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Dutch architecture
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Title: Dutch architecture
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Creator: Brown, Lewis Jr.
Publisher: College of Architecture, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, FL
Publication Date: 1977
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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Design Influences
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Dutch Gothic Architecture
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Dutch Renaissance Architecture
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Dutch Contemporary Architecture
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Bibliography
        Page 22
    Slide List
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Slides
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
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Full Text













DUTCH ARCHITECTURE

BY LEWIS BROWN


ARCHITECTURE 675

WINTER 1977







DESIGN INFLUENCES

The Netherlands consists of the basins and delta lands

of the Rhine, Meuse ( Maas ) and Scheldt, the flat, low-lying

coastal areas and the hills of the Ardennes. The fertile land

and the great navigable rivers created and maintained a

number of Mediaeval states and prosperous cities, dependent

culturally on either France or Germany.

The Netherlands is a term which formerly embraced the

whole of the Netherlands ( Holland ) and Belgium. The physical

similarity of the low-lying parts did not result in the

maintenance of a firm political unity, chiefly owing to the

intrusion of external powers. These external powers formed

a great influence on the architecture of the time. Thus

the French cathedrals Gothic of Sens, Senlis, Noyon, and

Laon formed its basis, and from this grew the Brabantine

style which spread North in its pure form as far as

SHertogenbasch and Utrecht. From another direction, through

Cologne, the Gothic of Rheims and Amiens was the inspiration

for the cathedral of Utrecht in the mid-thirteenth century,

while the older traditions and the manners of Westphalia and

the Rhineland were continued in the eastern and northern parts

of Belguim and Holland. Thes latter include the long, and

narrow and low set sanctuary windows and, later, the 'hall'

churches, in which nave and aisles were approximately of

equal height.

During the Renaissance period the Dutch gained much

1








of the inspiration that influenced their architecture from

their neighbors to the south, the Belgians. These people

gained their richness of design from the influence of the

French, Spanish and Germans, but its strong individuality is

mainly due to national conditions and characteristics. It

is rich externally and internally, is rarely grand in scale

and as benefits the northern clime windows in domestic work

are even larger than the French and may occupy almost as

much wall space.

Lieven de Key and Hendrik de Keyser developed the

early Dutch style, usually plainer than the Belgian, until

1625 when it matured in a 'Palladian' phase of considerable

diginiy and quality, the principle exponents being Jacob

. Van Campen and Pieter Post. The Pollandian phase passed about

1670, merging easily into another of same twenty years

duration of positive austerity, external decoration being

almost wholly excluded. Next, Daniel Marot, a Huguenot refugee

introduced the masculine style of Louis XIV to the Dutch Court,

effective in influencing interior decoration rather than

architecture proper and thence forward French fashions

continued to be follower, though with sober external expression

and bold and effective planning.

Aside from direct influence from other cultures the

effect of geographical location and geological wealth, or

lack of it, had a very pronounced influence on Dutch architecture.

2








Holland being wholly without stones except around

Maastrict, and without forests too, had to import tufa,

limestone and sandstone from Germany and Belguim. This

deficiency early caused the Dutch to make bricks from her

clay soil, and from them; their buildings obtained a characteristic

simplicity, texture and soft coloring which is enhanced by

the reflected light of the seldom distant water.

The climate of Holland is similar to that of south

eastern England, but there are greater degrees of heat and

cold. An often gray and rainy climate gave rise to many and

large windows in houses and to great traceried windows in

churches and town halls. Window shutters against driving

rain and belts of trees as wind screens are common in Holland.
A-
/ The composition of building focades were designed in

terms of planes rather than sculptural form due to this.

Dutch architecture in the nineteenth century exhibited

considerable moderation. The cities of Holland succeeded in

escaping much of the disfigurement that other continental

cities experienced. The Rijks Museum and Cuyper's railway

station are examples of the mild eclecticism that governed large

buildings in Amsterdam.

On the other hand, Holland failed to take effective

part in the developments going on (under French leadership)

in painting and construction. The Dutch stood aside from

this activity; they never quite lost sight of the great tradition

3








they had to preserve. And the seventeenth and eighteenth

century mansions that stood along side their canals served

as quiet and constant reminders of the past.

The advent of contemporary Dutch architecture in the

twentieth century may be chiefly attributed to one man and

one building. The man H. P. Berlage and the building the

Amsterdam Stock Exchange. As we will later see this building

was a drastic departure from the normal architecture of the time.

