The relationship between teacher attitudes and observed classroom behavior

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The relationship between teacher attitudes and observed classroom behavior
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Thesis--University of Florida.
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Includes bibliographical references (leaves 67-72).
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by Bernadine Johnson Bolden.
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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEACHER ATTITUDES
AND OBSERVED CLASSROOM BEHAVIOR
















By

BERNADINE .OHNSON BOLDEN


A DISSERTATION RESENTEDL TO THF GRADUATE COUNCIL
OF THE UNIVE I'ITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT -' THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCG'. R OF PHILOSOPHY


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA




























To My Parents


From whom I learned the joy of the

journey













ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


The writer would like co recognize the invaluable assis-

tance of her chairman, Dr. C. Glen Hass. Dr. Hass has given

her encouragement and direction not only during the development

of this dissertation, but also at other crucial stages of her

doctoral program.

The writer is also deeply grateful to the members of her

committee, Dr. William Drummond, Dr. Herbert Franklin, and

Dr. Robert Soar. Dr. Drummond and Dr. Franklin aided with

encouragement, concern, and supportive challenges. Dr. Soar

aided by being supportive and giving valuable advice for design

and data analysis problems. Gratitude is also expressed to

Dr. Vynce Hines, who gave patient guidance from the beginning.

A special thanks is extended to my husband T. A., and

my daughters, Terri and Tanya. Without their patient assistance

in the day to day routine, this work would never have been

completed.


iil













TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ......................... .. ...... .. iii

LIST OF TABLES ...................... ............... vi

ABSTRACT ...... ............ ............ .............. vii

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION ........................... 1

Statement of the Problem ............ 1
Background .......................... 2
Definition of Terms ................. 9
Hypotheses ............................. 10
Limitations of the Study ............ 11

CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE ....... 12

Teacher Attitudes Toward
Educational Issues ................ 14
Education and Open-mindedness ....... 19
Self-Concept and the Teacher ........ 25
Can Attitudes Aid in Study of
Behavior? ........................ 29

CHAPTER III DESIGN OF THE STUDY .................... 32

Sample Selection ...................... 32
Instrument on ...... ................. 33
Opininonnr,ire on Attitudes Toward ..
Education ........................ 33
Acceptance of Self and Others ..... 34
Personal Beliefs Scale ............ 35
Teacher Practices Observation
Record ........................... 36
Data Collection ............ ......... 37
Treatment of the Data ............... 39

CHAPTER IV PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS ... 40

General Group Characteristics ....... 40
School Characteristics .............. 44
Test of the Hypotheses .............. 47
Further Data Analysis ............... 50
Summary .............................. 57










TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)

Page

CHAPTER V SUMMARY, DISCUSSION, AND IMPLICATIONS ... 59

Summary ...... .... .. ..... ............ 59
Discussion ................................ 61
Implications ..... ........... .......... 64

BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................... ......... 67

APPENDIX .................... ............................. 74

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .................................. 91













LIST OF TABLES


Table 1 Mean Scores for Experience, Cognitive
Traits, and Classroom Behavior for all
Teachers ...................................... 41

Table 2 Correlations Between Experience, Cognitive
Traits, and Classroom Behavior for all
Teachers ................................... 43

Table 3 Mean Scores for Experience, Cognitive
Traits, and Classroom Behavior for
Individual Schools ......................... 45

Table 4 Multiple Regression of Experience and
Cognitive Traits with Classroom Behavior .... 49

Table 5 Mean Scores for Experience, Cognitive Traits,
and Classroom Behavior Excluding Mathematics
Teachers .................... ................ 51

Table 6 Correlations Between Experience, Cognitive
Traits, and Classroom Behavior Excluding
MathematicsTeachers ........................ 52

Table 7 Multiple Regression of Experience and
Cognitive Traits with Classroom Behavior,
Mathematics Teachers Excluded ............... 54

Table 8 Mean Scores for Experience, Cognitive Traits,
and Classroom Behavior for Mathematics
Teachers ................................... 55

Table 9 Correlations Between Experience, Cognitive
Traits, and Classroom Behavior for
Mathematics Teachers ........................ 56








Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree of
Doctor of Philosophy



THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEACHER ATTITUDES
AND OBSERVED CLASSROOM BEHAVIOR

By

Bernadine Johnson Bolden

August 1977


Chairman: Dr. C. Glen Hass
Major Department: Curriculum and Instruction


Purpose

This study was undertaken to explore what relationship

the belief systems and structures of teachers have on certain

classroom processes. The belief structure examined was dog-

matism, and the belief systems examined were attitudes toward

educational practices, self and others. The study tried to

answer the following questions:

1. What relationship exists between teaching experience

and child-centered teaching practices?

2. What relationship exists between dogmatism and child-

centered teaching practices?

3. What relationship exists between educational attitudes

and child-centered teaching practices?

4. What relationship exists between attitudes of self-

acceptance and child-centered teaching practices?


vii







5. What relationship exists between attitudes of

acceptance of others and child-centered teaching

practices?

6. What relationship exists between teacher belief

systems and structures, teacher years of experience,

and child-centered teaching behaviors?

Procedures

To answer these questions, data from 66 sixth grade class-

room teachers were collected. The data included teacher responses

to three self-report instruments which measured dogmatism, atti-

tudes toward educational practices that could be considered

child-centered or teacher/authority-centered, and attitudes of

acceptance of self and other persons. Teachers also indicated

how many years of teaching experience they had. Each teacher

was observed teaching a regularly scheduled class for a period

of 30 minutes. During this time data were obtained on the TPOR

to indicate to what degree child-centered teaching practices

were used during the observational period.

Results

There was no significant relationship found to exist

between years of teaching experience and child-centered teach-

ing practices.

There was no significant relationship found to exist

between teacher dogmatism and child-centered teaching practices.

A significant relationship was found between attitude toward

educational practices and child-centered teaching practices.


viii







There was no significant relationship found to exist

between teacher attitude of acceptance of self and child-centered

teacher practices.

There was no significant relationship found to exist

between teacher attitude of acceptance of others and child-

centered teaching practices.

There was no significant relationship found to exist be-

tween teacher attitude toward educational practices, self,

others, teacher dogmatism, and teacher years of experience and

child-centered teaching practices.

The data were reexamined using the same procedures but

excluding all data from teachers who were teaching mathematics

during the observation period. In this reanalysis, a signifi-

cant relationship was again found between educational attitudes

and child-centered teaching practices. There were also two

relationships found that were not present when all the teachers

were used in the analysis. In the new analysis, dogmatism was

also found to be significantly related to child-centered teach-

ing practices. In addition, years of teaching experience, dog-

matism, and attitudes toward educational practices, self and

others were significantly related to child-centered teaching

practices.












CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION


This study is an examination of certain teacher attributes

as they relate to the teaching process. It is designed to

examine some cognitive characteristics which all teachers

possess as they relate to the behavior that teachers engage in

within the classroom. These personal characteristics will be

studied as they relate to classroom behaviors which are classi-

fied as congruent or not congruent with John Dewey's philosophy

of education.


Statement of the Problem


This study examines the relationship between certain

teacher-held attitudes and teacher classroom behavior. Speci-

fically, it is concerned with the attitudes teachers hold toward

educational practices, toward themselves, toward other persons,

and the degree of teacher open-mindedness as these cognitive

variables relate to teacher classroom behavior. It attempts to

answer the following questions:

1. What relationship exists between teacher experience

and teacher classroom behaviors that are child-

centered according to the Experimentalist tradition?







2. What relationship exists between the degree of teacher

open-mindedness and teacher behaviors that are child-

centered according to the Experimentalist tradition?

3. What relationship exists between teacher attitudes

toward educational practices and teacher classroom

behaviors that are child-centered according to the

Experimentalist tradition?

4. What relationship exists between teacher attitudes

toward self and teacher classroom behaviors that are

child-centered according to the Experimentalist

tradition?

5. What relationship exists between teacher attitudes

toward others and teacher classroom behaviors that

are child-centered according to the Experimentalist

tradition?

6. What relationship exists between teacher attitudes

toward educational practices, teacher attitudes toward

self, teacher attitudes toward others, and the degree

of teacher open-mindedness, and teacher behaviors that

are child-centered according to the Experimentalist

tradition?


Background


Education is the cornerstone of American society and a

multi-billion dollar enterprise. Teachers and students spend

countless hours every year engaged in instructional activities.

Yet we presently are unaware of which combinations of teacher







characteristics and skills produce the desired learning outcomes

in the instructional process. The teaching process at present

rests on insecure and fragmented empirical data. "The great

mass of research on teacher effectiveness leads to one uncontested

conclusion: no comprehensive criterion of teacher effectiveness,

no single identifiable combination of personal, academic, or pro-

fessional qualities in the teacher either at the time of admission

to teacher training or upon graduation, and no particular factor

or technique in the training program has consistently correlated

with teacher effectiveness" (Rinehart, 1970, p. 9).

Teacher educators and supervisors are still faced with this

problem. Colleges of education are challenged with the responsi-

bility of preparing competent, professional teachers to staff the

nation's schools. Unfortunately, although the programs of these

educational institutions are based upon various philosophies of

education and theories of learning, there is no sure knowledge

that teaching pre-service teachers a certain set of teaching

behaviors and information will result in a teacher who is more

effective than one taught a slightly different set of behaviors

and information. Indeed, even if we knew with absolute surety

in which instances certain sets of teaching behaviors and infor-

mation would produce desired results in learners it still might

not be enough. If perceptual psychologists, such as Arthur Combs,

are correct, the behavior teachers will actually exhibit in

their classrooms will be a result of the ideas they have about

themselves and their idiosyncratic perceptions of what the

facts are (Combs, 1958).






Colleges of education are called upon to produce and

supervisors are called upon to identify effective teachers. But

how is the "good" teacher identified? What specific charac-

teristics and behaviors does the "good" teacher possess? The

answer will depend upon whom you ask. Some will emphasize class-

room structure and discipline. Others will emphasize planning

and subject-matter preparedness. Still others will emphasize

how perceptive and responsive the teacher is to individual needs,

how flexible and original are the teaching methods, or even how

the room is arranged and the bulletin boards displayed.

The selection, retention, and rating of teachers are

presently extremely subjective processes. School principals

generally bear primary responsibility in all three areas. Because

of the non-existence of adequate objective criteria, they must

base their decisions in these areas on data that are selectively

gathered according to subjective criteria. The end result of

this process is generally reflected in an instrument which the

principal uses to summarize this data in highly inferential cate-

gories. How the data are positioned in these categories depends

usually upon how favorably the principal has evaluated the per-

formance of the teacher. And this seems to depend upon how

similar certain cognitive attributes of the principal are to

those of the teachers. Kerlinger (1966) found that the attitude

of the person judging determined which traits of teachers were

considered most desirable. How teaching performance was rated

was studied by Musella (1967). He found that the most closed-

minded principals rated their most closed-minded teachers as most

effective in performance of role-related tasks.




