Revitalization of Sandpoint Park

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Title:
Revitalization of Sandpoint Park
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Book
Creator:
Magwire, Megan
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College of Design, Construction & Planning, University of Florida
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date:

Notes

General Note:
Landscape Architecture capstone project

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University of Florida Institutional Repository
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University of Florida
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Full Text







THE REVITALIZATION OF SANDPOINT PARK
A Senior Capstone Project

Presented to:
University of Florida
Department of Landscape Architecture
Spring 2011

By:
Megan Magwire

















THANK YOU

Thank you to my advisors and faculty at the University of Florida,
Department of Landscape Architecture for the years of knowledge
and support during my education.

Thank you to my parents for your love and encouragement. And
financial support, of course.

Thank you Jesse Bonine for standing by my side these past few
years. You were there for every all-nighter.

Special thanks to Rodney Honeycutt and the support staff at Hon-
eycutt & Associates for your generous aid in this project.

And thank you especially to Terry Lane and his support staff for
your time and enormous help in seeing this project finished.














THE

REVITALIZATION
OF
SANDPOINT


?.IEGAN, ?.IAG IRES


SPRF-',TG- -I-llt


TITUS7ILLE, FL
























TABLE OF CONTENTS


I. INTRODUCTION
A. Location ..................................................................... p. 2
B. Preview of Site .................... ....................................... 4
II. PROJECT INTENT
A. Reasons ...................................................................... p. 6
B. Mission Statement ..................................................... 7
II. RESEARCH & ANALYSIS
A. Case Studies ................................................................ p. 10
B. 3 Scales of Concern:
1) Regional Scale (City & County)
a. Cultural Analysis ................................. p. 14
b. Natural Resources Analysis .................. p. 16
2) Contextual Scale (Downtown)
a. Analysis
Points of Interest .......................... p. 18
Land-use .......................................... p. 20
Circulation ....................................... p. 21
Street Conditions .......................... p. 22
b. Synthesis ............................................... 23
Opportunities & Constraints
3) Site Specific Scale (Sandpoint Park)
a. Analysis
-Site Photos .................................... p. 26
History ............................................ p. 27
POE/ User Analysis .......................... p. 28
Vegetation ........................................ p. 33
Microclimate .................................... p. 34
Circulation ................................... ... p. 34
Utilities ........................................... p. 35
b. Synthesis ...................................... p. 36
Opportunities & Constraints
IV. PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT
A. Issues ........................................................................... p. 38
B. Goals & Objectives .................................................... 39
C. Program ............................................................... p.40
V. CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT
A. Conceptual Diagrams ............................................... p. 43
B. Final Concept Design ................................................ p. 44
VI. MASTERPLAN DEVELOPMENT
M asterplan ................................................................. .
Enlarged Plans
Perspectives




























INTRODUCTION


I. INTRODUCTION
A. Location
B. Preview of Site
II. 'PREI FCT INTENT
A. R -.::...ns
B. lMi .iin Statement
Ill. RESEARCH :\ ANALYSIS
A. Case Studies
B. 3 Scales of Concern:
1) hi-i11rl.1 Scale (City & County)
a. Cultural Analysis
b. Natural Resources .A' iv'sis
2) Contextual Scale (Downtown)
a. Ari -if.
Points of Interest
Land-use
-Circulation
street Conditions
b. Synthesis
C ',pp:' i i 'l.1 i i i: & Constraints
3) Site Sp- ific Scale ( pi'-.p:int Park)
a. A n,:rl, :.'.
Site Photos
History
-POE/ User An .:ilsis
ii to i; 'I
Microclimate
Circulation
Utilities
b. Synthesis
Opportunities & Constraints
I'. F'F. :GRAM DEVELOPMENT
A. Issues
'. Goals & :.'l .rtives
C. iF' ..:ram
V. CONCEPT DEVEL,.rPM FNT
A. Conceptual Diegrams
?. Final Concept Design
VI. MASTERPLAN DE\ ELO'P.OEi'JT
Masterplan
Enlarged Plans
Perspec ri,- e





LOCATION


Sandpoint Park is located in Titusville, FL at the water's edge of the Indian River. Within the
city it is at the intersection of US- 1 and the A. Max Brewer Causeway. The Causeway leads
across the Indian River to North Merritt Island where the Kennedy Space Center and Space
Shuttle launch pads are located.


I-q0 11-1





DEMOGRAPHICS


TITUSVILLE, FL TOTAL POPULATION: 40,670
TOTAL AREA: 26 sq mi
POP. DENSITY: 1.9 persons/sq mi

ETHNICITY
83.8% WHITE
12.6% AFRICAN AMERICAN
3.5% HISPANIC
0.9% ASIAN
0.4% NATIVE AMERICAN
0.7% OTHER

AGE
22.9% under 18
6.9% 18-24
26.2% 25-44
23.2% 45-64
20.8% 65+

TOTAL HOUSEHOLDS: 17,2oo
26.7% Families with children 18 or younger
47.9% Married couples
12.6% Single female head of household
35.5% Non-families

INCOME
Median Income for households: $35,607
Median Income for families: $42,453
12.4% of population is below the poverty line

EDUCATION
Residents 25 or older:
89.3% Completed high school
22.6% Have at least a bachelor's degree





PREVIEW OF SITE


The site is located within Titusville's Community Redevelopment
Area. It is waterfront and at the North end of Historic Downtown
Titusville.

SIZE: 32 acres
MAIN USES: Everyday passive & active recreation in-
cluding: strolling, dog-walking, fishing, picnicking, play
area use, and casual baseball field use. Occasional
large events are also held at the park including: the
Indian River Arts Festival, Wednesday Farmer's
Market, Cruise-in Car Shows, and private weddings &
parties.
EX. PROGRAM:
- Baseball Fields
- Playground
- Pavilions
- Picnic & Grills
- Boat Loading Dock
- Exercise Trail
- Plaza