The lead from this man no doubt helped cause the Stijl movement

in Dutch architecture. A movement which had an earth shaking

effect on architecture of the day, and whose theories are

still valid today.








DUTCH GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE

The plan of Gothic Dutch buildings is found to be short

compared to the width of the building. Radiating chapels

found in French Gothic of the time were usually omitted and

were replaced by a north east planned lady chapel. A fleche

was normally used at the crossing though lantern towers occur

also.

Unlike other examples of European Architecture the

Dutch very seldom used flying butresses as support for their

walls. Normally understated butressed were used to perform

structurally leaving the observer with the impression of a

very regular rythem of bays. Blind arcading became an important

feature of brick Gothic and was used as the principle means of

decoration.

Arches developed from the lancet type to three and four

centered types, or occasionally even to the Moorish cusped

arch. Where single western towers occur, the entrance may

be through the tower or by a further projecting porch;

other entrances often have marked importance. One of the

best instances being the south trancept portal at s'

Hertogenbasch. Windows were usually large and open due to the

geographic location. Tracery in rose windows was usually of

a simple nature because of the brick building material.

Building decoration began very slowly in Holland.but

caught on very quickly. Such building amenities as screens

Sand Socrament Houses became extremely decorated. Church










architecture of the time became a contest of who could

decorate in the grandest manner.





GOTHIC

St. Johns, s' Hertogenbosch (1370-1559)

This is a rare example of pure and rich Brabantine in

Holland, comparable with S. Peter, Louvain, and S. Waldru,

Mons. The rectilinear wall- panelling resembles English

Perpendicular; it is profusely decorated, with much sculpture

by Alard van Hameel (1478-1529).

Utrecht Cathedral (1254-67)

This is the major example of French cathedral-Gothic

in Holland, deriving from Amiens through Cologne; changing

detail from the apse westward through the choir to the transepts

is noticeable, especially in the omission of capitals. The nave

collapsed in the seventeenth century and the western axial tower

is isolated. Built between 1321-82 by Jan van Henegouwen,

it was an important Dutch prototype.

Gastle Of Muiden, Near Amsterdam (13th century)

Noted for the use of water as a defense. One of the

few European castles to do so.









DUTCH RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE

r At first the Mediaeval church plan was retained, but

adapted by Protestants to new forms of worship. A variety

of centralized or semi-centralized plans on a. small scale

were the subject of Protestant experiment. Civic buildings

and large houses used the central block and balanced wing

forms, while the medium sized house and smaller civic building

were usually in simple square or rectangular forms; town

houses had narrow street fronts and were of great depth, often

with inner courts and light wells.

Walls were usually brick with stone dressing. Gables,

stepped or enriched with scrolls and other devices were common,

and often had projecting beams for hoists. Due to the dull

northern climate, window areas were large and tended to dwarf

the Orders; in town focades the ratio of window to solid

was high, and made possible by foundational piling solely

under the side walls, so that the -street front was little

else than a. screen.

Arcades were unusual, due to lack of strong sunlight,

but appeared under Italian influence in the early period.

Door ways were tall and richly decorated often with huge

fanlights; entrances had steps and perrons were common. Sash

type windows appeared after the middle of the sixteenth century

(probably a Dutch invention) but fell into disuse by the end









of the next century.

The early use of Orders was characterized by the

grotesque distortions favored by Floris and de Vries until

8 the true Renaissance Orders became common after the second

quarter of the sixteenth century.

In Dutch Protestant churches -often in contrast to their

general sobriety- screens, benches, pulpits, organ cases and

stained glass were richly designed. In houses of all sizes

great prosperity was reflected in:the richness of the interiors

in all periods often in contrast with plain exteriors.

Chimney pieces in the early Renaissance were major fields of

ornate extravagance, but during the sixteenth century,

taste, though often still exuberant, saw that ornament was more

widely and evenly distributed- in plaster ceilings, paneling

painted walls and ceilings staircase balustrades and fittings.






DUTCH RENAISSANCE

1. Town Hall Of Nijmegen (1554)

Architect-Herman van Herengrave

Curiously formed pediments above the windows and the

medallions with reliefs on the parapet below the roof are

only manifestations of the Renaissance. A good of Gothic

detail and Renaissance decoration.