5


Cognitive attributes of teachers do seem to influence the

ratings they receive. Besides the correlation of closed-minded-

ness with performance ratings, evidence exists that teachers who

possess certain attitudes are highly rated by their supervisors.

Because the job of the teacher necessitates working closely with

other human beings of diverse cultural origin and philosophical

orientation, it seems reasonable that teachers should be sensitive

to the needs of others. Research shows that indeed teachers who

view administrators and pupils favorably are rated as being

effective (Wandt, 1954). They also tend to hold attitudes that

consider the learner's needs as important (Brown & Brown, 1968).

The teaching process involves the determination of learner

goals and objectives and the implementation of strategies designed

to accomplish the goals and objectives. For most teachers this

process involves goals, objectives, and strategies for 25 or more

pupils. In order to cope with the individual differences which

exist within the educational environment, and to effectively make

the many decisions they are called upon to make every day, it

logically follows that teachers should be flexible, non-judgmental,

and capable of objectively assessing pupils, materials, and situa-

tions. This is the quality that has been defined as being open-

minded (Rokeach, 1960). If the teacher is concerned with the

idiosyncratic learning goals of pupils this can be described as

a pupil-centered as opposed to subject-centered attitude toward

learning.

Although the evidence is inconclusive, it appears that

teacher effectiveness is now partly judged according to certain







teacher attitudes and cognitive styles of thinking. Most systems

of teacher ratings at present do not relate specific classroom

behaviors of teachers to ratings of effectiveness. We know

through observation that teachers behave differently from each

other within their classrooms, although all of these differences

have not been identified and objectively defined. We know also

that teachers behave differently toward different students.

Silberman (1969) was concerned with the underlying dynamics of

this differential behavior of teachers toward students. He

found that the basic attitude toward the student determined much

of the teacher's behavior that could be labeled as student con-

tact, positive and negative evaluation, and acquiescence. Stu-

dents could also predict the amount of these behaviors they and

their classmates would probably receive.

We generally assume that we human beings are creatures of

some degree of freedom and choice. As such, we engage in many

acts and behaviors of our own choosing. In a free-choice situa-

tion, these actions and behaviors are a reflection of our beliefs,

attitudes,and values. If this is so, teachers in their classrooms

should exhibit behavior that is a reflection of the basic atti-

tudes they hold toward educational practices and other persons.

This behavior may also reflect the degree to which a teacher is

flexible and objective in processing information, or open-minded.

If more effective teachers are being chosen because they

possess certain cognitive characteristics which are distinct from

those of less effective teachers, their classroom behavior should

differ from that of less effective teachers in observable ways.








This is an important generalization since many supervisors and

administrators are now judging classroom success by qualities

which are cognitive and not behavioral. The interactions which

occur within classrooms that ultimately either promote or hinder

learning are more behavioral in nature. Therefore, it is de-

sirable to determine the nature of the linkage between teacher

attitudes and observable teacher classroom behaviors that are

considered to affect the academic and emotional growth of students.

The research undertaking described here is based upon these

propositions: teachers possess fundamental attitudes toward

educational practices which they will reflect in their classroom

behavior; teachers' fundamental attitude toward themselves will

be reflected in their classroom behavior; teachers' fundamental

attitudes toward other persons will be reflected in their class-

room behavior; the extent to which teachers' possess an open or

closed mind will be reflected in their classroom behavior. Based

upon these assumptions, measurements will be taken of all these

teacher dimensions, both involving attitudes and ways of think-

ing, and classroom behavior, to determine what kind of, if any,

relationship exists between them.

Included in the measure of educational attitudes are state-

ments which deal with the importance of understanding the child's

psychological needs, statements which describe practices which

place either the learner or the subject matter as central in the

teaching-learning process, and statements which emphasize an

authoritarian-punitive versus humanistic (in which views of stu-

dents, particular circumstances, et cetera, are taken into







consideration) view of desirable methods of managing behavior.

These type orientations have been described as teacher-centered

and student-centered behaviors, congruent with attitudes which

are based on two different domains. One domain is the tra-

ditional orientation based upon respect for authority and cen-

trality of subject matter in the teaching-learning process.

The other is an experimental orientation congruent with John

Dewey's philosophy, in which the learner, although guided by

the teacher, is central, with his dignity and rights to be

respected (Wehling & Charters, 1969).

Experimentalism, as a philosophical view, emphasizes the

uniqueness of the individual in experiencing all of life's

phenomenon. Men discover reality for themselves and its truth

is verified in conjunction with others. This view of human

potential is compatible with an attitude which regards other

persons as being essentially capable and effective human beings,

possessing dignity and deserving of one's respect. Self-worth

is also inherent in this position. These two attitudes are also

characteristic of teachers rated as effective by their super-

visors. The two will be measured for effect separately in

this study. The justification for this is that theoretically

one may be favorably disposed towards oneself and unfavorably

disposed towards others. Harris (1969) describes these psycho-

logical states as I'm O.K., you're not O.K.; I'm not O.K.; you're

O.K.; I'm not O.K., you're not O.K.; and I'm O.K., you're O.K.

Which one of these states an individual possesses ultimately is

responsible for the quality and quantity of most interpersonal

transactions.








Also consistent with the experimental philosophic view is

the idea that the universe is in constant flux. Nothing is cer-

tain except change. Thus, tne individual must be capable of

receiving and processing from the environment information that

may change from occasion to occasion. The label used by John

Dewey to describe this general process is "reflective thinking."

In order to engage in this process with maximum effectiveness,

an individual must possess what is termed by Rokeach as an open

mind. An individual has an open or closed mind according to

the "extent to which the person can receive, evaluate, and act

on relevant information received from the outside on its own in-

trinsic merits, unencumbered by irrelevant factors in the

situation arising from within the person or from the outside"

(Rokeach, 1960, p. 57).


Definition of Terms


1. Attitude: A relatively enduring organization of beliefs

around an object or situation predisposing one to re-

spond in some preferential manner (Rokeach, 1970, p.

112).

2. Attitudes toward educational practices: Defined as

measured by the Opinionnaire on Attitudes Toward Edu-

cation (Lingren & Patton, 1958).

3. Attitudes toward self: Defined as measured by Accep-

tance of Self and Others (Berger, 1952).

4. Attitudes toward others: Defined as measured by Accep-

tance of Self and Others (Berger, 1952).







5. Open-mindedness: The degree to which an individual can

independently and objectively receive, evaluate, and

act upon information (Rokeach, 1960, p. 57).

6. Experimentalist tradition: Educational ideas and prac-

tices congruent with the educational philosophy of

John Dewey.

7. Child-centered teaching behavior: Defined as measured

by the Teacher Practices Observation Record (Brown, 1968).

8. Cognitive characteristics or attributes: These terms as

used in this study include the affective realm of

cognition.

Hypotheses

1. There is no relationship between child-centered behaviors

of teachers and years of teaching experience.

2. There is no relationship between child-centered be-

haviors of teachers and degree of teacher open-mindedness.

3. There is no relationship between child-centered be-

haviors of teachers and teacher attitudes toward edu-

cational practices.

4. There is no relationship between child-centered be-

haviors of teachers and teacher attitudes toward self.

5. There is no relationship between child-centered be-

haviors of teachers and teacher attitudes toward

others.

6. There is no relationship between child-centered be-

haviors of teachers and teacher attitudes toward edu-

cational practices, toward self, toward others, degree

of open-mindedness, and years of teaching experience.




11


Limitations of the Study


Because of the nature of the sample used to produce the

data for this study, the results cannot be generalized to other

groups. All data must be interpreted with consideration for the

fact that the sample is made up exclusively of teacher volunteers

at the sixth grade level.












CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE


In categorizing the research on teaching, four classes

can be used. These four can be labeled presage, context, pro-

cess, and product variables (Dunkin and Biddle, 1974). In-

cluded in the presage variables are those personal character-

istics of the teachers and experiences that helped to form the

teacher. Context variables are those things within the environ-

ment over which the teacher has little control and to which

the teacher must adjust. Process variables are concerned with

all the behaviors that teachers and pupils exhibit in the class-

room. Product variables are the outcomes of the teaching-learn-

ing process.

The study of presage variables has resulted in an abun-

dance of research. Of three bibliographies which reference

works in this area prior to 1950, one alone lists over 1,000

titles (Getzels & Jackson, 1963, p. 506). This interest probably

reflects the assumption that the teacher is a critical part of

the teaching-learning process. As such, attributes of the

teacher are possible sources of influence on the teaching-learn-

ing process. Another aspect of this assumption is the effect

that teacher attributes have on processes within the classroom.

Teacher education is predicated upon the assumption that teachers







are, indeed, critical in the teaching-learning process, do

possess certain attributes which can be changed during teacher-

education, and the resultant changes will enhance the teaching-

learning process which occurs within schools.

According to Dunkin and Biddle, behavior of the teacher

is ". subject to beliefs held by the teacher concerning the

curriculum, the nature and objectives of the teaching tasks,

expectations for pupils, and norms concerning appropriate class-

room behavior. Thus, a reasonably good prediction of the class-

room behavior of the teacher can presumably be obtained by find-

ing out what the teacher thinks she prefers to, ought to, and

will do in the classroom" (1974, p. 412). Rokeach describes a

belief as being a predisposition to action (1970, p. 113) which

varies along a central peripheral dimension (1970, p. 3).

Beliefs are a part of a larger system of individual psychological

makeup. Beliefs form an integral part of attitudes which

individuals possess. "An attitude is a relatively enduring

organization of beliefs around an object or situation predispos-

ing one to respond in some preferential manner" (Rokeach, 1970,

p. 112). Oppenheim (1966) describes attitudes as being .

a state of readiness, a tendency to act or react in a certain

manner when confronted with certain stimuli." Attitudes, as

other psychological constructs, can be measured. Since atti-

tudes of teachers are attributes which potentially influence

much of teacher thought, decisions, and actions, they are a

latently rich source of beneficial insight into the dynamics of

the classroom.








Teacher Attitudes Toward Educational Issues


Teacher attitudes toward educational practices have been

investigated upon numerous occasions. Much of the content of

the attitude scales used are statements based upon a Deweyan

Progressivistic view of the teaching-learning process, or a

classical authority based subject oriented view of the teaching-

learning process.