ASTRONAUT PARK
MEMORIAL MAINTENANCE
PLAZA .. BLD'G 4
: =... _i ii f. i I,.. 4

























PROJECT INTENT


1. IN TF:,DUCTION
A. Location
B. Preview of Site
II. PROJECT INTENT
A. Reasons
B. Mission Statement
Ill. RESEARCH & ANALYSIS
A. Case Studies
B. 3 Scales of Concern:
1) -Re';i-n.11 Scale (City & CountV)
a. Cultural Analysis
b. Natural Resources .A, l 1.sis
2) Contextual Scale (Downtown)
a. Ai i.
Points of Interest
Land-use
-Circulation
streett Conditions
b. Synthesis
C- 'Cpp l :' i ifie : & Constraints
3) Site p e'.:ific Scale (i'-ii point Park)
a. Ar, l, :.i-.
Site Photos
History
-POE/ User An.ll'.'sis
-'-i station
Microclimate
Circulation
Utilities
b. Synthesis
Opportunities & Constraints
IV'. F'F:RGRAM DEVELOPMENT
A. Issues
.. Goals & ,Lei-'..tives
C. Program
V. CONCEPT DEVEL. 'PM FNT
A. Conceptual Di!grams
?. Final Concept Design
VI. MASTERPLAN DEVELOPCF.IENT
Masterplan
Enlarged Plans
Perspectives





PROJECT INTENT


WHY THIS SITE?
1) Personal interest. Having grown up in Titusville and having much
familiarity with the area, it was my desire to conduct a research project that
could aid in the beautification and sustainment of Titusville, and promote
community health and interaction.

2) Concerns for the City of Titusville.
a. Low Community Support. In general, Titusville is slow and quiet. Many of
the younger population complain of "nothing to do" and are not satisfied
living in Titusville. Figure 1 shows a Youtube video released online by a
young resident of Titusville. It sarcastically highlights many of the negative
aspects of Titusville. While not everyone shares this view, the video
unfortunately represents the views of many residents.

b. Downtown Under-use. Downtown has experienced years of decline and
disinvestment. Currently the city is making a large effort to revive
downtown.

c. Space Program Changes. As the shuttle program retires and the space
program transfers largely from the public sector's hands to private
investment, many residents are unsure and worried for the future as the
space program that boomed Titusville faces changes and leaves many
Titusville residents currently without jobs.


3) City of Titusville desires.
a. Redevelop downtown. Historic downtown is especially in need of being
revived. In 1984, Titusville created a Community Redevelopment Agency
(CRA) for this area (Sandpoint Park is located within this area).

b. Attract prospective residents & visitors. The enhancement, use, and
beautification of public spaces will be essential to attract new people and
private investment & infill development.


You = tcl M lyve twi Vdn i
Unofficial Titusville, FL Tourism video, By: Ryan Williams
gbtbva v 69weos Subtnbe


Searh B1


Ie L M + Addto Shae Embed a 63,862
cgDbtba4v :a? 21 '
Unofcal Tounsm V teo rf TEule, FL Made by Ryan Warns of Taus
FIGURE 1. Online Youtube video with over 60,000 views and307 likes
to only 21 dislikes. General comments for the video painted Titusville
in a negative light. Source 1


S outrage uver "iounsm" viaeo Iu y1
S 7TITUSVILLE. BREVARD COUNTY K W
FIGURE 2. The video and the uproar it caused made Central Florida
news headlines. Source 2


_




PROJECT INTENT:


Celebrate the culture of Titusville.
To transform Sandpoint Park from an under-used, recreational
program-based park to a culturally significant landmark that
connects to downtown Titusville and makes a connection to
Titusville's culture through historical and educational interpre-
tation.




























CASE STUDIES


I. IlNTF:,DUCTION
A. Location
B. Preview of Site
II. 'F')HEIFCT INTENT
A. Reasons
B. ,;-'rLiihn Statement
III. RESEARCH & ANALYSIS
A. Case Studies
3. 3 Scales of Concern:
1) -Re-in.il Scale (City & Count'')
a. Cultural Analysis
b. Natural Resources An vihsis
2) Contextual Scale (Downtown)
a. A ri .- 1.-.
Points of Interest
Land-use
-Circulation
streett Conditions
b. Synthesis
Cpp:'i' t. if-i, *: & Constraints
3) Site Specific Scale (i .ipoint Park)
a. Ar ,-l, -.
Site Photos
History
-POE/ User A .-i'.'sis
''- -itation
Microclimate
Circulation
Utilities
b. Synthesis
OFpprtunities & Constraints
I'.'. F'F:RGRAM DEVELOPMENT
A. Issues
'. Goals & :Lb-,.rtives
C. F'i..''.am
V. CONCEPT DEVEL,.PM FNT
A. Conceptual Di!grams
?. Final Concept Design
VI MASTERPLAN DEVELOPM'.1EiJT
Masterplan
Enlarged Plans
Perspe r. i- e





CASE STUDIES: MILLENNIUM PARK




RELATION TO SANDPOINT PARK: In the challenge of transforming Sandpoint Park from an active recreational based program to a cul-
ture based program, Millenium Park is a great example of optional program elements, and similar in size.


p WW "'l-.^ M I


SIZE: 24.5 acres


PROGRAM ELEMENTS:
Amphitheater
Pavillions
Open space
amphitheater
Lurie Garden
Promendads
Galleries
Restaurant
Sculpture Plaza
Fountain Plaza
Ice Rink
Welcome Center
Bridgeways
Cycle center
Harris Theater
Rooftop terrace


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CASE STUDIES: RIVERFRONT PARK


RELATION TO SANDPOINT PARK:
Located in Cocoa, FL this park supports the same climate and natural resources as Titusville, FL. Also, the Cocoa population is comparable to
Titusville's population, and there are strong similarities in the culture and people of both Titusville and Cocoa; therefore, it was important to
study what is successful in the Riverfront Park at Cocoa and what could be improved upon.

PROGRAM ELEMENTS:
Amphitheater
Lawn "
Splash fountain
boardwalk
butterfly garden ..
children's play area
boat ramps
picnic pavilions


Ia ~e 2



























REGIONAL SCALE

ANALYSIS


I. INTRODUCTION
A. Location
P. Preview of Site
II. F'I,.) ECT INTENT
A. Reasons
B. Mh;rii.in Statement
Ill. RESEARCH ,': ANALYSIS
A. Case Studies
B. 3 Scales of Concern:
i) Regional Scale (City & County)
a. Cultural Analysis
b. Natural Resources Analysis
2) Contextual Scale (Downtown)
a. Ana.l i.
Points of Interest
Land-use
-Circulation
streett Conditions
b. Synthesis
-Op:'11i, if.jliti,-i & Constraints
3) -.i-' Sl-:'ific Scale (5 n il.jp:iri Park)
a. Ar' .l ,sis
Site Photos
History
-POE/ User iAnll.'sis
'.. e:' e t.:o r i;','-1
-Microclimate
Circulation
-Utilities
b. Synthesis
Opportunities & Constraints
.'. F' OGRAM DEVELOPMENT
A. Issues
P. Goals & IOLi-e.tves
C. Program
V. CONCEPT DEVELOP. FME NT
A. Conceptual Divgrams
B. Final Concept Design
VI. MASTEF-'LAN DEVELOP.1 EiiT
Masterplan
Enlarged Plans
Perspectives





CULTURAL ANALYSIS
What culturally identifies and expresses the people and place of Titusville, FL?






1. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER (KSC)/ SPACE PROGRAM
Of course, the most culturally identifying element of Titusville is the Kennedy Space
Center & the Space Program. Titusville was once nicknamed Space City and today its
motto is "Gateway to Nature and Space". KSC includes more than just shuttle
launches it features IMAX films, facility tours, museums, interactive shows, and a
rocket garden (Figure 1). The Space Program boomed Titusville's population, the
tourism it has brought nurtured Titusville's economy. It is the iconic element of
Titusville, FL.

2. WARBIRD MUSEUM & THE TICO AIRSHOW
The people of Titusville are very patriotic and many public spaces are dedicated to vet-
erans and wartime. In general, there is a strong interest in military memorabilia. The
10 acre large Warbird Museum displays and restores indigenous airplanes of the
world's military Air Forces starting before WW1 to present. It's annual Tico Airshows
are a favorite event amonst residents and tourists alike. Locals who don't attend the
airshow itself will set out lawn chairs along US 1 and listen to and watch the perform-
ing war jets dancing through the sky.

3. ANTIQUE CARS & THE TITUSVILLE "CRUISE-INS"
Titusville is proud to be the home of many men & women that have a passion for
restoring vehicles, whether they're aircraft pulled from the bottom of Lake Michigan
and restored (as seen at the Warbird Museum), or the many popular antique cars that
can be found in all corners of Titusville. Every large event in Titusville would not be
complete without an antique car show. These vintage car shows, called "Cruise-ins"
are the largest antique car shows held in Brevard County, and are often held at the
project site, Sandpoint Park, throughout the year.


Figure 1. RocketGarden atKSC
I IF. VF


figure 2. Kestorea Airplane at warDira ivuseum



Fi ^:? A


Figure 3. Titusville's antique firetruck at the grand opening
of the new Causeway





CULTURAL ANALYSIS
What culturally identifies and expresses the people and place of Titusville, FL?






4. INDIAN RIVER WATER RECREATION & FISHING
Historically, Titusville was first settled as Sandpoint, FL and was mostly a fishing and
hunting community. Fishing and water recreation were especially important to this
community along the Indian River. The historic houses along Riverside Drive in Titus-
ville were all oriented towards the river, and the basic means of travel was by small
boat or canoe; the river was essentially the road. The community of Titusville evolved
from a mainly fishing & hunting community to an agricultural producer of citrus and
pineapple to what it is today as a byproduct of the Space Program. Yet with all those
changes, Titusville today still has a very strong tie with the Indian River and the Atlan-
tic Ocean to the farther east.

Redfishing is a popular sport in Titusville. Annually, the Inshore Fishing Association
(IFA) holds the Redfish Tour and sponsors a tournament in Titusville. Fly-fishing is also
becoming increasingly popular in Titusville.

Bioluminescent kayaking tours (kayak at night through glowing water) are also given
in Titusville on the Indian River.

To celebrate Titusville's love of the Indian River, a traditional festival is held annually:
the Indian River Arts Festival. Besides the carnival games and rides, it includes an
open-air market with arts, crafts, food & military displays, scheduled live entertain-
ment performances, the Little Miss and Mr. Indian River Festival Beauty Contest, bull
rides, and duck races among many other things. It is held at Sandpoint Park.





OPPORTUNITIES: CONSTRAINTS:
Space theme design inspiration Maintain open lawn for events
Increase cultural events & use of park Design wide road shoulders for
Design facilities to accommodate additional event parking
cultural events
Opportunity to connect to a blueway
system (kayak rentals)


rI1UI i. nr-flISTcr. 1SIUCeJitfi IVC 'Tr I. J[ IT rusVIUe, r
faced the river rather than the road.


Figure 2. Fishing has always been an important part ot the culture of
Titusville, FL.


Figure 3. The Indian River Arts Festival c
Indian River at Sandpoint Park every year.





NATURAL RESOURCES ANALYSIS
Titusville is surrounded by a great variety of natural resources that help define the unique character of the city and its people:


1. CANAVERAL NATIONAL SEASHORE
The beach is a popular destination when at Titusville. Fortunately, Titusville basically has
the Canaveral National Seashore's 24 miles of pristine, undisturbered beach at its back
door. It is an important endangered and threatened sea turtle nesting area. Playalinda
Beach is considered the southern end of the national seashore and is the beach most asso-
ciated with Titusville. Titusville Beach once existed, but is no longer open to the public as
it is now federally owned and is a part of the Kennedy Space Center.

2. MERRITT ISLAND NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE
Like the city of Titusville, the wildlife refuge was both given life from the space program,
and preserved by it. Development will not happen in this area, which has left a beautiful
example of what the natural ecosystems looked like along the Indian River prior to urban
build-up. It is 140,000 acres within the Kennedy Space Center that is not developed with
the space industry. It includes a wide variety of habitats from coastal dunes, saltwater
estuaries & marshes, scrub, pine flatwoods, and hardwood hammocks. Recreational ac-
tivities include numerous wildlife drives, bird & wildlife observation towers, manatee ob-
servation deck, fishing & hunting opportunities and boating and paddling. Also, environ-
mental education programs are held at the refuge.

3. ST. JOHNS RIVER TO SEA LOOP BICYCLE TOUR
This 260 mile paved & unpaved bicycle trail begins in Palatka, FL and travels to Titusville,
FL before crossing to the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (MNWR) and then up
through the Canaveral National Seashore, north towards Palatka again. The trail passes
adjacent to Sandpoint Park.

4. SPACECOAST BIRDING &WILDLIFE FESTIVAL
Birdwatching is a favorite activity in Titusville throughout the year. The Festival especially
attracts thousands of people to Titusville. It holds various activities such as exhibits, art
show & competitions, keynote presentations, and field workshops among many other ac-
tivities. Off-site activities are also held at the MNWR and the Canaveral National Seashore
where wade and shore birds can always be seen.


