French character : socioeconomic influences


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French character : socioeconomic influences
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Black, James B.
College of Architecure, University of Florida
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French influence in the North American continent

should not be viewed as that of a nation, but that of

a people. France as a nation really had very little success

in establishing a strong nationalistic sphere in the Amer-

ican colonies. France did settle much of the New World,

but it was unable to retain the control necessary to

establish the French national influence. Documents are

available, as well as many commonly known instances of

French input into the growth of this country, but these

generally will result in an acknowledgement that input on

the individual basis is all that remains to testify to the

French contribution in the development of the New World.

It is to this idea that I wish to discuss the French

posture in the early period of the United States and Canada.

Due to the brief period that the French Government actually

controlled portions of Canada, New England, the Mississippi

River Valley, and the Gulf of Mexico coast, little was

retained in the way of a strong nationalistic feeling

amongst the early settlers and explorers. These people did

bring with them their personalities,heritage,and character.

Strength in these areas was what fostered any settlement at

all, in most of the regions of the New World. There was

little if any government support in these first ventures

beyond the monetary investment. The force that gave

strength to these early settlers and explorers, as well

as the later French immigrants is the basis for my

discussion. Using the framework of socioeconomic

development as an organizer for the personalities:and

characters of the French people, some degree of-'piogression

and order will arise from a basis of one of Europes s

major cultural economic and political nations.

This paper--is..not-denying the influence of French

Nation ~nput, as will be discussed in this text, that

influence comes primarily in the later history of the continent;

the greatest portion coming as a result of a highly assimilated

and culturally diverse society. Preceding and as a result

of New World discovery came socioeconomic issues of great

magnitude and controversy; many specifically, directly

shaping the future of entire nations, cultures and individuals.

Individuals, now tied to a national spirit develop out of

these trying issues and conflicts to; form the base for

this study. They become the formulater, guinea pig, and

critic of their own relationship to the expanding world.

I wish to discuss the issues that motivated,

stimulated, and built the French character that was to

become the French influence.

As contemporary events have shown, individual

monetary action is responsible to and generates a greater

national monetary and economic policy. From the time that

man has found the need to organize himself under a form

of government,and develop a dependency for survival,

conflicts have arisen concerning the best action to take

for the ability fo sustain and prosper. From the Middle

Ages and the time of feudal estates through the evolu-

tion of a national organization, economic growth has

generated its development. The national organization

has provided the framework for a proportional stimulus to

the economic growth. This framework, national economics,

rearranges the position of man with relation to his

ability to control his own subsistence. This new body

of control has now established either his submission to

the national economic decisions or his participation in

the development of those national economic decisions.

Social change becomes an obvious development.

From the feudal organization, which was the sociological

as well as economic format, to this new organization of

national control; the individual's role in relation to

the hierarchy of government has been left for drastic

changes. Just as the new national economic posture must

deal with such a diversity of input, so must the indivi-

dual and the nation deal with the social opportunity

and diversity that will self-perpetuate an almost

continuous line of change. "Although it is realized that

national economics is not always the prime mover in

recent history, it is believed that this basic issur

furnished an excellent opportunity to treat economic

development, class interests and conflicts, political

controversies,and international rivalries. A survey of

all these matters provides a veritable "inside story" of

France..."1 and the French people.

The Crusades of the Middle Ages brought back to

feudal Europe a new feeling and appreciation for objects

of different cultures and societies. In desire of the con-

tinual acquirement of these Mid East and Far Eastern

luxuries, the feudal estates established a productive

alliance for common interests in this trade. Out of these

successful and continued accomplishments,grew the national

hierarchy of control. New understandings of economics,

goods and the processing of materials began to change the

previously unaltered importance of the agrarian society.

The growth of the township and merchantile activities are

all common historical knowledge.

Service to the church was the primary cause for the

Crusades. Just as the church was the only European unifier,

its stimulus prompted its own eventual role change and decline.

The church had the European organization to facilitate trade

and the amassing of wealth, and it was so done in its own

name. With the increasing power of monarchs came the threat

to the power of the church. Differences of opinions and

divisions of thought developed with increased awareness

through improved communications. This diversity of thought

and corresponding power struggles were to become the primary

large scale method of social change and economic gain.

The sixteenth century, in the midst of great politi-

cal and economic change, saw a new school of thought

develop out of response to the changing position of the church

in a new and changing social context. John Calvin, a

French theologian and reformer in Switzerland,generated

a doctrine of thought that was to be representative in

magnitude, of man's new power to alter the lives of many

people. Calvin's doctrine enabled the people to feel that

they had the ability to think, question, and act. Religion

had been the earliest unifier in the European sentiment.