Dewey (1902) expressed the view that educators seemed to

be in two opposing camps. In one camp were those who emphasized

the child and the child's interests and teachers who possessed

sympathy for the child and knowledge of the child's instincts.

Teachers ideally, according to Dewey, should be at neither

extreme position. Instead, they should be concerned with how

they can structure the child's learning environment so that

subject-matter can become a part of the child's experience. The

view of educators in which the child's interests and needs are

considered in planning educational experiences has been identi-

fied with progressivist and experimentalist educational philoso-

phies. Traditionalism is connected with the view that the

curriculum should be concerned with subject-matter that has

proven value in the society.

Kerlinger (1967a) examined the factors which seemed to

identify basic teacher attitudes. He tried to determine the

factorial nature of these attitudes, and study their relations

and content. The sample of the study was composed of teachers

and students in colleges of education. In analyzing the results








of the scale which was administered, eight factors were identi-

fied. All of the factors could be shown to be either progressive

or traditional in nature. His conclusion was that the evidence

"supports the contention that educational attitudes consist of

two relatively independent basic dimensions that can legitimately

be called 'progressivism' and 'traditionalism'" (p. 203).

In analyzing attitudes toward education, Sontag (1968)

also found distinctive factors. He identified a progressive fac-

tor, a traditional factor, and two more factors which he called

Elementary Factors C and D. Factor C seemed to be aligned with

traits which Ryans had described as stimulating, imaginative,

and original behaviors. Factor D seemed to reflect self-control

in teaching. Although he identified four factors he found that

twoof them accounted for most of the variance in attitudes.

These two were concern for students and structure-subject-

matter, and most progressives were associated with the former

and most traditionalists were associated with the latter.

Wehling and Charters (1969) attempted to assess teachers'

beliefs and found eight distinct dimensions. They considered

the first two to reflect commitment to educational goals and

the remaining six to reflect beliefs about processes necessary

to attain the educational goals means and ends of education.

The first dimension was Subject-Matter Emphasis, a view that

the content of the disciplines is inherently valuable. The

second was Personal Adjustment Ideology which is characterized

by the view that instruction should be organized with the







students' interests, needs and well-being considered. Other

dimensions included Student Autonomy vs. Teacher Control,

Emotional Disengagement, Consideration of Student Viewpoint,

Classroom Order, Student Challenge, and Integrative Learning.

He found that the dimensions were independent, but did form a

pattern that was congruent with the two attitude domains described

by Kerlinger, one teacher-centered and the other student-centered.

Kerlinger's work in the area of attitude measurement led

him to the conclusion that social attitudes, including educa-

tional attitudes, are dualistic and not bipolar in nature

(Kerlinger, 1967b). This indicates that possessors of progressive

attitudes use different referents and standards when fixing on

objects of their progressive attitudes than do traditionalists

when fixing on the same objects. Support for the duality of

the basic educational attitudes was given by Wehling and

Charters (1969) in their study in which the eight dimensions of

teacher attitudes which were uncovered were found to be unipolar,

either present or absent, and not bipolar in nature. Reid and

Holley (1974), and Marjoribanks and Josefowitz (1975) have

since done studies which corroborate Kerlinger's findings.

Upon examination, many of the decisions which are made

within the educational setting concerning what the curriculum

should be and how it should be implemented can be seen as out-

growths of these two basic attitudes concerning desirable

practices. Thus the recent movement toward basic education and

stricter student discipline reflects the belief that inadequacies

in the present structure can be solved by a return to the








traditional, old and true methods. The emphasis would be on

mastery of the traditional core subjects and the student's

primary responsibility would be to adapt to the requirements of

school. The progressive view, on the other hand, can be seen

in the growth of the middle-school concept. A growing trend

in the number of communities developing middle schools can be

partly ascribed to the desire to serve the unique developmental

needs of children during their transition into adolescence.

Ideally, the middle school is established to enhance the unique

capabilities of each student in coping with the larger world

around him as well as mastering required academic courses.

Teachers, principals, curriculum workers, professors in

colleges of education, and others concerned with the education

of youth have been shown to possess these two basic attitudes.

Which of these attitudes predominates in an individual seems to

influence some choices made in the educational environment. In

this sphere, Kerlinger (1966) found that individuals described

the characteristics and traits of the "good" or "effective"

teacher depending upon their own attitudes toward education.

In analyzing the traits described, he found three factors which

described the "good" teacher. Two of these factors were the

"progressive" and the "traditional" notion of the teacher.

These different factors contained statements about educational

practices which resembled progressivism and traditionalism as

described by John Dewey. Kerlinger and Pedhazur (1968) together

examined how individuals with progressive and traditional atti-

tudes viewed certain traits of teachers. They found that those








with progressive attitudes viewed person-oriented traits as

desirable, while those who had traditional attitudes viewed

task-oriented traits as desirable.

It would seem likely that these fundamental attitudes

toward educational practices would be directly related to the

actual teaching acts that teachers engage in. Actual research

in this area is contradictory, however. One study relates edu-

cational attitudes of pre-service teachers to their activities

(Larimore, Musser, & Sagan, 1973). It was found that the

students with the more progressive attitudes generally had a

wider range of involvement and better performances on situation

knowledge tests. Oliver (1953) attempted to measure the re-

lationship between what he called modern educational beliefs

and classroom practices which were based upon current knowledge

of learning and human growth and development. Although most

teachers agreed with the belief statement, the correlation

between beliefs and practices was not significant.

Whitmore (1974) developed an attitude inventory to identify

teachers with traditional and experimental attitudes. The in-

ventory was made up of statements which would describe either

one position or the other. She used informal classroom obser-

vation to determine which teachers were progressive and experi-

mental in practice. The results of the inventory showed that

the teachers did score in accordance with the informal assess-

ment.

A study was made by Brown (1968) in which he analyzed

classroom practices of teachers as they related to educational








beliefs. He found that the beliefs were predictors of classroom

behavior, although basic philosophic beliefs seemed to be better

predictors. It appeared that educational beliefs could be said

to have a generalized effect upon classroom behavior (Brown &

Webb, 1968).

In the three studies which related educational beliefs to

teachers' classroom behavior, one (Whitmore, 1974) did not use

a classroom observational system, but instead relied on observers'

global assessment of behavior. The other two both used obser-

vational systems. Results obtained differed, with one study

(Brown, 1968) noting a strong relationship between educational

attitudes and behavior, while the other (Oliver, 1953) noted

no:significant relationship. However, although Oliver did not

obtain significant results he found modest positive correlation.

These undertakings indicate that the issue of the effect of edu-

cational attitude on overt behavior in classrooms is not yet

satisfactorily resolved.


Education and Open-mindedness


Rokeach developed a theory to account for the way people

believe what they do (Rokeach, 1960). Within this theory, per-

sons vary along a continuum which is characterized by varying

degrees of rigidity in the ability to objectively assess beliefs.

At one end of the continuum is the open-minded individual, one

who is able to put his beliefs to the hard test of reality.

The closed-minded, or dogmatic individual at the other end of

the continuum is less able to reality test his beliefs and








tenaciously holds on to them with the sanction of various

authorities to which he adheres. In an extensive review of

research literature dealing with studies of dogmatism and based

upon this theory, Vacchiano et al. (1969) found that the evidence

supports its tenets. It has generally been found that persons

do differ in the way they react to authority depending upon

whether they are high- or low-dogmatics. Research also supports

the theory that the more dogmatic a person is, the less tolerant,

flexible and secure he is.

Experienced teachers have been found to be less dogmatic

than pre-service teachers and college students in general

(Cappelluzzo & Brine, 1969), but age apparently has no relation-

ship with dogmatism (Cohen, 1971; Wesselman, 1969). Dogmatism

seems to be related also to certain types of beliefs which

teachers possess. Cohen (1971) found that pre-service teachers

who were high dogmatics tended to prefer students who were obe-

dient, accepting of authority, and striving for distant goals.

Cohen characterized this as tending toward a teacher-directed

classroom. Students who possess those qualities listed would

probably feel comfortable in learning situations structured

according to traditional educational beliefs.

Although it was found that pre-service teachers tend to

characterize the traits of ideal pupils according to how dog-

matic they themselves are, it does not seem to affect their

perceptions of some pupil needs. In an investigation of the

relationship between dogmatism and the accuracy of interpersonal







perception, Brumbaugh, Hoedt, and Beisel (1966) found no

significant relation between dogmatism and the ability to per-

ceive interpersonal needs accurately. Vacchiano et al. (1969) found

that evidence in the area of interpersonal relations was too un-

clear to make any accurate judgments.

Investigators have been able to consistently show a rela-

tionship between dogmatism and educational beliefs that can be

called traditional or child-centered. Lindgren and Singer (1963)

investigated these relationships in Brazil to see if there was

a cross-cultural trend. They found that child-centered attitudes

were positively correlated with attitudes characterized by inde-

pendence of judgment, a quality of open-minded individuals.

Strawitz (1975) examined how dogmatism in pre-service and in-

service teachers related to attitudes toward teaching science.

She found that for both groups there was a negative correlation

between the dogmatism score and the belief score. High belief

scores in this study are indicative of an attitude favorable

to learning by active participation.

Wesselman (1969) explored the relationship between dogmatism

and teacher expressed preference for certain educational objec-

tives. He used 53 sixth grade teachers. The Rokeach Dogmatism

Scale, form E, was used to measure dogmatism. An educational

attitude scale was devised by Wesselman to measure preference

for certain educational objectives and objectives for the cognitive,

affective and psychomotor domains. The attitude scale appears

to express the dichotomy between traditional and progressive








educational thought. He found no significant relationship

between dogmatism and certain demographic characteristics, i.e.,

age, sex, years of teaching experience, marital status, father's

occupation, and graduate major and/or minor area. Teachers in

upper socio-economic schools were found to be significantly

more dogmatic than those in lower socio-economic schools. There

was no significant difference in math achievement gain for

pupils of the teachers studied. There was also a significant

relationship between dogmatism and belief statements. Teachers

who were high-dogmatic agreed significantly more to statements

which express a traditionalist view than low-dogmatic teachers.