OPPORTUN CITIES:
- Educate public about native plants
- Opportunity to connect bike loop into
design


Figure 1. Playalinda Beach

















Figure 2. This bicycle loop starts in Palatka, FL and passes adj-
acant to Sandpoint Park in Titusville before heading East towards
the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge and North again up the
coast and back towards Palatka.


CONSTRAINTS:
- Some native plants are unavailable in nurseries
- Prevent conflict between bicyclists, vehicular, &
pedestrian traffic
























CONTEXTUAL SCALE

ANALYSIS


I. INTRODUCTION
A. Location
P. Preview of Site
11. F'RLIECT INTENT
A. I-e.-.ns
B. Vlri,.in Statement
IIl. RESEARCH ": ANALYSIS
A. Case Stiui.:li
B. 3 Scales of Concern:
1) Re 1i1.:1l Scale (Cit, & Count'.)
a. Cultural Analysis
b. Natural Resources An, ,,iisis
2) Contextual Scale (Downtown)
a. Analysis
Points of Interest
Land-use
Circulation
Street Conditions
b. Synthesis
Opportunities & Constraints
3) -.i'r Specific Scale (S -lI-1p,:liri l Park)
a. Analysis
Site Photos
History
-POE/ User iAn ,l.'sis
2'' e1"e to: r i i,,
-Microclimate
Circulation
-Utilities
b. Synthesis
Opportunities & Constraints
IV. F'F )GRAM DEVELOPMENT
A. Issues
P. Goals & Obi.L,i-j;ves
C. Program
V. CONCEPT DEVEL,. PrFENT
A. Conceptual Digrams
B. Final Cnc,.-pt Design
VI. MASTEF-P'LAN DEVELOPME-i'JT
Masterplan
Enlarged Plans
Perspectives





POINTS OF INTEREST


CRA BOUNDARY

MARINA PARK -



TITUSVILLE MARINA \


SANDPOINT PARK


STORMWATER PARK

VETERAN'S MEMORIAL
PARK

HISTORIC SOCIETY OF
N. BREVARD MUSEUM


(8'


VETERAN'S MEMORIAL
FISHING PIER&
RESTARAUNT


HISTORIC DOWN. ."
TOWN CORE A
F^W
7-gA


9


SPACE SHUTTLE LAUNCH PADS ( t-

CANAVERAL NAT'L SEASHORE ( -jj


PARRISH PARK


S*'ASTRONAUT WALK
OF FAME PARK

HISTORIC RESIDENTIAL


MERRITT ISLAND NAT'L
WILDLIFE REFUGE


N

The success of revitalizing Sandpoint Park will depend heavily on connecting the park to other elements within the CRA. The Park is located within a cluster
of parks in Downtown Titusville. Implementing a pedestrian friendly parkway system and connecting the parks together and to the commercial and resi-
dential areas of Historic Downtown will invite a mix of users to the park and offer those users a variety of sight-seeing options. Currently, the Max Brewer
Causeway and streetscaping improvements along US-i have already improved pedestrian circulation and movement through the area.


7Lii~;~l






Marina Park is newly constructed. It shares many of the suc-
cessful program elements that are currently existing at Sand-
point Park: play area, walkpaths, fishing & loading docks, &
picnic pavilions. As well, it further meets the Titusville
community's needs by including a much desired skateboard
park and off-leash dog park.

The Titusville Municipal Marina is an important cultural refer-
ence of Titusville's fishing and water recreation community.
Many residents of the Marina are everyday users of Sand-
point Park.

3 \As part of the goals set forth in Titusville's CRA plan, the
historic downtown has recently implemented street improve-
ments & landscaping.


7 The Astronaut Walk of Fame honors the men and women of the
very culturally significant Space Program.

8 The Veteran's Memorial Fishing Pier and the seafood restaraunt
located at its base, are favorite local hangouts.
Q Parrish Park is heavily used for water sport recreation: jet skiing,
wind sailing, para-sailing, boating & fishing.

The Space Program has a strong influence on the demographics &
culture of Titusville. It is Titusville's biggest cultural attraction.


@


The Canaveral National Seashore is 24 miles long of pristine,
natural, undeveloped beach. It is a beautiful natural resource for
the residents and visitors of Titusville.


4A Some locals travel to the Historic Riverfront Neighborhood just
to walk or drive down River Rd and see the beautiful historic
homes.

5 The urban stormwater park is also a new result of the CRA plan.

SThe Veteran's Memorial Park; many resident's of Titusville are
very patriotic. This Park also has a boardwalk over the water
that is a direct lineup to the Space Shuttle launch pads.


1 Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge is 140,000 acres large. It
Sis a great example of the natural flora & fauna of the area. It in-
cludes nature drives, bird-watching observation towers, and
opens seasonally to hunters.





SURROUNDING LANDUSE


So the North, Sandpoint Park is bordered by the I tusville Municipal Marina, and to the South by three large high-rise condominiums. All other surrounding
landuse is composed of mixed commercial (retail & restaurant/bar). However, most of this surrounding landuse zoned for commercial is currently vacant.













aa
p .1


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.:. -as


Sidewalks are located along most streets within the downtown core. Surprisingly, the largest lack of sidewalks is located near the cluster of Sandpoint Park
and other downtown parks.


1.
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STREET CONDITIONS


POOR STREET CONDITIONS 1 2 1 11 1; 1?



\ery j2 .d I ul r In
No buH r be r, 1 r :J :rr :l'.I. r t rH i. .
NG:: nh, :J p.^rli.
No butter, .el'i::: :r ,'n .I;,.uI.,rI>Ir,,t. I.,i;.' .'. tr :.' .' .' .' .' A .' .'tr:





Nc .r


(> \I) Q6/ Streets conditions \were evaluated by ho\w many negative negative marks the\ received:
Category 1: Good Conditions (green) less than 3
Category 2: Neutral Conditions (yellow) between 4 & 8
Category 3: Poor Conditions (red) more than 9





SYNTHESIS


Within a i mile radius of the site, there are great opportunities to connect Sandpoint Park to the surrounding parks and historic districts by establishing a
pedestrian friendly parkway system that encourages the flow of users throughout the entire CRA. The new causeway is already promoting vigorous pedes-
trian activity. Based on inventory & analysis of the downtown area, a pedestrian heirarchy was established that focused on attracting downtown users to
the waterfront, and connecting the parks together into a park system with the surrounding commercial & residential areas. At the south end of Sandpoint
Park, a node was created at the intersection of the two most major pedestrian flows; here there is a great opportunity to create a focal point and/or gath-
ering space that blends the park setting with the urban downtown atmosphere.



























SITE SCALE

ANALYSIS


I. INTRODUCTION
A. Location
P. Preview of Site
II. F'rI.)JET INTENT
A. Fe.1-.ons
B. l;,ri..ii Statement
IIl. RESEARCH & ANALYSIS
A. Case s'rii.-: -
B. 3 Scales of Concern:
1) e-ci11.11l Scale (City & Count'.')
a. Cultural Analysis
b. Natural Resources .A2n -:isis
2) Contextual Scale ;'(Iwntown)
a. Ari.:rli, i.
Points of Interest
Land-use
Circulation
.rreet Conditions
b. Synthesis
Cl:''p.:'t ij eii, & Constraints
3) Site Specific Scale (Sandpoint Park)
a. Analysis
Site Photos
History
POE/ User Analysis
Vegetation
Microclimate
Circulation
Utilities
b. Synthesis
Opportunities & Constraints
IV. 'F )GRAM DEVELOPMEli.T
A. Issues
P. Goals & bI:-.li ves
C. Program
V. CONCEPT DEVEL,.i PIENT
A. Conceptual Divgrams
B. Final Concept Design
VI. MASTEF,'PIAN DEVELOPi'.PEilT
Masterplan
Enlarged Plans
Perspectives





SITE PHOTO INVENTORY
1


6








7







N8


**Photos outlined in green are good vieN s.
Photos outlined in red are bad views.
Photos without an outline are neutral views.


i) Many families like to fish at Sandpoint Park. Proper disposal sites for recycling fish line should be placed along the water's edge. 2) Poor view of North
entrance into park from Marina. 3) Shadedplay area 4) Astronaut Memorial Service held at the Astronaut Memorial "Plaza" at Sandpoint Park. The
space is actually the vehicular roundabout at the blocked off SW entrance and too small for the size of the cultural event -further evidence of the changing
user needs at Sandpoint Park and the necessity to change the design to match user needs. 5) Pavilion at the tip of Sandpoint Park 6) Great view through
center of park 7) Gathering at Valenci Pavilion for the start of the 5K marathon to open the new causeway 8) Poor site conditions C




HISTORY


FIRST BRIDGE & BOARDWALK

SECOND TURN-STYLE BRIDGE


TODAY: CAUSEWAY


a
U?
1^&^. tl
* fw -, kt-j ^ i -^


In this aerial from 1951, a segment of the first bridge to span the Indian River and connect Titusville to North Merritt Island is shown here attached
to Sandpoint Park. By the time of this aerial, the first bridge had been retired and replaced with a second turn-style bridge. The leftover segment
from the first wooden bridge became the Veteran's Memorial Fishing Pier, as shown. Today, there are no original remnants of the first wooden
bridge left standing, and the second bridge has now been retired and placed with the current causeway. The newly retired turn-style bridge is an
important element to the unique history of Titusville; it was one of the very few still standing in the country, and even more rare it still worked. As
an element of historical interpretation, the gear from the turn-style bridge will hopefully find a home at Sandpoint Park.





POST OCCUPANCY EVALUATION (P.O.E.)- INTERVIEWS

QUESTIONARE:
1) How often do you visit Sandpoint Park?
2) About how much time do you spend at the park on your visits?

3) How far do you travel to visit the park?
4) What are your usual modes of tranprrt dtion to Sandpoint
Park?
5)VWhat do you hlke best about the park?


6)\'What keeps you from visiting Sandpoint P.rk as
much as vc:u vWould like to?


7) If you could change or add thinh to Sandpoint Park what
vould you do?


8)Additional comments:


RESULTS:
How often do you visit Sandpoinr
Park?
a. Everyday 111111 25%
b. Few times/wk 11111 21%
c. Few times/mnth 111111111 38%
d. Few times/yr IIII 17%
About how much time do you spend at the park on your visits?
a. Less than lhr 111111111 38%
c. 1-2 hrs 11111111111 46%
d. More than 2 hrs !1ll 17%
How far do you travel to visit the
park?
a. Less than 1/2mi III 13%
b. Imi IIII 21%
c. 1-lOmi 1111111111111 54%
d. 10+ mi 11l 13%
What are your usual modes of transportation to Sandpoint Park?
a, Auto vehicle 1111111111111111111 79%
b. Walk IIII 17%
c. Bicycle I 4%
What do you like best about the park?
a. Waterfront 11II1
b. Pathstostroll 111111
c. Openness IIII
d. Playground II11
e. Dog-friendly IIl1
f. W wildlife IIII
g. Quiet/Peaceful 1III
h. People watching II1
i. Fishing II
j. Views II
\\hat keeps you from visiting Sandpoint Park as
much as you would like to?
a. Nothing I1111111
b. Time constraints 11111
c. Heat/weather III1
d. Not enough user activities II
e. Transients
f. No night time use





POST OCCUPANCY EVALUATION (P.O.E.) USER ACTIVITIES


Age (# of years) Race Sex
Activity 0-12 13-20 21-35 36-55 55+ White Black Other Total
M F M F M F M F M F M F M F M F M F
Strolling 3 6 2 4 9 6 4 4 7 6 21 20 4 6 25 26 51 22%
Dog-walking 2 4 4 6 3 2 9 12 9 12 21 s
Sitting on bench 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 6 4 6 4 10 4%
Picnicking 1 3 1 4 4 2 3 _5 8 1 1 1 2 7 11 18 8%
Informal sports 7 4 1 1 __ 8 5 8 5 13 s%
Baseball
field/batting cage 1 6 4 2 8 2 3 1 11 2 13 s%
Fishing 3 5 2 5 1 1 _8 4 2 2 1 11 6 17 7%
Valenci Pavilion 1 2 1 1 1 6 1 4 10 4 10 14 6%
Play area 17 14 2 5 14 1 2_ 21 27 2 3 2 3 32 55 2s%
Sitting in car _1 4 5 4 3 8 6 3 8 9 17 7%
Bicycling __ __ 2 1 1 ___ 3 1 ___ 3 1 4 2%
34 34 14 9 32 35 19 29 16 111 101 99 12 15 2 4 115 118
Total
o 68 23 67 48 27 200 27 6 49% 51% 232

29% 10% 29% 20% 11% 86% 11% 3%

These results are based off of two visits of documentation to Sandpoint Park. The first visit was on a Saturday from 2:oo pm to 3:30 pm. The second visit
was on a Monday from noon to 2:30pm. Both days were sunny, windy, and 77 81 degrees farenhiet. Play at the play area and strolling are the two most
popular user activities at Sandpoint Park. Users are predominantly white and vary in age.