Now its strenght was being questioned by the action of

people, responsive to a simple, yet complex new thought;

Calvanism. This change was to become an-issue of very deep

political realignments, constant bitterment and eventually

the population of a new world.

France was one of the early national bodies to develop

in Europe as a result of the Crusades but it did not take

one of the formative positions among national interests,

that were developing a very active sea trade and exploration

with the East Indies. A great deal of energy was needed to

maintain the national structure and develop the structural

hierarchy throughout the country, Each of the major countries

established their priorities. Seldom could all areas be

covered. Security and protection of the people and national

boundaries, internal domestic development, sea trade and/or

domestic trade and theological choice were representative of

the areas of conflict and decision making.

The development and growth at the national (state)

level was at least representative of progress and problems

at the level of the people. Development beyond the subsis-

tance level economics was pretty wide spread by this time.

There were of course.cycles to prosperity:and famine but

generally the entire nation felt the bad times as well as

the good. Periods of economic slump brought periods of

peasant uprisings and merchant bitterness. As different

periods passed so did different rulers. Those interested in

maintain their positions at the top took measures to try and

control the amplitudes of the cycles.

This examination resulted in the serious thinking out

of economic alternatives. Trade agreements regional policies

represented a degree of loss of personal freedom in the econo-

mic decision making but hopefully the restrictions brought

assurances of commitment' and concern on the part of the govern-

ment. Representationsand security of national backing also

strengthened the relationship between the peasant, shopkeeper

and rulers. Exploitation of the working people and lack

of concern for national strength and prosperity, was often

a problem as the growing number of wealthy people at the top

of the economic hierarchy, sought to ensure their own wealth

at the expense of everyone else. In a period of growing

awareness all action established the background for some

form of either positive of negative reaction on the part of

those directly affected.

If the reaction was not in the form of an actual

physical revolution at least the pen would account for the

action, As individuals were released from the fields of

physical labor they took their place recording the events of

the time with the thought and reaction that was reflective

of the times. Previously only the clergy had been in a

capacity to produce such records amd generally with a heavy

handed religious sentiment. Writers' exposure to the clas-

sical ideas of Rome, Greece, Mid East and Far East provided

the philosophical base for the European's growing relation-

ship to mankind's history. The Renaissance man's discovery

of conditions that were beyond his own personal experience

and the introduction of ideas and concepts beyond his own

rational, formulated the European man that was to exert him-

self beyond his previous limitations. A new conceptual ration-

al reacting to a source of changing conditions, generated

the foundation for oceanic exploration and discovery of

the New World. "This discovery of America came at an epoch

of great and profound changes in the European world. With

the invasion of Italy in 1494 by Charles VIII of France, the

Renaissance spread more rapidly from Italy to northern

Europe...The old closed European world was shattered into

fragments, as a new epoch of restless intellectual curiosity

began." 2

This discussion is at best a brief description of the

heritage that was to formulate the sixteenth century French-

man. This is a view of, the general level of development, of

the Frenchman that was to discover and explore the North

American continent.

Although, he was predominantly from the same ancient

lineage as his other European neighbors, he was also a pro-

duct of the geography and geology. Beyond his control yet

in control of his very existence and tradition,,was his

monarch, an individual, distinguishable from all other mon-

archs in Europe. This Frenchman was in a position of depend-

ing upon a system of national security and serving in that

very system so that his future generations would have more

of the benefits of a nation than even he had enjoyed. If

there wasn't total religious freedom there was the environment

for new thought. The Reformation at least stimulated him to

have new thoughts.

"When New France was founded France stood upon the

threshold of its greatest age. Its population of some four-

teen million was three times as large as that of England and

Wales. Gibbon bears wittnes that Louis XIV.was the master

of a military establishment as great as that of the Roman

Empire in its prime. And then, as Macaulay puts it,"France

had, over the surrounding countries., at once the ascendency

which Rome had over Greece, and the ascendency which Greece

had over Rome,' for French civilization was the model of all

Europe. Latin at last yielded to French as the language of

scholarship and diplomacy;..." 3

All of these attributes of the French system repre-

sented the basis for a growing sence of tradition. A system

that generated and stimulated economic growth would be a tool

for a tradition of change. This tool would be representa-

tive of a system that gave promise, to one generation after

another, of continued growth and prosperity. The Frenchman

was able to take pride in his tradition and believe in his

past and his future, due to the relative success of each

previous known generation, as a Frenchman. At this time

Divine power was still a basis for the social hierarchy.

