Manual for Evaluation of Wetlands in Florida*
Center for Environmental Policy &
Environmental Engineering Sciences
University of Flonda, Gaines% iUe, FL,32611
This is the first draft of a manual for ev aluation of wetlands in Florida for purposes of
judging their contribution to public welfare, for rmitgarion. and for planning. It is not for
estimating market values nor rights due businesses and individuals. The manual provides
procedures and spread sheets for evaluating ihe accumulated and annual works of nature in
generating wetland values. Values of the several kinds of work are expressed in units of
EMERGY. defined as the energy of one kind utilized. In this manual solar EMERGY is used
with alues expressed as solar emjoules. The wetland contribution to public welfare is also
given in EMERGY-estimated dollars of gross economic product due to the work of the
wetland (macroeconomic $), The dollars of the gross state product is estimated as that
proportion that the weta.nd EMERGY is of the total state EMERGY.
Three levels of precision are provided for evaluating the wetland work. Quick
calculations using level (1) and level (2) can provide preliminary evaluations and
determine if the more detailed effort of level (3) evaluation is desirable. The 3 stages in
environmental evaluation are:
(1) Value based on area and time of accumulated work assuming an average EMERGY
for any land. This coarse measure can be appled to any land area on earth;
(2) Value based on typical EMERGY budgets for the wetland type, area, and time of
accumulated work. This value is based on preliminary estimates of EMERGY for wetland
types in Florida, using a classification of wetlands based on the energy signature of the
wetland. The manual can be extended to other states and nations by adding an EMERGY table
for the types of wetlands found there.
(3) Value based on scienufic data for a particular site, area. and time of accumulated
work. This value is calculated for a particular site where there are estimates or data for the
set of energy inputs for the site.
The procedure allows the contributions to the wetland that come from the economy
with human work and economic investments to be measured on the same basis as the
contributions from environmental systems work. In addition, the part that a particular
wetland site plays in the larger regional system is also evaluated in FMINRGY units. For
example. a particular wetland may have special value because of its position in the
hydrologic cycle, in wildlife corridors, or in its spatial position in human developments.
A sample calculation is provided for a cypress pond in north Florida. Calculations are
,ided by five spreadsheet templates for Macintosh EXCEL.
'included with Plenarn Presentation at the RI' International Wetlands Conference,
Columbus Ohto. Sept. 18, 1992.
The pronesscs in a iwLiand include the work of nature hised on sun, wind. rain,
rivers, tides. grinenf information in species, etc. plus the work that may be done by
humans involving fuels, goods. and human services purchased from the economic system
or supplied by human inmiaiives without payment. Figure 1 shows sjmce ,if the inputs to the
Rain & Kineti Kinetic Spe ies
Substanccs Encry Energy e
Common I C b i
process I \-M 41 Mw Goods
inflows of various kindhich need to be eFuelsed
I Direct Services
.~0- to Larger sN
Figure 1. Energy systems diagram of a wetdtad show,%ing man% of the external energy
inflows of various kind which need to be evaluated.
EMERGY is defined as the energy of one kind directly and indirectly required in
transIl'urmaiLtirns to generate a product or service. FMERGY is the available energy
pre.viousl> u'id up. all exprcssc-d as energy of one kind. If all flows are expressed in solar
EMERGY, the units are solar emioules. The man kinds of work within a wetland are
evaluated in this manual as solar emjoules. The solar ENIERGY required for wetland
processes for a %ear can be multiplied by the number of years of growth to determine the
solar- EMERG( of stored produces such as biomass, wood. diversiu, and wetland
geomorphology. Both work by natural process and those by humans and economic process
are expressed on a common basis using solar EMERGY.
From previous evaluation of the annual solar ELNIERGY basis for all of Flnda. we can
indicate the average solar EMERGY required to generate the wealth represented by a dollar
of buying power. The annual solar ENlERGY of Florida was divided by the gross economic
product to obtain the E\IFRGY/S ratio (2 E12 solar emioules per 1991 dollar). EMERGY alMues
of wetlands can be expressed in dollar equivalents using the EMERGY/$ ratio. The share of
the Florida's economy which is attributed to a wetland using TMERGY evaluation is called its
macroeconomic value, not to be confused with or substituted for market value.