USER ANALYSIS AGE


ACTIVITY


NUMBER OF USERS PER AGE


PLAY AREA
STROLLING
DOG WALKING
PICNICKING
FISHING
SITTING IN CAR
VALENCI PAVILION
INFORMAL SPORTS
BASEBALL FIELDS
SITTING ON BENCH


BICYCLING


-DITCH


F. -


SN


CHILD
TEENAGER
* ADULT
* SENIOR


*-- S> .:


Users aggregrate mostly to the north of the storm-
water ditch that runs through the site.


P.O.E. AGGREGATED ACTIVITY MAP BY AGE


wlsf


- '-I.





USER ANALYSIS- GENDER


ACTIVITY
PLAY AREA
STROLLING
DOG WALKING
PICNICKING
FISHING
SITTING IN CAR
VALENCI PAVILION
INFORMAL SPORTS
BASEBALL FIELDS
SITTING ON BENCH
BICYCLING


NUMBER OF USERS PER GENDER













-'- T


-DITCH


> N


* FEMALE
* MALE


Users aggregrate mostly to the north of the storm-
water ditch that runs through the site.


P.O.E. AGGREGATED ACTIVITY MAP BY GENDER


, i. ...


Y /





USER ANALYSIS- ETHNICITY


ACTIVITY
PLAY AREA
STROLLING
DOG WALKING


NUMBER OF USERS PER ETHNICITY


PICNICKING
FISHING
SITTING IN CAR
VALENCI PAVILION
INFORMAL SPORTS
BASEBALL FIELDS
SITTING ON BENCH
BICYCLING


-DITCH











,- ^


* WHITE- CAUCASIAN
* AFRICAN AMERICAN
* OTHER- INDIAN


P.O.E. AGGREGATED ACTIVITY MAP BY ETHNICITY


Users aggregrate mostly to the north of the
stormwater ditch that runs through the site.


~;;;;;;~~irrw iir
-5 .. I (


;x i' .,
*^Piff-.^





VEGETATION


* CANOPYTRI
PALM TREE


> N


Sandpoint Park is known for its openness and palm-lined drives. The most
shade is located at the west of the park where the play area is located. In
general, the vegetation is healthy and in good shape. However there is a
lack of understory and ornamental plants at the park. In answer to this
there is a great opportunity to implement new vegetation and use it to filter
stormwater runoff, invite wildlife, and/or educate the public on native
plants.


Q_





MICROCLIMATE


COOL BREEZE FROM
NW WINDS

4,


* COOLEST


I HOTTEST


/ -- 4
R R MAX BREWER CAUSEWAY
MAR ROADS
U MAJOR VEHICUiAR TIRAFC
mm MINOR VEHICULAR TRAFFIC
PAVED PEDESTRIAN PATHS
O NON-PAVED PEDESTRIAN CIRCULATION
Again, many users circulate mostly north of the stormwater ditch; there is limited
access points across the ditch. Residents from the Marina use the pedestrian en-
trance at the NW, and residents of the high-rise condominiums use the entrances &
sidewalks to the South; but for the most part, users arrive to the park by vehicle
from the west entrance. Entrances into the park are very pedestrian un-friendly,
and no sidewalks are adjacent to the park. At the tip of the park users walk North
on the existing sidewalk before turning around at the pavilion and continuing back
south towards the center of the park. Many users opt to walk Marina side in the
grass rather than traveling down the same sidewalk again. Overall, there are great
opportunities to improve circulation within the park, and to improve pedestrian
access to it.


The center of the park and play area are coolest and most sheltered from winds.
The Southern part of Sandpoint Park, which is closest to Downtown, is the most un-
inviting during hot temperatures. At the north tip of the park, the area is sur-
roundedby water and has very little windbreak from harsh winds.


)N


Fim





TOPOGRAPHY & HYDROLOGY


UTILITIES


'P 'AHIC












,- -
,C:~ 7^b


SSTORMWATER POND
- DIRECTION OF
WATER FLOW


The site is relatively flat and water is sloped into drainage swales away from
raised user activity areas. There is a swale that runs through the center of
the park, and one that runs along the road's edge to the South. Both storm-
water swales lead into the stormwater pond at the West. However, sedi-
ment build-up in the ditches requires them to be dredged on a frequent
basis to prevent flooding, especially at the south end of the site.


>IN


- UNERGROUNO UNTIL'
- STORMWATER PPIPIN
O ELECTRIC BOX
SCATCHMENT BASIN
SLIGHTPOLE


Underground utilities run throughout the site, and perforated stormwater
pipes collect water in the swales and convey them to the storm water pond.


IPA"


~dk~-~9~ ; J"
.;;,
~i17~
I;YL~L~C;-~F~Pl~s,





SYNTHESIS


9


Preserve views from park to the Marina


-RESOLVE EXISTING CONFLICT
BETWEEN PEDESTRIANS, FISH
ERMEN, & DOG WALKERS





DITCH CAUSES DISCONNECT
OF PARK SPACES



PRESERVE EXISTING
PAVILION; OPPOR
UNITY FOR
EDUCATION AND
INTREPRETATION


Enhance views looking out over the river.


N


Removing the unused baseball fields to the south and
replacing them with program elements that tie in with
downtown, will open up opportunities to better con-
nect the park with the surrounding commercial and
residential areas, and allow for more space to hold
public gatherings and community activities that cel-
ebrate the culture of Titusville.


npi)>
























PROGRAM

DEVELOPMENT


L INTRODUCTION
A. Location
P. Preview of Site
II. F'PRO) ECT INTENT
A. Reasons
B. Ml;ri.'-n Statement
Ill. RESEARCH ':' ANAL', IS
A. Case Studies
B. 3 Scales of Concern:
1) -e.;i'n.l Scale (City & Count'.)
a. Cultural Analysis
b. Natural Resources A'n :il ,sis
2) Contextual Scale (Downtown)
a. Ar,. i -,i i'-.
Points of Interest
Land-use
-Circulation
Street Conditions
b. Synthesis
CppI :l f'ii. ii if.i: & Constraints
3) -.ij _- S"-.:ific Scale (i'l-lri.lpoint Park)
a. A '-ril, :.'.
Site Photos
History
-POE/ User Ani.il'.'sis
,, t "- 1 to r i i 1.
Microclimate
Circulation
Utilities
b. Synthesis
Opportunities & Constraints
IV. PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT
A. Issues
B. Goals & Objectives
C. Program
V. CONCEPT DEVEL.rF'PE NT
A. Conceptual Di!grams
B. Final Concept Design
VI. MASTE -RLAN DEVELOP M EIIT
Masterplan
Enlarged Plans
Perspectives





ISSUES


CITY COMMUNITY SCALE:
Lay-offs from the Space Program and concerns for future development
Low sense of pride of place

DOWNTOWN CRA SCALE:
Poor connections to parks
Vacancies & mild building deterioration
Weak market to draw people to area
Lack of downtown exposure to waterfront

SITE SPECIFIC, SANDPOINT PARK SCALE:
Uses of the park are changing from heavily recreational- based to
include culturally- based uses; however, there are no sufficient, quality
spaces to accommodate these changing uses & new needs.
Bad accessibility to park
Poor circulation through park
Unused spaces
Flooding & stormwater drainage problems throughout site
General rundown atmosphere




GOALS & OBJECTIVES


1) CONNECTSANDPOINT PARK TO DOWNTOWN & OTHER
CULTURALLY SIGNIFICANT POINTS OF INTEREST.
Connect waterfront parks together
-Add wide sidewalks and bike lanes to improve pedestrian and bicyclist circulation
& flow
Add and/or improve streetscaping

2) PROVIDE QUALITY SPACES AT SANDPOINT PARK TO HOLD
CULTURAL EVENTS & BRING THE TITUSVILLE COMMUNITY
TOGETHER.
-Add an amphitheater to house musical bands & choirs,
memorial services, etc.
Maintain open lawn area for popular passive recreation and
large seasonal events.

3) EXPRESS THE CULTURE OF TITUSVILLE BY INCORPORATING
HISTORICAL & EDUCATIONAL INTERPRETATION AT THE SITE.
Incorporate old bridge turnwheel gear into design
Provide labeled native ecosystem gardens for education

4) PREVENT FLOODING & REDUCE STORMWATER DRAINAGE ISSUES.
Increase stormwater retention areas
Add vegetation to filter & uptake water and nutrients





PROGRAM ANALYSIS


CULTURAL ELEMENTS
- Amphitheater
- Entry Plaza
- Promenade


EDUCATIONAL/ INTREPRETA-
TION ELEMENTS
- Native Ecosystem/ Butterfly Garden
- Old Bridge Turnwheel Motor
- Signage


RECREATIONAL
ELEMENTS
- Distance- marked sidewalk
- Bicycle path
-Additional Benches & Seating
- Multi- purpose open lawn
-Additional Stormwater Pond &
designated RC Boat area
- Existing play area
-Additional picnic areas


SERVICE ELEMENTS
- Food/ concession
- Night lighting
- Fishing line recycle bins
- Updated Bathrooms
-Additional Parking
























CONCEPT

DEVELOPMENT


. IJNTRODUCTICOH
A. Location
P. Preview of Site
II. F'PRO) ECT INTENT
A. Reasons
B. Ml;,h-.i Statement
Ill. RESEARCH :'& ANAL', IS
A. Case Studies
B. 3 Scales of Concern:
1) -e.;i'n.l Scale (City & Count'.)
a. Cultural Analysis
b. Natural Resources A,' :il ,sis
2) Contextual Scale (Downtown)
a. Ari, -, i'-.
Points of Interest
Land-use
-Circulation
Street Conditions
b. Synthesis
Crp',i:'i if.11ifis .; & Constraints
3) .ijr-' S_ -.:ific Scale (i' -iri.lpoint Park)
a. A '-ril, :i.
Site Photos
History
-POE/ User An il',.'sis
I_- 'to: r it I 1i
Microclimate
Circulation
Utilities
b. Synthesis
OppFrtunities & Constraints
.''. FT OGRAM DEVELOPMENT
A. Issues
.. Goals & :,'Li-,.tives
C. Program
V. CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT
A. Conceptual Diagrams
B. Final Concept Design
VI. MASTE-'PLAN DEVELOPiEI-iJT
Masterplan
Enlarged Plans
Perspectives




INSPIRATION & VISION.





CONCEPTUAL DIAGRAMS


AMPHITHEATER

-NATIVE GARDENS

-KAYAK RENTAL


-KAYAK RENTAL

-NATIVE GARDENS



r BRIDGE GEAR


FOOD/ CONCESSION

ENTRY PLAZA -


AMPHITHEATER

ENTRY PLAZA


- FOOD/
CONCESSION
t---PROMENADE


CONCE T 1: NEWSTORMWATER LOCATION


1: EMPHASIZE EXISTING HYDROLOGY




FINAL CONCEPT TO MASTERPLAN


s
;:P '*
* .. ,



,. ,<
K

'4


\.. ',
*PV


PROPOSED PROGRAM
ELEMENTS:
-ENTRY PLAZA TO REPLACE
ASTRONAUT MEMORIAL PLAZA
-AMPHITHEATER
-DEFINED OPEN SPACE
-PROMENADE
WATER FEATURE
-NATIVE PLANT & BUTTERFLY GARDEN


I took the first two concepts and welded them together to make the
third, final concept shown above.


SI 3
kI
I .. ..-I ^
v*ttto, i(*
Ij ^t-i
gP^^ --=--'


/

























MASTERPLAN


1. INTF:R DUCTICO N
A. Location
.. Preview of Site
11. F'F:,)_ ECT INTENT
A. Reasons
B. Ml, i..in Statement
Ill. RESEARCH '\ ANALYSIS
A. Case Studies
B. 3 Scales of Concern:
1) -Re'i11.11l Scale (City & Count.')
a. Cultural Analysis
b. Natural Resources An :il ,'sis
2) Contextual Scale (Downtown)
a. Ar ,.-l -, .
Points of Interest
Land-use
Circulation
-treet Conditions
b. Synthesis
C 'pp,:',l il.1ifii .: & Constraints
3) -.ii- Spec-ific Scale i '- i.point Park)
a. A nr' l, .:.i.
Site Photos
History
-POE/ User An.ll'.'sis
', 1 I--' to.: r i 1. 1
Microclimate
Circulation
Utilities
b. Synthesis
Opportunities & Constraints
.''. PF:1'GRAM DEVELOPMENT
A. Issues
.. Goals & 'LI-,..tives
C. Program
V. CONCEPT DEVEL,. P E NT
A. Conceptual Diegrams
B. Final Concept Design
VI. MASTERPLAN DEVELOPMENT
Masterplan
Enlarged Plans
Perspectives




