The relationship between perceptual characteristics and effective advising of university housing para-professional resid...

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The relationship between perceptual characteristics and effective advising of university housing para-professional residence assistants.
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Jennings, Gerald Douglas, 1945-
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Thesis--University of Florida.
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Bibliography: leaves 134-143.
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By Gerald Douglas Jennings.
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Typescript.
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Vita.

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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERCEPTUAL
CHARACT LISTICS AND EFFEi k7 :' ADVIS..,.. OF UNIVERSITY
H:.-": 7 PARA-PROFESSIONAL RESIDENCE ASSISTANTS








By




GERALrD DOUGLAS JENIT :NGS


A DISSERTATION PRES7.' ". -` TO THE GRADUATE
COUNCIL O THE I i;: VERSIY OF .FLORIDA IN PARTIAL
FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREiE 'TS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1973










ACKNOWLEDGE EVENTS


I wish to express my sincere appreciation to the in-
dividuals whose encouragement, guidance and warm friend-
ship made possible the completion of this study.


To Dr. Arthur Combs, chairman of my supervisory com-
mittee, and more important, my friend.


To the other members of my supervisory committee, Dr.
Audrey Schumacher, Dr. Donald Avila and Dr. William Ware
for their continued interest and advice.


To Dr. Hannelore Wass for her helpful suggestions and
assistance.


To Mr. Darryl Downing for his assistance in the
statistical analysis and computer programming.


To Mr. Joe Thigpen and Mr. Raul de la Cruz for their
comradeship and assistance as judges.


To the members of the Division of Housing at the
University of Florida whose cooperation made the study
possible.


To Matthew Jenn.ngs whose lighthearted references to
daddy's station provided some needed comic relief,


To Terry, whose encouragement, nimble fingers, succinct
comments, understanding and love made this dream a reality.










TABLE OF CONTENTS



ACI .;; ." LEDGEMENTS .......................... .............. ii

LIST OF TABLES ............... .............. .......... vi

ABSTRAC'T. .. ... .............. ..... .............. ... .. vii

CHAPTER I, PROBLEM AND PURPOSE OF THE STUDY............ 1
Introduction .......... ........ ........ 1
The Importance of the University
Residence Hall. ............ ......... 1
The Importance of the Student
Personnel Staff of the
University Residence Hall............ 3
Effective Residence Advising............. 5
The Perceptual Approach.................. 7
Purpose of the Study.................... 9

CHAPTER II. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE.................... 11
Introduction ............................. 11
The Criteria for Effective Advising...... 11
Research on the Effectiveness
of Counselors and Residence
Advisor s.. ....... .... .............. 15
Academic Measures................. 16
Personality, interest and
Attitude Measures............... 17
The Helping Relationship ................. 26
Research Studies in Perceptual
Psychology... .......... .... ........ 29
Introduction ......... ....... .... 29
Research Studies.............,.... 33
Summary ............... ...... ..... ..... 45

CHAPTER III. DESIGN OF THE STUDY......................... 47
Introduction............. ......... 47
Hypotheses ... ,........ ..... ..... .... .. 48
The Perceptual Dimensions ............... 50
Selection of the SubjecLts .........,.... 52
Inferred Perceptuacl Da ta. ..... ........... 53
The Use of Inferencer as
a Research Tool.................... 53
Rationale for the Use of the
lHuman Relations Indidcnt
for the Collection of the
Perceptual Data... ..,..... ....... 55


iii









Human Relat i'ons :-Icident (IIRI)......... 56
Scoring the Perceptual Inferences...... 58
Self-Ratfed Perceptual Data................ 60
The S(elf-Conce pt and the Self-Report... 60
The Self-Rat'ed Percentoal Dimensions... 63
Student-Rated Measures ................... 64
The Self-Anchoring Scale.............. 64
The Perceptual Dimensions Scale....... 66
Procedure....... ......... ................. 67
Administration of the Roesidence
Assistant Research Instruments...... 67
Administration of the Student
Rating Forms. ................... 68
Prepar.~ation of the Data for
Statistical Analysis......,...... 69
Statistical Treatment of the Data...... 71

CHAPTER IV, ANALYSIS OF THE DATA......................... 72
Introduction... ............. .. .... ..... 72
Analysis of Measures ..... ........... .... 73
Reliability Data for the Perceptual
Dimensions Scale Ratings as
Inferred by Judges from the
Human Relations Incidents........... 73
Self-Anchoring Scale,................ 76
Results ................. ............. ... 78
Hypothesis 1: The Relationship
Between the Perceptual Data
as Inferred by the judges and
Student Ratings on the Self-
Anchoring Scale....... ..... ... ... 78
Hypothesis 2: The Pelationshlip
Between Judge-Inferred Ratings
of the Residence Assistants and
the Student Ratings of the Res-
idence Assistants on the Per-
ceptual Dimensions Scale............ 80
Hypothesis 3: The Relationship
Between Judae.-Inferred Ratings
of the Residence Assistants and
Self-Ratings by the Residence
Assistants on the Porceptual
Dimensions Scale ..... ............... 82
Hyp,.oth'sis 4: The RB.elationship
Between the Percept- ..il Data as
Self-Rated by the Residence
Assistants and Student Ratings on
the Self-Anchoring Scale............ 84









Hypothesis 5: The Relationship
Between Self-Ratings by the
Residence Assistants and
Student Ratings of the Residence
Assistants on the Perceptual
Dimensions Scale................... 86
Hypothesis 6: The Relationship
Between the Perceptual Data as
Rated by the Students and the
Student Ratings on the Self-
Anchoring Scale. ................. 88


CHAPTER V.


CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS................
Introduction.............................
Hypothesis 1.............................
Hypothesis 2............................
Hypothesis 3 .............................
Hypothesis 4 .................... ..
Hypothesis 5 .......................... ....
Hypothesis 6.............................
Implications .. .... ....... .......... .
Perceptual Psychology.................
Effective University Para-
Professional Residence Advising....
Selection and Training of University
Para-Professionsl Residence
AssistantL ......... ......... ...
Future Research...........................
Limitations of the Study................


APPENDIX A........... ....... .... .... .... ....... ... ..... 110

APPF i i : B .......... .... .. ........ .. .. .. ........... 112

APPENDIX C .................... ..... .................... 114

APPENDIX D...................... ...... ...... ........... 118

APPENDIX E .............. ................................ 125

APPENDIX F... ....... ..... ...................... ......... 127

APPENDIX G.................. ..... .. .............. .... 130

BIBLIOGRAPHY ,. .*........... ... ....................... 134

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ........ .. .......................... 144


90
90
90
91
92
93
93
94
96
96

99


101
104
106










LIST OF TABLES


TABLE 1

TABLE 2





TABLE 3





TABLE 4




TABLE 5




TABLE 6





TABLE 7




TABLE 8


Reliability Data of Perceptual Judging.......... 75

Means, Standard Deviations and t-test
Statistics for Testing the Significance
of the Difference Between Effective and
Ineffective Residence Assistants Using
the Student-Rated Self-Anchoring Scale.......... 77

Group Means and F-Statistics Testing the
Significance of the Difference of the
Judge-Inferred Ratings on the Perceptual
Dimensions Scale for the Effective and the
Ineffective Residence Assistants................ 79

Correlation Coefficients Between Judge-
Inferred Ratings of the Residence Assistants
and Student Ratings of the Residence Assistants
on the Perceptual Dimensions Scale.............. 81

Correlation Coefficients Between Judge-
Inferred Ratings of the Residence Assistants
and Self-Ratings by the Residence Assistants
on the Perceptual Dimensions Scale.............. 83

Group Means and F-Statistics Based on the
Difference Between Student-Rated Effective
and Ineffective Residence Assistants and
Residence Assistant Self-Ratings on the
Perceptual Dimensions Scale..................... 85

Correlations Coefficients Between Self-Ratings
by the Rosid ecei Assistants and Student Ratings
of the Residence Assistants on the Percertual
Dimensions Scale. .. .. ........... .... ... ..... 87

Group Means and F-Statistics Based on the
Differences BetwVeen Student-Rated Effective
and Ineffective Residence Assistants on the
Sel -Anchoring Scale and Student Ratings of
Residence Assistants on the Perceptual Di[men-
sions Scale....... .......... .... .... 89









Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate
Council of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy



THE RELATIONSHT-IP BETWEEN PERCEPTUAL
CHARACTERISTICS AND EFFECTIVE ADVISING OF UNIVERSITY
HOUSING PARA-PROFESSIONAL RESIDENCE ASSISTANTS



By



Gerald Douglas Jennings

December, 1973



Chairman: Dr. Arthur W. Combs
Major Department: Foundations of Education



The Problem



Research in the area of the effectiveness of counselors

and residence hall personnel has centered on external measures

and observa-itions of behavior. This objective, external

evidence, seeking to make distinctions between good and poor

counselors and residence hall personnel, is inconsistent and

inconclusiveN. A number of studies in the helping professions

have examined the :internal perceptual organization of members

of the helping professions and have reported promising findings.

This research sought to explore the relationship between

residence assistants' judge-inferred, self-rated and stuLdent-


vii









rated perceptual characteristics and a student-rated measure

of their effectiveness as residence assistants.



Procedure and Hypotheses



The subjects in this study were 30 university housing

para-professional residence assistants. The data for the

study were number-coded to perserve anonymity and collected

as follows:

1. The data on the effectiveness of the residence
assistants were measured with student ratings on
the Self-Anchoring Scale (SAS).

2. The perceptual organization of the residence
assistants was rated by students who were
minimally trained for making perceptual in-
ferences on the Perceptual Dimensions Scale(PDS).

3. The perceptual organization of the residence
assistants was self-rated on the Perceptual
Dimensions Scale by each of the residence
assistants.

4. The perceptual organization of the residence
assistants was inferred on the Perceptual
Dimensions Scale by three trained judges from
three written Human Relations Incidents.

rre statistical analysis included multivariate statistical

procedures to test the relationship between the effectiveness

ratings by the students on the Self-Anchoring Scale and the

data obtained on the judge-inferred, the student-rated, and

the self-rated perceptual dimensions. The relationships

between the judge-inferred, the self-rated and the student-

rated pecceptual dimensions were tested by use of product--


vi ii








moment correlations.

It was hypothesized that: (1) the judge-inferred per-

ceptual ratings would show statistically significant dif-

ferences between the effective and the ineffective res-

idence assistants, (2) the judge-inferred perceptual ratings

would significantly correlate with the student-rated per-

ceptual dimensions, (3) the judge-inferred perceptual

ratings would not significantly correlate with the res-

idence assistants' self-ratings on the perceptual dimensions,

(4) the residence assistants' self-ratings would not show

statistically significant differences between the effective

and the ineffective residence assistants, (5) the residence.

assistants' self-ratings would not significantly correlate

with the student-rated perceptual dimensions and (6) the

student-rated perceptual dimensions would show statistically

significant differences between the effective and the inef-

fective residence assistants.



Results



The statistical analysis of the data for the six

hypotheses revealed the following results:

1.. The judgc-inferred raatings of the residence as-
sistants on the PDS revealed significant dif-
ferences between the effective and the inef-
fective residence assistants.








2. 'The judge-inferred ratings and the student ratings
of the residence assistants on the PDS revealed only
one significant correlation.

3. The judge-inferred ratings and the self-ratings of
the residence assistants on the PDS revealed two
significant correlations.

4. The self-ratings of the residence assistants on the
PDS revealed no significant differences between the
effective and the ineffective residence assistants.

5. The self-ratings and the student ratings of the
residence assistants on the PDS revealed no sign-
ificant correlations,

6. The student ratings of the residence assistants on
the PDS revealed significant differences between the
effective and the ineffective residence assistants.



General Conclusions



An overview, of the investigation suggests the following

conclus eons:

1. Extensively trained judges and minimally trained
students inferred scores on the PDS and the scores
demonstrated high predictive pcwer in rating the
effectiveness of residence assistants.

The effective residence assistants were characterized
by the following perceptual dimensions.

(a) An internal rather than an external gen-
eral frame of reference

(b) Perceptions of other people as able rather
than unable

(c) Per-eptions of self as with people rather
than apart from people

(d) Perceptions of self as adequate rather
than inadequate









(e) Perceptions of the purpose of the helping
relationship as a freeing process rather
than a controlling process.

(f) Perceptions of the goals of the helping
relationship as larger goals rather than
smaller goals.

2. The self-reported perceptual data demonstrated few
significant relationships with the judge-inferred
perceptual data, student-rated perceptual data and
the student-rated SAS.

The implications of this research for effective university

residence advising and in the selection and training of

university para-professional residence assistants were also

discussed.








CHAPTER I


PROBLEM AND PURPOSE OF THE STUDY



Introduction



University residence communities have traditionally

-served an important function for a large number of students

as part of the students' total university experience.

Crowley (1934) traced the history of university residence

halls to their beginning in the twelfth century in Europe,

when students left private homes and formed their own

living units. Over the span of two centuries, student

control of these living units gradually passed into the

hands of the various institutions. By the twentieth

century, educators in the United States had begun to

recognize the potentialities of residence halls as edu-

cational units. Today this is generally recognized as the

most important contribution of a university residence hall.



The Importance of the University Residence Hall



Many current authors have cited the importance of the

residence hall in the "total" education of today's student.

They agree that the residence community must go beyond

merely providing food and shelter for the student. The









residence hall can make a significant contribution in the

total growth and development of a large number of university

students (Brooks, 1945; Arbuckle, 1953; Yarborough and

Cooper, 1961; Kilbourn, 1961; Duncan, 1967; Stoner and

Yokie, 1969; Chickering, 1969; Marshall, 1972; and Green-

leaf, 1969).

Riker estimated that in the fall of 1972 2 million

students lived in residence halls out of 8.9 million students

registered in colleges and universities (reported by the

Office of Education of the U.S. Department of Health, Edu-

cation, and Welfare). Riker stated:

The housing climate surrounds as many as
one-quarter of today's college students
during a sizable amount of every 24-hour
day on campus, conservatively, from 75 to
95 hours per week. By contrast, a student
may spend from 15 to 18 hours per week in
class (Riker, 1965, p.2).

The university residence hall provides the student

with facilities for everyday living. It is an integral

part of the student's academic, personal, and social

growth and development. A great deal of learning is

taking place in the students' living units. The student

personnel staff in these units has the potential to make

an important contribution to the growth'of students.









The Importance of the Student Personnel Staff of

the University Residence Hall



In recognition of the importance of the living and

learning nature of university residence halls, many

authors (Riker included) have expressed concern about the

personnel staffing the student residence community (Brooks,

1945; Wrenn, 1949; Williamson, 1961; Kilbourn, 1961;

Yarborough and Cooper, 1963; Murphy and Ortenzi, 1966;

and Duncan, 1967).

Housing units offer exceptional opportunities
for working informally with students as they
discover their interests, develop their
potentials, and resolve problems related to
their personal growth. A staff sensitive to
these day to day opportunities can initiate
helpful assistance to students in readily
acceptable ways... Moreover, personnel work-
ing at the grass roots, where students live,
add vitality to the total personnel program
on campus through early identification of
students needs, together with follow-up
observation and assistance as appropriate
(Riker, 1965, pp. 14-15).

The university para-professional residence assistant

serves a truly "grass-roots" personnel function as the

most basic personnel contact that the university has with

students. He is typically an undergraduate student, who

is assigned to and lives with a residence section housing

from thirty to fifty students.

Surveys have indicated that a majority of colleges

and universities throughout the country utilize under-

graduate student advisors in the residence halls. Brown









and Zunker (1966) sent out a questionnaire to over 118 four

year colleges and universities using a sample stratified by

geographical location and enrollment. They found that over

65 percent of the schools polled used undergraduate student

advisors and that in over 85 percent of the cases these

students were advisors in the residence halls. Dixon (1970a)

in a survey of the use of undergraduate residence assistants

in 279 small private colleges, found an average of 46

residence assistants per campus. Hardee (1959) polled 89

institutions of higher learning concerning the opportunities

extended to students for counseling. She found that a

majority of the institutions (71) provided this counseling

in the residence halls.

The general role and duties of the residence assistant

are well documented in the literature. Most often included

in these are administrative duties, advisement and organiza-

tional functions, counseling and referral functions as well

as disciplinary duties (Arbuckle, 1953; Kilbourn, 1961;

Mueller, 1961; Williamson, 1961; Yarborough and Cooper, 1961;

Murphy, 1964; Hoyt and Davidson, 1967; Duncan, 1967;

Schroeder and Dowse, 1968; and Powell, Plyler, Dickson and

McClellan, 1969). This diversity'of functions creates a

difficult task for the residence assistant. He can be an

effective aid in the general adjustment and growth of students

in their university experience. However, it requires a

unique individual to effectively carry out these diverse









roles.

Despite recent strong emphasis on integration
of living and learning, educational programs
of residence halls on most campuses are in-
effective because they lack sufficient...
skilled staff to serve as catalysts (Greenleaf,
1969, pp. 65-66).

Research examining the effectiveness of residence staff is

an absolute necessity if college and university residence

communities are to meet their potential in the education

of the "whole" student.



Effective Residence Advising



A means of evaluating the effectiveness of residence

assistants is imperative considering the diverse responsi-

bilities of the position. Stablein (1962) in a survey and

critique of counseling evaluation, has stated:

The need for evaluation should be of para-
mount concern to counselors and guidance
workers, and the obligation of the people
in the field to participate in enlightening
studies should be inculcated at all levels.
(Stablein, 1962, p. 66).

Much of the current literature on counseling and residence

hall advisor effectiveness has focused on personality

characteristics and traits. It is agreed that these

personality characteristics are important, but that they

are difficult to assess (Weitz, 1957; Hill and Green, 1960;

Stripling and Lister, 1963). Speaking specifically of

residence counselors, Riker has stated:









Little is known about the factors affecting
a residence counselor's job effectiveness
in a college or university residence hall,
and research in this area is still incon-
clusive (Riker, 1965, p. 59).

Research in the general area of counselor effectiveness

and more specifically in the area of the effectiveness of

university para-professional residence assistants has

centered on external measures and observations of behavior.

Outside observers either objectively record the behaviors

of the advisor in an actual situation, or objectively

evaluate the self-reports of an advisor on some sort of

standardized test or questionnaire. The assumption behind

this approach is that effective advising is objectively

measureable and quantifiable.

This objective, external evidence, seeking to make

distinctions between good and poor para-professional resi-

dence assistants, is inconsistent and inconclusive.

It is ludicrous to suggest that there is a
model personnel assistant. It is equally
foolish to propose a prototype, or "super
R.A.". Obviously the various programs and
situations presented in residential housing
call for a variety of personalities to
facilitate their solutions (Powell, Plyler,
Dickson, and McClellan, 1969, pp. 37-38).

Thus there is a great need for new research dealing with

the effectiveness of residence assistants which would provide

new criteria for the selection and training of residence

assistants. It is apparent that objective approaches

provide few definitive answers. This research proposes to









examine the question from another perspective.

The theoretical position and research of Dr. Arthur

Combs and his colleagues at the University of Florida

provide the frame of reference for the present research

study. From this point of view it it the internal per-

ceptions and perceptual organization of the individual

which provides the basis for the study of effective

residence advising.



The Perceptual Approach



New understandings, employing a perceptual or internal

frame of reference, concerning human behavior provide a

theoretical framework for extensive research in the helping

professions. The basic assumption of perceptual psychology

is:

All behavior, without exception, is completely
determined by, and pertinent to, the perceptual
field of the behaving organism (Combs and Snygg,
1959, p. 20).

The meanings that the beaver holds about himself and his

world form his unique perceptual field. Combs and Snygg

(1959) further state:

We behave in terms of the immediate meaning
existing in cur perceptual fields (1959, p. 22).

Because perceptions are the basis of behavior, to study the

effectiveness of residence assistants in this frame of

reference one must explore their internal perceptions.









Beginning with a faculty and graduate student seminar

at the University of Florida in 1959, a series of studies

has been carried out seeking to explore the nature and

characteristics of the helping relationship from the per-

spective of perceptual psychology. Basically these studies

have examined external behavior as a symptom of the internal

meanings of the behaver. The goal is to "read behavior

backwards" to discern the meaning that this external

evidence has for a person. From this frame of reference, it

is not the overt, external behavior that distinguishes

effective and ineffective helpers, but rather, it is the

internal perceptual organization- the beliefs and meanings

upon which behavior is based.

Research in perceptual psychology has studied the

internal perceptual organization of various members of the

helping professions. The fundamental assumption behind this

research is that, "...persons who have learned to use them-

selves as effective instruments in the production of helping

relationships can be distinguished from those who are ineffec-

tive on the basis of their characteristic perceptual

organizations" (Combs, 1961, p. 56). From these research

studies at least fifty possible hypotheses or dichotomies of

good and poor helpers have been suggested. The dichotomies

are called perceptual dimensions. Using various samples of

behavior of individual helpers, observers inferred the

perceptions of the helpers. The scoring was carried out









using a continuum with the various perceptual dimensions as

anchoring points.

This approach has been used to infer the perceptions

of counselors, elementary teachers, secondary teachers,

junior college teachers, college professors, nurses and

Eposcopal pastors in research studies carried out at the

University of Florida and the University of Northern

Colorado. Significant correlations between various perceptual

dimensions and criterion measures of effectiveness have been

found (Combs and Soper, 1963; Gooding, 1964; Benton, 1964;

Usher, 1966; Vonk, 1970; Brown, 1970; Dellow, 1971; Dedrick,

1972). After twenty studies with these different populations

of helpers, there is evidence of significant differences

between good and poor helpers on the basis of the perceptual

dimensions.



Purpose cf the Study



Due to the documented success of the perceptual approach

in discrim inating between effective a.;nd ineffective members

of the helping professions, it is felt that this approach can

be successfully applied to the area of para--professional

residence assistants. The relationship between perceptual

organization of residence assistants will be correlated

with their effectiveness as assessed by the students in their









living unit. Six selected perceptual dimensions will be

used to infer the perceptual field of the residence

assistants from three written Human Relations Incidents.

Self-ratings by each residence assistant will be examined

for the six selected perceptual dimensions. Student ratings

on the Self-Anchoring Scale and on the Perceptual Dimensions

Scale will be used to determine the criterion measure of

residence assistant effectiveness.

The questions posed by this study are:

1. What is the relationship between the inferred

perceptual organization of residence assistants

and each of the student ratings of their

effectiveness?

2. What is the relationship between the self-

rated perceptual organization of residence

assistants and each of the student ratings of

their effectiveness?

3. What is the relationship between the inferred

perceptual organization and the self-rated

perceptual organization of the residence

assistants?

4. What is the relationship between the two student

ratings of effectiveness of residence assistants?









CHAPTER II


REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE



Introduction



This chapter will review: (1) the criteria for effective

advising, (2) research on the effectiveness of counselors

and residence advisors related to their academic aptitude,

range of interest, attitudes or personality characteristics,

(3) studies concerned with the helping professions, and

(4) research studies in the area of perceptual psychology.



The Criteria for Effective Advising



Research on the effectiveness of residence hall

personnel has continually made use of evaluations by students,

peers and supervisors. However, there has been little written

in this particular field on the rationale behind the use of

these various evaluators. A survey of the literature

reveals conflicting results, but a general trend toward the

use of students as evaluators.

Biggs (1971) in his study of job viewpoints and inter-

personal attitudes of residence counselors concludes by saying,

"It is altogether possible that head residents and students

evaluate- residence counselors quite differently" (1971,p. 115).









Murphy and Ortenzi (1966) had 93 male residence counselors

evaluated on their success by 4,200 students and 5 supervisors.

They found student and supervisor ratings to be positively cor-

related. This correlation was especially high in the smaller

residence halls where counselor-student proximity increased.

Dolan (1965) found that, in evaluating 42 women under-

graduate residence staff members, the ratings of head

residents, other staff members, student residents, dean of

women's staff and self evaluations by the residence staff

were all reasonably consistent in evaluating staff members.

Schroeder and Dowse (1968) found that three main ways

were utilized in rating graduate assistant counselors for

selection: (1) head resident ratings, (2) dean of women's

ratings and (3) student counseling service staff ratings.

They found that there was,"no significant agreement among

any of the sets of raters" (1968, p. 152). In their study of

55 female graduate assistant counselors, Schroeder and

Dowse (1968) found that students and head residents were

essentially alike in their ratings of the GA's. As a

qualitative finding, though, the researchers state:

...the students differentiate the relative
importance of the various attributes of an
ideal GA more sharply than do head residents
(1968, p. 156).

Wyrick and Mitchell (1971) had students and head

residents rate the effectiveness of 40 residence assistants.

They found differences in the evaluations:









Head residents appeared to be more responsive
to variables associated with resident assistant
GPA, while students perhaps valued interpersonal
skills more highly (1971, p. 40).

Gonyea and Warman (1962) asked head residents, student

counselors, administrative officials and students to rate

the role of student counselors in the residence halls.

The role of the ideal student counselor was rated quite

differently by the three groups. The authors concluded:

...perhaps the attitudes of administrators,
head residents and counselors might profit-
ably be re-evaluated in light of dormitory
residents' perceptions, desires and expec-
tancies (1962, p. 355).

Mueller (1961) has stated that there is no disagreement

among those in the student personnel field that student

opinions should be valued in all affairs of a college

student personnel division.

Research literature in the fields of teaching and

counseling lend support to the use of students as

evaluators of residence assistant effectiveness.

Coffman (1954) made a succinct statement as to the

positions of critics and proponents of the usage of students

as evaluators of effective teaching. The positions are

relevant to the problem of evaluation in counseling and

residence advising. The critics emphasize two main points:

(1) students have had a lack of experience and (2) students

have difficulty in reporting judgements which are free from

subjective bias. Coffman reported that the proponents of the








use of students in evaluating teacher effectiveness have

stated:

...effective learning results from the inter-
action of student and teacher and that however
biased ratings may be, they are valuable as a
source of information concerning student
reactions to the behavior of teachers (1954, p. 277).

In the field of counseling many authors agree the the

best way to evaluate the success of counseling is through

the perceptions of the client (Shoben, 1953; Arbuckle,

1956; Patterson, 1958; Goodstein and Grigg, 1959; Pohlman

and Robinson, 1960; Grigg, 1961; and Mueller, Gatsch, and

Ralston, 1963). Weitz (1957) believes that the personality

traits of the counselor and, more importantly, the manner

in which he communicates with his clients will determine his

effectiveness. Thompson and Miller (1970) believe that it is

the client who can best observe and evaluate the effectiveness

of a counselor rather than therapists, researchers, or others.

Grigg and Goodstein (1957), who are outspoken proponents of

the use of clients as evaluators of counseling, have stated:

Some appraisal of the client's reaction to the
counselor and to counseling should be obtained
before we can say that we have any comprehensive
understanding of who makes a good counselor...
what exists here is a pool of independent
observers of a fairly well delineated job per-
formance (1957, p. 32),

It follows that the persons best suited to evaluate the

effectiveness of those in the helping professions are the

people with whom the various interactions take place. In

the residence halls, it is the students who are the direct









observers and participants in constant interaction with the

residence assistant. As such, students are in the most

favorable position to evaluate the effectiveness of the

residence assistant. Ratings by head residents, deans or

supervisors, by necessity, represent only a small sample of

residence assistant behavior.

Students, too, are naturally biased in their ratings

of residence assistants. They are seeking positive experiences

in their living and learning environment among a large

number of students with diverse personalities and interests.

The success of the residence assistant will be determined by

the personal manner in which he is able to carry out his role

within this diverse group of students. Each student will

evaluate the residence assistant according to his unique,

subjective personal point of view. Thus the ratings by

students will reflect a general cross-section of the

effectiveness of the residence assistant.



Research on the Effectiveness of Counselors

and Residence Advisors



Researchers have studied the behavioral characteristics

of effective and ineffective members of the various helping

professions. The results of this research have been incon-

sistent and inconclusive.

Research on counselor and residence advisor effectiveness









has generally involved the use of standard tests measuring

academic aptitude, range of interest, attitudes or personality

of the residence advisor, counselor or counselor in training,

The criteria of effectiveness ranges from supervisor

ratings, peer ratings and head counselor ratings.



Academic Measures



It has been found in the selection of counselor trainees,

that the selection has been limited to consideration of the

undergraduate grade point average and various standardized

tests of mental aptitude and achievement (Santavicca, 1959;

Hill, 1961; Patterson, 1963; and Stripling and Lister, 1963).

Wittmer and Lister (1971) carried out a study of 53 counselors

in training at the University of Florida. They found that

the Graduate Record Examination had no relation to the

supervisors' ratings at the conclusion of the practicum

experience. Abeles (1958) in a study of the characteristics

of counselor trainees at the University of Texas found that

the differences in ability did not play an important part in

determining assessed counseling proficiency. After an

extensive survey of the research literature, Walton and

Sweeney (1969) state:

Results of research indicate that indices of
academic ability and achievement are rather
poor predictors of counselor effectiveness
(1969, p. 33).








The traditional criteria of academic test scores and grade

point averages have been shown to have little or no cor-

relation with counselor effectiveness (Blocker, 1963; McGreevy,

1967; Arbuckle, 1968; and Myrick and Kelly, 1971).



Personality, Interest and Attitude Measures



Stripling and Lister (1963) after surveying over 50

research studies, found a consensus that personality

characteristics were considered to be important to counselor

success, but that this was an area that was difficult to

assess. Hill and Green (1960) reviewed the literature on

the personal characteristics of counselors. They found

researchers skeptical that these personal characteristics

could be measured. Patterson(1967) surveyed 110 research

articles in the area of personal characteristics of counselors

and noted that the research was "sporatic, inadequate, and

often irrelevant" (1967, p. 99). Cottle (1953) reviewed

17 research studies using a variety of standardized

instruments, mainly inventories of interest and attitude,

and found that the profiles of counselors varied considerably.

Dole (1964) reviewed the literature on research in the

area of predicting the effectiveness of school counselors

and found that measures of interest and personality

adjustment were rarely related to the criteria. In his own








study using seven standardized measures, Dole found little

relation between the measures in his Counselor Selection

Battery and his various criterion measures.

Johnson (1964) tested 99 counselor trainees in the

counseling practicum course at Purdue University. The

criterion of counseling effectiveness was judged by counselees,

peers, and practicum supervisors. Five hundred ninety-two

high school boys and girls were the counselees. Five

standardized tests were used to determine the nonintellective

characteristics of the counselor trainees. Johnson found

that the architect scale on the Strong Vocational Interest

Blank and the well being scale on the California Psycho-

logical Inventory were positively related to male success.

The schizophrenia scale on the Guilford-Zimmerman Temperment

Survey and the dentist scale on the Strong Vocational Interest

Blank were all negatively related to success in females.

Sattler (1964) studied 28 NDEA Guidance Institute

students at the University of North Dakota. The criterion

measure utilized was staff rankings. The Kuder Preference

Record ratings on the high school counselor scale were not

significantly related with the staff's competency ratings.

Blocker (1963) found different results with the Kuder

Preference Record. He studied 30 enrollees in the NDEA

Counseling and Guidance Institute at the University of

Minnesota. The staff provided rankings on the level of








predicted performance as a school counselor for the criterion

measure. The Kuder Preference Record High School Counselor

Score was a significant predictor of faculty ratings of the

institute participants' potential success as a high school

counselor.

Demos and Zuwaylif (1966) examined three test

instruments in their study to determine if they could

discriminate between the most and least effective counselors

as rated by NDEA Institute supervisors. Their study involved

30 secondary school counselors enrolled in a NDEA Counseling

and Guidance Institute at San Fernando Valley State College.

The results indicated that neither the Allport-Vernon-

Lindzey Study of Values nor the Kuder Preference Record could

discriminate between the two groups. However, five scales

on the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule discriminated

between the two groups. The authors conclude:

In view of the inconclusiveness of most studies
made of personality characteristics of counselors,
the counselor educator should use caution with
regard to screening or evaluating counselors or
potential counselors on the basis of personality
characteristics measured by present psychological
instruments (1966, p. 165).

Bernos (1965) examined 447 participants in fifteen NDEA

Counseling and Guidance Institutes. Fifty-seven predictor

variables were utilized including standardized tests of

interest, aptitude and personality. The criterion of

effectiveness was staff prediction of success as a school








counselor, NDEA Comprehensive Examination, and Graduate GPA

in NDEA courses. In both the female and male samples,

aptitude for guidance courses and an unnamed factor were the

two to relate most strongly with the criterion variables.

The test battery showed only a slight relation to the

criterion measures.

Various researchers have utilized the Sixteen Personality

Factor (16PF) questionnaire as a predictor of counseling

effectiveness. Myrick, Kelly and Wittmer (1972) studied

40 student counselors in a counselor practicum course at the

University of Florida. Practicum supervisors rated the 40 stu-

dents as either effective or ineffective as counselors.

The researchers found eight of the sixteen scales of the 16PF

to discriminate between the effective and ineffective

groups of student counselors. Donnan, Harlan and Thompson

(1969) examined 22 counselors at Auburn University as they

counseled prospective college freshmen. The counselees

rated the counselors on the Relationship Inventory. Signifi-

cant correlations were found to exist between three of the

relationship variables and only four of the factors on the

16PF. McClain (1968) studied the use of the 16PF as a

predictor of success in counseling as measured by supervisor

ratings for 137 NDEA Institute participants. McClain

found that, according to the 16PF, superior male counselors

generally tend to reflect masculine characteristics and

superior female counselors generally tend to reflect








feminine characteristics.

McGreevy (1967) examined 86 school counselor trainees

from Arizona State University. The researcher evaluated

the counselor trainees using CPA, faculty ratings of

counseling potential and the NDEA comprehensive examination

on guidance and counseling. The Minnesota Multiphasic

Personality Inventory (MMPI) was used to measure counselor

trainee personal characteristics. The MMPI proved to be of

no value in identifying counselor education candidates who were

rated as having high potential as school counselors.,

McDaniel (1967) examined 37 counseling students who

were rated by their practicum supervisor. The standardized

tests utilized were the Minnesota Test of Creative Thinking,

Budner's Scale of Tolerance-Intolerance of Ambiguity and the

Intellectualism-Pragmatism Scale. After discussing the

conflicting results based on the standardized test measures,

the researcher states:

No case for the use of any of the experimental
instruments in the screening of candidates
for admission to the counselor education programs
can be made (McDaniel, 1967, p. 143).

Various researchers have utilized Shostrom's Personal

Orientation Inventory as a predictive measure for residence

staff effectiveness. Graff and Bradshaw' (1970) administered

the POI to 71 dormitory assistants at Southern Illinois

University. Students and the dormitory assistant supervisors

rated the effectiveness of each dormitory assistant using a

semantic differential questionnaire. Seven scales on the








POI were found to be significantly related to effectiveness:

inner directed, intimate contact, self-actualizing value,

spontaneity, self-acceptance and the acceptance of aggression.

The authors concluded that the POI could be used effectively

in the selection of dormitory assistants. Mullozzi and

Spees (1971) administered the POI to 272 applicants for

appointment as a residence hall fellow. The criterion

measure was the final appointment and rejection of the

candidates for the residence hall fellow position. The

POI was found to be ineffective in predicting the appointed

and rejected groups. Atkinson, Williams, and Garb (1973) found

a moderate inverse relationship when the POI was utilized to

predict the effectiveness of 59 resident assistants at

Moorhead State College.

Wotruba (1969) administered the Edwards Personal

Preference Schedule, the Bell Adjustment Inventory and the

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator to 30 junior and senior resident

assistants at Holy Cross College. The resident assistants

were divided into three groups (effective, satisfactory and

unsatisfactory) based on student and staff members'

evaluations. Five scales on the EPPS showed significant dif-

ferences between the effective and the ineffective resident

assistants: achievement, order, intraception, dominance

and nurturance. The Bell Adjustment Inventory showed no

significant differences as did all but the extraversion









scale on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

Van Pelt (1968) utilized the Edwards Personal Preference

Schedule to examine variations in effectiveness of the

residence hall counselors at Adams State University. Five

hundred freshmen living in the residence hall provided

the criterion measure of effectiveness by rating their

particular residence counselor. The four EPPS scales of

dominance, flexibility, succorance, and nurturance were

positively related to counseling proficiency.

Schroeder and Dowse (1968) administered the Strong

Vocational Interest Blank, the Edwards Personal Preference

Schedule and the California Personality Inventory to 55

women residence hall counselors at the University of Illinois.

All three standardized tests failed to discriminate between

good and poor residence hall counselors as judged by

students and head residents.

Murphy and Ortenzi (1966) studied the 15 most and the 15

least successful resident counselors at Penn State University.

The resident counselors were given the Edwards Personal

Preference Schedule and the Strong Vocational Interest Blank.

Students and staff supervisors provided the criterion

measure of success. No consistent differences between

the successful aCd the unsuccessful counselors were found

using either instrument.

Dolan (1965) in a study carried out at Northwestern

University found that the Edwards Personal Preference








Schedule, the California Psychological Inventory and the

Allport-Vernon-Lindzey Study of Values could not discriminate

between successful, average and unsuccessful undergraduate

staff members. The criterion measure of success was based

on a combination of ratings by head residents, student

residents, deans of women and self evaluations.