The stability of educational attitudes in persons of vary-

ing degrees of dogmatism seems to depend upon experiences en-

countered. Evidence exists that mode of presentation of infor-

mation affects the receptivity of high- and low- dogmatics to

new thought. After a course during which they were presented

to progressive ideas, high-dogmatic pre-service teachers evi-

denced greater progressive educational attitudes towards

children, discipline and teaching methods than did low-dogmatics

(Soh, 1974). Scarr (1970) found a similar phenomenon when in-

vestigating attitude change in students. The class sections

which noted the largest attitude change were characterized by

more lecture, tests and assigned readings than those with little

change. These studies suggest that students react to the

authority of the presenter when presented with new ideas. All

students seem to be influenced by the authority in this situation,

but the more dogmatic students seem to be influenced significantly







more. This suggests that inservice and pre-service education

might be best structured to fit the level of dogmatism of the

participants. High-dogmatics and low-dogmatics might best be

separated and given different type instruction for the best

results.

Vacchiano et al. (1966) studied the relationship between

attitude change and training, dogmatism, and authoritarianism.

He found that the subjects who experienced the least change in

attitude, as measured by the Minnesota Teacher Attitude Inven-

tory, were more authoritarian, but not more dogmatic.

Bogut (1975) investigated the relationship of attitude

change from exposure to structured and unstructured teaching

strategies and degree of dogmatism. He used pre-service ele-

mentary education majors and assigned them to high and low dog-

matic groups on the basis of scores obtained on Form E of the

Dogmatism Scale. He found that open-minded students became

more closed when they were exposed to the structured strategies,

but remained the same when exposed to unstructured strategies.

Closed-minded students became more open in both teaching situa-

tions. It is difficult to generalize from this study, however,

since his high and low groups contained only 5 subjects each

and were homogeneous in composition according to the criterion

variable. This situation is not likely to occur under ordinary

conditions.

It has been stated earlier in this chapter that charac-

teristics of effective teachers are judged according to the edu-

cational position of the person judging. A relationship between








teacher dogmatism and rating of teacher effectiveness has

also been found. Lewis (1968) explored this relationship using

secondary school teachers, principals, and supervisors. He

used 112 teachers of English, math, history, science, and other

subjects, most of whom taught grades 7-9. There was a signifi-

cant relationship between dogmatism and both principal and super-

visor rating of teacher effectiveness, although the relation-

ship was not high enough for prediction purposes. Teachers who

were more dogmatic tended to receive the highest ratings.

Very few studies have looked at the relationship between

teacher dogmatism and teacher classroom behavior. Those that have

have been focused on that segment of dogmatism concerned

generally with conservative political thought and ethnocentrism,

called authoritarianism. The concept of authoritatianism as

originally developed is more narrow than the concept of dogmatism.

Persons who are high dogmatics are not necessarily authoritarian

personalities,

One of the classic studies which pursued the relationship

between teacher authoritarianism and teacher classroom behavior

was made by McGee (1955). McGee used 184 classroom teachers

and administered the F-scale to them. He observed their behavior

in the classroom, using an observation system which he developed

to reflect the theory behind the F-scale. A significant corre-

lation was found between the F-scale and the behavior score.

The teachers in the study were also found to score lower than

the groups reported in the Authoritarian Personality.(Adorno,

Frenkel-Brunswik, Levinson, & Sanford, 1950).








Two other studies have also found relationships between

authoritarianism and classroom behavior. Del Popolo (1960),

using student teachers, found correlations of .47 and .41 be-

tween scores on the MTAI and scores on the observation schedule

used, and concluded that authoritarian students score lower on

both measures. Sandefur and Adams (1976) found that the more

authoritarian teachers were consistently rated higher by per-

sons they came in contact with in performance of their duties.

The trained observers in the study, students, supervisors,

and peers rated them higher. They also tended to use more in-

direct teaching activity as measured by the ID ratio in Inter-

action Analysis. These findings seem to conflict with the

findings of McGee.


Self-Concept and the Teacher


Much emphasis is placed in educational circles upon the

desirability of structuring learning activities so that the

child will develop a positive self-concept. Self-concept has

been an important concept in education for two decades now and

its popularity shows no sign at present of diminishing.

Self-conceptions include all one's cognitions,
conscious and unconscious, about one's physical
image; intellectual and moral abilities and
weaknesses; socio-economic position in society;
national, regional, ethnic, racial and religious
identity; the sexual, generational, occupational,
marital and parental roles that one plays in
society; and how well or poorly one plays such
roles.










In short, a person's total conception of himself is
an organization of all the distinctive cognitions,
negative as well as positive, and the affective
connotations of these cognitions that would be
displayed if a full answer to the question
"Who am I?" (Kuhn, 1960) were forthcoming .

In other words, the ultimate purpose of one's
total belief system, which includes one's values,
is to maintain and enhance what McDougall (1926)
has called the master of all sentiments, the
sentiment of self-regard. (Rokeach, 1973, pp.
215-216)

According to leading perceptual psychologists, the self-

concept is important to understand when we consider the behavior

of individuals. Self-concept establishes the limits of behavior

(Combs, 1958). What a person feels about himself influences

what he will perceive in a situation and the alternative courses

of action that are open to him for action.

Carl Rogers (1969) emphasized the self-concept in

describing the facilitator of learning as someone who is able

to be real or genuine someone who does not deny himself.

For this genuineness to occur, the self-concept must be

accurate and not distorted. Rogers also emphasized the ability

to accept and trust others as qualities essential in the

facilitator of learning. It seems reasonable to expect that

persons who work best with large numbers of people are indi-

viduals who are basically accepting of others. This type of in-

dividual is probably better able to look realistically at strengths








and weaknesses of those with whom he comes into contact

while maintaining a high level of tolerance.

The self-concept of teachers and its influence on certain

aspects of teaching have been researched by a number of in-

dividuals. Hatfield (1961) and Garvey (1970) looked at self-

concept as it affects success in student-teaching. Hatfield

measured students' perceived selvesand ideal selves, and found

higher correlations between the two for students judged success-

ful in student teaching. Garvey found that students who rated

high in student teaching also had higher self-concepts. These

two studies support the idea that high self-concept is important

to success in student teaching. All results have not been so

definite, however.

Lantz (1965) explored how the concepts of self and other

related to classroom emotional climate. He used the Interper-

sonal Check List to measure self-concept, other concept, and

ideal self. OScAR, Observational Schedule and Record Instru-

ment (Medley & Mitzel, 1958), was used to measure classroom

climate. He found that none of the variables alone was a

significant predictor of climate. In further analyzing the

data he did find "that individuals who perceived themselves as

more skeptical and distrustful than other elementary teachers

received higher Classroom Emotional Climate Scores" (p. 82').

His interpretation of this finding was that these people felt

more free to be themselves because of a lesser need to conform

or need to be liked.








Freeman and Davis (1975) examined the relationship of

self-concept and verbal teaching behaviors. OScAR5V, a

variation of OScAR, was used to measure the verbal behavior.

They, too, found the variableswere not generally useful as

predictors of behavior, although almost all the Self Report

Inventory scores were linearly related to OScAR.

Cummins (1960) looked at acceptance attitudes of teachers

and students, and teachers' role concepts. He reported a

significant relationship between the teacher's acceptance of

self and others and the student's acceptance of self and others.

He also reported a significant relationship between the teacher's

acceptance of self and others and perception of the role of

teacher. There was no documentation in the article, however,

or reports of strength of the relationships found.

Only one study used achievement gain of pupils as the

criterion variable. Aspy and Buhler (1975) investigated stu-

dent cognitive growth as a function of teacher self-concept.

They used six third grade teachers. The teachers were observed

and a checklist used to determine self-concept. The teachers

with high self-concept had higher total gains in their pupils

than did low self-concept teachers. When sub-tests of the

standardized tests were compared, spelling was the only area

in which no significant difference between teachers was found.

As with teacher educational beliefs and teacher dogmatism,

a relationship between teacher attitude of acceptance and teacher

effectiveness has also been found. Reed (1953) postulated








that more accepting teachers are more effective teachers. He

used over 100 teachers in three secondary schools. He found

that teachers who were more trusting and accepting of students

were rated by the students as more effective. Students did not

rate these teachers as any easier than other teachers. No re-

lationship was found between teachers' acceptance attitudes and

administrator rating of effectiveness.

Austad (1972) used students to explore the relationship

of teaching behavior to attitudes toward self, others and

authority. He used six behaviors as criterion measures:

Clarifying objectives, assessing readiness, motivating interest,

evaluating outcomes, indirect to direct teacher influence

ratio, and student talk to total talk ratio. He found no

correlation greater than that which could be expected by chance.


Can Attitudes Aid in the Study of Behavior?


There has been a wealth of research involving affective

presage variables. Some of the findings show definite patterns.

One such pattern is that teachers who are rated as being most

effective have more often than could be expected by chance

affective structures which are similar to those who are rating

them. Studies have also shown that certain attitudes can be

significant correlates of behavior. The evidence in this in-

stance is somewhat murky, however, and a number of results have

been inconsistent.

It is somewhat difficult to make conclusions from the

studies surveyed because of the divergence of instruments used







for measuring and differences in procedures used. What has

been reported, nonetheless, offers some evidence that investi-

gating teacher attitude and its effect on teaching processes

and products still looks promising as a source of understand-

ing what happens within the classroom walls.

Those concerned with the measure of attitude have ques-

tioned the reason why there are inconsistencies in findings

from study to study. Besides the different instruments and

approaches used, some theorize that the nature of attitudes

themselves lead to the discrepancies found. Thus, Burhans

(1971) feels these conflicts can be explained by "1) the use

of different attitude objects as stimuli to elicit the attitude

response than were used to elicit the behavioral response;

2) the existence of situational factors in the behavioral

situation that were quite unlike those in the testing situation;

or 3) both of the preceding factors" (p. 420). According to

him, attitude and behavior congruence is a complex factor.

Even when there is congruence in stimuli which elicit both

atittude and behavioral response, there may be factors in the

behavioral situation which mask the respondent's attitudes.

He explains that "under certain circumstances various social

and personal norms may be much more significant determinants

of behavior than are attitudes toward a particular attitude

object" (Burhans, 1971, p. 422). Kelman (1974) also expressed

the view that inconsistencies found are largely a result of the

failure to consider social constraints that govern situations.







At the beginning of the chapter, reference was made to

Dunkin and Biddle's (1974) statement that teacher classroom

behavior is probably an expression of teacher belief. Teachers

do behave differently in classrooms. Two studies which deal

with teacher attitudes toward specific children demonstrate

that teacher attitudes toward these children not only result

in specific observable behaviors toward these children, but also

that children can predict which class members will likely be

the recipients of these behaviors (Good & Brophy, 1972; Silber-

man, 1969). These studies were similarly designed and exe-

cuted, with unequivocal results in both instances.