By evaluating the EMERGY inputs of various kinds to a wetland, a bar graph can be
prepared showing which inpuis are largest. By classifying systems according to the
largest E1ERGY inputs, classification reflects what is important. In self organization those
inputs that are largest are expected to develop more structure, adapted species, etc. We used
this principle to classify Hunda Wetlands earlier (Wharton et al..1976). In this draft the
level 2 evaluation includes only the highest EMERGY inputs of the EMERGY signature ot
each wetland type. Level 3 evaluation evaluates all the inputs believed to be appreciable.
To evaluate a wedtland site, follow the procedures that follow. Tables 1-4 are print-outs
of spread-sheets written for the MacLntosh program EXCEL By entering a few numbers in
the spaces provided in these tables, the calculations of solar EMERGY and marroeconomic
dollars are made automatically.
For e\aluating %weiland work. Level I evaluation takes a minute; Level 2 evaluation
takes 10 minutes: and I eelI 3 evaluation will take whatever time is required to assemble
data for 'he site. Evaluating the suie's participation in the regional system may require
more knowledge and time (Table 4)
I. EVALUATION OF WETLAND WORK
AREA-TIME VALUE: First, using suggestions of Pumnentl and (.ir.mpeiro (1990)
Jeiermine the product of area in hectares and time in years. The result %would be a measure
of work if every area of the earth atrcrmpli.shc-d the same amount of work per unit area per
time. Determine the area-time value in heciare-years by filling In items 1-5
in Table 1.
I-FVTl 1 EVALUATION OF WETLAND WORK: Next. make an approximation of solar
EMERGY stored In the wetland by multiplying the area-lime value by an average value of
solar EMERGY use per hectare per year for land. calculated from global EMFRGY and World
land area. This simple measure assumes all areas of the world do similar work per unit time.
Make the level 1 evaluation by filling in items in the top box in Table 1.
Marroeconomic $ value is included as item 10.
LEVEL 2 EVALUATION OF WETLAND WORK: Next, make a more accurate evaluation o
the solar FMEFRGY stored in the wetland by determining what type of wedand it is. Then
multiply the area-rime values by ihc typical annual solar EFIFRGY production and use for
that type of weiland. Select a wetland type from the list in Table 2. Copy the total
annual solar EMERGY use from the last column (sej/ha/yr) to line 12 in the
SECOND BOX in Table 1. The solar FMIFRGY that results is in line 13 and its
macroeconomic value in line 16.
In this first draft the calculations of annual solar EMRERGY for wetland types in
Florida is incomplete and tentative, pending introduction of more data and perhaps some
additional research on energy uses in wetlands. Even with these reservations, this second
level evaluation may be good enough for many purposes.
1-_VFI 3 EVALUATION OF WETlAND WORK If large area and important controversies
are involved that justify the most careful site evaluations that are possible, then Table 3
provides an Initial outline. Using scientific and economic data, evaluate the
footnotes in Table 3, so that the spread sheet generates the annual solar
EMERGY production-use in solar emjoules per hectare per year (sej/ha/yr).
Copy the total from line 18, Table 3 to line 17 in the THIRD BOX of Table 1.
The solar EMERGY that results is in line 18 and its macroeconomic value in
Note: ttems to enter
1 Name of site;
Site#1 _ 5ite # Site #3
O-Ourn Cypress _
I Wetland type
Area in hectares:
Year of evaluation-:
Years of work
Hectare-vears of work
Lin Emrnergy" ;ep'ha.'yr
Stored Eniergy se
Ermergy. _ sep S
Year of Macroec. $ next
4W .. -
6 30E* 4 6 30E+14
2 5ZE+17 _ 0
1 46E+1Z:' 1-.6E+12
6 30E +14
1 1 Name of Welland tupe. Cypress Pond
S12 Unit Emnergy- se thayr 900OOEf 14
14 F,,me gy.-t$ m sejS: 1.46E+12 .46E4+12 - E2IA I2 1 46E* 12
15 Year rP Macroec S next 1990.
10 MacrSieconorc 246575 342 - 0 1'.
S17 Unit Ernwrgy: sej/ha/yr 1 04E*151
18 Stored EneFrqy se) 4 144E -17 0 0 0
19 Frnergy/S in sej/S 1-46E-+12' 1_4-Ei-12 l61E+12 1 _46E_12;
20 Year of Macrmet S next 1990.
21 MacroeconTc __ 283835.6Jj16' ' 0 0
Footnote of - T - - _
1 Enter name of site.
2 Enter number of hectares in site (1 hectare =2-5 acres).
3 Enter year of the evaluate ron usually current year).
4 Enter number of years envor Inent has required to develop the current structures.
S Spread sheet multiphies area times years of work.
. . . ... 6 _ _9.44 E24 sej/yr earth renewable enerWgy diided by 1.5 E 10 hectares of land on earti
7 Spread sheet multiplies hectare years by average world erergy/yr/hectare of land.
8 Annual EMERGY use for the state dided by the g state product for that year
. .Florida Examrrle. 1990.3.51 E 23 solar eoules/yr divided by 240 E S /yr
.._9 Enter year for wch EMERGY/S ratio was w calculated.
. 10 Spread sheet dvicdes stored EMECGY by the Ermegy'$
11 Select wetland type; for F lona see Table Z.
1 3 Enter typicaannual solar EMERGY use foI_this lype from Table 2
13 Spread sheet miultpbs hectare-years by the annual solar EMERGY use.
14 Enter EMERGY/$ ratmi such as that calculated in footnote 5
15 Enter year Fcw which EMERGY/S rato was cakulateld
16 Spread sheet divides stored EMERGY by he Emer.y S
Table I EMERGY EvahAtc'n f Wet diarnw t__
__ _ ZTable Z. Florda Wetfands and Armnna Enmery Uses
WeIa.nd Ivpe 'otfeNarme of Inflow LUnits Flux used Soar Emergy .i-nit Solar Ernergy UsL-
.Units 'ha/yr sej.'unit - e/i-Ha/vr
Cypress , gunm pond la Water transpired
- Gibbs_ nerery t Joules. ,OE.1 1 SOE-04 9E.14!
Favs txgs lb 'later transpired
i -CNbs Ene-igy Joules 1 70f.F10 1 a0E KE-04 3 06E_. 4
Dwart cypress I_ _ water transpired --
(a bbs Energy) Joules I 1.70E+10i 1.BOE+04 306Er14
_-- -_ _ -- -8 O 1 -----
C-pies5 strand Id Water tiranmisred __ _
(Gibbs Energy) Joules 7.50E+10S 1 80E+04 1 35E+ 15
___ Za iWater motion eneoy Joul-. 1.96E+07 2.79E+04- 5.4684E-11
Total solar Emrergy: 1 35055E*15
Lake Margin Swamp l e Water ranrkored -
(Gibbs Eergyw Joules .OOE+1 1 1 -80E+04 1.BE+ 15
- -- 4a ,Wave moton energy JouJes 1 96E+07 3 04E+04t 5 9584E 11
Total 5olar Emnergy. 1 8006E. I
Seepage Swamp 1f IWater transpired
(Gibbs Energy) Joules 7.65E+11 1.80E.04 I1 377"E-16 _
Flooopl.iin 1g Water Iransred
_ (Gibbs Energy) Jou - i 9.50E+1o 1.80E+04 1 71E*.-15
2b Water motrn energy Joules- 1 .96E+07 2.79E, 041 5.4684E+ 11
Total sar Emrnergy: 1.71055E+1 5
Eutrophic Marsh th Waler transpired
(C bbs Energy) _ Joules 1 00E. I1
2; Water motion energy Joules 1 96E+07
.a Phiosphorus import grams 1 69E+08
Total sola: Emergy
1 8apE04 ____ 1 8E1
2 79E+04 S 4684, 11
i.80E-07 6.422E. 15
Rlver Marsh i Water transpired 9.00E+10
... . .(Gibbs Energy) JouJes S jOE+I - 1 80Ew04 9E+14
2d Water motion energyjoules - 1 96Eu07 2. 79E+04 5-4684E1- I1
Total solar Ermergy: 9 00547E+14
4 5054 ?Et.14 .