Peterson (1959), Simons (1957), Cook (1955) and Simes

(1951) utilized 14 standardized measures of academic

aptitude, interest and personality with residence hall

counselors. The criterion measure utilized were student

and staff ratings. Each expressed disappointment that

the standardized instruments held little promise for

predicting success of resident counselors.

Several studies have examined the behaviors of the

counselors in the counseling relationship. Dilley and

Tierney (1969) studied 30 male and female graduates of a

NDEA Counseling Institute. Interviews where graduates

responded to eight standardized counseling situations were

taped and rated by three trained judges using the Wisconsin

Relationship Orientation Scale (WROS). The researchers

found that counselors rated high on the WROS were high in

judgemental, counselee focused, directive and active

counseling relationships. Wasson (1965) in his study of 30

NDEA Counseling and Guidance Institute participants at the

University of Wisconsin, utilized the WROS to measure the

degree of psychological closeness in taped counseling









situations. The WROS scores were found to be uncorrelated

with the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, the

Edwards Personal Preference Schedule and the Strong

Vocational Interest Blank.

Wyrick and Mitchell (1971) studied 40 resident assistants

at the University of Arkansas. The researcher utilized

Truax's Accurate Empathy and Warmth Scale to measure empathy

and warmth of the resident assistants in a simulated

counseling interview. The criterion measures were the

ratings of effectiveness for each resident'assistant'made

by head residents and students. Accurate empathy and warmth

were found to have significant positive-correlations with

residence hall students' evaluations of the effectiveness

for female assistants but not for male assistants.

A number of researchers have utilized standardized tests

of authoritarianism and openmindedness in their studies.

Bodden and Walsh (1968) found that the Adjective Check List

and the California F-Scale (authoritarianism) together

effectively predicted the ratings of 65 male residence hall

counselors as made by the residence hall directors. Hoyt

and Davidson (1967) found that as the California F-Scale

score increased, the success of residence hall advisors

decreased. rbe study was carried out at the University of

Iowa with the head counselor, house manager and students

providing the criterion effectiveness ratings. The authors

concluded that authoritarianism was an attitude that was








negatively related to effectiveness of residence hall advisors.

Hefke (1969) contradicted these findings in his study in-

volving 328 resident assistants. Graduate level advisors

and residents rated their job effectiveness. The statis-

tical comparison of the effectiveness ratings and Rokeach's

Dogmatism Scale showed no significant differences.

The survey of the literature on counselor and residence

advisor effectiveness indicates that an enormous amount of

research has been carried out on this problem. The diversity

of opinion in the results of this research is apparent. Many

authors have cited the inadequacy of the measures employed in

this research. Linden, Stone and Shertzer (1965)

concluded their survey of the literature by saying:

Non-intellective measures seldom have
demonstrated efficiency in discriminating
between so-called effective and ineffective
counselors (1965, p. 275).

The inadequacies, inconsistencies and inconclusiveness of

the results merit a new approach in research dealing with

the problem.



The Helping Relationship



Rogers defined the helping relationship in a manner

which covers a diverse range of possibilities: mother and

child, physician and patient, teacher and pupil and almost

all counselor and client relationships. Rogers (1961) has








stated:

A helping relationship might be defined as one
in which one of the participants intends that
there should come about, in one or both parties,
more appreciation of, more expression of, more
functional use of the latent inner resources
of the individual (Rogers, 1961, P.40).

Rogers makes the point that these relationships can either

be one-to-one relationships or individual-group inter-

actions which are, in essence, helping relationships. Each

of these "has the intent of promoting the growth, develop-

ment, maturity, improved functioning, and improved coping

with the life of the other" (Rogers, 1961, pp. 34-40).

The research studies of Fiedler and Heine gave

corroboration to Rogers' contention that there is a basic

growth producing helping relationship for good practitioners

no matter what their school of thought. Feidler (1950)

through the use of the Q-Sort, found that expert therapists

from a number of different schools of thought agreed on the

nature of the ideal therapeutic relationship. The three

elements which he found to characterize these relationships

are: (1) an ability to understand the clients meanings and

feelings, (2) a sensitivity to the client's attitudes and

(3) a warm interest without any emotional over-involvement.

In another study Fiedler (1951) identified the specific

aspects which were common to the therapeutic relationships

created by expert therapists regardless of school. Using fac-

tor analysis, he found that-the three schools of experts could








not be separated by use of any of the factors. Fiedler

has concluded that the therapeutic relationship may be

but a variation of good interpersonal relationships in

general.

Heine (1950) examined the perceptions of clients who had

psychotherapeutic experience with psychoanalytic, non-

directive and Adlerian therapists. He found a high degree

of agreement among the clients, regardless of the frame of

reference of the therapists, as to the elements that were

helpful in the therapeutic relationship. Heine concluded

that there is probably a psychotherapy and that all of the

existing psychotherapies are but approximations of that

fundamental relationship.

Soper and Combs (1962) sought to generalize Fiedler's

findings to other areas in the helping professions. They

examined whether good teachers perceived the helping

relationship in a manner similar to good therapists.

Fiedler's Q-Sort was modified and administered to teachers

employed in the laboratory school at the University of

Florida. The correlation between the Q-Sorts of the teachers

and Fiedler's therapists was .809. The study seemed to

support the belief that there exists a common basic

character to the helping professions.

Combs and Soper (1963a) continued their research in the

helping professions. Freshmen and Sophomore students at

the University of Florida enrolled in a beginning course








in the College of Education, identified a sample of good

and poor teachers. These teachers were asked to complete

the modified Fiedler Q-Sort. Combs and Soper expected to

be able to discriminate between good and poor teachers on

the basis of the responses on the Q-Sort. The results of

the research for Combs and Soper:

...were like a dash of cold water on the
expectations of the experimenters.
Instead of demonstrating its value as a
device for distinguishing between good
and poor teachers, the modified Q-Sort
showed absolutely no difference between
the good and poor teachers. Good and
poor teachers both seem'to know what a
good helping relationship ought to be
like even though they may not be putting
this knowledge into effect (1963a, p.67).

These results supported Rogers' (1958) contention that

helpful relationships are differentiated from unhelpful

relationships on the basis of the attitudes of the partic-

ipants. Thus it is the internal subjective feelings and

perceptions which are a part of the actual relationship

that are important rather than the objective external

knowledge about the relationship.


Research Studies in PerceDtual Psvcholoqy



Introduction



Research in various areas of the helping professions

has been undertaken at the University of Florida and at the








University of Northern Colorado. Perceptual psychology

has been the frame of reference for this research. These

studies have examined the internal perceptions which are

the "principles governing the nature and effective practice

of helping relationships" (Combs, 1969, Preface I). The

general definition of the helping relationship as articulated

by Rogers and the research studies of Fiedler (1950),

Heine (1950), Soper and Combs (1962) and Combs and Soper

(1963a) provided the impetus for the research in the

helping professions.

The basic assumption of perceptual psychology is that

behavior is a function of an individual's internal per-

ceptuil field. Combs (1969) has stated:

the causes of behavior are ascribed to the
perceptual field of the behaver at the instant
of action. At any moment a person's behavior,
then, is a consequence of all the perceptions
available to him (1969, p.11).

External observable behavior, then, is a symptom of the

internal perceptions of the individual. The researcher

must "read behavior backwards" (Combs and Snygg, 1959, p. 35)

to discern the perceptual organization of the individual.

Combs (1961) proposed to carry on the research into the

effectiveness of teachers using the internal perceptual

frame of reference. He articulated on the basic assumption

of this new research:









Persons who have learned to use themselves
as effective instruments in the production
of helping relationships can be distinguished
from those who are ineffective on the basis
of their characteristic perceptual organiza-
tions (Combs, 1969, p. 14).

In 1959 a faculty and graduate student seminar, studying

this problem, suggested over fifty possible hypotheses or

dichotomies of perceptions of good and poor helpers.

These dichotomies, called perceptual dimensions, were

formed in five general areas:

(1) General frame of reference of helper

(2) Ways helper perceives people and their behavior

(3) Ways helper perceives self

(4) Ways helper perceives helping task and its problems

(5) Ways helper perceives appropriate methods for helping

The original perceptual dimensions, listed under each gen-

eral heading are arranged in a manner such that the quality

assumed to be indicative of the effective helper is listed

first. They are as follows:

(1)General frame of reference of helper

Internal External

Growth orientation Fencing in or controlling

Perceptual meanings Facts, events

People Things

Hopeful Despairing

Causation oriented Mechanics oriented









(2) Ways helper perceives people and their behavior

As capable Incapable

As trustworthy Untrustworthy

As helpful Hindering

As unthreatening Threatening

As respectable No account

As worthy Unworthy

(3) Ways helper perceives self

Identified with people Apart from people

Enough Not enough

Trustworthy Not trustworthy

Liked Not liked

Wanted Not wanted

Accepted Not accepted

Feels certain, sure Doubt

Feels aware Unaware

Self-revealing Self-concealing

(4) Ways helper perceives helping task and its problems

Purpose is helping Dominating

Purpose is larger Narrower

Purpose is altruistic Narcissistic

Purpose is understanding Condemning

Purpose is accepting Rejecting

Purpose is valuing integrity Violating integrity








Approach to the problem is.

Positive Negative

Open to experience Closed to experience

Process oriented Ends oriented

(5) Ways helper perceives appropriate methods for helping

Sees helping methods superior to manipulating methods

Sees cooperation superior to competition

Sees acceptance superior to appeasing

Sees acceptance superior to rejecting (attacking)

Sees permissive methods superior to authoritarian

Sees open communication superior to closed communication

Sees giving methods superior to withholding

Sees vital methods superior to lifeless

Relaxed Compulsion to change others

Awareness of complexity Oversimplification

Tolerant of Ambiguity Intolerant

(Combs, 1961, pp. 56-57)


Research Studies



The first study to utilize these hypothesized perceptual

dimensions was undertaken by Combs and Soper (1963b). Twenty-

nine counselors in training enrolled in a NDEA Guidance

Institute comprised the population of counselors for the

study. The counselors in training were asked to write 4

Human Relations Incidents in which they were involved with

one or more other people. From these incidents judges








inferred the internal perceptions of the counselors in

training on 12 of the original 41 perceptual dichotomies.

They are as follows:

(1) General perceptual orientations

Internal External

People Things

(2) Perceptions of other people

Able Unable

Dependable Undependable

Friendly Unfriendly

Worthy Unworthy

(3) Perceptions of self

Identified with people Apart from people

Self-revealing Self-concealing

Enough Wanting

(4) Purposes

Freeing Controlling

Altruistically Narcissistically

Larger meanings Smaller meanings

The criterion measure of effectiveness was determined by

faculty rankings of the NDEA participants at the end of

the institute in terms of their promise as counselors.

Rank order correlations were computed between each

perceptual variable and the counselor effectiveness

rankings. All but two (Enough-Wanting and Self revealing-

Self concealing) of the perceptual variables were effective








discriminators significant beyond the .01 level. Combs

and Soper conclude that it is possible to distinguish good

counselors from poor ones on the basis of their perceptual

organization.

Gooding (1964) examined the perceptual organization of

selected elementary school teachers. When principals and

curriculum coordinators agreed on their listings of the

very best and the very worst teachers in their building

then the teacher was included in the study. Nineteen

effective and thirteen ineffective teachers comprised

the sample. Four observers trained in making perceptual

inferences made three observations of each teacher in the

classroom and conducted one structured interview with each

teacher. The observers rated the teachers on twenty

perceptual dimensions concerning the general frame of

reference, the perceptions of self, the perceptions of

people and their behavior, and the perceptions of the

teaching task. Discriminant function analysis revealed

trends, but no significance, on the inferences based on the

interviews. Significant differences were detected beyond

the .01 level between the best and worst teachers through

the use of the inferences based on the classroom observations.

The twenty perceptual dimensions found to describe the

best teachers are as follows:

(A) Perceptions of other people and their behavior as:

1. Able rather than unable








2. Friendly rather than unf iendly

3. Worthy rather than unworthy

4. Internally rather than externally oriented

5. Dependable rather than undependable

6. Helpful rather than hindering

(B) Perceptions of self as:

1. With people rather than apart from people

2. Able rather than unable

3. Dependable rather than undependable

4. Worthy rather than unworthy

5. Wanted rather than unwanted

(C) Perceptions of the teaching task as:

1. Freeing rather than controlling

2. Larger rather than smaller

3. Revealing rather than concealing

4. Involved rather than uninvolved

5. Encouraging process rather than achieving goals

(D) A general frame of reference which emphasizes:

1. Internal rather than external frame of reference

2. Concern with people rather than things

3. Concern with perceptual meanings rather than

facts and events

4. An immediate view of causes of behavior rather

than an historical view.

