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Brick properties, types, and process : report's notes
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00004272/00001
 Material Information
Title: Brick properties, types, and process : report's notes
Physical Description: 5p.
Language: English
Creator: Fraga, Robert
Publisher: College of Architecure, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, FL
Publication Date: nd
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General Note: UF AFA historic preservation document 75
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Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution.
System ID: AA00004272:00001

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Bibliography
        Page 2
    Main
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
Full Text






BRICK PROPERTIES TYPES AND PROCESS.
REPORT tS NOTES
ROBERT FRAGA AE 681
















BIBLIOGRAPHY

PRINCIPALS AND PRACTICES OF HEAVY CONSTRUCTION.
R. C. SMITH PRENTICE HALL INC. 1967 CHAP.14 PAG. 256-262
MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION.
R. C. SMITH MCGRAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY 1966

* NOTES FROM MATERIALS AND METHODS AND FROM EXISTING REPORT ON
THE PRESERVATION LABRARY.

OTHER AVAILABLE REFERENCES ON THE SUBJECT&


CONSTRUCTION: PRINCIPALS MATERIALS AND METHODS.
JOHN L SCHMIDT 1972

CONSTRUCTION: MATERILLS AND PROCESSES
DON A. WATSON, 1972

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION
WHITNEY C. HUNTINGTON 1965








TYPES OF CLAYS.

A) SURFACE CLAYS
B) SALES
C) FIRECLAYS

SURFACE CLAYS. POUND TEAR THE SURFACE OF THE EARTH.

SHARES. THESE ARE CLAYS THAT HAVE BEEN SUBMITTED TO HIGH
-PRESSURES AND HAVE BECOME RELATIVELY HARD.
FIRECLATS. THEIR LIOST IMPORTANT CHARACTERISTIC IS THEIR ABILITY
TO WITHSTAND HIGH TEMPERATURES.

COMPONENTS OF CLAY. SILICA, ALUMINA WITH lMETALIC OXIDES AND
OTHER INGRIDIF TS.

JMARNUACTORIN G PROCESS.
A) MIt\ING ANtD STORAGE OF THE RAW I.ATERIAL.
B) PREPARII~r THE RAW LIATERIAL.
C) FORI-TING THE UNTIS
D) DRYING
E) BURNING AND COOLING
F) DRAWING AND STORAGE OF PRODUCT.

BRICK TYPES AND PROCESS.

BRICKS. MuOST BRICKS ARE COMPOSED OF INORGANIC MATERIALS ( NON-

LLETALIC) HARDENED OR BURNED BY HEAT OR CHEMICAL ACTION

CLASSES OP BRICK.
A) ADOBE RICK
B) KILN BURl ED BRICK
C) AiiD LIME BRICK
D) CONCRETE BRICK




ADOBE BRICK. THIS IS A SUNDRIED BRICK FORMED OF SANDY CLASS
(FOUND IN THE SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES AND USED
BY VARIOUS INDIAN TRIBES). ABOBE BRICKS ARE STILL
BEING USED IN SEMI-ARID AREAS WHERE ITS GOOD INSU-
LATING QUALITIES CAN BE USED TO AN ADVANTAGE.

MODERN ADOBE BRIKS. SOIL WITH SUFFICIENT CLAY TO
BIND THE PARTICLES TOGETHER. EMULSIFIED ASPHALT IS
ADDED AS A STABILIZING AGENT.

KILN BURNED BRIK. THIS IS THE MOST WIDELY USED TYP' OF BUILDING
BRICK IS MOSTLY MADE OUT OF NATURAL SAND, CLAYS
OR SHALE.
COLOR. HIGH% OF IRON OXIDE RED OR BROWN
HIGH% OF CALSIUM CARBONATE YELLOW

CONCRETE BRICK.MADE OUT OF PORTLAND CEMENT AND A SUITABLE AGGRE-

GATE, MIXED TOGETHER AND PUT ON A MOLD. THE BRIKS
MIGHT BE CURED BY THE DRY PROCESS OR BY STEAM.


PROCESS OF MAKING BRICKS.

A) CLAYS DELIVERED TO GRANULATORS. ( BREAK UP LARGE PIECES )
B) DISCHARGED INTO LARGE PANS AND GROUND TO A FIND POWDER.
C) THE CLAYS ARE TEMPERED ( CLAYS ARE REDUCED .TO A HOMOGENOUS MASS)
D) SAND AND WATER ARE ADDED TO PRODUCED THE DESIRED CN13ISTANCY.