Correlation of teacher behavior with teacher attitudes

toward educational practices, self and others, and dogmatism

has had mixed results in the few instances in which studies

were made. These are cognitive characteristics which teacher

educators either try to change through different training pro-

grams or feel influence teaching success. Therefore, effort

should be made to determine what kinds of relationship these

attributes have with overt behavior.












CHAPTER III

DESIGN OF THE STUDY


Sample Selection


The population for this study consisted of the teachers

in six sixth-grade centers in a large southeastern city. After

the schools for the study had been identified, the principals

of these schools obtained volunteers for participation in the

study. Each principal was asked to try to obtain 15 volunteers

so that the sample would comprise at least 75 volunteers. One

school produced 16 volunteers, another school 15 volunteers,

two schools 14 volunteers, one school 12, and one school 11

volunteers. There was a total of 82 volunteers in all.

With one exception, each sixth-grade center was organized

in a semi-departmentalized manner. One method of organization

was that of large time blocks in which each member of a team

of teachers was responsible for more than one subject area,

with students rotating among team members for appropriate

instruction. Two schools were organized in this manner, along

with most classes of a third. This latter school also con-

tained a few self-contained classrooms. The other three

schools were more departmentalized with shorter time blocks.

Students in these schools changed classes four or more times

daily.








All of the sixth-grades for public schools are contained

in sixth-grade centers in this city. The schools selected for

the study were considered representative of all the centers.


Instrumentation


Three self-report instruments were used. Two of the in-

struments, Opionionnaire on Attitudes Toward Education and

Acceptance of Self and Others, are attitudes measures. The

third instrument, titled Personal Belief Scale, is the Dogmatism

Scale, Form E developed by Rokeach (1960) to measure openness

of individuals. The instrument used to measure classroom

behavior was the Teacher Practices Observation Record, a sign

system.


Opinionnaire on Attitudes Toward Education

Opinnionaire on Attitudes Toward Education was the instru-

ment used to measure attitudes toward educational practices

(Lindgren and Patton, 1958). This 50-item scale was developed

by the Likert technique. It includes statements as to whether

it is desirable to understand student behavior, to use authori-

tarian methods of controlling student behavior, and to provide

subject-matter-centered as opposed to child-centered learning

opportunities. The original scale was scored 0 or 1 for each

item agree or disagree. For the present study this was

modified to a five-point scale to indicate statements which

indicate the range of both extremes, from "not true at all" to

"usually true." With this modification the scores may range

from 50 to 250, with the highest score indicating the most
positive attitudes toward education.








The original scale reported a split-half reliability

coefficient of .82. Validation was performed by demonstrating

that elementary school teachers scored higher than high school

teachers, and women scored higher than men. A split-half

reliability coefficient of .82 was again obtained using the

modified 5-point scale with the teachers in the present study.


Acceptance of Self and Others

The instrument chosen to measure attitudes toward self

and attitudes toward others was Acceptance of Self and Others

(Berger, 1952). Developed using the Likert technique, it has

36 items which indicate self-acceptance and 28 items which

indicate acceptance of others. It is scored on a scale of

from 1 "not at all true of myself" to 5 "true of myself."

Although it is administered as one scale it is scored as two

different scales. The 36 item subscale which measures accep-

tance of self can take a range of values from 36 to 180, while

the 28 item subscale which measures acceptance of others can

range from 28 to 140. For both scales the higher range indi-

cates greater acceptance of self and others.

Split-half reliabilities using the Spearman-Brown formula

was computed for five groups. These coefficients ranged from

.776 to .884 for the acceptance of others scale and were .894

for all but one of the groups on the acceptance of self scale.

(For the groups the coefficient was .746). Validity was deter-

mined by correlating essays of attitudes toward self and essays

of attitudes toward others of two different groups with







corresponding scale scores. The self-acceptance scale was also

validated on a group of stutterers and nonstutterers, and members

of a speech rehabilitation group. The acceptance of others

scale was further validated on a group of prisoners as compared

to college students.


Personal Beliefs Scale

The-Personal Beliefs Scale is the Dogmatism Scale, Form

E, which was developed by Rokeach (1960). The original scale

was developed from statements thought to be characteristic of

persons having closed belief systems. All items are designed

to measure the closed or open system according to the theoretical

position of Rokeach. Five versions of the scale have been

successively developed, with Form E, the version used in the

present study, containing the best 40 items. Items are scored

+1 to +3 for agreement, or -1 to -3 for disagreement. Agreement

is closed and disagreement is open for all statements. Thus,

the lower scores indicate a more open belief system than do

higher scores. A constant of 4 is added to each item score to

eliminate negative numbers in the final scoring.

The reliability for the scale was computed using the

Spearman-Brown formula for the split-half method. Reliability

coefficients were determined for seven groups with this method,

and ranged from .68 to .85. Two of the groups used were English,

while all the others were American college students. Validity

of the instruments was assessed by noting the extent to which








the items represented the various dimensions which constitute

an open and closed system according to Rokeach's theoretical

position.


Teacher Practices Observation Record

This instrument was developed in accordance with the edu-

cational philosophy of John Dewey (Brown, 1968). It consists

of 31 pairs of statements, the first of which represents a

non-example and the second an example of a teacher behavior

consistent with Dewey's philosophy. During an observation

period it is possible for each item to get as few as 0 or as

many as 3 check marks. It is scored by totaling the check marks

for each item and then reversing the scores for the odd-numbered

items. Scores may range from 186 to 0, with the high scores

indicating experimental practices. A score of 93 or below

indicates more nonexperimental practices than experimental.

The Teacher Practices Observation Record was developed for use

by untrained observers.

Reliability of the Teacher Practice Observation Record

was determined in a number of ways. Correlations between

total scores for the same observer viewing the same episode

were obtained and ranged from .27 to .57. Within observer

reliability coefficients computed on the viewings ranged from

.48 to .62. Internal consistency reliability, or item relia-

bility ranged from .85 to .93 over the five filmed episodes.

Validity of the instrument was largely determined by expert

judges.








Data Collection


The principals of each of the participating schools

were given the three self-report instruments for the teachers

to complete. Each set of instruments was accompanied by a

cover letter, containing general instructions, and an envelope.

General purposes of the investigation were explained, and

participants were ensured privacy of response. The teachers

were directed to complete the questionnaires and place them

in the envelopes when they were complete. On the face of the

envelope was a space in which they were directed to put their

total years teaching experience. They were to place their

room numbers on the upper right corner of the envelopes. The

principals of each school then had the teachers either return

their sealed envelopes to the central office or another central

location within the school.

Questionnaires to be distributed among the volunteers

were taken to all schools during the same week. The following

week after the questionnaires had been delivered, schools were

scheduled for observer visits. Schools were scheduled for

visits randomly. There was a two-week period between obser-

vations in the first and last set of schools during which no

observations were made. This was necessary because of a system-

wide testing program during the first of these weeks, and

spring vacation during the second. The observer tried to

observe all the participating teachers in a school before ob-

serving at the next scheduled school. This practice was




JO


successfully carried out in every case but one, where, because

of special programs which were scheduled, the observer was

unable to view one teacher until after all other observations

had been made.

The room number on the outside of the envelope was used

to determine which classes were to be observed in two schools.

The principal provided a list of classes of teachers who had

promised to participate in the four other schools. Teachers

were observed once. During this observation period, the be-

havior of the teacher was measured using the Teacher Practices

Observation Record, hereafter called the TPOR. Measurement

using this instrument consisted of five minutes of the observer

viewing the classroom interactions, and five minutes of check-

ing on the TPOR the behaviors which had occurred. This pro-

cedure was followed three times for each teacher, for a total

of 30 minutes observation time. The subject that was being

taught during the observation period was written on the top

of the TPOR for each teacher.

There were 66 questionnaires completed and returned with

room numbers. Six questionnaires were returned without room

numbers. There were 81 teachers who were observed, using the

TPOR. Fifteen of these observations were dropped from the

analysis, because of teachers who either turned in no question-

naires or questionnaires that were too incomplete to be included

in the analysis. All observations were made before any of the

questionnaires were scored, to prevent observer bias. Complete







data were obtained on a total of 66 teachers. These are the

only data used in the statistical analyses.


Treatment of the Data


All of the instruments were hand-scored by the investi-

gator. Although the instructions emphasized the importance of

the respondents answering all items, a number of questionnaires

contained omitted items. Twenty-eight of the 198 questionnaires

contained one omitted item, nine contained two items omitted,

and eleven contained three or more omitted items. In most

cases it appeared as if the omitted item had been overlooked.

There were a few cases, however, in which the respondent indi-

cated uncertainty on an omit. On questionnaires which contained

omitted items, the items which were marked were used to obtain

a total score. Then, the average item score was found, multi-

plied by the number of omitted items, and added to the original

score to give a final estimated score.

Scores were punched onto IBM cards. Each card had teachers

identified by school and subject-matter. The data were computer

analyzed using the SPSS (Nie, Hull, Jenkins, Steinbrenner, &

Brent, 1975) statistical programs. Multiple regression analysis

was used. The variables were entered/in a step-wise regression

procedure to test the hypotheses. The first five variables

were tested using the correlation matrix obtained as a by-

product from the equation. Hypothesis six was tested using the

results of the stepwise regression solution.

The condescriptive subprogram was then run to obtain

descriptive statistics for each school.












CHAPTER IV

PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS


The final data analysis was made with the data collected

on 66 sixth-grade teachers. These teachers completed the

questionnaires and were observed teaching by the investigator.

All statistics reported were obtained using the linear multiple

regression subprogram (Kim & Kohout, 1975') available with the

SPSS computer programs and the subprogram Condescriptive (Nie

et al., 1975, pp. 181-202) which provided the descriptive

statistics for the individual schools concerned.

All statistical tests were performed at the .05 level

of significance.


General Group Characteristics


Listed in Table 1 are the means and standard deviations

obtained on all the variables. Examination of the individual

data revealed that the teachers as a group are relatively ex-

perienced, with most of them having taught for four or more

years. The investigator is unsure whether this is characteristic

of all teachers in the sixth-grade centers, or just a charac-

teristic of the teachers who volunteered to participate.

The mean score for dogmatism for the group is 135.26.

This mean is lower than all of the means reported by Rokeach

























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(1960, p. 90) but approximately 3 points higher than the mean

obtained by Rabkin (1966) in his study of teacher dogmatism.

In a study in which various groups concerned with education

were examined, means of a low of 158.35, for cooperating

teachers, to a high of 170.87, for education professors, were

obtained (Brown & Vickery, 1967). This seems to indicate that

this group was comparatively low in dogmatism.