(Gooding, 1964, p. 52)








Gooding in examining the results of his study concluded:

The results of this study have revealed that
effective and ineffective teachers have
characteristically different perceptual
organizations in terms of the perceptual
hypotheses which were tested...They
point the way to what seems likely to be a
most fruitful new approach to the study of
professional effectiveness (Combs, 1969,
p. 33).

Benton (1964) examined the perceptual characteristics

of effective and ineffective Episcopal pastors. Three

Episcopal bishops rated the pastors in their diocese as

effective or ineffective with respect to their counseling

abilities. The researcher obtained a sample of 17 effective

and 15 ineffective pastors. Three projective instruments

were administered to the 32 pastors: (1) responses to

ten pastoral problems asked in an interview were taped,

(2) response to card 13MF of the Thematic Apperception

Test was taped and (3) response to three freely chosen

Pastoral Incidents were tape recorded. All of the responses

for each of the 32 pastors comprised a single protocol from

which global ratings on five perceptual dimensions were

made by three trained judges. Benton found that there were

significant differences between the effective and the

ineffective pastors based on the perceptual dimensions scores.

Effective pastors were reported to:

(1) See themselves as more identified with people

(2) See themselves as more able

(3) Relate to people more as persons








(4) See his role as more involved with people

(5) See the purpose of the pastoral task as more

freeing

Benton reported that dimensions (1), (2) and (5) were

significant at the .005 level and dimensions (3) and (4)

were significant at the .05 level (Benton, 1964, p.40).

Benton concluded his study by saying:

Contemporary psychologists who have been
saying that the perceptual organization of
a person provides a fruitful, meaningful,
and helpful area of study in order to
understand the dynamics of human behavior,
specifically helpful behavior, may derive
aid and comfort from the results of this
investigation into the field of pastoral
counseling (Combs, 1969, p. 45).

Usher (1966) explored the perceptual characteristics

of selected college professors at the University of Florida.

His hypothesis stated that there was a significant positive

relationship between faculty members' perceptual organization

and their ratings on various criteria of faculty effective-

ness. Four sources were utilized for the criterion

measures of effectiveness: (1) student ratings, (2)

department head ratings, (3) research and publication and

(4) professional activities. Three trained judges made

repeated observations of teachers in the classroom and

inferred teacher perceptions on a twelve item Perceptual

Dimensions Scale. Usher hypothesized that three trained

judges making repeated observations of teachers in the

classroom would rate the perceptions of the effective








teachers in the following way:

Other people perceived as:

More able than unable

More worthy than unworthy

More dependable than undependable

More internally motivated than externally motivated

Self perceived as:

More with people than apart from people

More wanted than unwanted

More worthy than unworthy

More able than unable

Task perceived as:

Freeing rather than controlling

Larger rather than smaller meanings

Personal meanings rather than facts or events oriented

Accepting rather than not accepting

(Usher, 1965, p. 42).

Usher found non-significant relationships between the faculty

perceptual characteristics and (1) research, (2) publications,

(3) department head ratings and (4) professional activities.

When effectiveness of college teachers is determined by

these factors it is not related to the perceptual characteristics.

When the inferred perceptual characteristics were related

to the student ratings of effectiveness several of the

dimensions proved to be significant at the .05 level. For

the effective faculty other people are perceived as able,








worthy, dependable and internally motivated, and the self

is perceived as wanted. Usher's conclusion was that more

positive results were found with the subjective student

ratings of general overall effectiveness in the classroom

rather than with the objective measures utilized outside

the classroom. He stated that:

It may be that the perceptual organization
of professionals is more pertinent to the
more "human" and personal aspects of
effectiveness in professional work than
to the less personal aspects of research,
publication, and professional activity
(1966, p. 104).

Brown (1970) investigated the perceptual organization

of elementary and secondary school teachers. His criterion

of teacher effectiveness was defined by a group of 48 national

finalists from the United States Jaycee Outstanding Young

Educator (OYE) Award Program. The second group of 48

teachers was made, for comparison purposes, by random

choice from the teacher graduate students at Florida

Atlantic University (FAU). Judges inferred eight perceptual

dimensions from an instrument which contained questions

on classroom management, instructional objectives and

procedures and self-evaluations. Brown found that the

perceptual dimensions were significantly different for

the OYE teachers when compared with the randomly selected

FAU teachers from the .0005 level of confidence to the

.0001 level. OYE teachers were judged to perceive in the








following ways:

A. General perceptual frame of reference

(1) Hopeful rather than despairing

B. Perceptions about what people are like and how

they behave

(1) Worthy rather than unworthy

(2) Unthreatening rather than threatening

C. The teacher's perceptions of self

(1) With people rather than apart from people

(2) Certain, sure rather than doubting

D. The purpose and process of learning

(1) Having broad rather than narrow purposes

(2) A facilitator rather than an evaluator

E. Perceptions of appropriate methods

(1) Active rather than passive learning

Vonk (1970) examined the relationship between teacher

effectiveness and teacher perceptual organization. Three

trained judges inferred perceptual organization from three

critical teaching incidents written by 79 in-service

elementary and secondary teachers enrolled in graduate

education programs at Florida Atlantic University. The

criterion of teacher effectiveness was rated by pupils

for each teacher on the Self-Anchoring Scale which was

adapted from Iilpatrick and Cantril (1960). The effective

teachers were found to have significantly different (.005

level) ratings that were characterized by the following

perceptual dimensions:








A. General perceptual frame of reference as:

(1) Positive rather than negative view of self

(2) Identification rather than alienation with others

(3) Openness rather than closedness to experience

B. Teaching purposes which emphasize:

(1) Having broad rather than narrow purposes

(2) Discovering meaning rather than giving information

(3) Expanding uniqueness rather than seeking conformity

(4) Disclosing self rather than concealing self

(5) Seeking student ends rather than seeking own ends

Vonk concluded by saying:

In essence, the internal frame of reference
demonstrated its utility for differentiating
teaching effectiveness at a high level of
confidence (1970, p.82).

Dellow (1971) examined the relationship between two

different approaches to the study of teacher effectiveness:

(1) Combs' study of perceptual variables and (2) Rogers'

study of the behavioral variables associated with facilitating

conditions. The sample consisted of 34 female elementary

school teachers from various counties in Florida. Each

teacher completed two written Human Relations Incidents

selected from their experiences as a teacher and these were

rated by judges on seven perceptual dimensions. Each

teacher taped a classroom reading lesson that lasted from

45 to 60 minutes. The lessons were rated using the Carkhuff

scales for the behavioral variables of empathy, congruence








and positive regard. The two sets of measures were found

to have low positive correlations. Dellow indicated

that the two measures may examine different facets of

teacher behavior. The perceptual variables were found to

have a high degree of intercorrelation. Dellow stated

that his finding tends to corroborate the observations of

Combs, that the perceptual organization is holistic in

nature.

Dedrick (1972) explored the relationship between the

perceptual organization of 32 junior college instructors

and student ratings of their teaching effectiveness.

The criterion measure of teacher effectiveness was

measured by student ratings on the Self-Anchoring Scale

adapted from Kilpatrick and Cantril (1960) and on the

Purdue Instructor Performance Indicator. Four trained judges

inferred ratings on six perceptual dimensions from three

written human relations incidents and written essays to

five Thematic Apperception Test cards. Through the use

of multiple regression correlations, it was found that the

following perceptual dimensions have high predictive power

in determining the effective instructors:

A. General perceptual frame of reference

(1) Internal rather than external

B. Teacher's perceptions of other people

(1) Able rather than unable

(2) Worthy rather than unworthy







C. Teacher's perceptions of himself

(1) Adequate rather than inadequate

D. Teacher's perceptions of the helping relationship

(1) Freeing rather than controlling

Dedrick concludes his study by saying:

...perceptual research is in a position to
make a significant contribution to the
helping professions, especially in the areas
of selecting candidates in terms of predicted
effectiveness and assisting in-service per-
sonnel to gain better understanding of them-
selves and those with whom they interact
(1972, p. 126).

Wass and Combs (1973) carried out a follow-up study of

on-the-job behavior of elementary school teachers to test

the effectiveness of the New Elementary Program at the

University of Florida. Thirty-five teachers who had

participated in the innovative New Elementary Program

comprised the experimental group and thirty teachers who

had participated in the regular program comprised the

control group. Three instruments were utilized to carry

out the teacher evaluations: (1) the Teacher Practices

Observation Record (TPOR), (2) the Reciprocal Category

System (RCS) and (3) the Perceptual Dimensions Scale (PDS).

Seven observers rated the 65 teachers in the study using

each of the research instruments. The results indicated

that the RCS, a behaviorally oriented instrument, showed

no significant differences between the two groups of

teachers. The TPOR and the PDS, when the dimensions were

taken together, found significant differences in the

teachers in favor of the experimental group. The experimental








group of teachers was characterized jy the following perceptual

dimensions:

A. General frame of reference as:

(1) Internal rather than external

B. Perceptions of others as:

(1) Able rather than unable

C. Perceptions of self as:

(1) Adequate rather than inadequate

(2) Revealing rather than concealing

D. Perceptions of the purpose of the helping relationship as:

(1) Freeing rather than controlling

(2) Larger goals rather than smaller goals

Wass and Combs conclude the study by saying:

Most attempts at evaluation of teacher success
have generally been oriented toward measures
of specific teacher behavior. The greater
success of perceptual approaches in discovering
differences between the two groups of young
teachers in this study would seem to suggest
that such approaches may represent fruitful
additional vehicles for the assessment of teacher
effectiveness (1973, p. 19).


Summary



This chapter has reviewed the research on counseling

and residence advising. Much of this research has examined

the behavioral characteristics of counselors and residence

advisors from an external frame of reference. This research

has sought, through objective means, to find the modal

aptitude, interest, attitudes or personality of effective








counselors and residence advisors. It has been shown that

the results of the research have been inconsistent,

contradictory and hence inconclusive.

Studies have been reviewed which have examined teacher,

counselor, pastor and professor effectiveness from an internal,

perceptual frame of reference. The beliefs about self,

the helping relationship, other people and the general

personal frame of reference have been studied in this

research. Effectiveness, as defined by various criteria, was

found to have positive and significant correlations with

the perceptual organization of the various populations of

helpers. Thus it was not the knowledge, personality traits

or the general method of the helper that determined

effectiveness, but the manner in which the helper used his

unique self in the interaction.

Perceptual psychology has been proven to be a successful

frame of reference from which the study of various helping

professions has taken place. The present study is an

extension of this research examining the relationship between

the perceptual organization of university para-professional

residence assistants and their effectiveness as advisors as

perceived by students.









CHAPTER III


DESIGN OF THE STUDY



Introduction



The purpose of the present study was to extend the

research in the helping professions from the frame of

reference of perceptual psychology (Combs and Snygg, 1959).

The present study was designed to examine the relationship

between the self-reported and inferred perceptual character-

istics of university para-professional residence assistants-

as evaluated by students on two rating instruments. Five

research instruments were used in the present study:

(1) The Human Relations Incident, a projective

instrument written by the residence assistants

from which inferences were made by trained

judges as to the perceptual organization of

the residence assistants.

(2) The Perceptual Dimensions Scale, containing

six selected perceptual dimensions, was the

measuring instrument for the self-reported

perceptual ratings made by the residence

assistants.

(3) The Perceptual Dimensions Scale, containing

six selected perceptual dimensions, was the

measuring instrument for the judgo-inferred








perceptual ratings of the residence assistants.

(4) The Perceptual Dimensions Scale, containing

six selected perceptual dimensions, was the

measuring instrument for the student ratings

of the residence assistants.

(5) The Self-Anchoring Scale was the instrument

used for the student ratings for the level of

effectiveness of the residence assistants.



Hypotheses



(1) The ratings on the judge-inferred perceptual dimensions

will show statistically significant differences between

effective and ineffective residence assistants as rated

by students on the Self-Anchoring Scale. Residence

assistants judged to be most effective by student

ratings on the Self-Anchoring Scale will:

(a) Have an internal rather than an external general

frame of reference.

(b) Perceive other people as able rather than unable.

(c) Perceive themselves as with people rather than

apart from people.

(d) Perceive themselves as adequate rather than inadequate.

(e) Perceive the purpose of the helping relationship

as-a freeing process rather than as a controlling

process.








(f) Perceive the goals of the helping relationship as

larger goals rather than smaller goals.

(2) The judge-inferred perceptual dimensions from the

Human Relations Incidents will significantly correlate

with the perceptual dimensions of the residence

assistants as rated by the students on all six'of

the above dimensions.