Without this belief in a Divine order the Frenchman of the

sixteenth century would have been unable to live under the

wealthy rulers, that ruled,more often than not, to serve only

their own needs. In the midst of all this wealth,glory, and

prosperity, poverty still dominated a large proportion of

the French people.

Trouble created by and for the working classes seemed

an obvious turn of events. Over time there had developed an

extremely complex society. Policies made at the national

level couldn't respond to every person in the social hierarchy.

National economics had become the economic base for everyone

life. As a matter of historical record, states were highly

empirical in adopting economic plans. Their policies varied

greatly; they were not systematic; the merchantile, that is,

the commercial aspect of them was not always.dominant. The

crux of the whole phenomenon was the desire to strengthen

the political organism and to aid the capitalist class." 4

To this end the new national economic machine was failing

to continue the initial progress that was experienced.

France's position in the sixteenth century differed from

most of the other nations due to the absolute power that

the monarch held. Though the number of wealthy aristocrats

grew in France up to this time, any differing or opposing

suggestions to the monarch seldom recieved any consideration.

Unfortunately those individuals concerned with explor-

ation of the New World had a difficult time trying to convince

the advisors and Bourbon kings of any potential for an in-

creased European position from New World progress. France

had lacked influencial involvement in the East Indies

trade of the fifteenth and.sixteenth centuries. It was hoped

by many that the New World could help to improve France's


"Within :the space of threelhundred years can be found

nations that were struggling for supremacy by following wide-

ly opposed policies. Some stressed bullionism, others pro-
ductivity; the ones placed emphasis upon free trade, the

others, upon protectionism. But whatever the course adopted,

it is erroneous to believe that the state-economic-building

aspect of mercantilism came to an end at the beginning of the

nineteenth century." 5 Assuredly producing such a radical

change, any philosophy that was to pass through generations

in France would influence those people settling and develop-

ing the New World for many generations.

As France concentrated development primarily on inter-

nal domestic economics, other countries in Europe developed

national economic policies on different as well as similar

guidelines. One or even several descriptions of European

economics would not properly cover the diverse conditions.

"Portugal sought wealth and prestige in Oriental trade..." 6

Despite a well established trade Portugal was forced by great-

er military forces to submit to intervention by the Spanish,

Dutch, and English on the high seas. Spanish polical inter-

vention constantly disrupted strong national development.

"Spain strove for economic glory in hoarding the gold,

and silver fo the Americas."7 Spain went to all economic,

political, and social means for control by a policy of

bullionism. Unfortunately there was a lack of economic under-

standing as to the best use of the precious metals. The

people soon found that they could not eat the gold and silver.

With so much restriction placed upon foreign purchasing of

goods with bullion, little effort was put into production of

goods. The huge concentration of gold and silver in Spain

only inflated the economy and made the bullion worthless

throughout most of Europe. Foreign wars backed by only

wealth and no useable goods, drained Spains resources and

forced the end of Spanish dominance abroad. This example

was to be a very valuable learning experience for the other

European nations. It reinforced, the policy of trade, com-

merce, and production of goods; not always as quickly by

some as by others.

The Dutch attained the heights on trade; England

rose first on production, then on commerce and finally on a

combination of the two; and France, after attempting to ride

both horses, got astride one and rode it for all it was

worth." 8 This European areana for occasional exchange and

learning resulted in the development of substantially sounder

and more productive economic policies. Variables beyond the

control of the individual, introduced very high and low points

to those people that were part of a large system and still

represented. In a development stimulated and stiffled by a

trial and error procedure, at least experience could now

lead to more definite policy making.

"the Dutch adopted free trade to encourage shipping;

the English, after employing a careful system of protection

and shipping regulation, resorted to Laisser Faire when

there was no longer any danger of completion; and the French

throughout their history pursued a policy of paternalism

toward agriculture, commerce, and industry...Fundamently

they (each nation) sought to effect statewide economic unifi-

cation and to achieve economic strength." 9 New France's

economic impact was to be short lived but sociologically

very formative.

French influence in the New World went through several

phases of conflicting, contradictory and seldom complementary

periods. Like the early Spanish interests, which eventually

failed, the French backing was almost entirely dependent

upon support from the absolute stste rule. Individual endea-

vor and stimulation was almost nan existant as were personal

goals and personal rewards. In contrast, though the English

and Dutch were slow to settle their East coast claims, in

North America, they were better represented and trading com-

panies with private interests were the main stimualtor of

productivity. Individual effort and investments were sought

and rewarded.

