.W. Beever, R.K. Evans, B.E. Gunsalus, S.L. Krupa, C.V.
Noble and K.J. Liudahl. 1997. DRAFT Technical Report WRP-DE-XX. Peninsular Florida
herbaceous depressional wetlands hydrogeomorphic (HGM) regional guidebook. Prepared for
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS.