Cypress Swamp Restoration: A Reclamation Alternative for Wet Depressions in Clay Settling Ponds

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Title:
Cypress Swamp Restoration: A Reclamation Alternative for Wet Depressions in Clay Settling Ponds
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Proceedings of the 13th Annual Conference on Wetlands Restoration and Creation
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English
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Rushton, Betty T.
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Environmental Studies Center, Hillsborough Community College
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wetlands restoration
clay settling ponds
phosphate mining
cypress swamps
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United States -- Florida -- Polk -- Bartow -- Phosphate mining area
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27.9 x -81.84

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13 Pages

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University of Florida
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CYPRESSSWAMPREGENERATION:ARECLAMATIONALTERNATIVEFORWETDEPRESSIONSINCLAYSETTLINGPONDSBettyT.RushtonCenterforWet Iands,andDept.ofEnvironmentalEngineering Sciences UniversityofFloridaGainesvilie,FI32611ABSTRACTSeveralthousandbaldcypress,(Taxodiumdlstlchum),seedlingswereplantedonphosphateclaysettlingponds,aby-productfromphosphatemining.Experimentalplotswereestablishedduringthedroughtwinterof1984-85.TreatmentsIncludedclearedplotsandthosewithdensevegetatIonasweIIasdifferentseedlingtype,barerootvs.tubellngs.Exceptforthemostseverlyfloodedsites,survivalwasbetween55and 77% dependingonreclamationmethods.Droughtandunsuitablewaterlevelswerethemajorcauseofmortality.Grazingbywildlifestuntedmanyofthetrees.TherewasnosignificantdifferenceInpercentsurvivalorheightoftreesbetweenplotsclearedofallabove-groundvegetationattimeofpIanti ngandthoseIeftuncIeared(P>0.05).Barerootseedlingsplantedinthespringweremoresuccessfulthantubellngsplantedduringthewinter(P<0.05).InitialsuccesswithplantedtreeseedlingsIndicateclaysettlingpondspresentsuitableconditionsfortheestablishmentofbaldcypress.INTRODUCTIONAstudyofsuccessiononclaysettlingpondsshowedvegetationcolonizedalonganenvironmentalgradient(Rushton1983,Rushton1984).Drierlocationswereoftendominatedbybottomlandhardwoodspecies,whiIewetdepressionswerecharacterizedbyshrubbywiIlow,(Salixcarolinlana),species.Itwashypothesizedthesewetareasweresuitableforcypress-gumpondsbuttheseedswereunabletoreachthesite.ThepurposeofthepresentprojectwastobreakarrestedwiIlowsuccessionbyplantingspeciescommontocypressforests.ExperimentaltransectsweredesignedtotestseveraItheorles.I)Todeterminetheroleofhydroperiod,seedlingswereplantedalonganenvironmentalmoisturegradient.2)Tounderstandtheroleofcompetition,halftheplotswereclearedofalIexistingabovegroundvegetationinsomeoftheexperiments.3)ToseeIfnurserypracticeshaveaneffectbothbarerootandtubellngswereusedinpairedexperiments.4)Tocomparevariousreclamation,disposal,andminingtechniquesontreesuccess,differentclaysettlingpondswereused.CIaysettlingpondsareaby-productofphosphatemining,amajor

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industryincentralFlorida.Typicallyonetonof clay waste(dryweight)isproducedfor each tonofphosphate rock. The clays expandtomanytimestheiroriginalvolumeintheminingprocessandrequirelargeabove-groundstorageimpoundmentsrangingfrom160to325ha.surroundedbyearthdamsfrom7to20metersinheight.Approximately50to 70% ofthelandproposedforminingIsdesignatedfor clay settlingareas.Re c lamationof c layimpaundmentsisrnandatedbyFloridastatelaw, which requiresrestorationofalllandsdisturbedbyphosphateminingafterJulyI,1975. Since phosphatic clays havepoorloadbearing capacity, possibilitiesforproductiveusefollowingminingarelimited.Mostreclamationprojectshaveconverted clay pondstopasture.InFlorida,astatewithalongcolorfulhistoryofdrainage interestInsavingwetlandshas increased stead;IyoverthepastdecadeculminatinginthepassageoftheWarrenS.HendersonWetlandProtection Act of1984.Mitigationbyrestorationofwetlands could replaceswampsbeinglostbycurrentandpastlanduse practices. Cypressswamps, whichoccur throughoutthesoutheasternUnitedStates,areespecially cornnon inFlorida,wheretheyformlakefringes,strands,anddomes.CI aysettIingpondsprovideanopportunitytorestorecypressforesttothepostmininglandscape.STUDYSITESSeven clay settiingpondsrepresentingdifferentagesandreclamationtechniqueswereplantedduringthewinterof1984-85.Thelocationsareshown onthemapinFig.IandsurnnaryinformationisIistedinTableI.CFIndustriesusedasand/claymixforclaydisposalattheirHardeeminingcomplex.Thissitewasabandonedasanactiveclaypondin1983.TreeswerepIantedalongtheedgeofaseasonaIIyfloodedpond.Gardinier,AreaA,locatedattheFt.Meademinewasditched,drained,andthedikesloweredin1975.OutfaIIpipesarenowabovetheleveloftheclaysprovidingdrainageonlyduringextremelyhighwater.Treeswereplantedinthewetterlowerendwhichhadbeensubmergedforthepastyear.Duringtheearlyestablishmentphase,however,adroughtandsubsequentfirecausedconsiderablemortality.Tenoroc,Area4A,isalarge clay settlingpondlocatedinaStateReserveunderthejurisdictionoftheDept.ofNaturalResources.Thewestend,wheremostofthetreeswerepiantedwasminedandhasmanyspoiIpilesprotrudingabovethe clay surface.Threetransectsarelocatedontheedgeofanintermittentpond.FourdriertransectswerepiantedinwiIlowsgrowingatthenorthwestcorner.IMC-H9isareclamationprojectforInternationalMineral&ChemicalCorp.In1985italreadyhadhealthy,wellestablished4-5yearoldcypressandotherhardwoodtrees.ItrepresentsoneofthefirstwetlandreforestationeffortsonclaysettIingponds.Theclaypondwasdeactivatedabout1970andcappedwithsandtailingsabout1979.TwotransectswereinawillowforestadjacenttoalakeandtwowereplantedInthelake.TheMobilsiteisapasturepondlocatedsouthofHighway640near

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.legorocGardinierCFIND 1--""'--630 --------------------HARDEE 1-4-"";......" N Mapareaa '" .Imile.Figure1.Locationofstudysites.

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TABLE1.Studysitesummaryinformation.SITEABANDONEDRECLAIMEDMINEDPRESENTOWNERLOCATION t:. TREESDATE(EST)(EST)USEPLANTED PLANTEDA.F.RANCH1950NONENOPASTUREC.L.KNIGHTT30S,R22E186FEB1985TB*SECTION1248MAR1985BR**O.H.WRIGHT1955NONEYESNATURALGARDINIERT32S,R25E186DEC1984TBFT.MEADESECTION9186MAR1985BRGARDINIER19731975NONATURALGARDINIERT32S,R24E558OCT1984TBAREAADITCHEDFT.MEADESECTION2310MAR1985BRTENOROC1972NONEYESNATURALFLORIDADEPT.T27S,R24E248NOV1984TBZONE4ANATURALRES.SECTION2248MAR1985BRCFINDUSTR1983SAND/CLAYYESRECLAIMCFINDUSTRIEST33S,R24E186MAR1985BRSP-lMIXPROJECTHARDEESECTION7MOBIL1960 1975YESPASTUREMOBILT3IS,R25E248MAR1985BRHOMELANDSANDCAPSECTION3lMeH919701979YESRECLAIMINTERNATIONALT30S,R25E248MAY1985BRSANDCAPPROJECTMINERALSCORP.SECTION33*TBTUBELING**BRBAREROOTSEEDLING

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Homeland.Theclaysettlingpondhasbeencappedwithsandtailings.Atleastpartofthesitehadbeenminedbeforeclaysweredeposited.Seedlingswereplantedinasmallshallowlakethatseldomgoesdry.SoiIatthesurfaceinthetransectswas 100%sand.AldermanFordRanchisanolderclaysettlingpondlocatedabovetheconfluenceofthenorthandsouthprongsoftheAlafiaRiver.Aerialphotographsshowthesitebeingfiliedwithclayin1948.Twelveseedlingtransectswereplantedintwoswaleswhichwereknowntobeperiodicallyflooded.One wascolonizedbymaplesandoaks,theotherbywiIlows.O.H.Wright,ownedbyGardinier,islocatedadjacenttotheWhiddenCreekfloodplain.Itisanoldsurfaceminebackfilledwithclay.Aerialphotographsfrom1957showtheminecutsbeingfilied.SometransectswerelocatedIn aperiodicallyfloodedlowareawhiIeotherswereindriernarrowminecuts.METHODReplicateelongatedquadrats(4-mX30-m)wereestablishedthroughanenvironmentalgradientfromdrytowetwherepossible.Onehundredtransectswith93treeseachwereplantedwithaKBCplantingbar.Seedlingswerearrangedin3columnsonl-mcentersandoneof3specieswasrandomlyassignedtoeachcolumn.Inpairedexperiments,thetreeorderwasduplicated.Thispaperdiscussesthefateof3,000baldcypress(Taxodlumdistichum),plantedduringthewinterof198485.SeeTable1forplantingdates.SurvivalandtreeheightweremeasuredinApriI1986approximatelyoneyearafterplanting.WatertablewasmeasuredinOctober1985 bydiggingdowntowaterwhenitwasbelowthesurfaceandmeasuringthedepthwhenitwasabovethesurface.Anestimateofwatertabledepthwasmadeforeachtreeusingelevationstakenwithalevelandstadiarod.Thisgivesarelativemoisturemeasurementforonepointintimeforeachseedliog.Twotypesofseedlingswereused.TubelingsweregrownbyPeteWallace'sNursery,Rt1338F,Gainesvilie,Fla32608,andmaintainedIn ashadehouseuntiIplanted.Tubelingsweregrowninstyrofoamorplasticflatswithdividers.ThesoiI was agoodpottingmedium.BarerootseedIingscamefromtheDivisionofStateForestryatChiefland.Theyweregrowninthegroundfromseed,fertiIizedatplantingtimewithoneortwomoretopdressingsappliedduringthegrowingseason.Seedlingswereapproximatelyoneyearoldwhenpulledfromtheground,tiedintobundles,andkeptinacoolerat40CuntiIplanted.Thetimeofstoragerangedfromseveraldaystoseveralmonths.The1,178tubelIngswereprunedto50emtallwhenplanted.Therewas awiderangeofsizes(30to80em)forthe1,674barerootseedlings.Pairedplots at 4claysettlingpondswereusedtocompareseedlingtypes.Tounderstandtheroleofcompetitionfromexistingvegetation,otherpairedplotswereplantedwithoneofeachpairclearedofalIabovegroundvegetationwithamachete,bankblade,orchainsaw.ThreeclaysettIingpondswereusedfortheseexperiments.StatisticswereperformedusingtheStatisticalAnalysisSystem(Ray1982).Forboththepairedplotexperimentsseedlingtype

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BALD CYPRESS..L....A.NTII:OINCL..A........KTTL..,NQ,.ONO. '00eoao 70..i eoeo 4030"0 '00 TENO,..OCQA"'CINIE... oao ao 70eo40"0 '00 eo... 0 3020 '00 -'0 -20-30-"'0-eo -"0-70-"0-"0-100 TENO"OCW"'OHT"-"NCH Cpr-INO IMC_HII /Figure2. Conparison ofbaldcypress, (Taxodium distichum),barerootseedlingsplantedin7claysettlingponds.Countsandrreasurerrentsfortreesweremadeoneyearafterplanting. Lepth towatertablewasanaverageofth1985-86growingseason.

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(bareroot vs.tubellng)andtompetltlon(tlearedvs. untleared) thesamestatestltalmethodswereused. Slgnlfltante testsoffrequentlesforsurvivaldataweredeterminedusingthethl-squaretest.At-testforthedlfferentebetweentwomeansanalyzedheightdata.RESULTSCOMPARISONBETWEENSITES:BarerootseedlingswereplantedatallsevensitesIn Marth 1985, extept forIMC-H9 whlth wasplantedInMay.Averagesurvival,height,anddepthtowatertablefor eathtlay settlingpondaretomparedInFigure2.Twositeshadverypoorsurvival,GardinierandIMC-H9,8and 16% respettively.Theyalsoexhibitedwidelyfluttuatlngwatertables.Althoughdrywhenplanted,bothfloodedduringtheSUmmerrainsandstilihadanaveragewaterdepthover40emin Ott. 1985.TreesatIMC-H9wereplantedduringtheMaydroughtof1985,oneoftheworstonretord,andimmediatelygrazedbyanimals whlth werebelievedtoberabbits.Mosttreeswerenottallenoughto estape InundationwhentherainsarrivedInJune.AtGardinierthedroughtandfirehadkilledallbut 30% ofthetrees,mostof whith wereretoverlngasbasalsprouts.Whentherains tame, floodingkilledallbutthetallestfiresurvivors.Theremainingsiteshadfrom55to 77% survivalofbaldtypress bareroot seedlingsafterone year. Averagewatertabledepthbelowthesurfatedidn'tappeartohaveadetrimental affett ontreesurvlal.Seventy-sevenpertentofthetreeswerealiveatAldermanFordRanchwherethewatertableIsthelowest.Thesand/claymixusedbyCFIndustriesmayenhancetreegrowth.Someofthetallesttrees(average'75em)werefoundtherewith 68% survival.TheMobilpasturepondwhereseedlingsaregrowingInsandtailingshadahighsurvival (79%) andanaverageheightof57 em.PoorersurvIvaI (56%) andgrowth(avg.32em)atTenorocmaybeattributedtoheavygrazingbywiIdllfe.TheoldersitesO.H.WrlghtandA.F. Ranth, 25and35yearssincedeactivatedrespectively,didn'thaveanybettergrowthandsurvivalthanyoungersites.ThisisespeciallytruewhenthepostdisposalhistoryIncludedaddingsandtotheclays.TUBELINGSVSBAREROOTSEEDLINGS:ExceptforGardinier,barerootseedlingssurvivedbetterthantubellngsinpairedplotexperiments.(Fig3.).Therewas asignificantdifferenceInsurvivalatallsites(Table2).TherewasalsonosignificantdifferenceIngrowthmeasuredafterone year (P>.05).AtGardinierthebarerootseedlingswereplantedlessthanonemonthbeforeafirewhichespeciallyaffectedthenewerseedlings.CLEAREDVSUNCLEAREDTRANSECTS:Clearingplotsofallabove-groundvegetationattimeofplantingproducednosignificantdifferenceinsurvival(Table2)atanyofthesites(Fig.4).Therewas nosignificantdifferenceinheightof

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BALDCYPRESS "l..ANTED IN OLAYIICTTUNa "ONO.'00 .070.0.0 "0 &0 '0o Tll:NO"OCQAftOINISftWfl'IOHT O"'-IND'00....,..-------------------------------,.070.0.0 "0.0'0o T'lNo,",ocQAI'IIDIN,..W'l":IOHTCfP-INg 1 ...0-....-.......TlENO... OC QAftOIN,..WflIlQHT eo.,..-----------------------------,...0"0 &0 '0o-'0 -&0-:>0--.0-.0-70-.0-.0-,00 -l.-T-----.-----r----.,..----T-----.-----.-.J Figure2.Comparisonofbaldcypress(Taxodiumdistichum)barerootseedlingsplantedinsevenclaysettlingponds.

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BALDCYPRESSSURVIVAL BAftEftOOTvanJlIEUNQS 100 80 ISO70 g ISO I ISO 40.5020 100 TENOftOCQAftOINIEftWftIQHTlZZI_ftOOTrz1ZInJllEUNQS BALDCYPRESSHEIGHT I!tAftE ROOT vanJllEUNQS 100 80 ISO70 ISO ISO !i!4Cl.5020 100 TENOftOCQAftOINIEftWftlQHT .lZZI IIAftEftOOTlZbarerootseedlingsplantedinthespringcomparedtotubelingsplantedinthewinterof1984-85afteroneyearofgrowth.

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100110 eo 70 geoeo40;so 20100BALDCYPRESSSURVIVAL CLl!:AIUDANDUNCLEAftED "LOTS TENOftOClZZJOAftDINIEftf2
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Table2.Chi-squaredistributionforsurvivalofbaldcypressseedIIngsafteroneyearofgrowth.Tubellngsvs.BarerootSeedlings:SiteDfChI-squareProbabilityTenoroc19.310P=0.002GardinIer113.467P=O.OOOWright14.885P=0.027A.F.Ranch15.687P=O.017Clearedvs.UnclearedTransects:SiteDfChi-squareProbabIIityTenoroc12.952P=0.086Gardinier10.105P=0.746Wright10.053P=0.818

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treesafteroneyearsgrowth(P>.05)exceptatTenorocwhichwassignificantattheP=0.04level.Theclearedtransectswererapidlyrecolonizedbyvinesandherbaceousvegetation.Wheretreeswerepresentandremovedtheyproducedabundantbasalsprouts.ClearingofplotsremovedthecanopybutIncreasedcompetitionfromtheherblayer.DISCUSSIONWATERDEPTH:Cypress(Taxodlumdlstlchum)plantedInexperimentaltransectsdemonstratedanamazingabilitytosurvive,consideringtheywerepurposelyplantedoverawidemoisturegradient.WaterlevelsIncludedlandfloodedl-mdeeptowatertables1.8-mbelowthesurfacewhenmeasuredinOctober1985.Aseveredroughtduringthegrowingseasoncausedthegreatestmortality.Manytreeswerestressedduring.thewinterfromlackofwateronlytobedrownedduringthe-summerrainyseason.BothGardinierandI MC-H9, floadedforthepastyear,hadthepoorestsurvival.OnceestablishedcypresscanexistonanaerobicsallswherewaterIspresenton anearpermanentbasis(Harmsetal.1980).However,cypressseedlingsareunabletotoleratecompletefloodingforlongerthantwoweeks(Demaree1932),andcanbe kIIIedbysubmergenceforasIIttIeastwotothreedays(Willistonetal.1981).EvenseedlingsthatescapedcompleteInundationonthefloodedsiteswerenotastalIorhealthyasthosegrowingonsitesthatareperiodicallyunderwater.ThisIsconsLstentwithotherstudies.Cypressgrowthratewas showntobegreatestwheretheaveragewatertablewasbetween0and15emfortreesplantedInanearbyphosphatereclamationproject(BestandErwin1984). Meanwaterdepthappearstobeacantrallingfactorforcypress MaroisandEweI(1983)foundcypressImportancevaluesfromunalteredwetdomesweresignificantlyhigherthanfordraineddrierdomeswhichshowedincreasinginvasionfromothertreespecies.Stalter(1981)alsocitedcompetitionfrombottomlandhardwoodspeciesasamajordeterenttobaldcypresssurvivalondriersites.CypressIsanearlycolonizeronalluviallandbutgiveswaytobottomlandhardwoodswherewaterisgraduallyreceding(Willistonetal.1981).Ifclaysettlingpondsaretobemanagedforcypress,waterlevelcontrolwillbe animportanttool.However,ifdiversebottomlandhardwoodforestisadesiredgoal,thebestcourseistoselectplantspeciesfromarangeofcommunitiesasrecommendedbytheFloridaGameandFreshWaterFishCommission(King,etal.1985).ThisplanwouldIncreasespeciesrichnesswhichisinverselyproportionaltofloodingfrequency(ConnorandDay1976). CO'.1P ETI TION:Cypresstreescanendurepartialshadingbutrequireconsiderablesunlightfornormalgrowth.EarlycypressplantationsInLouisianafailedbecauseofshadingbyplantcompetition(Willistonetal.1981).ForestIndustriesroutinelyemployvaryingdegreesofsitepreparationtoInsurebettersurvivalandIncreasegrowthrates.For