MASTERPLAN


NATIVE PLANT & BUTTERFLY GARDEN


PLAY AREA


) ENTRY PLAZA & AMPHITHEATER


PROMENADE


BRIDGE TURNWHEEL WATER FEATURE ;

A stormwater pond is located at the south of the site to collect water ,., q, .
from both the park and road side. This eliminates the deep swale cutting 00
through the site. At the major pedestian node, an entry plaza and am-
phitheater replaces the Astronaut Memorial Plaza. Proposed trees
(rendered lighter vs. darker existing trees) form a defined gathering
space "The Clearing". The amphitheater is open on all sides so that *I
small formal events such as the Astronaut Memorial Service can be held b
in the plaza, while larger informal events such as live music and farmers' 1 *
markets can be held in the clearing. A promenade oriented east-west ,
helps connect the pedestrian activity at the causeway with the park and ... --
into downtown Titusville. An additional parking lot is proposed in front .
of the existing park main tanance building that includes over-sized spaces
for trucks & trailers using the boat launch, RV's during launch days, and a -
school busses for field trips to the native plant and butterfly garden. The
garden is located north of Valenci Pavilion as a beautiful background to -
the occasional wedding held there, and because of its close proximity to
shade and seating during educational opportunities to engage the public
to learn about ournative ecosystems. To complete the "Interpretation
Triangle" the bridge gearis the center of a water plaza that lines up
where the first wooden bridge once attached to land at what is today
Sandpoint Park. Street plantings and sidewalks make accessibility to the
park easier for pedestrians. 46





MASTERPLAN: ENTRY PLAZA


4<,


THE CLEARING -





AMPHITHEATER/ STAGE


FOOD STAND

PICNIC AREA

-- PUBLIC BATHROOMS
- PROMENADE


RELOCATED FLAG POLE


r





MASTERPLAN: ENTRY PLAZA PERSPECTIVE


The paving pattern for the entry plaza drew inspiration from the pattern of the Milkyway Galaxy while the dome shape of the amphitheater was inspired
by Sun rising and setting over the horizon line a very sight to see from Sandpoint Park.





MASTERPLAN: PROMENADE DETAIL


The 12'promenade is wide enough for bicyclists and pedestrians and is separated from the street
by 12' of vegetative planting to add shade and visual improvements. Also, parrellel parking and a
5' bike lane are added within the right of way. While the mixed vegetation at the south buffers
pedestrians from the heavy traffic, palm trees line the promenade on the park side to further
define the walk while still maintaining an open invitation into the park. The additional stormwater
pond can be use by RC boat hobbyists that frequent the park.


12' PROMENADE
12' PLANTING -
3' BRICK WALK


8' PARALLEL PARKING L I
5'BIKE LANE


Lw





MASTERPLAN: PROMENADE DETAIL


OPTION 1:


LED LIGHT PAVERS


OPTION 2: BRICK DIAMONDS


Option i: L.E.D. light pavers would be a
great option for night events where they
would add a nice lighting accent and in-
crease the sense of arrival while walking
down the promenade to the entry plaza for
an event. The random linear pattern was
inspired by meteor showers and continues
to tie into the subtle space design theme.

Option 2: Brick Diamonds is a pattern seen
in other parks of Downtown Titusville and
would tie the parks together with a
common design theme.


AN


PROMENADE





PROMENADE PERSPECTIVE


Perspective showing the effects of the various planting along the promenade open to the park and buffered by the street traffic.





MASTERPLAN: BRIDGE GEAR PLAZA


.rpm


-.,.J i
-JS 9-'- ..


S' 7 '
The bridge gear is aligned on a shifted S felato the original w de bdg A'dffI in paving firms an
interpretive line that follows the axis. The axis was shifted so that th'paving.maifu tugh the center of the
boat launch and disappears into the water. "" ., '


AN





MASTERPLAN: BRIDGE TURNWHEEL GEAR WATER FEATURE


The bridge gear would be the focal point to the plaza and a nearby kiosk would tell the bridge history and its uniqueness to Titusville. The gear is just one
part of a current effort to establish historical interpretation throughout the North Brevard area. The educational opportunity here is more than just the tell-
ing of a bridge, but also remembering the community's heritage and what was on the other side of the bridge before it became federal property for the
Space Program and displaced many communities from that area. Let us revitalize and celebrate the culture of Titusville at Sandpoint Park, and remember
our history; that we were once named Sandpoint, FL.















THE

REVITALIZATION
OF
SANDPOINT


?.IEGAN, ?.IAG IRES


SPRF-',TG- -I-llt


TITUS7ILLE, FL







University of South Florida School of Architecture & Community Design. "A
Strategic Vision for Quality Redevelopment" Downtown Titusville Commu-
nity Redevelopment Area Plan.
http://www. tit uville.conm/Files/CRA".2o 0':,20 Downtown'. 2 oM aster:;,o PlIan.pdf

Marcus & Francis. People Places: Design Guidelines for Urban Open Space.
Canada: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1998.

Parks & Recreation Department. North Area Parks Operations. 475 North
Williams Avenue. Titusville, Florida 32796

Brotemarkle, B. Images of America: Titusville & Mims. Arcadia Publishing.

RESOURCES 2004
Carter, James. "A Sense of Place: An Interpretive Planning Handbook". 2nd
Ed. Tourism & Environment Initiative. 2001.

Design Studio for Social Intervention. "Cultural Geography and Place Based
Problem-Solving- 10 New Ways to Think about Culture and Organizing".
ds4si.org

Lewis, Peirce. "Axioms for Reading the Landscape: Some Guides to the
American Scene".

www.nbdd.com

www.titiusville.org

www.np_.gov

www.vacwarbirds.org


www.floridatoday.com




Full Text

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MEGAN MAGWIRE SPRIN G 2011 TITUSVILLE, FL THE REVITALIZATION OF SANDPOINT

PAGE 61

MEGAN MAGWIRE SPRIN G 2011 TITUSVILLE, FL THE REVITALIZATION OF SANDPOINT