ENERGY ANALYSIS EVALUATION OF SANTA FE SWAMP
Bradford County, Florida
Howard T. Odum
Environmental Engineering Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville
A Report submitted to
GEORGIA PACIFIC CORPORATION
For Purchase Order # 5594
CENTER FOR WETLANDS
University of Florida
May 18, l ,
Values of the Santa Fe Swamp in Bradford County, Florida, were evaluated
with an energy analysis procedure and expressed as macroeconomic dollar
contribution to the public economy. The swamp serves the region as a
major regulator and conserver of water quantity and quality, increasingly
important to the public good as density of populations and urban activities
increase in Norch Florida. Annual contribution to the regional economy
was estimated as $3.4 million and the capital assets in the swamp's geological
and ecological structure and storage was estimated as $2.2 billion.
Management measures are recommended that help natural succession to
restore a canopy of larger trees that were cut earlier. By seeding and
supplying nutrients, some of the wet scrub may be displaced more rapidly
by succession, restoring a "bay-cypress-gum" swamp with additional ecological,
aesthetic, wildlife, and recreational values that existed before clearcutting.
With appropriate access trails and canoe access, the swamp should develop
educational and recreational uses like the Okeefenokee Swamp.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TABLE OF CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . .
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Santa Fe Swamp . . . . . . . .
Conceptual Background . . . .
. . . . . 3
. . . . . 3
,ETHODS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
RESULTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Santa Fe Swamp Ecosystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Santa Fe Regional System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Value Stored in Swamp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Annual Contributions to Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Inferences from Field Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
DISCUSSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Distinction Between Macro-economic Dollar Value and
Macro-economic Market Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Research Needed to Confirm Premises Used in Evaluation . . . . . . 22
Measures for Maintaining and Enhancing Public Values of
Santa Fe Swamp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
APPENDIX A -- DESCRIPTION OF METHODS, "ENERGY ANALYSIS EVALUATION
OF COASTAL ALTERNATIVES" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
APPENDIX B -- POLLEN COUNTS IN PEAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
. . 2
Increasingly, the values of swamps to the regional economy, of humanity
and nature are becoming apparent with many questions raised about best
utilization, values, appropriate laws, etc. Among the large swamps in
Florida under discussion is the Santa Fe Swamp. This report uses energy
systems methods to show ecological relationships and the role of the swamp
in the regional economy. Calculations are made of the swamp's stored values
and the annual contributions of the swamp to the regional economy.
Santa Fe Swamp
The Santa Fe Swamp is located in Bradford County, Florida, shown in
Figure 1 and Figure 2. The swamp is an elevated plateau receiving rainwaters,
waters from Lake Santa Fe and some drainages from sandy ridges to the east.
The drainage canal from Lake Santa Fe to Lake Alto earlier in the century
apparently lowered the water table of the swamp. It was clear-cut for timber
and has experienced fires in dry periods that helped to arrest succession
in a scrubby thicket stage. Fires and other oxidation tend to eliminate
the peat above the water table in dry periods, especially after drainage
efforts. Whether the swamp and peat level is in equilibrium with the present
lower level of the swamp water table now is not known.
The pattern of the swamp in cross section is given in Figure 3 with
water table and drainage shown.
Conceptual .-. Lkground
Like Bogs found in more northern climates, bays and elevated swamps
like the Okeefenokee Swamp and the S.inci Fe Swamp in Bradford o-,_-iry receive
rain waters, runoffs, and superficial �:r'iojnd water drainages from sandy
Figure 2. Area of the Santa Fe Swamp evaluated with energy-dollar analysis.
ridges without much nutrients. Under these low nutrient conditions a
type of vegetation develops that makes abundant cellulose and lignin which
is deposited as peat. Growth of living matter is slow and there are
mechanisms for conserving nutrients within the living components such as
evergreemness of many species such as the several species of "bay trees."
The nutrient absence and acid condition may interfere with the consumers
more than the plant producers so that peat accumulates. Whether this factor
is more important in accounting for Santa Fe Swamp or its position as a
filter across the outflow from the Santa Fe Lake network, or some other
factor is more important is not known.
The following theory about the way elevated swamps operate and save
water is gaining increasing support with considerable evidence now available.
Because the nutrients are few and conserved, net growth is small, stomata
are not opened for carbon-dioxide uptake as much, transpiration is less,
and the heat budget of the sun is balanced by increased reflection and
reradiation. Waters under the vegetation are shielded from sun and wind even
in the dry periods. Water is stored in loose peaty colloidal solutions as
well. Thus, the swamps of this type conserve water, evapotranspiring less
than open waters of eutrophic lowland floodplain swamps.
The low nutrient swamps of the type described are elevated plateaus
generally higher than the surrounding region so that the conserved waters
tend to drain outward forming a headwater to strands that become stream
fl-odplains at lower altitudes. Only local and temporary superficial water
tables are higher and drain into the swamp. Since these perched water
conservation swamps have a higher water table than the general regional
aquifers, some of the waters recharge the aquifers underneath. The waters
are initially organic laden and become acid due to carbon dioxide from
decomposition and may also contain acid contributions from combustion stacks.
The downward percolation of such waters dissolves limestones over long
geological periods, waters becoming neutral and hard of the reasonably
good quality used by most municipalities by pumping from the deeper aquifers.
The action of the swamp helps develop the recharge pathways downward,
but the percolating waters may concentrate clays. These and the beds of
peat serve as natural kidneys, filtering nutrients, heavy metals, and many
toxic organic substances (Jenkins et al., 1983). During growth periods, the
waters held in peaty swamps help to maintain local stream flows and lake
levels. During excessive rains, the swamp area acts as storm retention
volume, the friction of the heavy vegetation helping to delay runoff surges.
Although not without controversy, these concepts suggest that the bays
and upland swamps are important to regional water supplies, increasing
quantity and protecting quality.
Other values of swamps are well known, as wildlife centers and
recreational wilderness, becoming increasingly appreciated for aesthetic
and educational values as population densities increase.
In general, this class of permanent swamps does not develop large
numbers of nuisance mosquitoes that may develop in temporary waters,
perhaps because of the small fishes that spread out when waters are high.
Over long periods of a hundred years or more moderately tall canopy
trees of bay, cypress, and gum develop. Drier species such as slash pines
develop on the elevated platforms that form of clustered root bases. Such
swamps are beautiful, cool, generally mosquito-free, colorful with red
lichens, the floor with spliagnum mosses, and somewhat open beneath. After
this timber is clear cut and the sun reaches the swamp floor a massive
abnormal thicket of the other species develops with intensive competition -
a wet scrub develops. This scrub may take many years to develop its canopy
.'iin because of the nutrient shortages, the lack of seed trees, the
vegetative competition, and repetitive fires caused in part by lowered
water tables due to drainage canals. Such a scrub developed over part of
the Santa Fe Swamp.
After diagrams were developed to overview the systems of concern,
energy storage and flows were calculated, expressed in solar equivalent
joules and then dollar equivalents. Evaluations were made with existing
conditions and for some management alternatives.
1. Energy Systems Diagrams. After assembly of information from various
written sources and knowledgeable people two energy systems diagrams were
developed, one showing the main features of the Swamp ecosystem and its
processes, the other considering a large size scale represents the role of
the swamp in the regional processes, hydrology, and human economy. These
diagram-s use energy language symbols that express energetic, hydrologic,
material balance, mathematical, and economic aspects of the systems they
represent. For full explanations see book (Odum, 1971; 1983; Odum and Odum,
1976, 1982; and Hall and Day, 1975). A brief explanation is included here
in Appendix A.
The process of developing the diagrams identified the properties and
processes to be numerically evaluated. The diagram also shows the interplay
of causal factors within the swamp and between the swampI and the larger
outside economy. The diagrams are a one page impact statement.
2. Ener:v, Evaluation. Flows and storage which are believed important
are listed in tabular form, and the actual energy flows and storage that
accompany these were calculated with standard scientific formulae. A
"cookbook" summary of these is given in two sources (Odum et al., 1,::;
Odum and Odum, 1983).
Next, the solar energy equivalent of each of the energy storage and
flows was calculated by multiplying the actual energy by an appropriate energy
transformation ratio (ETR). See Table 1. These ETR's were derived from
previous calculations of the joules of solar energy required directly and
indirectly to g.-nerate the joules of the type of energy of concern.
Simple proportion was used to determine the percent of the regional
economic product of each flow or storage of interest. The fraction that
the item is of the regional energy budget (in solar equivalent joules) is
the fraction that the item is of the regional economic product. Care in
examining the system diagrams helps avoid double counting where pathways are
diverging byproducts of the same process. Results were given in tables and
in summary diagrams.
3. Management Suggestions. Ways of increasing environmental services
found to be important to the combined economy of humanity and nature were
identified among values lost in earlier management.
Energy diagrams for system overview are given in Figures 3 and 4
and tables of energy and dollar equivalent evaluations are given in Tables
2 and 3.
Santa Fe Swamp Ecosystem
The Santa Fe Swamp ecosystem as defined in Figure 2 is diagrammed with
its outside influences, its stored quantities and its pathways of interaction
in Figure 3. The flows of sunlight interacting with the inflows and outflows
mi a'ctJ a, lhtr on
kFwa e mp wafems
-^ W.FtIrrJfk^ Au14r,
*^, B -
Figure 3. Santa Fe Swamp. (a) Cros.?. sectional sketch; (b) energy diagram
of energy and money relationships.
Table 1. Energy transformation ratios used.
Water in peat
Wood in the field
Recharge to aquifer
Footnotes for Tabl'- 1
ETR of water increases as it goes from rain into streams or storage
since the quantity reaching these last stages is less.
1 Energy transformation ratio of rain (see Footnote 5) is increased by a
factor of 2.7 assumed for the ratio of water processed through the swamp
to maintain a unit of water stored in the peat zone.
2 Energy transformation ratio of peat collected for sale with partial
drying. Input work in solar equivalent joules was summed and divided
by actual output energy of one cubic yard. Deposition rate assumed 0.001 m/y
so that one cubic yard (0.73 m3)above a square meter requires 730 years.
Environmental work evaluated from water budget.
Rain, (2.71 E7 m 3/y)(i E6 g/m3)(5 J/g)(ETR=1.5 E4)
= 2.0 E18 SEJ/y
Drainage, (3.55 E7 m3/y)(l E6 g/m3)(5 J/g)(ETR=3.0 E4)
= 5.3 E18 SEJ/y
Total = E8 SEJ/ = 3.69 Ell SEJ/m /y
1.98 E7 mz
(3.69 Ell SEJ/m2/y)(730 g) = 26.9 E13 SEJ/m2
Fuel use estimated $2/cu yd @ $1/gal
(2 gal)(3.8 l/gal)(900 g/1)(10 kcal/g)(4186 J/kcal)(ETR=5.8 E4) =
1.66 E13 SEJ/cu yd.
Goods and services input, $10/cu yd (Traxler Peat Co., 1984) half dry
multiplied by U.S. ratio of solar embodied energy per $:
($10)(2.2 E12 SEJ/$) = 2.2 E13 SEJ/y
Output: (1 cu yd)(0.73 m3/cu yd)(0.5 dry)(1 E6 g/m3)(5 kcal/g)(4186 J/kcal)
= 7.63 E9 J/cu yd
ETR for peat collected half dry:
[(26.9 + 1.66 + 2.2) E13 SEJ] / 7.63 E9 J = 3.5 E4 SEJ/J
= (30.76 E13 SEJ)/(7.63 E9 J) = 4.03 E4 SEJ/J
ETR for peat in field: (26.9 E13 SEJ/m2)/(7.63 E9 J/cu yd)
= 3.53 E4 SEJ/J
3 Wood in the field; an ETR for tropical forest was used (Odum and Odum,
4 Direct sunlight has energy transformation ratio of one by definition.
5 Rain energy of global processes in ratio to Gibbs free ,;nergv of
rainwater falling on/and relative to salt water (representing saltiness of
leaves due to transpiration and/or salt of sea for runoffs reaching the sea
(Odum and Odum, 1983).
6 Ratio for rain in Footnote 5 increased by factor of the rain to drainage-
runoff taken as 2.
7 Ratio for rain in Footnote 5 increased by factor of rain to recharge of 3
(Hunn and Slack, 1983).
Table 2. Energy-dollar evaluation of stored quantities in Santa Fe Swamp.*
Fc E no te Energy Energy Embodied
iijmber Storage Transformation Solar $
Item Joules Ratiot, Energy 106
Solar Joules/ Solar Joules
1 Water storage 3.14 E14 4.1 E4 1.21 E19 5.9
2 Peat storage 1.4 E17 3.5 E4 . 4.9 E21 2227.0
3 Wood storage 3.52 E16 3.0 E4 1.06 E21 480.0
Highest value includes others: --- --- 2227.0
* 4896 acres belonging to Georgia Pacific.
Footnotes for Table 2
$ Calculated by dividing embodied solar energy by ratio of estimated
.mnbo(di>-d solar energy to dollars for the U.S. >.conorimy 1984, 2.2 E12
solar equivalent joules per $.
t See Table 1.
1 Volume of water held in swamp taken as the volume of peat, 8.65 E7
cubic yards; 89.6% moisture (Appendix C); Gibbs free energy of soft water,
(8.65 E7 cu yd)(0.729 m3/yd3)(1 E6 g/m3)(5 J/g) = 3.15 E14 J
2 Peat storage, 8.65 E7 cu yd; dry weight 10.4%; heat content
9.2 E3 BTU/lb dry; reversible heat correction negligible and not included;
(8.65 E7 cu yd)(0.729 m3/cu yd)(1 E6 g/m3)(0.104 dry of wet)
= 6.56 E12 g dry
(9.2 E3 BTU/lg dry)(0.254 kcal/BTU)(4186 J/kcal)/(454 g/lb)
= 2.15 E4 J/g
(6.56 E12 g)(2.15 E4 J/g) = 1.4 E17 Joules
3 Wood storagc- based on timber cruise in 193L
(2040 cds)(4 x 4 x 8 cu ft/cd)(0.027 cu m/cu ft)(0.7 E6 g dry/cu m)(3.5 Cal/g)(4186 J)
(101 plots)(0.1 acre/plot)(4.05 E3 mn/acre)
= 1.768 E9 J/m2
(4896 acres)(4.05 E3 m2/acre)(1.78 E9 J/m2) = 3.52 E16 joules.
Table 3. Energy: flows in Santa Fe Swamp. See Figure 3.
Footnote Item Energy Energy Embodied Dollar
Flow Transformation Energy Equivalence*
J/y Ratio E18 SEJ/y Million $/y
1 Sun 1.04 E17 1.0 0.1 0.045
2 Rain 1.36 E14 1.5 E4 1.9 0.9
3 Drainage in 1.8 E14 3.0 E4 5.4 2.4
4 Recharge 4.5 E13 4.5 E4 2.0 0.9
Footnotes for Table 3
* Dollar equivalence calculated by divilinr by ratio of embodied solar
energy/dollars for U.S. in 1984, 2.2 E12 SEJ/$.
1 Direct solar energy (Gainesville)
(3446 kcal/m2/d)(365 d/y)(1.98 E7 m2)(4186 J/kcal) = 1.04 E17 J/y
2 Global solar energy embodied in a chemical purity of rain falling on
Florida - calculated as 5 joules Gibbs free energy per gram of soft water.
This item includes the direct solar energy in Footnote 1, since it is part
of the global energy generating rain on land.
(54 in/y)(2.54 cm/in)(1 E4 cm2/m2)(1 g/cm3)(5 J/g)(1.98 E7 m2)
= 1.36 E14 J/y
3 Drainage into swamp
(20 sq mi)(640 acre/sq mi)(4.04 E3 m2/acre)(1 E4 cm2/m2)(55 in/yr)(2.54 cm/in)
(0.5 draining)(5 J/g) = 1.81 E14 J/y
4 Recharge has the embodied energy of the rain and drainage.
(18 in/y)(2.54 cm/in)(1.98 E7 m2)(1 E4 cm2/m2)(1 g/cm3)(5 J/g)
= 4.5 E13 J/y
of water generate a swamp forest cover supported on a peat base in which
scarce nutrients are bound and recycled. This diagram uses the energy
language symbols that define the mathematical relationships so that the
diagram is a computer simulation model.
Santa Fe Swamp in Regional System
Figure 4 is the regional system diagram that shows the way the Santa
Fe Swamp participates in the regional processes and economy through control
of hydrological budgets and other existing or potential activities.
Value Stored in Swamp
The embodied energy in the stored water, stored peat, and wood is
given in Table 2 with dollar equivalents (1984 $), 2.2 billion dollars.