prairiee ij Water transpired
....... G _ilibbs Energy) Jouies 2.E50E+l 0 1.80E+04t
2e Water motion ener9y oues 1.9E+07 2.79E+04
Total solar Emergy:
parting salrtarsh Ik waler transpired - -- -8
------ _(Gbbts Energqa; Joules 3.50E*10 1 - C - 6 3E 14-_ -
3 - Tidal enercry_ Joules 3.54E+10 1 .B4ErO -04 H8051E-14
Total so kar Eirnergy 1,210%6E. 15
Junctus sjlirrtrsh ti Water transpired
~. . ._ ._IGLb'bs Energy; joules . 2 DOE 10 - 1 O E+0.4 - 4 SE 14
3b Tidal energy, Joules 2 54E-.I. _ 1 64E+04. S. 580 14 E + 1 -
T, , -al sd Er ern y. r ...1 03056 -15!
lalna Im Water Iranspred_
~ ~~(Gi jbbs Energy)' Joules 5.00E+0J9 1.80E+04 9E* 1..
Black Mangroves 1 Water transpireL
(Gibbs Eneyrgy) Joules 2.50E+10 1 0_E+04 4 SE.I4
3c Tidal energy Joutes 3.54E+10 1.64&+04_ 5 9056E -14.
Total solar Ernergy. 1-03056E+15
Dwarf Mangro.,es L o ;Warer rran1- ..pir.ed
...... .... .. . Ci.bbs Energ _ Joules 1 C'.O.. 0_ _ I 1.80OE-04 I ' E+1 ..4 . .
3d Tidal energy .. Joules 3 S4E.10 1 64E-04! 5-8056EE+ 14
Total solar Eme.gy. 7 6056E 14
Red mangroies 1p afterr transpired 3.00E+10
(Gibe Energy) Joulesi 5 00E-10 1 80E04' 9E+14
_____3e Tidal energy Joules 1 3 54E+10 1 64-E+04 5.8056E+14
_Total solar Energyr 1 48r056E+1'5 p
Metaleuca 1q ,Waer trarrplTed
. . ... . (G.ebb Energy) jo- tes 1.- OE-+-11 1.801E+,04 I BE* - - -
Lake Marsn 1 r Water transpired
S - (Gibbs_Energy) Joules SOOE+ 10 - - 64 9E+14
4b _Wave motion energy Juakees 3 1QEf09 3,4E+04 9.424E+13
L rotal solar Ernergy .... 1 4
Wetland Table 2 types notes
Footnotes to Table 2: .. Flux of energy use:
1 Gibbs Free energy in Transpired water =_________ __ _._
( m3/ha/yr water used)(1 E6 g/m3)(5 J/g freshwater relative to salt)
la Enter m3/ha/yr _ 1.OOE+04 Flux of Gibbs Free energy = 5E+10 J/ha/yr
I b Enter m3/halyr. 3.40E+03 Flux of Gibbs Free energy = 1.7E+10 J/ha/yr
1c Enter m3/ha/yr. 3.40E+03 Flux of Gibbs Free energy = 1.7E+10 J/ha/yr
1d Enter m3/halyr 1.50E+04 Flux of Gibbs Free energy = 7.5E+ 10 J/ha/yr
1 e Enter m3/ha/yr: 2.00E+04 Flux of Gibbs Free energy = E+ 1 J/ha/yr
I f Enter m3/ha/yr- 1.50E+04 Flux of Gibbs Free energy = 7.5E+10 J/ha/yr
19 Enter m3/ha/yr 1.90E+04 Flux of Gibbs Free energy = 9.5E+10 J/ha/yr
1 h Enter m3/ha/yr 2.00E+04 Flux of Grbbs Free energy = 1 E+I1 J/ha/yr
li Enter m3/ha/yr 1 80E+04 Flux of Gibbs Free energy = 9E+10l_ J/ha/yr
1lj Enter rn3/ha/yr 5.00E+03 Flux of Gibbs Free energy = 2.5E+10 J/ha/yr
1 k Enter m3/hayr. 7 OOE+03 Flux of Gibbs Free energy 3 5E+1 0 Ja/.yr
1I _ Enter m3/ha/yr S.O0E+03 Flux of Gibbs Free energy = 2.5E+1 0 J/ha/yr
1 m Enter m3/ha/yr 1.00E+03 Flux of Gibbs Free energy = 5E+09. J/ha/yr
in Enter m3/ha/yr S.OOE+03 Flux of Gibbs Free energy - 2.5E+10. J/ha/yr
1 o Enter m3/ha/yr 2.00E+03 Flux of Gibbs Free energy =- 1E+101 J/ha/yr
1p Enter m3/ha.yr. 6.00E+03 Flux of Gibbs Free energy- 3E+10 J/ha/yr
1 q Enter m3/ha/yr. 2.OOE+04 Flux of Gibbs Free energy 1E+ 1 J/ha/yr
Ir Enter m3/ha/yr