Early French economic policy restricted any kind of

free trade activities; thus restricting any private companies

interested in seeking raw materials that would bolster the

French, production oriented economy. Preconceptions by the

explorers also affected the lack of early positive feedback

from the new world efforts. Those administrators and aris-

tocrats that lobbied for and sponsored the explorations had

major interests in the sea trade industry, rather than the

production industries that could use the raw materials of

New France. The monarchs wanted the precious metals that
were generating the initial prosperity and wealth in Spain.

The possibilities for an abundant fur trade was completely

overlooked by the initial French discoverers and explorerers.

The fur industries had to be generated from individual effort

and sacrifice, much like the early French fishermen that had

been fishing off the Canadian coast for some time before any

kind of diligent French exploration. The fur traders were

at first without government aid of any kind. When those in

France saw the value of the fur trade, absolute government

control and intervention ruined the industry for the indivi-

dual that had made it his personal gain. His success in the

name of France had made an increase in the French power but

the negative actions of the governmentireduced support avail-

able from,the Frenchman in New France.

By the sixteenth century, France, had established her-

self, if not at the top economically,at least sociologically

and religiously as a leader in Europe. The Protestant Refor-

mation introduced a serious line of division between all the

people at every class interest. For the first time, since

national establishment, there was to be a major division of

the French subjects. This sociological issue became major

distraction and concern for the monarchs; periods of tolerance

and turmoil dominated both the domestic and European actions.

Economic and political differences and conflicts manesfested

themselves to all during this period. The state religion,

Catholicism, became the image of everything wrong with the

nation. Peasant uprisings, and economic depressions found

relief through new religious foundations and security. There

evolved two distinct religious interests in Europe. These

two intellectual developments were to shape the degree of

interaction between all people in the Americas. "Bloody

religious strife was carried across the sea from the Old

World to New Spain, New France, and New England... While

the French excluded Protestants from Canada, and the Puritans

of New England barred Catholics from their colonies."11 Later

developments by Henry IV altered this early religious posi-

tion of France and New France. "Henri gave patents to develop-

New France to both Protestant and Catholic alike; if his

example had been followed by later monarchs, the colony-&

might have provided a refuge for the industrious Huguenots..."

and profitted thereby;..." 12 Fortunately for the Huguenots

the protestant colonies of the English were tolerant enough

to allow the settling of the Huguenots and over time these

Frenchmen set the pattern for foreign assimilation into the

colonial environment.

One reason France had grown so very quickly compared

to her neighbors, was the importance of the monarch and the

weight of decision. Little development had taken place at

the higher decision making administrative level. As matters

became more complex an increase in administrative complexity

did not always occur. Matters beyond the monarch's understand-

ing received only basic attention, "The absolutism and auto-

cracy of the mother country affected every aspect of the life

of the colony, but the needs of New France were often neglect-

ed by a monarch more concerned with Europe than America."

The French colonist was under absolute control of a monarch

so far detatched from his position that he was unable to

represent himself. From a background of such European domi-

nance the Frenchman found it difficult if not totally forbid-

den to try and establish a hierarchy of administration. This

was the major reason that the French were unable to defeat

the English during the French and Indian Wars. Direct sup-

port from the monarch was too little to generate a strong

organization for the opposition of the English Army.

It would be best now to describe, more specifically,

those groups of people that were directly representative of

the Frenchman in New France and New England. The French

people can be broken down into eight major categories of

influence,with impact varing according to location and time.

There are many cross connections of influence and internela-

tionships, as well as distinctly separate spheres of influence.

The eight major groups are the explorer, discoverer, the -,

clergyman, the catholic settlers the Huguenots, the French

administrators, the French Revolutionary War refugee and

two groups of Frenchmen, one that quickly assimilated into

the American way of life and the one that resisted assimila-

tion and retained many of the characteristics from France.

Each of these groups were Frenchmen with varing degrees of

national spirit and awareness, as well as various desire to

promote the French spirit or reject it. For the most part

names have little meaning in the understanding of the motives

of these people their background and their influence.