Annual Contributions of Value
Annual contributions to the economy, services of the swamp to the
economic system through its work in hydrological and other environmental
systems is given in Table 3, which enumerates main flows of the swamp
also pictured in Figure 4. The global work embodied in the rain's work in
generating a stable groundwater and stream headwater etc. is about
Inferences from Fieldwork
Field examination was made along the transect in Figure 5 with entry
to the swamp from the east side. See line in Figure 2 also. Peat samples
were taken with a Hiller borer at three positions located approximately
at 1, 2 and 3.
Figure 4. Energy-dollar diagram of regional economy and the central role of upland swamps.
Figure 5. 1933 aerial view of eastern section of Santa Fe Swamp indicating field transect and peat core
positions. Note predominance of bushy scrub vegetation.
The peat in samples examined is woody (estimated by P. White as
Von Post 5) and heavily permeated with cypress pollen. The wet scrub
now present over much of the area is quite different from the cypress
swamp that may have existed before the clear cutting, lowering of water
table, and fires. A restoration of the former swamp forest can be managed.
Distinction between Macro-economic Dollar Value
and Micro-economic Marlket Value
The market price that one pays for wood or other products from a
swamp is money paid to humans for their services in processing the
environmental product. As a market price, effects of supply and demand
help humans determine price according to utility. These prices are
micro-economic values involving human contribution to the economic use of
The work that the environment does for the general economy directly
and indirectly is much greater than the money paid for the first human
service. By the time wood has been utilized, processed, reprocessed,
transported, manufactured, and sold in wholesale and retail outlets, much
more money has circulated than is involved in the first payment to the
woodcutter. In addition the swamp's work in increasing quantity and quality
of water for the area is a contribution to the economy that is generally
unr,:-cognized until it is lost and tax money has to be spent in substituting
human work for the lost environmental work. r'uIe little recognized
contributions to the economy are macro-economic values that are generaIlly
larger than the micro-economic market prices. These larger contributions
to the economy are not in payment for services of land owners but are
dollar recognition of nature's work. Th.' may be a good predictor of the
value of the swamp to society as a whole, expressed in dollars of the
Research Needed to Confirm Premise'
Used in Evaluation
Although reasonable estimates may have been developed for most of
the calculations, the following are particularly important to calculations
and conclusions and should be verified with further research:
(1) The role of low nutrient swamps in conserving water through
adaptations with low rates of transpiration needs to be further confirmed
with indirect measurements of water budget and with direct chamber
measurements of transpiration.
(2) The time required to grow the peat base of the swamp needs to be
verified with radiocarbon dating and other methods. One sample from 3 m
has been sent to radiocarbon dating laboratory (Beta Analysis) in Coral Gables.
(3) The time required to grow larger canopy trees needs to be determined
with tree core measurements.
Measures for Maintaining and Enhancing
Public Values of Santa Fe Swamp
If the Santa Fe Swamp is to be managed for its direct and indirect
multiple values to the public, the following suggestions are made for
preservation and enhancement of its regtonil role.
(1) Thr-: very slow i.-,:, .:-ion of regrowth of canopy trees such as
cypress and gum can be accelerated by planting of seedlings of the larger
species which may have been delayed from getting a restart because of
inadequate seeding, t.-rTmi.nation, and survival, partly due to the competition
of the dense wet scrub of lesser vegetation that developed after taller
trees were cut.
(2) Since regrowth is limited by the generally low nutrient content
of bays that are mainly nourished by rainwater and drainages from sands
poor in nutrients, effluents from agriculture, street runoffs, and treated
municipal waters should be tested for their beneficial effects. Use of such
runoffs in this way keeps them out of public waters, encourages their
storage and recharge and allows the swamp to filter out many of the contained
substances. 'here may be a limit to the use of such waters since with
enough nutrients the consumption of the peat by micro-organisms may exceed
the organic deposition. However, in the case of Santa Fe Swamp, waters
that were diverted earlier from the swamp by canals lowering the level of
Santa Fe Lake would be restored to earlier natural patterns by this mechanism.
(3) To facilitate the recreational and educational use, wilderness
trails and canoe trails may be developed. These need to be done carefully
so as not to appreciably short circuit the gradual water flows through the
filtering vegetation and peat. Shallow canoe trails through existing
sloughs may be arranged like the popular ones in the Oke-fenoke2. Swamps.