I OOE+04 Flux of Gibbs Free energy -
2 Energy of moving water based on head loss per 10 m:
(m3/yr)(density. 1E3 kg/m3 (Height change. m)(gravity. 9.Sm2/sec)
2a Enter m3/ha/yr: 1.00OE-+05 Enter change m: 0.02. 19600000 J'/ha..yr
2b Enter m3/ha/yr: 1.00E+05'Enter change m: 0.021 19600000 J/ha/yr
2c Enter m3/ha/yr: 1.OOE+05:Enter change m: 0.02119600000 J/ha/yr
Zd Enter m3/ha '_yr: 1.00E+05 Enter change m: 0.02' 19600000 J/ha/yr
Ze Enter m3/ha/yr: 1.00 E+05 Enter change m: 0.02; 19600000 J/ha/yr
2f Enter m3/ha/yr: 1 .OOE+05 Enter change m-: - 0.02i 19600000 J/ha/yr
2g Enter m3/ha/yr 1.OOE+05 Enter change m: I 0.021 196000001 J/ha/yr
3 Tidal energy absorbed per hectare based on m tidal range * 0.5 as center of gravity
(area,1 E4 m2)(0.5 )(range squared)(706 tides/yr)(density, 1.023 E3 kg/m3)(gravity)
3a Enter range in m:. 1 Tidal energy absorbed , 3.54E+10 J/ha/yr
3b Enter range in m: . 1 Tidal energy absorbed = _ 3.54E+1I0 J/ha/yr
3c Enter range in m: 1 Tidal energy absorbed - I 3.54E+ 10, J/ha/yr
3d Enter range in rn: 1 Tidal energy absorbed - 3.54E+ 10 J/ha/yr
3e Enter range in_m: 1 Tidal energy absorbed__ 3.54E+10. J/ha/yr
Wetland Table 2 types notes
4 Water wave energy absorbed per square hectare based on wave height
(100 m size)(.125)(density, 1 023 E3 kg/rn3)(gravity)(m squared)(velocity)(seclyr)
Velocity - square root of product of gravity and depth of wave measurement
4a Enter m of wave: 0.5 Enter m of depth 1 3._ 3E+091 -/ha/yr
5 Nutrient phosphorus evaluated as Gibbs energy of its concentration compared to background
. (m3/ha/yr)( __ g/rn3 P)( Joules Gibbs energy/g)
Gibbs energy = (gas cnostant)(Kelvin T ((flog base e of ppm ratio)/(atomic weight)
Enter input ppm _ _5 _Background ppm: 0.05 __ __.......
Sa input m3/Ha/yr- 1 OOE+05 Gibbs free energy in nutrient P:: 1,69E+08 J/ha/yr
Wetland Value Table 3
Table 3. Evaatioom Anoal EEmgyW Use in IFlnda Wetlanx
Enter Name of Wetland here:
SOdumrn Cypress comen
Note Name of Inflow uni ts _ Flux sed Solar Em r'unt Solar Emeigy
Urnts/hayr 5.e/unt use 5se01 layr
1 Water transpired (Gibb Free Energy)
2 Fresh-water notion neigy absorbed
| 3 Tidal energy absorbed
Joules: 5.00E+ 10
. Joules 00OE.DOO
1 BOE+04_ 9E+14
2 79E+04 0
4 Wave motion energy
5 Phosphovus influx used
6 N trooenm influ used
7 PhysicMal energy of whnd absorbed
8 Clay segments received
9 Organs matter imnported
10 _influx of Species -
11 irecti sunlight _ _ _
12 Total of independent envimnrnental inputs
13 Huran Goods and Services used
14 Taxes paid pr year
15 Fuets Used - -
Joules 0 DOE +004 304.E04 0
grams 0.00E 6+00, 3.80E+07 0
gra ri OOOE.-00 2 60E 06 O
grams 1.0E+D041 2.00E+09
IJoulesl 5.40E+06 i
7.40E+04 3.996E+1 II
" 0 - 1.60-E+12 00
$ 84 1.60E+ 12 1 344E 14
.ules a 53000 - 0
16 Interest .sd _ _ 0 _ 1-60E+12 0
17 Totalof Human & conorr n-uts - - 4.91712 1-344E+14
18 Sum of Enviroanental and Human inputs 1 O548E. 15
. . ........