The early explorers and discoverers represented the

romantic influence of the Crusades, and this was a mission

for God and country. His intentions were generally of single

purpose and conviction, based entirely upon his hope for

conquest and glory. Preconcieved notions stimulated his

decision making process and led him to misinterpret val-

uable new information. Unquestionably the conditions were

the worst that a civilized man could endure. The general

lack of information and the inability to communicate with

the natives made his search for the Eastern trade route one

of constant hardship and disappointment. ...the relics of the

vessel which Cartier was obliged to leave in the Canadian

river, because so many of his men had died of scurvy and ex-

posure, that he had not sufficient crew to man the three

ships home." 14

The most plaguing problem was the aggrevation of know-

ing that with more support from France and the establishment

of good national backing, settlements could have been set up.

If a trade route couldn't be found to the East, at least France

could reap the treasures in raw materials and natural resources.

Generally the explorer had neither the ability or the author-

ity to establish large settlement in the name of France; so

without any conclusive discovery his mission was a failure.

Constant failures did little to help further funding of

exploration, by the French government.

To the aid of the explorers came the Jesuit priests.

They saw the pagan New World as a frontier that could not

be left without their most desperate acts of salvation. "At

that time the spirit of propaganda was very strong among the

Jesuits; they aimed at nothing short of the conversion of

the world, and displayed in the work such energy such

ability, such unalloyed devotion as the world has never

seen surpassed."15 Aside from the nearly impossible work that

the Jesuits did in developing relations with the Indians

their records and testimony carried a great deal of impact

in France. The church was still a great influence, in France,

and its power to generate activity had only begun as of

late, to be questioned by the new growing national state. The

exploration carried out by the clergy and development of re-

lations with the Indians, came as a major stepping stone

for the New French colonies.

The need for administrative control was of course

realized in France but the function of the New French govern-

ment worked in an only superficial and unproductive manner.

The major hierarchial development came during the reign of

Louis XIV. He was an absolute despot with all the state

power possible in his hands. With all f his major socio-

economic concerns in France,,and with out an effective way

to delegate power, the colonies suffered. "the corruption

and disorder that had been feared from division of power

flourished when absolutism was applied at long range

thruogh a series of subordinates."17 The environment for

productive government was hardly possible. These appointed

affluent men were led out of civilization into a massive

wilderness to administer to settlers, they couldn't relate

to;. Basically they held little more than a feudal position

over the settlers.

No matter how many people came to the Americas for

the representation of a-nation in Europe, the greatest num-

bers of people came for the religious freedom and new fron-

tier. *At the out set we are confronted by the fact that,

in the main, these settlers fall into two groups: the French

Protestants, mostly refugees from persecution at home, who

came to the Atlantic colonies; and the French Catholics,

who, coming for purposes of traffic or sent by a paternal

government, founded settlements in the'old northwest'and the

Mississippi Valley." 18 These two groups of people represent

primarily the farmers, woodsmen, and settlers; the catholics

and the Huguenots made up both these groups ,but the Huguenots

were most influencial as the newly rising merchantile class.

Many generalizations have been made concerning these two

groups of people and though they are general descriptions,

the influence was more often than not a general influence.

It becomes valuable to compare the two groups of people, to

show just how they acquired the attitudes that were to estab-

lish them in the New World.

The French Catholic came very early in the settlement

of New France and they were still unfamiliar with any kind

of selfgovernment. They represented in many ways the primi-

tive feudal catholic society. They were generally uneducated

and lacked any initiative in working to assimilate themselves

with the English after the loss of French control in New

France. Their impact is not to be denied as geographically

obvious. The French believed in themselves, saw themselves

for little more than they were at that moment and they

sought towork hard for prosperity and retain what they had.

The Huguenot was by origin a person convicted to

change, from what was accepted. He was representative of

a group persecuted for their beliefs and willing to overcome

all obstacles. The strong character, a testimony to change,

conviction and production was easily assimilated in the

English system of government in the New England colonies.

Their impact on the American colonies is one primarily one

of an educated people responding to the needs and stimulus

of the new American Colonies.

The French Revolution was responsible for the gener-

ation of one of history's most elite group of refuges.

Desperation forced many of these French Royalists to re-

establish their fortunes in the new American nation. Unscrupu-

lous land speculators took advantage of these people by

selling them properties, in the untamed wildernesses of New

England. Not only did most find the wilderness unlivable,

but many lost their fortunes and were forced to concentrate

in the larger cities df New York and Philadelphia. Many

of the Royalists were content with life in the.New World,,

while others returned to France at the close of hostilities

there. No matter how long they stayed they brought them and

established a very high cultural societies' influence. Many

invested their wealth in businesses, in the Americas and aided

the young United States. These highly educated people as-.

similated quickly into the selfgoverning process and contibut-

ed to its prosperity on many levels.