MOLDING PROCESS. 3 METHODS.
A) SOFT MUD
B) STIFF MUD
C) DRYPRESS PROCESS

SOFT MUD. THIS PROCESS INVOLVES MECHANICALLY FORCING .:T SOFT
CLAYS INTO MOLDS. THE MOLDING MACHINE CUTS OP THE
EXCESS CLAYS AND TURNS THE MOLDS OVER TO THE CONVEYOR
OR PALLET WHICH TAKES THEM AWAY FOR DRYING. (THE MOLDS
ARE SPRAINED WITH SAND OR WATER TO PREVENT THE BRICK
FROM STICKING TO THE MOLD.







STIFF MUD PROCESS. ONLY ENOUGH WATER IS USED TO TURN THE CLAY
INTO A COHESIVE MASS, THEN THE CLAY IS FORMED
INTO A COLUMN AND THIS COLUMN IS THEN FORCED
INTO A WIRE CUTTING TABLE WHERE IT IS THEN CUT
INTO THE APPROPRIATE LENGTH BY WIRE TAUTS.

DRY PRESSED BRICK. THESE BRICKS ARE MADE OUT ON RELATIVELY DRY
NON-PLASTIC CLAYS. THIS MATERIAL IS FED INTO THE
MACHINE BY HOPPERS, WHERE IT IS COMPRESSED INTO
MOLDS UNDER HIGH PRESSURE. DRYPRESS BRICKS ARE
COMPACT, STRONG AND WELL FORMED.

BRICK KILN

THE EARLY TYPES OF KILN CONSISTED OF A SERIES OF ARCHES COMPOSED OF
NATURALLY DRIED BRICK. THE BRICKS TO BE DRIED WERE PILED ON TOP OF
THE ARCHES AND A FIRE WAS BUILT UNDER THE ARCHES. THE HEAT DISTRI-
BUTION IN THIS KIND OF KILN WAS VERY POOR AND THE BRICK VARIED IN
COLOR AND HARDNESS ACCORDING TO THEIR LOCATION ON THE PILE.

MODERN KILNS.HAVE PERMANENT ENCLOSURES AND THE HEAT WAS GENERATED
IN AN OVEN OUTSIDE THE ENCLOSING WALLS.

TYPES OF KILNS: INTERMITTENT AND CONTINUOUS.

INTERMITTENT KILNS. THE BRICK IS FIRED, THE FIRE IS EXTINGUISHED
AND THE BRICKS ARE ALLOWED TO COOL, THEN THE
KILN IS DESMANTLED AND THE BRICKS ARE TAKEN
OUT BEFORE A NEW SERIES OF BRIKS ARE PUT IN
AND THE PROCESS BEGINS AGAIN.

CONTINUOUS KILN. CONSIST OP SEVERAL COMPARTMENT HEATED BY A
SINGLE OVEN, THE HEAR IS REGULATED IN EACH SECTION
AND FIRING, COOLING AND AIRING THE BRICKS CAN
OCCUR IN THE VARIOUS COMPARTMENT AT THE SAME TIME






TUNNEL KILN. ARE THE MOST POPULAR OF THE CONTINUOUS KILN.
THE TUNNEL KILN CONSIST OF A TUNNEL DIVIDED INTO
SEVERAL COMPARTMENTS WHERE THE HEAT IS CONTROLLED
THE BRICKS ARE LOADED IN A CART AND THEY ARE MOVED
THRU THE DIFFERENT COMPARTMENTS.


BRICK TYPES.

COMMON BRICK.


IT IS THE MOST WIDELY USED BUILDING BRICK, IT CAN
BE OBTAINED IN A VARIETY OF SIZES AND FINISHES
DEPENDING ON THE LOCAL CONDITIONS. COLORS RANGE
FROM DARK ORANGE TO DEEP RED DEPENDING ON THE


COMPOSITION OF THE LOCAL CLAYS.


MODULAR BRICK





FACE BRICK.



GLAZED BRICK


FIRE BRICK


PAVING BRIOK


. THESE ARE BRICKS WHICH CAN BE LAID TO MODULAR
DIMENSIONS, THESE BRICKS ARE SIZED SO THAT THE
BRICK PLUS THE MORTAR WILL AMOUNT TO INCREMENTS
OF $" 8" OR 12".