(3) The judge-inferred perceptual dimensions from the

Human Relations Incidents will not significantly

correlate with the self-ratings on the.perceptual

dimensions reported by the residence assistants on

any of the six perceptual dimensions.

(4) The self-ratings on the perceptual dimensions reported

by the residence assistants will not show statistically

significant differences in the effective and the

ineffective residence assistants as determined from

the Self-Anchoring Scale.

(5) The self-ratings on the perceptual dimensions reported

by the residence assistants will not significantly

correlate with the perceptual dimensions of the

residence assistants as rated by the students on any

of the six perceptual dimensions.

(6) The perceptual dimensions of the residence assistants

as rated by the students will show statistically

significant differences in the effective and the

ineffective residence assistants as determined from

the Self-Anchoring Scale.








The Perceptual Dimensions



From the research at the University of Florida in the

helping professions at least fifty possible hypotheses or

dichotomies of good and poor helpers have been suggested.

For the purpose of this research six perceptual continue have

been chosen as being most relevant to the research objectives.

Two separate statements will define the extremes of the

continuum for each of the perceptual dimensions. The

perceptual characteristics hypothesized to be indicative

of the effective and the ineffective residence assistants

appear below.



A. THE RESIDENCE ASSISTANT'S GENERAL FRAME OF REFERENCE

1. Internal-External

The residence assistant is sensitive to and concerned
with how things seem to others with whom he interacts
and uses this as a basis for his own behavior.

The residence assistant is insensitive to and
unconcerned with how things seem to others with
whom he interacts and uses this as a basis for
his own behavior.



B. THE RESIDENCE ASSISTANT'S PERCEPTIONS OF PEOPLE AND
THEIR BEHAVIOR

1. Able-Unable

The residence assistant perceives others as having the
capacities and as basically able to make their own
decisions ind deal with their own problems effectively.

The residence assistant perceives others as not having
the capacities and as basically unable to make their own
decisions and deal. ith their own problems effectively.








C. THE RESIDENCE ASSISTANT'S PERCEPTIONS OF HIMSELF

1. With People-Apart from People

The residence assistant sees himself as identified
with and related deeply and meaningfully to diverse
persons and groups.

The residence assistant sees himself as alienated,
withdrawn, apart and unrelated to diverse persons
and groups.

2. Adequate-Inadequate

The residence assistant sees himself in essentially
positive ways in that he feels generally liked,
wanted, successful and able.

The residence assistant sees himself in essentially
negative ways in that he feels generally unlike,
unwanted, unsuccessful and unable.



D. THE RESIDENCE ASSISTANT'S PERCEPTIONS OF THE HELPING
RELATIONSHIP

1. Freeing-Controlling

The residence assistant perceives the purpose of the
helping relationship as essentially one of releasing
and assisting behavior by believing that people
should be free to explore and discover their own best
ways.

The residence assistant perceives the purpose of the
helping relationship as essentially one of inhibiting
and directing behavior by believing that people
should be coerced, controlled, dominated or rewarded
in order to shape appropriate behavior.

2. Larger goals-Smaller goals

The residence assistant is primarily concerned with
larger issues by seeing events in a broad perspective.
He is not exclusively concerned with details and specifics.

The residence assistant is primarily concerned with
smaller issues by seeing events in a narrow perspective.
He is exclusively concerned with details and specifics.








Each perceptual dimension is placed on a bipolar

continuum, with the first paragraph and the first perceptual

dimension on the score sheet defining the left side of the

continuum and the second paragraph and the second perceptual

dimension defining the right side of the continuum. The

continuum has the scores of 1 through 7 placed at equal

intervals on the perceptual score sheet. The individual

scoring the perceptual dimensions circles the one number

which he feels best approximates the perceptual organization

of the residence assistant on each of the six bipolar

dimensions.



Selection of the Subjects



The subjects in this study were 45 undergraduate student

para-professional residence assistants who were working for

the Division of Housing at the University of Florida. The

Director of Residence Life for the twelve housing units on

the west campus housing area at the University of Florida

was contacted and permission was granted to carry out the

research project. The two student rating forms, the Self-

Anchoring Scale and the student-rated Perceptual Dimensions

Scale, were administered to 920 students. Twenty students

were r-ndoc ly selected from a master list of students

residing on each floor unit for each of the 46 floor units

contained in the 12 residence halls. The 46 residence









assistants assigned to the 12 residence halls agreed to

cooperate in the research project. One residence assistant

left his position in the middle of the Spring Quarter 1973

diminishing the residence assistant population to 45. It

was decided by the author and the Director of Residence Life

that the study would be conducted during the Spring Quarter

of the 1972-1973 academic year.



Inferred Perceptual Data



The Use of Inference as a Research Tool



From the frame of reference of perceptual psychology,

the causes of behavior lie in the perceptual field of the

beaver at the moment of action. Combs and Snygg (1959)

state:

By the perceptual field, we mean the entire
universe, including himself, as it is experienced
by the individual at the instant of action.
It is each individual's personal and unique
field of perception responsible for his every
behavior (1959, p. 20).

External, observable behavior, then, from the perceptual

point of view, is a symptom of the internal field of meanings

of the individual. Combs and Snygg (1959) have stated:

The direct observation of data, by itself,
provides little help in the solution of problems
in any science...Data only become truly significant
when subjected to the mediation or interpretation
of human meaning (1959, p. 447).








The problem for the perceptual psychologist is measuring a

person's unique perceptual field when: (1) these meanings

lie inside the individual, (2) these meanings are not open

to direct measurement by current methods, (3) the mere

observation of behavior will not get the researcher to the

meaning of behavior and (4) the researcher cannot segment

or break down behavior for this would destroy the wholeness

of the perceptual field.

Researchers measure this internal perceptual field by

using inference. Combs and Snygg state:

Since behavior is always determined by the
individual's perceptual field, we need only
learn to read behavior backwards in order to
understand the perceptions of another person.
That is, we can infer from another's behavior
the nature of the perceptions which probably
produced it (1959, p. 35).

To understand the perceptual field of an individual, the

observer is used as an instrument to obtain the measurements.

Based on these observations the characteristic manner in

which an individual views himself and his world can be deter-

mined.

Through a continuous process of observing,
inferring, and testing, we may over a period
of time, come closer and closer to an accurate
appraisal of the meanings existing for other
people (Combs and Snygg, 1959, p. 445).

Some psychologists critize this approach as being unscientific

and inexact in that it introduces the subjectivity and bias

of the observer which contaminates the final result.

Combs and Snygg (1959) have responded to this criticism:








Making inferences introduces a further variable
to the process of observation, it is true.
However, the use of human creativity in science
does not produce an invalidation; only a further
variable to be recognized and controlled.
Properly used with full realization of its
assets and liabilities, the human instrument
deserves to be treated like any other fine
instrument, with care and respect (1959, p. 447).

Thus Combs and Snygg recognize that the method of applying

inference to the study of behavior must be as rigorous as

any method accepted by psychologists. Previous research

in the area of perceptual psychology indicates that the use

of observers as instruments for the collection of inferential

data can provide reliable and statistically significant

results.



Rationale for the Use of the Human Relations Incident for the

Collection of the Perceptual Data



The present study utilized the Human Relations Incident

as a projective device from which inferences were made about

the perceptual organization of residence assistants.

Cronbach (1960) has given an explanation of projective

techniques:

A projective technique gives the subject material
with which to work creatively, e.g., the tester
presents an ambitious stimulus inkblott, picture,
unfinished story, etc.) and asks the subject
what he sees in it or what he thinks will happen
next. Thcse interpretations are regarded as
projections of the subjects' unconscious wishes,
attitudes and conceptions of the world (1960, p.443).








Combs and Snygg (1959) have discussed the value of

projective techniques as a particularly beneficial approach

to the exploration of an individual's internal perceptual

field:

Since the individual's behavior is a function
of his perceptual field, his behavior must be
the result of the meanings which make up his
field. If we supply a person, then, with a
situation in which he is free to respond as he
pleases, presumably he will invest the situation
we provide with his own personal meanings...
In responding to such ambiguity the individual
is necessarily thrown upon his own resources
to interpret them, and the perceptions he
reports in his responses give interesting
clues to the nature of the perceptions making
up his unique perceptual field (1959, pp. 458-
459).

Written projective essays were chosen as the most appropriate

and productive means for the exploration of the perceptual

field of each of the residence assistants.



Human Relations Incident IHRI)



The Human Relations Incident consists of three essays

written about a significant past event or problem situation

which involved the residence assistant with one or more

other persons. The residence assistant was free to choose

any significant problem situation which had particular

meaning for him.

The Human Relations Incident method has been utilized

frequently in perceptual research (Combs and Soper, 1963a;








Courson, 1963; Benton, 1964; Vonk, 1q70; Dellow, 1971;

Dedrick, 1972). Combs and Soper (1963b) in their study

of the perceptual organization of effective counselors

collected four written Human Relations Incidents from 31

counselors in training. They found this to be an effective

means of eliciting personal data to be used in their

investigation of the perceptual organization of the

counselors in training.

Dedrick (1972) utilized the Human Relations Incident

in his study of the perceptual organization of junior

college instructors. He collected three written Human

Relations Incidents from each of 32 instructors. Dedrick

felt that this approach was particularly applicable to

his study for the subjects were completely free to choose

events which had particular meaning for themselves.

In this study the residence assistants were asked to

think of three significant past events from their experiences

which involved themselves with one or more other persons.

That is, from a human relations stand point, they were

asked to select some event that had special meaning and

personal significance for themselves. The residence

assistants were asked to follow the following format: (1)

describe the situation as it occurred at that time, (2) tell

what they did in that particular situation, (3) tell how

they felt about the particular situation at the time they

were experiencing it and (4) tell how they felt about the

particular situation now (see Appendix B for Human Relations








Incidents form).



Scoring the Perceptual Inferences



The written Human Relations Incidents were scored by

the author and two other judges on the Perceptual Dimensions

Scale. The judges were two doctoral students in educational

psychology and one doctoral student in counselor education.

The training of the judges took place during a four week

period. Three general areas were covered during this

training period.

(1) In the first phase of the training of the judges,

the general theoretical understanding of perceptual

psychology was discussed. Especially emphasized

was a discussion of the theory of "behavior as a

symptom" of the internal perceptions of the

behaver. The conception of "reading behavior

backwards" to discern the perceptions of the

behaver was also emphasized. The goal was to

assure a common frame of reference from which

the judges would be operating.

(2) In the second phase of training the six perceptual

dimensions to be utilized in the study were discussed.

The goal was to obtain a clear understanding and

agreement of the meaning of each of the perceptual

dimensions.








(3) In the third phase of the training of the judges,

Human Relations Incidents collected in a pilot

project for the present study (March, 1972) were

scored. Instructions to the judges were given in

the manner of Dellow:

Each of you in our discussion here has
indicated a basic understanding of the
phenomenological point of view. Now
familiarize yourself with the perceptual
dimensions to be used in this study.
Each perceptual dimension is to be used as
a bipolar continuum, with the first para-
graph on each score sheet defining the left
side (or low end) of the continuum and the
second paragraph defining the right side
(or high end) of the continuum. Using any
information contained within the protocols,
make an inference about each person's
perceptual organization by circling the
number which you think best approximates
that person's position on the continuum.
Remember you are to use an internal frame
of reference. For example, on the per-
ceptual dimensions you are to make an
inference about how the individual sees
himself, not how you see him from an
external point of view. This is important
to keep in mind (1971, p. 106).

The judges independently scored several Human Relations

Incidents and then discussed the results (see Appendix D

for the judge-inferred Perceptual Dimensions Scale scoring

forms). Each person explained and discussed with the group

his rationale for each particular rating. This procedure

was repeated for five different occasions. On the fifth

meeting of the judges, Dr. Hannelore Wass, an experienced

judge, joined the group to compare and discuss her perceptual

dimensions ratings with those of the judges on a sample

Human Relations Incident.








At the conclusion of each meeti .g the reliability of

the three judge-inferred ratings was analyzed by computing

the reliability of the mean of the three raters' ratings.

The intraclass correlations of the mean of the three raters'

ratings was computed using Guilford's (1973) two way analysis

of variance technique. The following formula was utilized:

(MS) (MS)e
rkk

(MS)r

The reliability of the scored Human Relations Incidents

included in the training data increased from .319 in the

second meeting of the judges to .783 in the fifth meeting of

the judges (see Table 1 in Chapter IV for the complete data

concerning reliability).