The French and Indian Wars as well as the American



















Revolution were only periods testing the stamina of French

character, in so far as it didn't radically change the basic

beliefs and principles of the Frenchman newly established

in the colonies. The Frenchman of the colonies developed,

changed and contributed based on what he was and from the

stimulus of his new surroundings.

Economic policy and economic theory,though it shaped

France's prosperity and depressions its development beyond

the seventeenth century only instituted change and social

mobility to a greater range of people. It provided the wild

cycles of prosperity and loss, that stimulated the class

struggle for power. The bourgeoisie's rise to power was

the response to the inadequate monarch's control over the

economic foundation of France.

The French Revolution's sociological impact on its

people connot go with out discussion or placement of its

importance. Most importantly the French Revolution was the

result of a development. It was a manesfestation of a long

evolution and representative of a start towards a New France

in Europe. New freedoms and new policies generated from the

Revolution were merely the foundation for the changing of

France by continued growth. In comparison to the Protestant

Reformation the bourgeoisie's rise to power and influence

established an entirely new concept of social order based

on middle class economics, industry, and technology.

Looking at a review of French contributions to the

formative years of the United States, it is clear that there

are two levels of French influence. One level is the influence

that differs little from the influence of the many nations

that have been represented here by immigrants. The other

level,and most critical source of contributions,was that of

the earliest settlers and immigrants. It is necessary to

look at the origins of the later example to seek out the

French character. The character of'the Frenchman was most

profoundly affected by the national-state building of the

post crusade period, the period of Renaissance discovery,

and the Protestant Reformation. All other events are sub-

sequent to and of these major periods. These periods .also

mark events for all the European area. The distinction of,

one progression of a group,` from another comes at the examina-

tion of the people during and as they progress from one climax

to the next.

V / ...-.

The hoped for condition did not ensue. For when modern
architecture became proliferated throughout the world,
when it became cheaply available, standardized and basic,
as the architect had always wished it to be, necessarily
there resulted a rapid devaluation of its ideal content.
The building became no longer a subversive proposition
about a possible Utopian future. It became instead the
acceptable decoration of a certainly non-Utopian present.
The ville racieuse- that city where life would become
intelligent, educated and clean, in which social justice
would be established and political issues resolved--
this city was not to'be built. Compromise and accommoda-
tion were therefore in order; and hence, with deflation
of conviction there followed divergence of interest.

'Colin Rowe
Five Architects
Oxford University Press
New York 1975

My analytical conclusion developed as a comparison
of the French people, their socioeconomic positions and
our contemporary position, in the United States. There
are many different factors that guide our lives but the
human factor remains constant. Man is still basically the
same animal that he was, but does he still represent the
same relative quality of human being?
Does he make his culture and society a crutch or
does it act as a tool for his further advancement?
Does he really progress or does his technology relieve
him of his responsibility?
An answer is most difficult.
Perhaps it lies within the immigration and changing
of a person's character. The very nature of immigration, as
it has been studied and observed, involves the realignment
of what one is, to conform to what appears obvious. Perhaps
the problem lies in how deep this change takes place. Does
the character lose its deepest unconscious foundations in the
process of this assimilation?
I think that the American needs to build and retain
a character of principle and quality based on what he is now.
Perhaps our present period is one of hidden charac-
ter development. Hopefully,the character to arise out of
this technocratic age, which has been described by some as
decadence at its highest, will be comparable to the charac-
ter of the Frenchma that arose from the feudal age.

O II, \

V ^^.^t^ f


1. Clough,Shepard Bancroft France: A History of National
Economics 1789-1939, P.v.

2. Wade,Mason The French Canadians-1760-1945, p.2.

3. Ibid., p.9.

4. Clough,Shepard Bancroft France: A History of National
Economics 1789-1939, p.8.

5. Ibid., p.9.
6. Ibid., p.31.

7. Ibid.

8. Ibid.

9. Ibid.

10. Wade,Mason The French Canadians-1760-1945, p.3.

11. Ibid., p.2.

12. Ibid., p.3.

13. Ibid.
14. Finley,John The French in the Heart of America, p.11.

15. Fiske,John New France and New England, p.75.
16. Finley,John The French in the Heart of America, p.27.

17. Wade,Mason The French Canadians-1760-1945, p.33.
18. Avery,Elizabeth The Influence of French Immigration on the
Political History of the United States, p.9.


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