The mean score obtained for educational attitudes is

above the neutral point of 150, indicating a trend toward

attitudes which can be described as more child-centered than

teacher-centered. Mean item scores indicate the group generally

scored higher on the acceptance of self-scale than the acceptance

of others scale, although both scales had group means higher

than the neutral points of 108 for acceptance of self and 84 for

acceptance of others.

Correlation coefficients of all the independent variables

were obtained and are presented in Table 2. Tests of significance

indicate that dogmatism is significantly correlated with each

of the other independent variables except for experience. The

correlation with experience is also the only one which is posi-

tive, although it is low. The greatest correlations of the

Personal Belief Scale are with the Opinionnaire on Attitudes

Toward Education and Acceptance of Self. The correlations with

all the variables except experience indicate that the less

dogmatic individuals tended to score highest on these scales.

All of the variables except experience are significantly

correlated with at least one variable. Both the educational























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attitudes and the acceptance of self scales are significantly

correlated with the dogmatism and the acceptance of others

scale. The acceptance of others scale is significantly

correlated with every other variable except experience. These

correlations indicate that individuals with more child-centered

attitudes tend to be less dogmatic and have a more favorable

attitude toward others. Persons with the most favorable atti-

tudes toward others tend to have the most favorable attitudes

toward self, tend to be more child-centered in attitudes toward

education, and less dogmatic. There are no significant trends

noted for experience.


School Characteristics


Means were also obtained for each variable by school.

School C had the lowest mean experience, but had one of the

highest dogmatism mean scores and lowest Teacher Practices

Observation Record (TPOR) mean scores. Of the schools with

the highest mean experience, one, School D, had the highest

dogmatism mean score and the lowest TPOR mean score, and the

other, School F, had the lowest dogmatism mean score and one

of the highest TPOR mean scores. This latter school also had

the highest mean score for acceptance of self and one of the

highest mean scores for educational attitudes. It would be

difficult to put any reasonable interpretation on this,

however, as the number of teachers who participated from

School F was so small.




















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School A had the highest mean score for educational

attitudes, the highest mean score for acceptance of others,

and one of the lowest dogmatism mean scores. Only two of the

six schools scored above the mean for all teachers on the

acceptance of others scale, while only two of the six schools

scored below the mean for all teachers on the acceptance of

self scale. This is consistent with the trend noted that the

teachers generally had a tendency to score higher on the

acceptance of self scale than the acceptance of others scale.

The mean scores on the TPOR for all schools was higher than the

mean score for all teachers, except for School C, which had the

lowest mean experience and one of the highest mean dogmatism

scores, and School D, which had the highest mean experience and

the highest dogmatism mean.


Test of the Hypotheses


To test the first five hypotheses, the five independent

variables were correlated with the dependent variable and tested

for significance. The results are given in Table 2.

The correlation coefficient obtained for the first

hypothesis is not significant. There is insufficient evidence

to reject the null hypothesis and to state that years teaching

experience is related to the teaching behaviors measured by

the TPOR.

The correlation coefficient obtained in the test of

hypothesis number two also did not reach significance. There








is no reason to reject null hypothesis two. Teacher open-

mindedness is not significantly related to child-centered

teaching behaviors.

A significant correlation coefficient was obtained in

the test of hypothesis number three. The null hypothesis is

rejected. Teacher attitudes toward educational practices is

related to teaching behavior as measured by the TPOR.

Null hypothesis four was not rejected. There is in-

sufficient evidence that attitudes of acceptance toward self

is related to teaching behaviors considered child-centered.

Null hypothesis five was also not rejected. There is

no evidence that attitudes of acceptance of others is related

to child-centered teaching behaviors.

Null hypothesis six was tested by entering the variables

into a stepwise linear multiple regression equation. The

results of this analysis are reported in Table 4. The overall

F-ratio is not significant, and the null hypothesis is not re-

jected. Attitudes toward education contribute significantly to

explanation of behavior scores and is entered on the first step.

None of the variables entered thereafter add significantly to

the equation. The amount of variation accounted for by edu-

cational attitudes is small, however, at only 8%.

The summary table in Table 4 gives the results of the

regression analysis. The variable Acceptance of Self was not

entered into the equation because the tolerance level was in-

sufficient for its entry. All of the variables together account

for about 13% of the variation in teaching behaviors measured.






















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Further Data Analysis


As the investigator was observing classes, it was noted

that the teachers of mathematics seemed to be scoring in a

similar way no matter how effective their lessons seemed to be

to the observer. It seemed reasonable, upon reflection, that

effective mathematicslessons on this level of basic skill

learning would involve many behaviors which lose points on the

TPOR. These are behaviors such as organizing lessons around

specific teacher initiated questions, asking questions that can

only be answered if the lesson has been studied, and accepting

only one answer as being correct, for example. For this reason,

the investigator decided that it would be appropriate to remove

the data for all of the teachers who were teaching mathematics

when they were observed and subject the remaining data to the

same statistical treatment used to test the hypotheses.

There were 15 classes that were observed while the

teachers were teaching mathematics. The removal of the data

for these teachers left a total of 51 teachers to be used in

the analysis. The means obtained on the variables in this new

analysis are presented in Table 5. The means for three of the

variables are essentially the same as those obtained for the

total group, while the means of the other three variables are

about two to three points higher.

Table 6 contains the correlation matrix for the independent

variables. Experience is not significantly correlated with any

of the variables, as in Table 2, but this time the Opinionnaire




















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on Attitudes Toward Education is also not significantly corre-

lated with any variable except the Personal Belief Scale. The

Acceptance of Self Scale again has significant correlations

with the Personal Belief Scale and Acceptance of Others Scale.

The independent variables were entered in a stepwise linear

regression with the TPOR. The correlations obtained were again

tested for significance. Experience was not significantly re-

lated to child-centered teaching behaviors without the mathe-

matic classes.

The Personal Belief Scale, however, did produce a

significant correlation. When the teachers of mathematics are

removed, dogmatism is significantly related to the TPOR, with

teachers who are less dogmatic receiving significantly higher

TPOR scores than teachers who are more dogmatic. Table 8

shows that the mathematicsteachers had the lowest TPOR mean

and the lowest mean on the Personal Belief Scale for any group

except the teachers of School F. An examination of Tables 2,

6, and 9 indicates that the mathematicsteachers have the only

instance of a positive correlation of the TPOR with the Personal

Belief Scale, even though it is small enough to not be meaning-

ful. When this group is removed from the analysis, this positive

influence is removed.

The correlation for the Opinionnaire on Attitudes Toward

Education reached significance again. Thus, when the group of

mathematicsteachers are removed there is a significant positive

relationship between attitudes toward education and child-

centered teaching behaviors.



























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When the variables were entered in a linear stepwise

multiple regression equation, a significant overall F-ratio was

obtained. The results of this analysis are reported in Table 7.

When the mathematics teachers are removed from the analysis,

better prediction does occur. This is due, however, to the

large F-ratio obtained with the first variable entered, Opinion-

naire on Attitudes Toward Education, which accounts for 18% of

the explained variance. This is more than twice the variance

which could be explained by the same variable when the mathe-

matics teachers were included in the analysis. None of the

other variables add significantly to the explained variance.


Summary


Null hypothesis one was not rejected. Experience was

not significantly related to the TPOR.

Null hypothesis two was not rejected. Dogmatism was not

significantly related to the TPOR.

Null hypothesis three was rejected. Attitudes toward

educational practices were significantly related to the TPOR.

Null hypothesis four was not rejected. Attitude toward

self were not significantly related to the TPOR.

Null hypothesis five was not rejected. Attitudes toward

others were not significantly related to the TPOR.

Null hypothesis six was not rejected. Experience, atti-

tudes toward education, dogmatism, and attitudes toward self and








others were not significantly related to the TPOR.

A reexamination of the data in which the mathematics

teachers were excluded from the analysis resulted in three

tests proving significant. Attitudes toward educational practices

wereagain found to be significantly related to child-centered

teaching behaviors as measured by the TPOR. In the new analysis,

dogmatism was also found to be significantly related to the TPOR.

Experience, dogmatism and attitudes toward educational practices,

self and others were also significantly related to the TPOR.













CHAPTER V

SUMMARY, DISCUSSION, AND IMPLICATIONS


Summary


This study was undertaken to explore what effect the

belief systems and structures of teachers have on certain

classroom processes. The belief structure examined was dog-

matism, and the belief systems examined were attitudes toward

educational practices, self and others. It tried to answer

the following questions:

1. What relationship exists between teaching experience

and child-centered teaching practices?

2. What relationship exists between dogmatism and

child-centered teaching practices?

3. What relationship exists between educational atti-

tudes and child-centered teaching practices?

4. What relationship exists between attitudes of self-

acceptance and child-centered teaching practices?

5. What relationship exists between attitudes of accep-

tance of others and child-centered teaching practices?

6. What relationship exists between teacher belief

systems and structures, teacher years of experience, and

child-centered teaching behaviors?








To answer these questions, data from 66 sixth-grade

classroom teachers were collected. The data included teacher

responses to three self-report instruments which measured dog-

matism, attitudes toward educational practices that could be

considered child-centered or teacher/authority-centered, and

attitudes of acceptance of self and other persons. Teachers

also indicated how many years of teaching experience they had.

Each teacher was observed teaching a regularly scheduled class

for a period of 30 minutes. During this time datawere obtained

on the TPOR to indicate to what degree child-centered teaching

practices were used during the observational period.

Six hypotheses were established to be tested. The first

five hypotheses were established to test the relationship

between each of the four belief variables and also years of teach-

ing experience, and child-centered teaching practices. The

sixth hypothesis was established to test how all the belief

variables together with years teaching experience relate to

child-centered teaching behaviors. The data were subjected to

regression analysis and tested at the alpha = .05 level of

significance.
1. Hypothesis one was not rejected. There was no

significant relationship found to exist between years of

teaching experience and child-centered teaching practices.

2. Hypothesis two was not rejected. There was no

significant relationship found to exist between teacher dog-

matism and child-centered teaching practices.

3. Hypothesis three was rejected. The data indicate

that attitude toward educational practices is significantly
related to child-centered teaching practices.







4. Hypothesis four was not rejected. There was no

significant relationship found to exist between teacher attitude

of acceptance of self and child-centered teaching practices.

5. Hypothesis five was not rejected. There was no

significant relationship found to exist between teacher attitude

of acceptance of others and child-centered teaching practices.

6. Hypothesis six was not rejected. There was no

significant relationship found to exist between teacher

attitude toward educational practices, self, others, teacher

dogmatism, and teacher years of experience and child-centered

teaching practices.