13 2. Old Town Hall-The Hague (1564)

Architect-Unknown

Strongly inspired by the Antwerp, Belgium Town Hall, it

is an extremely modest building on a corner site. Even though

there are an even number of bays the skill of the architect

overrode this problem and produced a building which is both

balanced and pleasing to the eye.

S3. House Of Charles V,-Zwolle (1571)

Architect-Unknown

An example of the pilaster facade that was used to hint

a. Gable End. On this building the composition of the top

shows an unmistakable uncertainty: there is no straight

development of the pilaster gable to a well balanced unity.

't 4. The Three Hgrrinos-Deventer:(1575)

Architect-Unknown

The designer has put rows of pilasters on his principle

facade, but he did not know how to give this a decisive function

in the play of decoration'

1 5. Chancellery-Leeuwarden (1566-1571)


10.






Architect-Unknown

A Government building commissioned by King Philip II.

It was given a long frontage which shows no trace of the

classical or the Italian. This is an exception to the architecture

of the day.

6. Town Hall-Frankerer (1591-1594)

Architect-Unknown

SEven though the Dutch architecture of the day was disjointed

and bastardized this building shows the beginning of the unity

to come.

S7. The Town Hall-Leyden (1594)

Architect-Lieven de Key

This is an example of the strapwork, fretwork and other

petty ornament typical of the Early Renaissance in the Netherlands

generally, and popularized there as in Germany and Elizabethan

and Jacobean England by the books of Vredeman de Vries, principally

those appearing in 1565 and 1568.

I( 8. The Haarlem Weiga House (1598)

Architect-Lieven de Key

A particularly good example of the classical design

for public buildings of the day.

9. Meat Hall-Haariem (1602-1603)

Architect-Lieven de Key

One of de Key's most successful buildings. The scheme of

the Meat Hall has nothing new about it; the idea of a rectangular

block with a high roof between two steep gables could not


11.






have been more traditional. But de Key succeeded in turning

the traditional scheme into something which is at once

contemporary by means of a decorative treatment which combines

tauntness and vigour with a playful opulence, culminating in

the gables of the long side elevation. What specially

distinguishes him from the sixteenth century architects who

had delt with the problem of the decorative treatment of gables

is that he increases the ornamentation in richness and detail

from the bottomof the building to the top.

10. Amsterdam Exchange-Amsterdam (1608-1611)

Architect-Hendrick de Keyser

A building designed between his Amsterdam Zuiderker and

Amsterdam Westerkerk. This particular building is a close copy

with little varient of the London Exchange which he traveled

to see before designing his own building.

S11. Town Hall-Klundert (1621)

Architect-Unknown

A building by an unknown designer that exhibits the

influence of architect Hendrick de Keyser.

^' 12. St. Catherine's Gate-Utrecht (1621-1625)

Architect-Paulus Moreelse

A now destroyed example of the work of a painter turned

architect. Moreelse gained his inspiration for this building

from his travels through Italy. This piece of architecture may

be one of the main influences:.in the introduction of the

Italianate Classical style into Dutch design.


12.







'Z 13. The Mauritshuis-The Hague (1633)

Architect-van Campen and Pieter Post

n Built for Prince Maurice of Nassau, Instances the Dutch

Palladian phase in its flattened temple-like front in a

harmonious facadal treatment of brick and stone.

S14. Marekerk-Leyden (1639)

Architect-Arent van's-Gravesande

This church seems to have been influenced by S. Maria

della. Salute in Venice, It Consists of an octagonal domed

space with a wooden bell tower, and lower ambulatory.

Strong Ionic columns carry this high well lit drum above the

dome. The corners of the drum are supported by incurved butress

walls. The dome is entirely of wood, and the ambulatory has

a flat ceiling.

15. The Cloth Hall-Leyden (1640)

Architect-Arent van's-Gravensande

A further example of Dutch Palladianism.

Z 16. Huis Ten Bos-The Hague (1645)

Architect-Pieter Post

/7 It is a very simple brick palace of which the center is

a large cruciform domed hall, decorated under the direction of

Jacob van Campen with paintings in memory of the owners husband.

17. The New Church-Haarlem (1645-9)

Architect-van Campen

Q This has the Greek-Cross-in-square plan popular in Holland


13.







2 the arms of the cross being covered by wooden barrel vaults

meeting at a cross vault, the corner squares by flat ceilings-

a scheme similar to S. Martins's, Ludgate, London by Wren.