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success, however.moststudiesindicateculturaltreatmentshavetobeintensiveandcontinueforseveralyears.Forexample.therewas nostatisticaldifferencebetweenmowedplotsandcontrolsforseveralspeciesofbottomlandhardwoodtrees.Butperiodicdisking significantlyincreased heights,diameters,andsurvival(Kennedy1981,HuntandCleveland1979,KrinardandKennedy1983).Davies(1985)observedcuttingweedsabovegroundlevelis ineffective. Hefurtherstatedmoisturedeficitsincreasedthedetrimental conseqences ofrootcompetion.Otheralternativesrequirenopre-treatment.Reforestationof surface minedlands can beplannedtomaximizewiIdlifediversity(McComb1982,Kingetal.1985).Understoryvegetation,anathemafortheforestindustry,ispositivelycorrelatedwithdensityofsmallmammals(GreierandBest1980),providesadditionalbrowsefordeer(MurphyandEhrenreich1965),and increases songbirddiversity (MacArthur and MacArthur 1961).WiIdlifeofthiskindhasbeenobservedinthestudysites.Competitionfromvinesispartofthe ecological complexinbottomlandforest.Treespeciesvaryintheirreaction,butwithgoodstocking,standsusuallyoutcompetevineswhendominantsare5to7meterstall(Johnson1975).Sometreesrespondbysendingoutnewlateralshoots.othersovercomethevinesbysheersizeandnumbers.Forestson surface minesinthe central stateswereestablishedsuccessfullybyplantingtreesinpre-existingground cover over30yearsago(Ashbyetal.1980).Naturalinvasionoftreeswasalsofargreateronreforestedareasthanonadjacentunplantedlandsonthese coal stripminedsites.Thepurposeofareclamationprojectshouldbeassessedbeforeextensivealterationofthesiteisattempted. Because of"soupy" clays severalyearsarerequiredbeforedecommissionedponds can bereclaimed.InthemeantimethesitesarenaturalIyrevegetatedwithearIy success ional speciessuch as cattai Isandwi Ilows.Itmaybe necessary todrain,grade,andrecontour clay settlingpondsfor specific usesortoblendintothesurrounding landscape. Butifexistingvegetationsurvives reclamation, theseedlingsinthis project demonstratedcomparablegrowthandsurvivalwhenplotswereleftunclearedandinthemeantimeexistingvegetationcontinuedtofunctionasgoodwiIdlifehabitat.Infact.aseriousimpedimenttotreesurvivalwasgrazingfromrabbits,rats,anddeer.NURSERYSTOCKTYPE: Woodyplantseedlingsgrowninagreenhouseextendtheplantingseasonforreforestationaswellasprovidegreaterspeciesselection.Barerootplant stock ischeaperandeasiertotransport. Which isbetter?Inthisexperiment,barerootseedlingsshowedsignificantlybettersurvivalthantubelingsgrowninstyrofoamflats.Thisisnotalwaysthe case. InPennsylvaniasurvivalofcontainer-grownplantswasnobetterthanbarerootseedlingplantedinSpring(Vogel1981).BarerootseedlingshadpoorersurvivalwhenplantedinMarchandaboutthesamesurvivalwhenplantedinApriI,comparedwithpaperpots,peatstick,andgro-blocks(BarnettandMcGi Ivray1981).Survivalofcontainerandbareroot stock wassimilarforredpine(Pinusresinosaj,butspring-plantedbarerootstockhad significantly greatersurvivalthan stock plantedinthefall(MarionandAim1986).BarerootstockmadeItpossibletoplantcheapertreesinthis