Discussion


The data were reexamined using the same procedure but

excluding all data from teachers who were teaching mathematics

during the observation period. In this reanalysis a signifi-

cant relationship was again found between educational attitudes

and child-centered teaching practices. However, a significant

relationship was also found between dogmatism and child-

centered teaching practices, and all the variables and child-

centered teaching practices. These last two relationships were

not found when all the teachers were used in the analysis.

This research undertaking was guided by the belief that

underlying attitudes that persons hold become expressed in overt

behaviors under situations where this behavior is desirable.

Since it has been demonstrated that teachers are sometimes

rated on the effectiveness of their teaching according to how

certain attitudes or belief structures they hold compare with








those of the rater, it was felt that teacher attitudes should

be related to specific behavioral expressions of these atti-

tudes.

The attitudes are important in the educational setting

because of the ways they are expressed in the teaching process.

These behaviors may be conscious acts on the part of the teacher,

such as the use of certain materials in the instructional

process, the use of certain grouping arrangements in the in-

structional process, or the emphasis of some parts of the

curriculum over others. These behaviors may also be unconscious

acts on the part of the teacher. Whether conscious or uncon-

scious, it is in the classroom that these attitudes, as they

are expressed in behavioral acts, affect the education of

children.

Research undertakings in the past have shown some connec-

tion between certain teacher beliefs and teacher behavior, but

these studies have sometimes shown conflicting results. When

we look at the results of this study, it appears as if certain

teacher attitudes, specifically teacher attitudes toward edu-

cational practices that can be typified as being either tradi-

tional-authority oriented, or progressive child-oriented, can

be definitely related to certain kinds of teaching behaviors

that can be described as child-oriented. This was found to

be also true of teacher dogmatism. Dogmatism, or open-minded-

ness, of the group of teachers studied appeared generally lower

than many other teacher and educator groups studied by others.








Nonetheless, there was still a relationship between dogmatism

and teacher behavior that was made evident when the mathematic

teachers were excluded from the data analysis. Teachers who

were more open-minded tended to have more favorable attitudes

toward educational practices and to also display more child-

centered teaching behaviors in their classes.

It is interesting that the relationship between teacher

dogmatism and child-centered teaching occurs only with the

exclusion of the mathematic teachers. There seems to be a

discernible difference in teaching methods that occurs when

teachers on this level teach mathematics as opposed to when

they teach science, social studies, or reading. This difference

occurs, perhaps because of the nature of the subject matter

and the level of the learners.

Facility in mathematic concepts can be viewed as a highly

structured sequential series of learning tasks. The mathematic

concepts encountered through grade six are basic skills that

must be incorporated on an almost automatic level if students

are to progress successfully to higher levels in mathematics.

On this basic level there is probably as much, if not more,

practice in skills to the point of overlearning, as there is

exploration with applications of these skills. Addition, sub-

traction and multiplication facts must be committed to memory

so that there is instant recall when a particular fact is

needed in a given operation. This allows the student to be

really free to concentrate on the intricacies of various

problems in later development. With these thoughts in mind








and the reality of the constraints encountered in public schools,

such as time and class size, it does not seem unreasonable for

these teachers not to have children pursuing individual interests

during the mathematicslesson. It seems reasonable to have

teachers asking children specific questions that are designed

to elicit the instantaneous kind of response desired in the

mastery of mathematicsskills.

Experience in teaching was the only variable in the study

that was consistent in showing no relationship to any other

variable. This finding is consistent with other studies which

have shown no relationship between experience and teacher

attitude toward educational practices and teacher dogmatism.

Results from the analysis of teacher attitude of accep-

tance of self and acceptance of others is also consistent with

most of the research findings reviewed. Self-concept has been

related to student-teaching success, but has not been related

to specific teacher behaviors in a consistent manner.


Implications


The actions of teachers depend upon many factors.

Teachers must consider what to teach, methods of teaching,

how to integrate and organize the myriad of activities of the

day, when to respond to the students as a group or as individuals,

ad infinitum. The fact that it may be demonstrated that some of

the behaviors that occur during the classroom interactions are

related to certain attitudes and ways of believing is signifi-

cant. The knowledge of what kinds of attitudes occur with







certain behaviors can be considered an important step in the

search for answers in the study of teaching. It can help

answer the question of why some teachers are more likely than

others to use a particular technique or approach.

More systematic research of this nature would prove help-

ful in answering the preceding question. Observational systems

should be used in classroom settings. The systems chosen for

use should be theoretically linked to the problem under in-

vestigation. Cognitive properties of teachers should be

studied in relation to these systems. This should be done by

having teachers respond to instruments designed to measure

these properties, and also by having investigators use in-

ference systems to measure them.

It is important for future research of this kind that

the researcher be concerned with how the content of the lesson

may affect the behavior of the teacher. Often researchers

fail to mention what teachers were engaged in teaching. As

the present study appears to demonstrate, this can make the

critical difference in determining relationships. Not only is

the subject area important to consider when planning this type

research, but also the intent of the lesson. Teachers conduct-

ing drill and review lessons apparently will behave differently

than teachers encouraging self-expression. Research efforts

should either include a large sampling of teaching behaviors

from various occasions, or limit the research to the same kind of





66


lesson content. Because of the difficulty in synchronizing

the content of the lessons of an appreciable number of teachers,

the former approach may prove more viable than the latter.










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Lewis, F. G. The relationship of authoritarianism as revealed by
the Rokeach dogmatism scale and perceived effectiveness of
teaching as indicated by teachers' self-rating, principals'
ratings and supervisor's ratings. (Doctoral Dissertation,
North Texas State, 1968). Dissertation Abstracts, 1968,
29 1682A. (University Microfilms No. 68-16,643)

Lindgren, H. C. & Patton, G Attitudes of high school and other
teachers toward children and current educational methodology.
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Lindgren, H. C. & Singer, E. P. Correlates of Brazilian and
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Marjoribanks, K. & Josefowitz, N. Kerlinger's theory of social
attitudes: An analysis. Psychological Reports, 1975, 37,
819-823.








McGee, H. M. Measurement of authoritarianism and its relation
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72



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APPENDIX












Dear Teacher:


The study in which you have been asked to participate is
for my dissertation, part of my doctoral program at the
University of Florida. Your cooperation in completing
the three questionnaires will be appreciated. Most per-
sons have been able to complete all three within an
hour.

Your answers to the questionnaires will be reported in the
dissertation only as a summary of the replies of all the
teachers taking part in the study. Since your name is not
to be given, complete privacy for your answers is assured.

When you have completed the forms, please place them in the
envelope provided, seal it, and place your room number in
the right hand corner.

IMPORTANT: Although sometimes a statement may be difficult
for you to answer according to the scale provided, it is
necessary for you to ANSWER EVERY ITEM as best you can for
proper data interpretation.

Thank you for your cooperation.

Sincerely,



BERNADINE J. BOLDEN









PERSONAL BELIEF SCALE


The following is a study of what some teachers feel
about a number of important social and personal questions.
The best answer to teach statement below is your personal
opinion. We have tried to cover many different and opposing
points of view; you may find yourself agreeing strongly
with some of the statements, disagreeing just as strongly with
others, and perhaps uncertain about others, whether you agree
or disagree with any statement, you can be sure that many
people feel the same as you do.

Mark each statement in the left margin according to
how much you agree or disagree with it. Please mark every
one. Write +1, +2, +3, or -1, -2, -3, depending on how you
feel in each case.

+1: I AGREE A LITTLE -1: I DISAGREE A LITTLE

+2: I AGREE ON THE WHOLE -2: I DISAGREE ON THE WHOLE

+3: I AGREE VERY MUCH -3: I DISAGREE VERY MUCH


1. The United States and Russia have just about nothing
in common.

2. The highest form of government is a democracy and the
highest form of democracy is a government run by those
who are most intelligent.

3. Even though freedom of speech for all groups is a
worthwhile goal, it is unfortunately necessary to
restrict the freedom of certain political groups.

4. It is only natural that a person would have a much
better acquaintance with ideas he believes in than
with ideas he opposes.

5. Man on his own is a helpless and miserable creature.

6. Fundamentally, the world we live in is a pretty lone-
some place.

7. Most people just don't give a "damn" for others.

8. I'd like it if I could find someone who would tell me
how to solve my personal problems.








9. It is only natural for a person to be rather fearful
of the future.

10. There is so much to be done and so little time to do
it in.

11. Once I get wound up in a heated discussion I just can't
stop.

12. In a discussion I often find it necessary to repeat
myself several times to make sure I am being under-
stood.

13. In a heated discussion I generally become so absorbed
in what I am going to say that I forget to listen to
what the others are saying.

14. It is better to be a dead hero than to be a live
coward.

15. While I don't like to admit this even to myself, my
secret ambition is to become a great person, like
Einstein, or Beethoven, or Shakespeare.

16. The main thing in life is for a person to want to do
something important.

17. If given the chance I would do something of great
benefit to the world.

18. In the history of mankind there have probably been
just a handful of really great thinkers.

19. There are a number of people I have come to hate be-
cause of the things they stand for.

20. A man who does not believe in some great cause has
not really lived.

21. It is only when a person devotes himself to an ideal
or cause that life becomes meaningful.

22. Of all the different philosophies which exist in this
world there is probably only one which is correct.

23. A person who gets enthusiastic about too many causes
is likely to be a pretty "wishy-washy" sort of per-
son.

24. To compromise with our political opponents is dangerous
because it usually leads to the betrayal of our own
side.








25. When it comes to differences of opinion in religion
we must be careful not to compromise with those who
believe differently from the way we do.

26. In times like these, a person must be pretty selfish
if he considers primarily his own happiness.

27. The worst crime a person could commit is to attack
publicly the people who believe in the same thing he
does.

28. In times like these it is often necessary to be more
on guard against ideas put out by people or groups
in one's own camp than by those in the opposing camp.

29. A group which tolerates too much differences of
opinion among its own members cannot exist for long.

30. There are two kinds of people in this world: those
who are for the truth.and those who are against the
truth.

31. My blood boils whenever a person stubbornly refuses
to admit he's wrong.

32. A person who thinks primarily of his own happiness is
beneath contempt.

33. Most of the ideas which get printed nowadays aren't
worth the paper they are printed on.

34. In this complicated world of ours the only way we can
know what's going on is to rely on leaders or experts
who can be trusted.

35. It is often desirable to reserve judgment about what's
going on until one has had a chance to hear the
opinions of those one respects.

36. In the long run the best way to live is to pick friends
and associates whose tastes and beliefs are the same
as one's own.