Footnotes to Table 3:
1 Gibb- Free e nrqV rn Transpired water =
___ -.3/ha/vi water used)(1 E6 9 r'.1 5 Jrg freshwater relative tosait)
Enter m3 ha yr. 1.OOE+04 FkIx of Gibbs Free energy - SE+10 . haryr
Water through-Ilows that are not used on site are evaluated in Table 4.
2 Energy of moving water based on head loss per 10 mr.
(m3 - r3. 1i density 1 E 3 k-g/ m3 H Height chariqe. m)l(ravity. .8 m2/sec2)
Enter rn3' ha yr 1 OOE OS Enter change n 0.02 19600000 J. hal y.
3 Tidal energy absorbed pei becutare based on rn lidal range '0 5 as cr.enter oF gravely
(area,1E4 m2)(0.S itrange squared t706 tides/yr)(density, 1 623 E3 krg/mrn3) ( gravity}
Enter range in mn 1 Tidal energy absorbed = 3 539E+10 J/ha/yr
4 Water wave energy absorbed per square hectare based on wave height
( Io0r m size( 1 ; 5 (dens'ay. 1.023 E3 kg. 3'mI gravity (rr squaf edjtveloc.ty y sec _ rl
Velocity = square root of product of gravity and depth of wave measuiemerirt
Enter rn of wave: 0.5 Enter rm of dcep_ 1 _ 3099379025 J/ha/yr
5 Nutnent phosphorus evaluated as G trbs energy of its concentration compared to background
r m3, ha Wi P( _g/m3 P)(Joules aibbs energy., g |
Gibbs eroergy = 'gas cnostantjiielvin 7 1l4log base e ofa ppm ratioJ.4at rrni weight)
Enter input pprm S Backgr1und ppi 0 05
'input m'Ha'yr I._ E*(.0S Gibbs free energy in nutrient P 169240004 1/ha /yir
6 Nutnrient nitrogen evaluated as Cibbs energy of its concentration compared to background
( -t3 ha,'y if_ g/m3 N)i J oukeGibb5 eneigy;g) __
Gibbs energy - (gas cnost anti(Kelvin T.)((og base of ppmn fatio)(taorrc we w ht)
Enter input ppm 5 Backtground pp 0.05
input m3/'Halyr LDE+05 Gibbs free energy n nutrient P 411011439 J/halyr
7 Wind at 1000 m multiplied by height denrsity. eddy diffusion coef vertical gradient and area
( _ ...rrsec)( 000m)(1 23klgm3l_ _ m3nm, sec ' 3 154 El7 sec/y( _mfsec, m2r IE4m2)
Enter w i rn/sec- 10 oiffuLsion ciet'