Self-Rated Perceptual Data



The Self-Concept and the Self-Report



Some psychologists have suggested that, instead of

dealing with the process of inference, researchers should

simply and directly ask the subject questions posed in the

study. This is the method of introspection where the subject

is asked for a self-report. Combs and Snygg (1959) have de-

lineated six reasons why the method of accepting self-

reports in psychology is a naive one:








(1) The varying degrees of clarity of the subject's

awareness

(2) The lack of adequate symbols for expression

(3) The social expectancy

(4) The cooperation of the subject

(5) The freedom from threat and the degree of personal

adequacy of the subject

(6) The change in field organization brought about by a

request for a self-report (Combs and Snygg, 1959,

pp. 440-442)

Thus the method of accepting self-reports is not a suitable

means of approaching the study of the internal perceptions of

the person.

Wylie (1961) reviewed over 490 articles and research

reports utilizing over 110 different self-concept research

instruments. Wylie concludes:

...there is a good deal of ambiguity in the
results, considerable apparent contradictions
among the findings of various studies, and a
tendency for different methods to produce
different results (1961, p. 317).

Several researchers agree with Wylie and go on to state that

the reason for this confusion is that various measures that

have been labeled as self-concept are in reality self-report

(Gordon and Combs, 1958; Strong and Feder, 1961; Combs, Soper

and Courson, 1963; and Coller, 1971). Combs and Soper (1959)

state








No one can ever observe a "real" self his own
or someone elses' directly. It can only be
approached through the perceptions of someone.
An individual attempting to describe his own
self, can provide only an approximation of his
"real" self; at any given time only a part of
the "real" self is "visible" to the individual
(1959, p. 32).

In order to experimentally demonstrate this difference between

the self-concept and the self-report, Combs, Soper and

Courson (1963) carried out a study with 59 sixth grade

children. They hypothesized that there would be no sig-

nificant correlations between the inferred self-concepts of

the children obtained from observations of their behavior and

the self-reports obtained directly from the children. In-

ferences as to the nature of the children's self perceptions

were made from observations of the children in the classroom,

the playground and during a picture story test interview.

The self-reports were made by the children from a five point

scale for each of eighteen pairs of positive-negative state-

ments about the self. The researchers found there was no

significant relationship between the inferred self-concepts

of the children and their self-reports.

Parker (1964) examined the relationship of self-report

to the inferred self-concept of sixth grade children. He

administered a scale with thiry pairs of positive-negative

statements about the self as anchoring points on a five

point scale. The self-concept was inferred by judges based

on student responses to twelve pictures for each of which

the student devised an imaginative story. Both the self-








reports of the students and the judge-inferred self-concepts

were given to the classroom teacher who was asked to choose

the better description of the individual student. The

teacher chose the inferred self-concept description a

statistically significant 70 percent of the time over the

students' self-reports. Parker concludes:

The data produced by the study lends support
to the claim that the self-report and the
inferred self-concept do not furnish the same
insight into the personality of individuals...
The conclusion is that the inferred self-concept
represents a more accurate and realistic ap-
praisal of children's perceptions of self than
do self-reports (1964, pp. 72-73)

The present study utilized the six perceptual dimensions on

the Perceptual Dimensions Scale as the self-report measure

for the residence assistants. Previous research indicates

that self-report measures are not helpful in discerning

the perceptual organization of an individual.



The Self-Rated Perceptual Dimensions



In order to compare the results of self-ratings with

the other measures in the study, the residence assistants

were asked to rate themselves on the same six perceptual

dimensions that the judges were using to infer perceptual

organization and that the students were using to rate their

residence assistants. The residence assistants were in-

structed to rate themselves on each of the six continue

that they felt best represented their perceptions (see








Appendix C for the self-rated Perceptual Dimensions Scale

form).



Student-Rated Measures



The Self-Anchoring Scale



The Self-Anchoring Scale was conceived by Kilpatrick

and Cantril (1960) as a research tool developed from the

transactional theory of human behavior. The transactional

position espouses an internal first person point of view

in understanding human behavior. It stresses the im-

portance of understanding a person in his own terms and

not by relying on any superimposed, fixed categories for

response. The developers sought to design a technique

allowing the individual to interpret his own unique reality

world while still providing data for comparisons between

individuals and groups.

The resultant technique, the Self-Anchoring Scale

is a device where:

A person is asked to define on the basis of
his own assumptions, perceptions, goals and
values the two extremes or anchoring points
of the spectrum on which some scale measure-
ment is desired for example, he may be
asked to define the "top" and the "bottom";
the "good" and the "bad"; the "best" and the
"worst". This self-defined continuum is
then used as our measuring device (Cantril,
1965, p. 22).








After defining the two extremes for himself, the individual

is then asked to evaluate himself or someone else between

the two extremes of the continuum on a symbolic "ladder of

life".

Cantril, Kilpatrick, Free and O'Donnell (1960, 1962,

1963) utilized the Self-Anchoring Scale in various-cross

cultural studies where individuals evaluated their own ways

of life. Dedrick (1972) and Vonk (1970) adapted the Self-

Anchoring Scale for use in determining the effectiveness

of junior college instructors and high school teachers,

respectively. Each constructed a ladder and numbered each

of the eleven steps. The bottom of the ladder was labeled

as representing the worst teacher as seen by the student

and the top of the ladder was labeled as representing the

best teacher as seen by the student.

For the present study, the Self-Anchoring Scale was

adapted for the evaluation of residence assistants by

students. Each student was asked: (1) to list the imagined

personal qualities and characteristics of the very best

residence assistant, (2) to list the imagined personal

qualities and characteristics of the very worst residence

assistant, (3) to imagine the very best residence assistant

at the top of the ladder and the very worst residence assistant

at the bottom of the ladder, (4) to decide where their

present residence assistant would belong on the ladder and

(5) to circle the number that best represented the level








describing their present residence assistant (see Appendix

F for the Self-Anchoring Scale).

In a pilot project for the present study conducted in

March, 1972, out of a total of 17 residence assistants, the

Self-Anchoring Scale was found to significantly discriminate

between the 6 highest and the 6 lowest rated residence

assistants (see Table 2 for the results of the pilot project

study). Reliability data were collected for the Self-

Anchoring Scale in the pilot project for the present study.

A test-retest reliability was established by re-administering

the Self-Anchoring Scale after one month's time had elapsed.

The scores of the first administration were correlated with

the scores of the second administration. The same 20

students were administered the Self-Anchoring Scale on both

occasions. The test-retest reliability coefficient was

.9134. Using the Self-Anchoring Scale, Dedrick (1972)

reported a test-retest reliability of .880 and Vonk (1970)

reported a test-retest reliability of .827.

The test-retest reliabilities reported for the use of

the Self-Anchoring Scale provide support for its use as the

criterion measure for the present study.



The ?ercentual Dimensions Scale



The Perceptual Dimensions Scale has been used exclusively

in perceptual research as a means for judges to infer from








various examples of behavior the perceptual organization of

people in the helping professions. No researchers have

administered the Perceptual Dimensions Scale directly to

the population from which a criterion measurement of

effectiveness was desired. The purpose of administering

the Perceptual Dimensions Scale to students in the present

study was to determine its usefulness as a direct measure-

ment of residence assistant effectiveness.

The same Perceptual Dimensions Scale was administered

to the students as was self-rated by the residence assistants

and was utilized for the judge-inferred ratings. Students

were asked to infer the perceptual organization of their

present residence assistant based on their observations of

and interactions with the residence assistant. The ratings

were made on the six perceptual dimensions by circling the

number on each of the six continuums that best represented

student inferences as to the perceptions of their residence

assistant (see Appendix G for the student rating form of

the Perceptual Dimensions Scale).



Procedure


Administration of the Residence Assistant Research Instruments



The author was invited to speak with small groups of

from three to five residence assistants in April, 1973, at








which time the purpose of research was explained (see

Appendix A for the instructions given to the residence

assistants). At this time the Human Relations Incident

forms were explained and disseminated to the 45 residence

assistants. After two weeks had elapsed the author

returned to the small groups of residence assistants to

collect the three completed Human Relations Incidents.

The completed Human Relations Incidents were placed in an

envelope for each residence assistant. At this time,

during the second meeting between the author and the small

groups of residence assistants, the author administered the

Perceptual Dimensions Scale obtaining the residence assistants'

self-ratings. The envelopes containing the completed HRI's

and the self-rated PDS's were given to a secretary who

served as the administrative coordinator for the study.

To maintain anonymity, the secretary deleted all names and

identifying information from the materials submitted by the

residence assistants. She assigned a two-digit code number

to each residence assistant, maintained a file containing all

the data for each residence assistant, and kept a master list

of the names of the residence assistants and their code

numbers.



Administration of the Student Rating Forms



At the completion of the collection of the research data

from the residence assistants, the two student rating forms,








the Self-Anchoring Scale (SAS) and the Perceptual Dimensions

Scale (PDS), were administered to 20 students randomly

selected from the residence unit for each of the 45

residence assistants included in the study. Each of the

residence assistants in the study was responsible for from

35 to 50 students in their living unit. A researcher met

with the randomly selected students in their living unit

to carry out the collection of the student data. This

was carried out over a five week period during the Spring

Quarter, 1973. Each student was given a brief description

of the purpose of the research study (see Appendix E):

The purpose of this study is to find out the
personal qualities and characteristics of
good and poor residence assistants from the
students' point of view. You can help in this
investigation by responding to the two
following evaluations of residence assistant
effectiveness.

First, list the imagined personal qualities
and characteristics that you would find in
the very best and the very worst residence
assistant.

Second, on the Residence Assistant Rating
Scale, rate your present residence assistant
using your imagined best and worst personal
qualities and characteristics of a residence
assistant as anchoring points on the continuum.

Third, on the Perceptual Dimensions Scale,
rate your present residence assistant
following the directions provided.

Preparation of the Data for Statistical Analysis



After the completion of the collection of the data

for the study, the secretary computed a mean effectiveness







rating for each residence assistant from the student-

scored Self-Anchoring Scale. From the original group of

45 residence assistants, the 15 residence assistants with

the highest student ratings and the 15 residence assistants

with the lowest student ratings were chosen. This sample

of 30 residence assistants comprised the group used for

the analysis of the six hypotheses.

The secretary prepared 10 folders each of which

contained the Human Relations Incidents of 3 randomly

chosen residence assistants. Three sets of the perceptual

dimensions scoring sheets were included in each folder

(see Appendix D for the judges perceptual dimensions

scoring sheets). The ten packets of residence assistants'

Human Relations Incidents were randomly distributed to the

judges. They were instructed to read the Human Relations

Incidents for each residence assistant and rate the HRI's

on one global perceptual dimension. To avoid the halo

effect, the judges were instructed to rate no more than

three Human Relations Incidents in one sitting.

In this fashion the author acquired the data to be

statistically analyzed to test the six hypotheses. The

data consisted of:

(1) Residence assistant self-rated'scores on the

Perceptual Dimensions Scale

(2) Judge-inferred scores for each of the residence

assistants on the Perceptual Dimensions Scale








(3) Student-rated scores for each residence assistant

on the Perceptual Dimensions Scale

(4) Student ratings for each residence assistant on

the Self-Anchoring Scale



Statistical Treatment of the Data



This study examined the relationships between the

effectiveness ratings by students on the Self-Anchoring

Scale, and the data obtained on the judge-inferred perceptual

dimensions, the student-rated perceptual dimensions, and

the residence assistant self-rated perceptual dimensions

(Hypotheses 1, 4, and 6). Multivariate statistical pro-

cedures were utilized to test these relationships. The

computer programs utilized to compute the multivariate

statistical analyses were BMDX69 and BMDX63 (Dixon, 1970c).

The relationships between the judge-inferred per-

ceptual dimensions, the self-rated perceptual dimensions

and the student-rated perceptual dimensions (Hypotheses

2, 3, and 5) were tested by use of product-moment correlations.

The computer program utilized to compute the correlations

was UFSPL020.

All of the computations of this investigation were

performed with an IBM System 370, Model 165 computer at the

University of Florida Computer Center.








CHAPTER IV


ANALYSIS OF THE DATA



Introduction



The data was gathered following the procedures described

in Chapter III. Each residence assistant wrote three Human

Relations Incident reports and rated themselves on the six

bipolar dimensions on the Perceptual Dimensions Scale.

Students rated their particualr residence assistant using

the Self-Anchoring Scale and the Perceptual Dimensions Scale.

Three trained judges inferred and recorded the nature of the

perceptual organization of each residence assistant on the

basis of the Human Relations Incidents, using the Perceptual

Dimensions Scale. Using the Self-Anchoring Scale as the

criterion, from a population of 45 residence assistants. 15

residence assistants were identified as in.ffetive and 15

residence assistants were identified as effective. All

hypotheses were examined on the basis of these two groups

of residence assistants.

The purpose of the present research was to explore the

relationships between residence assistants' judge-inferred,

self-rated and student-rated perceptual characteristics and

a measure of their effectiveness as residence assistants as

evaluated by students. The Self-Anchoring Scale was examined








and the difference between the effective and the ineffective

residence assistant group scores were tested for significant

differences. The inter-rater reliability for the training

and for the actual study data were reported. Multivariate

analysis of variance was utilized to compute the relationship

between the judge-inferred, self-rated and the student-rated

perceptual dimensions and the student evaluations of the

residence assistants on the Self-Anchoring Scale. The

relationships between the judge-inferred, the self-rated

and the student-rated perceptual dimensions were tested by use

of product-moment correlations.



Analysis of Measures



Reliability DT.a or the Percentual Dimensions Scale Ratings
as Inferred b judcsos from the Human RPeiations Incidrc:ts



The reliability of the ratings of the perceptual

dimensions as inferred by the three judges from the resi-

dence assistants' Human Relations Incidents was computed

using Guilford's two way analysis of variance technique

described in Chapter III. As noted earlier the reliability

of the mean of the three raters' ratings using the training

daLa increased frc,: .319 in meeting two to .783 in meeting

five (see Table 1).





74


The perceptual data inferred by the three judges for

the 30 residence assistants was tested for reliability.

The reliability of the judge-inferred data utilized for

the analysis of the research hypotheses was .849 (see

Table 1).














TABLE I



Reliability Data of Perceptual Judging







Reliability


Training Meeting 2 .319

Training Meeting 3 .525

Training Meeting 4 .725

Training Meeting 5 .783

Inferred Perceptual Data
Utilized for Analyzing .849
the Research Hypotheses


-~L----___ll____________l~--P-








Self-Anchoring Scale



The student-rated Self-Anchoring Scale scores were

tested for significant differences between the group of

effective residence assistants and the group of ineffective

residence assistants for the pilot project for the present

study conducted in March, 1972 and for the present study.

The t-tests revealed statistically significant

differences between the two groups at the .01 level of

significance (see Table 2). The Self-Anchoring Scale seems

to be an effective means of establishing the two groups of

residence assistants.












TABLE 2



Means, Standard Deviations and t-test Statistics for Testing
the Significance of the Difference Between Effective and
Ineffective Residence Assistants Using the Student-Rated
Self-Anchoring Scale


Group Mean Standard t-test
Deviation



Pilot Study Effective
Residence 8.9174 .3708 4.9972**
Assistants

Ineffective
Residence 7.0269 .7063
Assistants

Study Effective
Residence 9.1374 .3739 9.0064**
Assistants

Ineffective
Residence 6.2379 1.1451
Assistants


*Siqnif icant
**Significant


at the .05 level
at the .01 level








Results



Hypothesis 1i:



The Relationship Between the Perceptual Data as Inferred by
the Judaes and Student Ratings on the Self-Anchoring Scale



The judge-inferred perceptual dimensions were analyzed on

the basis of the student ratings of the effective and the

ineffective residence assistants on the Self-Anchoring Scale.

The F-statistics for each of the six perceptual dimensions

and for the perceptual dimensions taken as a whole are reported

in Table 3. Significant differences between the two groups

of residence assistants were found based on the following

judge-inferred perceptual dimensions: (A-l) Internal-

External, (B-l) Able-Unable, (C-l) With people-Apart from

people, (C-2) Adequate-Inadequate, (D-l) Freeing-Controlling,

(D-2) Larger goals-Smaller goals, and the multivariate

analysis of the six perceptual dimensions. It appears from

the results that the judge-inferred scores on the Perceptual

Dimensions Scale based on the Human Relations Incident protocols

discriminated between the effective and the ineffective

residence assistants.









TABLE 3

Group Means and F-Statistics Testing the Significance of the
Difference of the Judge-Inferred Ratings on the Perceptual
Dimensions Scale for the Effective and the Ineffective
Residence Assistants



Perceptual Dimensions Effective Ineffective F-Statistics
Group Group
Mean Mean


A. General Frame of
Reference

1. Internal-
External

B. Perceptions of
Others

1. Able-Unable

C. Perceptions of
Self

1. With people-
Apart from people

2. Adequate-
Inadequate

D. Perceptions of
Helping Relationship


3.8288


4.0400


3.7244


3.8733


5.2844


5.2155


5.0044


4.3777


32.5630**


25.5606**


28.8248**


4.6051*


1. Freeing-
Controlling

2. Larger goals-
Smaller goals


Multivariate Analysis of the
on the Perceptual Dimensions


4.0400


3.6288


5.3044


5.0222


6 Variables
Scale


26.4851**


28.5622**

7.4739**


*SignificcinL at the. 05 level
**Significant at the .01 level








Hypothesis 2:



The Relationship Between Judge-Inferred Ratings of the
Residence Assistants and the Student Ratings of the
Residence Assistants on the Perceptual Dimensions Scale



The correlation coefficients between the judge-inferred

ratings of the residence assistants and the student ratings

of the residence assistants on the Perceptual Dimensions

Scale are reported in Table 4. The results indicate one

significant correlation coefficient on the.(A-1) Internal-

External general frame of reference scale. The correlation

coefficients on the following perceptual dimensions revealed

non-significant relationships: (B-1) Able-Unable, (C-l)

With people-Apart from people, (C-2) Adequate-Inadequate,

(D-l) Freeing-Controlling, and (D-2) Larger goals-Smaller

goals. Hypothesis 2 is not confirmed. The students and

the judges appear to have utilized differing perceptual

criteria in rating the residence assistants on five of the

six perceptual dimensions.









TABLE 4

Correlation Coefficients Between Judge-Inferred Ratings of
the Residence Assistants and Student Ratings of the Residence
Assistants on the Perceptual Dimensions Scale



Perceptual Dimensions Correlation Coefficients



A. General Frame of Reference

1. Internal-External .3079*

B. Perceptions of Others

1. Able-Unable .1898

C. Perceptions of Self

1. With people-
Apart from people .1799

2. Adequate-Inadequate .1386

D. Perceptions of the Helping
Relationship

1. Freeing-Controlling .1985

2. Larger goals-Smaller goals .1734


*Significant at the .05 level
**Significant at the .01 level








Hypothesis 3:



The Relationship Between Judae-Inferred Ratings of the Residence
Assistants and Self-Ratings by the Residence Assistants on the
Perceptual D;imensicns Scale



The correlation coefficients between the judge-inferred

ratings of the residence assistants and the self-ratings by

the residence assistants on the Perceptual Dimensions Scale

are reported in Table 5. The results from the Perceptual

Dimensions Scale indicate significant correlation coefficients

on the (B-l) Able-Unable perception of others scale and on the

(D-l) Freeing-Controlling perceptions of the helping relation-

ship scale. The correlation coefficients on the following

perceptual dimensions revealed non-significant relationships:

(A-l) Internal-External, (C-l) With people-Apart from people,

(C-2) Adequate-Inadequate, and (D-2) Larger goals-Smaller

goals. On four of the six perceptual dimensions, the judge-

inferred ratings and the self-ratings did not significantly

correlate. These results partially confirm Hypothesis 3. On

two of the six perceptual dimensions, significant correlations

were found indicating that judge-inferred ratings were

related to self-ratings on these two dimensions.








TABLE' 5



Correlation Coefficients Between Judge-Inferred Ratings of
the Residence Assistants and Self-Ratings by the Residence
Assistants on the Perceptual Dimensions Scale





Perceptual Dimensions Correlation Coefficients



A. General Frame of Reference

1. Internal-External .2048

B. Perceptions of Others

1. Able-Unable .4250**

C. Perceptions of Self

1. With people-Apart from people .0147

2. Adequate-Inadequate .2652

D. Perceptions of Helping Relationship

1. Freeing-Controlling .3689*

2. Larger goals-Smaller goals .1141


*Significant at the .05 level
**Significant at the .01 level





84


Hypothesis 4:



The Relationship Between'the Perceptual Data as Self-Rated
by the Residence Assistants and Student Ratings on the
Self-Anchoring Scale



The self-rated perceptual dimensions were grouped into the

15 most effective and the 15 most ineffective residence

assistants on the basis of the student ratings on the

Self-Anchoring Scale. The F-Statistics for each of the

six perceptual dimensions and for the perceptual dimensions

taken as a whole (reported in Table 6) reveal no significant

differences in the two groups based on the self-ratings of

the residence assistants. Hypothesis 4 is confirmed. The

self-ratings made by the residence assistants were similar

for both groups. Significant differences could not be

found between the two groups based on the self-ratings.








TABLE' 6

Group Means and F-Statistics Based on the Difference Between
Student-Rated Effective and Ineffective Residence Assistants
and Residence Assistant Self-Ratings on the Perceptual
Dimensions Scale



Perceptual Dimensions Effective Ineffective F-Statistics
Group Mean Group Mean



A. General Frame
of Reference

1. Internal-
External 1.9333 2.2000 0.5895

B. Perceptions of
Others

1. Able-Unable 2.2666 2.6666 0.7262

C. Perceptions of
Self

1. With people-
Apart from people 2.6000 2.3333 0.3836

2. Adequate-
Inadequate 1.8666 1.8000 0.0769

D. Perceptions of
Helping Relationship

1. Freeing-
Controlling 2.1333 2.1333 0.0000

2. Larger goals-
Smaller goals 3.2666 3.1333 0.8750

Multivariate Analysis of the 6 Variables
on the Perceptual Dimensions Scale 0.4704


*Slgnificant at the .05 level
**Significant at the .01 level








Hypothesis 5:



The Relationship Between Self-Ratings by the Residence
Assistants and Student Ratings of the Residence Assistants
on the Perceptual Dimensions Scale



The correlation coefficients between the self-ratings by

the residence assistants and student ratings of the residence

assistants on the Perceptual Dimensions Scale are reported

in Table 7. The results indicate that none of the correlations

were significant. Hypothesis 5 is confirmed. In the research,

self-ratings showed no significant relationships with student

ratings on the PDS. A comparison of the data presented in

Table 5, Table 6 and Table 7 indicates a consistency in that

self-ratings by the residence assistants reveal few significant

relationships with any of the other measures utilized in the

study.









TABLE 7

Correlation Coefficients Between Self-Ratings by the Residence
Assistants and Student Ratings of the Residence Assistants on
the Perceptual Dimensions Scale



Perceptual Dimensions Correlation Coefficients



A. General Frame of Reference

1. Internal-External .2905

B. Perceptions of Others

1. Able-Unable .1221

C. Perceptions of Self

1. With people-Apart from people .0665

2. Adequate-Inadequate .1154

D. Perceptions of Helping Relationship

1. Freeing-Controlling .1665

2. Larger goals-Smaller goals -.0811


*Significant at the .05 level
**Significant at the .01 level









Hypothesis 6:



The Relationship Between the Perceptual Data as Rated by the
Students and the StudentRatings on the Self-Anchoring Scale



The student ratings of the residence assistants were

grouped into the 15 most effective and the 15 most ineffective

residence assistants on the basis of the student ratings on

the Self-Anchoring Scale. An examination of the F-Statistics

for each of the six perceptual dimensions and for the per-

ceptual dimensions taken as a whole (reported in Table 8)

reveals significant differences in the two groups based on

the student ratings of the residence assistants on the

Perceptual Dimensions Scale. It appears from the results

that the student scores on the Perceptual Dimensions Scale

based on observations of and interactions with the residence

assistants discriminated between the effective and the

ineffective residence assistants.









TABLE 8

Group Means and F-Statistics Based on the Differences Between
Student-Rated Effective and Ineffective Residence Assistants
on the Self-Anchoring Scale and Student Ratings of Residence
Assistants on the Perceptual Dimensions Scale



Perceptual Dimensions Effective Ineffective F-Statistics
Group Mean Group Mean


A. General Frame of
Reference


1. Internal-
External


B. Perceptions of
Others

1. Able-Unable

C. Perceptions of
Self

1. With people-
Apart from people

2. Adequate-
Inadequate

D. Perceptions of
Helping Relationship


1. Freeina-
Controlling

2. Larger goals-
Smaller goals


2.3923


1.9548


2.3454


1.8876


2.1306


2.8811


3.8327


3.0725


3.7818


3.0018


3.6500


3.8699


Multivariate Analysis of the 6 Variables
on the Perceptual Dimensions Scale


38.0643**


34.5262**


44.0965**


43.0048**


51.4454**


30.8777**


9.4809**


*Significant at the .05 level
**Significant at the .01 level