<'t 18. The New Church-The Hague (1649-56)

Architect-P. Noorwits and B. van Bassen

This plan being made up of two interlocking squares with

six projecting apsidal bays.

\ 19.. The Royal Palace-Amsterdam (1648-65)

Architect-Jacob van Campen

This is a major example of Dutch civic architecture

on an unusually large scale. Its style is Palladian in the

sense that it is of clear, simple ordonnance with no important

departures from strict Classical rule and that there is no

intrusion of ornament on to the architectural lines. There

is, however, a greater freedom in the design of an open cupola-

)' turret over the central, shallowly-projecting pavilion of

the two-tiered pilastered facade, standing on a low basement

storey, and the crowning pediment has an infilling of petty

sculpture.

OF 20. The Trippen Huis-Amsterdam(1662)

Architect-J. Vingboons

This is a larger example of such houses for the merchant

class.

6 21. The Town Hall- Enkhuizen (1686-88)

Architect-Steven Vennecool

This represents the later stage of the Palladian phase,


1'4.








achieving a soft plastic quality despite its being almost

completely devoid of decoration.

22. Chateau-Middachten (1686)

Architect-Steven Vennecool

Example of early Dutch Baroque.

217 23. No 8 Lange Vijverberg And The Royal Library-(1715)

The Hague (1735)

Architect-Daniel Marot

Q This building is of undecorated, Italianate character

inclining to the Baroque, now used as the Royal Library,

The Hague, also by Marot, shows in its Rococo ornament the

influence of French taste upon the Dutch court.

39 24. The Royal Theatre-The Hague (1765)

Architect-Pieter de-Swart

Originalally designed as a palace the building was

converted to the Royal Theatre. It shows the French influence

of the Louis XVI time period.

4-0 25. Het Paviljoen-Haarlem (1785)

Architect-Unknown

The finest example of the French LouisXVI spirit in Holland.

Built for the Amsterdam Banker-Hope and now the seat for the

provincial Government in North Holland. The whole of the front

is built in plastered brick- on the other sides the plaster has

unfortunately been removed. It seems plausible that an architect

from outside the republic is responsiblepfor the design.


15.







DUTCH CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURE

There were whole decades in the second half of the

nineteenth century in which no architectural work of any

significance is encountered. Eclecticism smothered all

creative energy. Here and there- especially as the century

wore on voices were raised in protest, but they could do

nothing to alter conditions.

V The painter was able to withdraw from this overpowering
environment. The men who did the important work of this period

gave up all prospects of fame and audience and practiced their

art in seclusion. Cezanne an Van Gogh for example, buried

themselves in the solitude of Provence. The architect had

no such course open to him; not a single one managed to escape

from the atmosphere of eclecticism.

4i The twentieth century is a century of masses and it

is a century of science. The new style with its refusal to

accept craftsmanship and whims of design is eminently suitable

for a large anonymous clientele and with its sheer surfaces

and minimum of mouldings for the industrial production of

parts. Steel and glass and reinforced concrete did not

dictate the new style, but they belong to it.

New movements with strange names came into being. These

were initiated by the painters of the day and followed

closely by the architects. Such movements as Expressionism

and cubism influenced architects to heights which had not

been reached for two hundred years.


16.









\ o; The pinnacle of Dutch invention, the De Stijl movements
4) raised architecture of the 1920's to a height that is still
44 thought of as contemporary today, some fifty years later.
t^h


17.








DUTCH CONTEMPORARY

4-, 1. The Rijks Museum, Amsterdam (1877-1885)

Architect-P.H.J. Cuijpers

An example of the popular eclecticism in Dutch architecture

during the nineteenth century.

2. The Diamond Workers' Union Building-Amsterdam(1899-1900)

Architect-H.P; Berlage

Example of Romanesque eclecticism that influenced this

architect in his Amsterdam Stock Exchange.

3. Stock Exchange-Amsterdam (1897-1903)

Architect-Hendrik Petrus Berlage

This building indicates the state of Dutch architecture

41 at the turn of the century. It is the result of a competition

won by a native Dutch architect. Although Romanesque

A3) eclectic in nature, the metal roof structure of the Great Hall

combines iron, glass and brick in one supurb engineering

ensemble. One of the most interesting features of the building

is its fitness for urban environment. Its rectangular tower

is a dominant feature of the town.

p ? 4. The Dageraad Housing, Amsterdam (1918-1923)

Architect-Piet Kramer

Represented by the tenement blocks it was erected in

1922-3, which at that time showed the clever and ornamental

treatment of fine brickwork evidenced by the Amsterdam school

of architects.