Enter Vert. grad:_ 2,00E-03 Wind absorbed downward 3.1035E+10 J/bafyr
8 Clay sediments deported from wind or water
9 Organic matter brought from outside stored and/or used on site ..
(waters, -n3 ha.- viIL'oganric.-. a'm3 115 lical 'gri4 186 J kcall
Enter water inflow: 3
and organic pprrti 100 Flua of aganic energy added - 6279000 1/ha/yr
10 Input or seeds and other propaguies evaluated by nwtmber of Endividu* of each kind
Use transforrraues fix each species as the soar energy required to copy each species of propagu
11 Solar insolation from climatoogical data; _
Direct sunlight is not added into total since it is already included in the transformity of rain
12 :Sum of independent inputs: Direct sunlight and wind oritted-climatic by-oroducts of rain used
13 Human goods and Services in ex perlditures or a particuJar year
1 4 Taxj, in ependrtures on a particular year
1s5 Fuels used m workon site muriltipied by energy per utt iue
16 Inlterest In dolars of a particular year paid on debt on the site
17 Sum of solar EMERGY contributed through human and economic inputs
18 .Sum of envairrnental c.ontnbut rns and hurrn-economrmc contributions .tem 12 & teem I 71
II. EVALUATION OF REGIONAL ROLE
Whereas the calculations in levels 1-3 evaluate the work done on site using the
main enerwr sources from nature and humanity. Judgments about a particular wetland site
may Jepend on the role it plas- in the larger system. Table 4 provides a calculation table for
estimating EMERGY and macroeconomic dollar values of work in the regional system for
which the wetland site may be essential because of its :onitributions to the outside, position
in water cycles, wildlife corridors, city proximitv s. etc. Table 4 evaluates the EMERGY
production and use outside of the site in question that might be at risk if its role in the
larger system were c-hanied, Mitigation has to be based not nnl% on the EMERGY wealth
generated by the work of the wetland site, but the change in EMERGY production and use in
the surroundiniZ system caused by the change
For evaluation of regional role. draw a systems diagram of the regional
system showing the role the site in question plays in the surroundings
(Figure 2). Using the spreadsheet for Table 4. evaluate the main processes
affected by the wetland site. If the diagramming indicates processes not
already covered in Table 4, add appropriate line items. Use the solar EMERGY
values and their macroeconomic $ equivalents to consider any changes
proposed in the use of the wetland. Specific proposals for chMaged use of a
wetland should be accompanied by evaluation at Table 4 before and after the
EXAMPLE FLORIDA CYPRESS POND
Tables 1.2, 3, and 4 include- an example, a cypress pond in north Florida where tree
growths have accumulated 1011 years. The procedure generated the following results (Table
51 Data on the :v-pres. pond wetland type are given hb Ewel and OJum (1 )5).
Table 5 Solar EERGY Evaluation of a Cypress Pond
Solar arwy . .
-sjlh 1990 $
m.nat-ia of Stnaq&tha, tabul 1:
Lroul 1i c mommt la M 2.5 Et 172,603.
Lunl 2hlmad ua a�ntl type 3-6 =7T 240,757.
Lal 3l4dwtaled i uwanttm.a) 4.4 IT 275,000.
Aimal valIo, Table 3, Lie 18 1.1 ZlS 6h.
bmmLI r o insu n-g (m 4) T.9 fS1 4,971.
Table 4. _ Emergy Evaltion of the Outide Role of a Fkona Weand
See Table 3 for evauation of Erergy uses on site
Enter Name of Wetland here: OdVrm Cpipe-s Pond
Note-Name of flow Units u _Fl used Solar Emn./unrt Solar Ernergy Macroecon or
Lrnirtseha.'yr sejunit use- se tl ha_. yr $ * ha yr
Unamorbed flows through the ste affecting other areas
1 Cherm. energy, fresh water Toules 25OE E11 1.86E+04, 4.5dE�15 1730.76923
2 Physerfreswer Joul.es 4.90E+07 2J7 041 1 37E+ 12 0.52580769
SSatter currents Joules0 1 .64E+04, 0.0E+00 0
4 PRph&us fIux grams 1.0 E.01 6 3.BOE+07 3.84E+13 14.7615385
5 Nitrogen flux gramss 1.02E+07 Z-60E+06I 2.65E+13 i 02
5 S-dirnent transport grarrc 0 2 OOE.09 0 DOE00 0
7 Organic transport -oules LOSE+1 1 7A4 +04 7.74E-+15 2977 017692
8 Spec-s reFuge ~ ___" 2.00E07 ~ I OEtO?+0 2.OOE+14' 76.9230769
9 Harvested products $ 0. 4 00E03 0.00E+00 0
10 Hurrman experiences Joues 2 10E .07 2 OOE+07' 4.20E+14' 161.538462
11 Sumnf separate iterns of outside effect (#1-#0) 1 2927E+16; 4971.79504
12 Potential oftyXcal outside EMERGY _rmtchmg G44E+ 15 2476-92308
Footnotes for Table 4 __
* Solar Enmeragyha/yr divided by EMEF NGY. rario = 2.60E.12 sep- I
1 G.bbs Free energy in Transpired waler =
I i____m3/ha/'yr waler mused)(1 E g.'rn31lS J'g freshwater relative to sai) 1
Enter rn3 'I/hatr - 500 E*04. FkuJ oi Gibbs Free energy = 2 5E11 1 hayr
Nater lhrough-lokws tnal are not asea on sie are evaluated in Table 4
2 energy of moving water based on head Ioss per 10 rn.