THIS TYPE OF BRICK IS MADE UNDER VERY CONTROLLED
CONDITIONS. THAT PRODUCES CLOSED DIMENSIONAL
TOLERANCES AND HIGH STRUCTURAL QUALITIES

SAME CLOSE TOLERANCE AS PACE BRICK IT IS GIVEN
A HARD IMPREVIOUS FACE WITH A DULL SATIN MOTTLED
OR GLOSSY FINISH BRICKS ARE SPRITE WITH CERAMIC
GLAB~ AND FIRED TO A TEMP 2000 F. TO FUSE THE
GLEZE TO THE BRICK AVAILABLE IN MANY COLORS
AND PIYo SHtsS.
BRICKS THAT HAVE A HIGH CONTENT OF ALUMINA OR
SILICA, FLIT, ETC. AND ARE USED WHERE MASONRY
WILL BE EXPOSED TO HIGH TEMPERATURES.

THESE ARE SPECIAL HARD-BURNED BRICKS WHICH ARE
USED WHERE WEAR AND ABRASION IS A FACTOR.







BRICK WORK.
APPEARANCE, STRENGTH AMD WEAT'H;RING QUALITY iRtEA'LY DEFENDS ON
THE QUALITY OF THE WORKMANSHIP. BRICKWORK MOST BE DESIGN SO THAT
THE INDIVIDUAL UNITS ARE BONDED INTO A STRUCTURE THAT ACTS AS
A WHOLE.

BRICK CONSTRUCTION.
BRICK CONSTRUCTION MAY INVOLVE:
A) SOLID BRICK WALLS
B) WALLS OF REINFORCED BRICK
C) BRICK CAVITY WALLS
D) BRICK VENEER WALLS.
ALMOST ANY OF THE NUMEROUS PATTERN BONDS AVAILABLE MAY BE USED
WITH ANY OF THESE WALLS THE STRUCTURAL BOND WILL DEPEND ON THE
TYPE OF WALL.
MORTAR THE KIND OF MORTAR USED ON A BRICK WALL WILL DEPEND ON THE
COMPRESIVE STRENGTH THAT IS DESIRED.

SOLID BRICK WALLS.
THESE ARE ALL BRICK WALLS, THE THICKNESS OF THESE WALLS VARY
ACCORDING TO LOCAL BUILDING CODES WHICH ARE SOMEWHAT DIFFERENT
FROM ONE AREA TO ANOTHER, GENERALLY, THE MIN. THICKNESS IS 8"
FOR A WALL NOT OVER 36 FT HIGH AND NO LESS THIN 6" FOR A ONE
STORY BUILDING.

WALLS OF REINFORCED BRICK
WHEN THE BRICK WALL REQUIRES A GREATER RESISTANCE TO COMPRESSIVE
TENSILE OR SHEAR FORCES. THESE WALLS ARE REINFORCED WITH STEEL
RODS, THE STEEL REINFORCEMENT MAY BE PLACED IN THE BRICK WALL
VERTICALLY OR HORIZONTALLY, IN A CAVITY BETWEEN ROWS OF BRICK
AND THEN THE CAVITY IS FILLED WITH GRAVEL.
BOND BEAMS ARE ALSO A FORM OF REINFORCEMENT AND IT IS A SORT OF
TIE BEAM THAT OCCURS WITHIN THE BRICK WALL.







3 12b2 04304520 1



BRICK CAVITY WALLS.
CONSIST OP TWO WYTHE OF BRICK SEPARATED BY A CONTINUOUS AIR
SPACE NO LESS THAN 2" WIDE METAL TIES ARE USED TO CONNECT
TIE TWO WYTHE IF INSULATION IS DESIRED, 2" RIGID INSULATION
IS PLACED WITHIN THE CAVITY. USUALLY A VAPOR BARRIER PROVIDED
IN THE FORM OP ASPHALT COATING TO THE INTERIOR WYTHE.

BRICK VENEER WALLS.
INVOLVES APPLYING A 4" BRICK WYTHB OF BRICK AS A FACING MATERIAL
OVER A BACKUP WALL, (THE WALL MAY BE FRAME, CONCRETE BLOCK,ETC.)
BUT IN ANY CASE THE STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF BRICK ARE NOT
UTILICED. SUPPORT FOR THE VENEER IS OBTAINED BY METAL TIES ON
THE BACKUP WALL.

SUPPORT OF MASONRY OVER OPENING IN BRICK

LINTELS.
MAY BE A REINFORCED CONCRETE UNIT, BUILT UP STRUCTURAL STEEL
OR REINFORCED BRICK STRUCTURE.

ARCHES.

ARCHES MOST BE BUILT IN A FORM WHICH MOST BE CAREFULLY SET
AND SUPPORTED UNTIL THE ARCH ITSELF HAS GAINED ENOUGH STRENGTH
TO CARRY THE LOAD
BRICK ARCHES ARE MADE WITH THE BRICK UNITS LAID IN SOLDIERS OR
ROWLOCK WITH A HEADER BOND AT THE CROWN.




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