18.







5. Schroder House-Utrecht (1924)

Architect-Gerrit Thomas Rietveld

The two story building is composed of horizontal and

vertical planes. Open balconies and window voids are organized

,- according to the same basic planer principles. The resulting

play of solids, voids, horizontals and verticals is so successful

That photographs of the building were laid on their side and

upside down to demonstrate that the same harmonious overall

% impression was created always.

Of the building design the architect said,"We limited

ourselves to primary forms, spaces and colors, since they are

not only elemental, but are free of other associations." At

that time, forms produced by machines were thought to be

too cold and hard,'and were notyet admired for their economy

and cleanness. Steel was therefore used quite openly in

this composition in order to show that there need not be any

contradiction between structure and beauty.

6 6. Housing Estate, Hook Of Holland-(1926-27)

Architect J.J.P. Oud

SExtreme economy in the use of materials and forms

has here produced a new beauty in residences designed on

ff a collective rather than individual basis. In this housing

estate, Oud expresses the striving, typical of the twenties,

towards a new type of architecture.

S7. The Vondelschool, Hilversum (1926)


19.









Architect-W.M. Dukok

The Vondelschool-which received an extension at the

entrance end in 1932-is very characteristic of Dudok mature

v style, which still echoes his early contact with the 'De Dtijl'

group of artists. Like the architects Klerk and Kramer and the

Amsterdam group in general, he adheres to fine brickwork as

his principal medium, but unlike them avoids fanciful effects,

instead giving his buildings a serene dignity, stressing the

horizontal lines and opposing the restfulness of large plain

areas of brickwork to the pungent rhythms of long, banded

windows.

S8. The Van Nelle Factory-Rotterdam (1927-30)

Architect J.A. Brinkmann

This is Holland's finest Modern building of the first

half of the century. Of reinforced concrete, the main eight-

storey block is in 'mushroom' construction (a system used by

Maillart as early as 1908), the respective floors being carried

on internal pillars which fan outwards at the top, the outer

walls being non-load bearing and supported by the floors.

Externally, the horizontal ribbon windows are admirably

balanced by the flow of form of the projecting tower blocks,

and afford an effective contrast of panels of plain wall.

Linked to the main block is a less high wing which sweeps

on a pleasant curve.


20.








S 9. Open Air School-Amsterdam (1930-1932)

Architect-Johannes Duiker

This building is a major example of the new approach

to school building, and indeed to architecture which emerged

A about 1930. It is placed diagonally across a square later

formed by new houses. One quarter of its ground plan, where

it faced south, was left open to provide balconies where

teaching could be done. The classrooms were opened up not

only to the light but also to the surrounding space.

10. Pieces Of Furniture and Objects D' Art

Which were influenced by the De Stijl movement.







7o


21.









Bibliography


1. Space, Time, and Architecture (5th Edition)
S. Giedion
Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusettes.

2. An Outline of European Architecture
Nikolaus Pevsner
Penguin Books, Baltimore, Maryland

3. History of Modern Art
H.H. Arnason
Prentice-Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey
Harry N. Abrams, Inc., New York, New York

4. History of Art
H.W. Janson
Prentice- Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey
Harry N. Abrams, Inc., New York, New York

5. Baroque Architecture
Christian Norberg-Schulz
Harry N. Abrams, Inc., New York, New York

6. Renaissance Architecture
Peter Murray
Harry N. Abrams, Inc., New York, New York

7. Modern Architecture in Color
Werner Hofmann and Udo Kultermann
The Viking Press, New York, New York

8. A History of Architecture on the Comparative Method ( 17th Edition)
Sir Banister Fletcher
Revised by R.A. Cordingley
Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, New York