Walking trails of built-up coarse gravel interlaced with root networks
may work in peripheral areas where peat is shallow. In other areas
boardwalks may work if supported on natural platforms of root networks,
on cross members lashed to trunks, or supported by driven posts. Some of
these can be the expensive boardwalks found in such parks as Highlands
TTamnm.ck. but others can be inexpensive one board width tracks for
(4) Some kind of private or governmental park and water conservation
management may be desirable to maintain the area as a wildlife nucleus,
to support lng term renewable contributions to the regional economy.
(5) Consideration should be given to restoring part or all of the
Santa Fe drainage now diverted through canals, back to the swamp for
water and conservation purposes. This alternative will require
consideration of other consequences such as effect of water level cl1.nges
on piers of riparian boat owners.
Field survey and peat collections were made with Paul White,
Georgia Pacific, Palatka division. Perspectives and literature were supplied
by James R. Newuman, Environmental Science and Engineering and Dan Spangler,
Geology Department of the University of Florida. Pollen counts in peat were
made by Antonia Higuera, working with Dr. E.S. Deevey, Florida State Museum.
Clark, W.E., R.H. Musgrove, C.G. Menke and J.W. Caile, Jr. 1964. Water
Resourie4. of Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union Counties, Fl. Florida
Geological Survey, Report of Investigations, No. 35. 170 pp.
Hall, C. and J. Day. 1977. Ecosystem Modelling in Theory and Practice.
John Wiley, N.Y.
Hunn, J.D. and L.J. Slack. 1983. Water Resources of the Santa Fe River
Basin, Fl. U.S. Geological Survey Water Resources Investigations
Report 83-4075. Tallahassee. 105 pp.
Jenkins, T.T., D.C. Leggett, L.U. Parker, J.L. Oliphant, C.J. Martel,
B.T. Foley and C.J. Diener. 1983. Assessment of the treatability of
toxic organic by overland flow CRREL Report 83-3, Cold Regions
Research and Engineering Laboratory, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers,
Newman, J.R., J.D. Doolittle, R.S. DeLotelle and C.R. Neff. 1981. Georgia-
Pacific Environmental Licensing Feasibility Study, Little Santa Fe Tract,
Bradford County, Florida. ESE No. 81-900-900, Environmental Science
and Engineering, Inc. 34 pp.
Odum, H.T. 1971. Environment, Power and Society. Wiley Interscience,
New York. 336 pp.
Odum, H.T. 1983. Systems Ecology, An Introduction. John Wiley, New York,
Odum, H.T. and E.C. Odum. 1976, 1981. Energy Basis for Man and Nature,
2nd ed., McGraw Hill, New York, 331 pp.
Odum, H.T. and E.C. Odum (eds.) 1983. Energy Analysis Overview of Nations.
Working Pdper, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis,
Laxenburg, Austria, 550 pp.
APPENDIX A -- DESCRIPTION OF METHODS
APPENDIX B -- POLLEN COUNTS IN PEAT
Pollen counts in the four peat samples taken were made for
preliminary survey purposes by Antonia Higuera. These counts are included
in this appendix.
Santa Fe Swamp, Fl.
Hole # 1
Z = 1.7 m
Amaranthaceae/ Chenopodiaceae 1 0.4
Ambrosia 2 0.8
Compositae 4 1.6
Gramineae 10 4
Cyperaceae 6 2.4
Ericaceae 6 2.4
Melastomataceae 6 2.4
Legume type - -
Plantago 8 3.2
Palmae - -
Mvrica / Casuarina 6 2.4
Alnu- 2 0.8
Ulmus - -
Potamozeton - -
Typha 3 1.2
Taxodium 187 75
Unidentified grains 9 3.6
Partial pollen sum
(excludes Pinus and Quercus)
Hole # 2
Z= 2.5 m
Hole # 3
Z= 2.5 m
13 5 ,2
Z= 3m �
noJe if 1
Z = 1.7 m
Z= 2.5 m
Z= 2.5 mn
TOTAL POLLEN SUM s INCLUDES
ALL TAXA ( 250 grains ) PLUS
Pinus and Quercus
* Taxodium percentage of the
total pollen sum -