im3/,'y li Xensiy. 1E3 kgirrm3)(Height change_ mPjgravyiy. 9 8 m2..'sec2)
Enter m3hay 00E04 Enter change r_ 0.1 490000001 J. na.'yr
3 Tidal energy absorbed per hectare based on m tidal ramane * 0 5 as cerrer of gravity
(area.1 E4 mZ)i0'.S )(range squared( 705 Ltdesiyr)(densrry. 1 023 E3 kg'rr,3Ifgravity)
Enter range in rrm 0 Tikai energy absorbed = 0 Jfha.yr
4 Nutrient phosphorus evaluated as Gibbs energy of ;Ts concentration compared to background
(mn3/ha/yr)( . g"m3 P)(Joules Gibbs energy /g)
Gibbs energy = (gas cnostantr Kelvin T.)((log base e of ppm ralzo't(atornic weight
Enter input ppm, 0 2 Background ppi _ 005
input m3/Ha/yr- . OOE. 04_Gibbs tree energy in nutnent P 10 !92b 36 J/halyr
5 Nurient nritogen evaluated as Gibbs energy of its concntration compared tn background
(rn3/ha/yr)( __g,m3 N)c Joules Gibbs energy _ _ _ '
Gibbs energy = tgas cnostantjiKelvin I. ( logbaseW e of ppm ratbo) attornn weight
Enter input ppm _ 0.5 Backgound ppi 005
input m3/Ha.yr.. 5.00� +04 CGbbs free energy in nutrient P 102 752861 J/ha/yr
6 Sediment flow passing, Water Flux multipied by clay sediment concentration
Enter water flux: 5.00E+04 g/m3 clay: 0 0 Jlha/yr
7 Orgaunc hdtenng in Joules, trmes ppm orga content andS kcal/g & 4186 J/kcal
Enter water flux: 5.00E04ppm rnorganics "00l1 046E+ 11 ha/yr
8 Wildlife sanctuaryhectare contribution based on wildlife blornass/area
Enter grams dry bimass/ha: 1 OOE+03 Z0930000 J/halyr
9 Yild to outside, dry g ha.'yr t wes energy c ontent
_Enter yI d dry g/ha-'yr 0 0 J/ha/yr
10 Multily person-days of human contact/y by metabolism per huxr(2SO kc al..'dav'41 86 Jkc-al
Enter person-days 2 20930000 J.- ayr
11 Sum of solar EMRGCY.,ha'yr in the last column
12 Economi.r a-cTivty in surro'nuflargs based on rnatactung EMERGY of wetland;
Multiply annual solar EMERGY from Environment (Table 3) by Investment ratio for Florida(7.0).
EnterWethnd seak-rr 420?'E.14 44E-1S scjeha/yr
In the et.mple. the higher value in Level 3 analysis was due to the tax included as
mrneasure of one of the- human controls. Large items of wetland connrihuion to the
-urrounding ysimerns included the EMERGY of the water recharged to the ground and the
contained organic matter processing that was a measure of the Filering and metabolic
action in the process.
Figure 2. Some of the ways wetlands participate in larger system
This preliminary draft is assembled to elicit interest and test feasibilhy , Pf this
approach. With funding and participation of those with local knowledge, this manual could
be completed for Honda and similar manuals adapted for other states and nations.
For more background on EMERGY, copies of the report by Odum and Arding (1991)
are a\ adable which includes a glossary and an appendix introducing concepts. That report
includes F.MERGY analysis on several scales: internarional.nationIal, regional, ecosystem.
and mircoeconomic systems with EMFRGY-lhased prolict re.-commr nations .
Ewel, K. and H.T. Odum, eds. 1985. Cypress Swamps. University of Florida Press. Gainesville.
Giampietro, NI and D. Pimentel 1991 Energy efficiency: assessing the interaction between
humans and mheir environment. Tco]ogicaJ Economics. 4(2):117-144.
Odtun. H.T. and J,E. A. ding. 1991. EMERGY Analysis of Shrimp Mariculture in Ecuador.
Working Paper prepared for the Coastal Resources Center, University of Rhode Island.
Narragansett. RI. 114 pp.
WVharton. C. mnd HT. Odum, eds. 1976. Wetlands Use Manual. Florida Dijsion of State
Planning. 380 pp.