9. Dutch Art and Architecture 1600- 1800
Jacob Rosenberg
Penguin Books, Baltimore, Maryland

10. The De Still Group, Dutch Plastic Art
H.L.C. Jaffe
J.M. Meulenhoff, Amsterdam

11. The Modern Chair, 1850 to Today
Gilbert Frey
Architectural Book Publishing Company, New York, New York






Slide List- Source Numbers Refer to Bibliography


1. Map of the Netherlands
Source 8, page 567

2. St. John, 's-Hertogenbosch
Source 8, page 575

3. St. John, 's-Hertogenbosch
Source 8, page 582

4. Utrecht Cathedral
Source 8, page 575

5. Castle of Muiden, near Amsterdam
Source 8, page 575

6. Diagrams of Dutch Churches
Source 5, page 348

7. Town Hall, Leyden
Source 8, page 839

8. Church Tower, Ijsselstein
Source 6, page 356

9. Town Hall, Nijmegen
Source 9, page 179

10. Old Town Hall, The Hague
Source 9, page 181

11. House of Charles V, Zwolle
Source 9, page 182

12. House of Three Herrings, Deventer
Source 9, page 182

13. Chancellery, Leeuwarden
Source 9, page 183

14. Town Hall, Franeker
Source 9, page 183

15. Town Hall, Leyden
Source 9, page 186

16. Weigh House, Haarlem
Source 6, page 356

17. Meat Hall, Haarlem
Source 9, page 186

18. Amsterdam Exchange
Source 9, page 189




Slide List Continued- Source Numbers Refer to Bibliography


19. Town Hall, Klundert
Source 9, page 190

20. St. Catherine's Gate, Utrecht
Source 9, page 191

21. Mauritshuis, The Hague
Source 9, page 192

22. Mauritshuis, The Hague
Source 5, page 348

23. Marakerk, Leyden
Source 9, page 200

24. Cloth Hall, Leyden
Source 9, page 197

25. Huis Ten Bos, The Hague
Source 9, page 196

26. Huis Ten Bos, The Hague
Source 9, page 195

27. New Church, Haarlem
Source 9, page 185

28. New Church, Haarlem
Source 8, page 837

29. New Church, Haarlem
Source 9, page 200

30. New Church, The Hague
Source 5, page 349

31. Royal Palace, Amsterdam
Source 9, page 193

32. Royal Palace, Amsterdam
Source 8, page 834

33. Royal Palace, Amsterdam
Source 9, page 194

34. Trippenhuis, Amsterdam
Source 9, page 198

35. Town Hall, Enkhuizen
Source 8, page 826

36. Middachten Chateau
Source 9, page 198

37. Royal Library, The Hague
Source 8, page 826




Slide List Continued- Source Numbers Refer to Bibliography


38. No. 8 Lange Vijverberg, The Hague
Source 8, page 840

39. The Royal Theatre, The Hague
Source 9, page 203

40. Het Pavilijoen, Haarlem
Source 9, page 203

41. Project for Rosenberg House
Source 3, page 240

42. Painting by Van Doesburg
Source 10, page 33

43. Construction of Volume Relations
Source 3, page 238

44. Cafe de Unie, Rotterdam
Source 3, page 240

45. Huis ter Heide, Utrecht
Source 3, page 239

46. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
Source 8, page 1091

47. Diamond Workers Union Building, Amsterdam
Source 8, page 1118

48. Amsterdam Stock Exchange
Source 1, page 310

49. Amsterdam Stock Exchange
Source 7, page 125

50. Amsterdam Stock Exchange
Source 1, page 312

51. Amsterdam Stock Exchange
Source 7, page 124

52. Dageeraad Housing, Amsterdam
Source 8, page 1073

53. Schroder House, Utrecht
Source 10, page 26

54. Schroder House, Utrecht
Source 10, page 27

55. Schroder House Model
Source 3, page 232

56. Schroder House, Utrecht
Source 7, page 249












Slide List Continued- Source Numbers Refer to Bibliography


57. Schroder House, Utrecht
Source 7, page 247

58. Workers' Housing Estate, Hook of Holland
Source 3, page 239

59. Workers' Housing Estate, Hook of Holland
Source 7, page 257

60. Workers' Housing Estate, Hook of Holland
Source 7, page 255

61. Vondelschool, Hilversum
Source 8, page 1098

62. Van Nelle Factory, Rotterdam
Source 8, page 1109

63. Open Air School, Amsterdam
Source 7, page 285

64. Open Air School, Amsterdam
Source 7, page 287

65. Composition in Blue, Piet Mondrian
Source 3, page 232

66. Copy of 1919 Sideboard
Source 3, page 240

67. Chair by Gerrit Rietveld
Source 11, page 42

68. Chair by Gerrit Rietveld
Source 11, page 45

69. Chair by Gerrit Rietveld
Source 11, page 41

70. Schroder House, Amsterdam
Source 2, page 413






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