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experiment.It'snotclearIfgreatersurvivalofbarerootseedlingswastheresultofspringplantingornurserystocktype.Tubelingsplantedduringthewinterhadtoendureamajordroughtandfreezewhichcontributedtothedemiseofmanyareaorangegroves. OONCLUS IONS:Newrulesformitigationandreclamationincreasetheimportanceofunderstandingspeciestoleranceandsurvivaltoproperlyreclaimminedlands.Resultsfromthefirstyearofdataindicatecypresstreesmaybesuitableforwetdepressionsofclaysettlingponds.Additionalresearchaboutnutrients,nursecrops,solIamendmentsandtimeofplantingshouldpointthewaytoIncreasinglysuccessfulfullscaleprojects. ACK/IOWLEDGEMENTS Work wassupportedbycontract83-03-041RbetweentheFloridaInstituteofPhosphateResearchandtheCenterforWetlands,UniversityofFlorida,H.T. OdumandG.R.Best,PrincipalInvestigators.AstudentcooperativeprogrambetweentheUniversityofFloridaandtheFloridaBureauofLandReclamationIncreasedthescopeoftheproject.TimKingofFloridaGameandFreshwaterFishCommissionwasindespenslbleinlocatingsites.CooperationfrompropertyownersandminingcompaniesIistedinTableIIsappreciated.TreeplantingwasassistedbyM.Miller,C.Bersok,J.Felertag,C.Pezeshki.R.Arrieta,C.Irwin,P.Wallace,R.Wolfe,R.HassounandespeciallyAlfonsoHernandezandhisfamily.J.LeyandS.Tennenbaumhelpedwithdeterminingelevations.B.SargentInstalledwells.S.SwankandD.Cronwellmeasuredtrees.JimFeiertagexplainedstatisticsandSAS.D.SegaIandC.Bersokeditedcopy.REFERENCESAshby,W.C"C.A.KoIar,andN.F.Rogers.1980.ResuItsof30-yearoldplantationsonsurfaceminesinthecentralstates.InTreesforreclamation.InterstateMiningCompactCommissionandU.S.Dept.ofAgrleuIture.GTRNE-61.Barnett,J.P.andJ.M.McGiIvray.1981.Containerplantingsystemsforthesouth.SouthernForestExperimentStation.U.S.Dept.ofAgricuIture.ResearchPaper SO--167. Best,G.R.andK.L.Erwin.1984.Effectsofhydroperlodonsurvivalandgrowthoftreeseedlingsinaphosphatesurface-minedreclaimedwetland.InSymposiumonsurfacemining,hydrology,sedimentology,andreclamation.UniversityofKentucky,Lexington,Ky40506-0046.December2-7.Conner,W.H.,andJ.W.Day,Jr.1976.Productlvltyandcomposltlonofabaldcypress-watertupelositeandabottomlandhardwoodsiteIn aLouisianaswamp.Am.J.Bot.63:1354-1364.

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ndthe use oftree us-dominated!.!!!!!. EcologyIonbysma II manmal shabitatalterations.rown,andF.W.ntheswampforestIn-1421.;mentsaffectgrowth,andlobI0IIYpine.5-59.evelopmentofnuttalIstExperimentStation.U.;0-104.'centratlonsandhardwoodPlantandSolI63:307abltat reclamationvices.FloridaGameandIa.Ten-yeargrowthoffive ,Iweed controlonSharkeyStation.U.S.Dept.of1.Onbird species ralandmanagement-relatedSci.29(3):627-640.ormanceof fallandsprlng'nredpine. Tree Planters'habitatmanagementIncentral80(8):490-492.165.Effectsoftimberharvest,roductIon.J.WiIdI.Manage.

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Ray,A.A.1982.SASusersguide:Statlstlcs.SASInstituteInc.Cary,N.C.Rushton,B.T.1983.Examplesofnaturalwetlandsuccessionasareclamationalternative.InReclamationandthephosphateIndustry.Robertson,D.J.(Ed).FloridaInstituteofPhosphateResearch.Bartow,FIa.Rushton,B.T.1984.NaturalwetlandregenerationInclaysettlingponds.InProceedingsoftheeleventhannualconferenceonwetlandrestorationandcreation.HillsboroughConmunltyCollegeEnv IronmentaIStudIesCenter.Tampa,Fla.Shelford,V. E.1954.SomelowerMississippiValleyfloodplainbioticconmunitles:Theirageandelevation.Ecology35(2):126-142.Stalter,R.1981.SomeecologicalobservationsofTaxodiumdistlchum(L.)Richard,InDelaware.Castanea46(2):154-161.VogeI,W.G.1981.AguideeasternUnitedStates.Dept.ofAgr IcuIture.forrevegetatlngcoalminesojIs IntheGeneralTechnicalReportNE-68.U.S.WiIIiston,H.L,F.W.Shropshire,andW.EoBalmer.1981.CypressManagement:Aforgottenopportunity.U.S.Dept.Agric.,For.Serv.,ForestryRep.SA-FR-8,AtIanta,Ga.