37. The present is all too often full of unhappiness. It
is only the future that counts.

38. If a man is to accomplish his mission in life it is
sometimes necessary to gamble "all or nothing at all."





78


39. Unfortunately, a good many people with whom I have
discussed important social and moral problems don't
really understand what's going on.

40. Most people just don't know what's good for them.










OPINIONNAIRE ON ATTITUDES TOWARD EDUCATION


Below are a number of statements about which teachers may have
different opinions.

You are to respond to each question by circling the appropriate
number in the column to the right, according to the following
scheme:


1
Not at all
true


2
Seldom
true


3
Occasionally
true


4
Frequently
true


Choose the answer you think best for each item. Please
all questions.

1. Boys and girls who are delinquent are, when all
is said and done, basically good.
2. If boys and girls are to do an adequate job of
learning in school, their needs for love must be
met.
3. It is appropriate for teachers to require an
additional assignment from a pupil who misbehaves
in class.
4. How a student feels about what he learns is as
important as what he learns.
5. The way to handle a pupil who tells lies is to
threaten to punish him.
6. The high school pupil who is not interested in
having dates should be commended.
7. Education has failed unless it has helped boys
and girls to understand and express their own
feelings and experiences.
8. You should tell a child who masturbates that it
leads to ruined health.
9. The classroom experiences that are most helpful
to boys and girls are the ones wherein they can
express themselves creatively.
10. All children should be encouraged to aim at the
highest academic goals.
11. The child who bites his nails should be shamed.
12. Children outgrow early emotional experiences as
they do shoes and clothes.


answer


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13. What boys and girls become as adults is more
closely related to the experiencesthey have
with other than it is to mastery of specific
subject matter.
14. It is more important for students to learn to
work together cooperatively than it is for
them to learn how to compete.
15. Some pupils are just naturally stubborn.
16. Students should be permitted to disagree with
the teacher.
17. It is better for a girl to be shy and timid
than "boy crazy."
18. Boys and girls should learn that most of life's
problems have several possible solutions and
not just one "correct" one.
19. The first signs of delinquency in a pupil should
be received by a tightening of discipline and more
restrictions.
20. The newer methods of education tend to standardize
children's behavior.
21. Most boys and girls who present extreme cases of
"problem behavior" are doing the best they can to
get along with other people.
22. An activity to be educationally valuable should
train reasoning and memory in general.
23. It is more important for a child to have faith in
himself than it is for him to be obedient.
24. Being grouped according to ability damages the
self-confidence of many boys and girls.
25. Criticism of children by teachers is more effec-
tive for obtaining desired behavior than criti-
cism of children by others their own age.
26. All questions a student asks should be recognized
and considered.
27. The pupil who isn't making good grades .should be
told to study harder.
28. Children should not be permitted to talk without
permission of the teacher,
29. A student who will not do his homework should be
helped in every way possible.
30. Boys and girls in elementary school should be
promoted regardless of whether they have com-
pleted the work for their grade or not.
31. The teacher should lower grades for misconduct
in class.


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32. A teacher should permit a great deal of latitude
in the way he permits boys and girls to address
him.
33. It is a good idea to tell a pupil that he can
succeed in any type of work if he works hard.
34. Students will tolerate errors and even occasional
injustices in a teacher who, they feel, likes and
understands them.
35. A teacher should accept the deficiencies and short-
comings of a student, as well as his good points.
36. Each time a pupil lies his punishment should be
increased.
37. Boys and girls can learn proper discipline only
if they are given sufficient freedom.
38. If a teacher keeps school conditions exactly the
same and gives all pupils an equal opportunity
to respond, he has done all he can do.
39. If a pupil constantly performs for attention, the
teacher should see to it that he gets no attention.
40. Dishonesty is a more serious personality charac-
teristic than unsocialness.
41. A great deal of misbehavior problem behavior
results from fear and guilt.
42. The teacher's first responsibility in all cases of
misconduct is to locate and punish the offender.
43. It is better for boys and girls to talk about the
things that bother them than to try to forget them.
44. Most pupils need some of the natural meanness
taken out of them.
45. It is more important for boys and girls to be
liked and accepted by their friends than it is
for them to get along with their teachers.
46. Teachers should answer children's questions about
sex frankly and, if possible, without show of
embarrassment.
47. When a pupil obeys all the rules of the school,
one can be sure he is developing moral character.
48. When a teacher is told something in confidence by
a child, he should keep the matter just as confi-
dential as though it were entrusted to him by an
adult.


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82


49. Since a person memorizes best during childhood,
that period should be regarded as a time to
store up facts for later use.
50. Students should play a very active part in for-
mulating rules for the classroom and the school.


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83



ACCEPTANCE OF SELF AND OTHERS


This is a study of some of your attitudes. Of course, there is
no right answer for any statement. The best answer is what you
feel is true of yourself.

You are to respond to each question by circling the appropriate
number in the column to the right, according to the following
scheme:


1
Not at all
true of
myself


2
Slightly
true of
myself


3
About halfway
true of
myself


4
Mostly true
of myself


Remember, the best answer is the one which applies to you.


1. I'd like it if I could find someone who would tell
me how to solve my personal problems.
2. I don't question my work as a person, even if I
think others do.
3. I can be comfortable with all varieties of people--
from the highest to the lowest.
4. I can become so absorbed in the work I'm doing
that it doesn't bother me not to have any intimate
friends.
5. I don't approve of spending time and energy in
doing things for other people. I believe in look-
ing to my family and myself more and letting others
shift for themselves.
6. When people say nice things about me, I find it
difficult to believe they really mean it, I think
maybe they're kidding me or just aren't being sin-
cere.
7. If there is any criticism or anyone says anything
about me, I just can't take it.
8. I don't say much at social affairs because I'm
afraid that people will criticize me or laugh if
I say the wrong thing.
9. I realize that I'm not living very effectively but
I just don't believe that I've got it in me to use
my energies in better ways.
10. I don't approve of doing favors for people. If
you're too agreeable they'll take advantage of you.
11. I look on most of the feelings and impulses I have
toward people as being quite natural and acceptable.


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12. Something inside me just won't let met be satisfied
with any job I've done--if it turns out well, I get
a very smug feeling that this is beneath me, I
shouldn't be satisfied with this, this isn't a fair
test.
13. I feel different from other people. I'd like to
have the feeling of security that comes from know-
ing I'm not too different from others.
14. I'm afraid for people that I like to find out what
I'm really like, for fear they'd be disappointed in
me.
15. I am frequently bothered by feelings of inferiority.
16. Because of other people, I haven't been able to
achieve as much as I should have.
17. I am quite shy and self-conscious in social
situations.
18. In order to get along and be liked, I tend to be
what people expect me to be rather than anything
else.
19. I usually ignore the feelings of others when I'm
accomplishing some important end.
20. I seem to have a real inner strength in handling
things. I'm on a pretty solid foundation and it
makes me pretty sure of myself.
21. There's no sense in compromising. When people have
values I don't like, I just don't care to have much
to do with them.
22. The person you marry may not be perfect, but I be-
lieve in trying to get him (or her) to change along
desirable lines.
23. I see no objection to stepping other people's toes
a little if it'll help me get what I want in life.
24. I feel self-conscious when I'm with people who have
a superior position to mine in business or at
school.
25. I try to get people to do what I want them to do,
in one way or another.
26. I often tell people what they should do when they're
having trouble in making a decision.
27. I enjoy myself when I'm alone, away from other
people.


28.
29.


I think I'm neurotic or something.
I feel neither above nor below the people I meet.


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30. Sometimes people misunderstand me when I try to keep 1
them from making mistakes that could have an important
effect on their lives.
31. Very often I don't try to be friendly with people 1
because I think they won't like me.
32. There are very few times when I compliment people 1
for their talents or jobs they've done.
33. I enjoy doing little favors for people even if I 1
don't know them well.
34. I feel that I'm a person of worth, on an equal 1
plane with others.
35. I can't afford feeling guilty about the way I feel 1
toward certain people in my life.
36. I prefer to be alone rather than have close friend- 1
ships with any of the people around me.
37. I'm not afraid of meeting new people. I feel that 1
I'm a worthwhile person and there's no reason why
they should dislike me.


38.
39.


I sort of only half-believe in myself.
I seldom worry about other people. I'm really
pretty self-centered.


40. I'm very sensitive. People say things and I have
a tendency to think they're criticizing me or in-
sulting me in some way and later when I think of it,
they may not have meant anything like that at all.
41. I think I have certain abilities and other people
say so too, but I wonder if I'm not giving them an
importance way beyond what they deserve.
42. I feel confident that I can do something about the
problems that may arise in the future.
43. I believe that people should get credit for their
accomplishments but I very seldom come across wrok
that deserves praise.
44. When someone asks for advice about some personal
problems, I'm most likely td say, "It's up to you
to decide," rather than tell him what he should do.
45. I guess I put on a show to impress people. I know
I'm not the person I pretend to be.
46. I feel that for the most part one has to fight his
way through life. That means people who stand in
the way will be hurt.
47. I can't help feeling superior (or inferior) to most
of the people I know.


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48. I do not worry or condemn myself if other people
pass judgment against me.
49. I don't hesitate to urge people to live by the
same high set of values which I have for myself.
50. I can be friendly with people who do things which
I consider wrong.
51. I don't feel very normal, but I want to feel
normal.
52. When I'm in a group I usually don't say much for
fear of saying the wrong thing.


53.


I have a tendency to sidestep my problems.


54. If people are weak and inefficient I'm inclined to
take advantage of them. I believe you must be
strong to achieve your goals.
55. I'm easily irritated by people who argue with me.
56. When I'm dealing with younger persons, I expect
them to do what I tell them.
57. I don't see much point in doing things for others
unless thay can do you some good later on.
58. Even when people do think well of me, I feel sort
of guilty because I know I must be fooling them--
that if I were really to be myself, they wouldn't
think well of me.
59. I feel that I'm on the same level as other people
and that helps to establish good relations with them.
60. If someone I know is having difficulty in working
things out for himself, I like to tell him what to
do.
61. I feel that people are apt to react differently to
me than they would normally react to other people.
62. I live too much by other people's standards.
63. When I have to address a group, I get self-conscious
and have difficulty saying things well.
64. If I didn't always have such hard luck, I'd
accomplish much more than I have.


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TEACHER PRACTICES OBSERVATION RECORD


TOT I II II] TEACHER PRACTICES


1. T makes self center of attention.

2. T makes p center of attention.

3. T makes some thing itself center of p's
attention.

4. T makes doing something center of p's
attention

5. T has p spend time waiting, watching,
listening.

6. T has p participate actively.

7. T remains aloof or detached from p's
activities.

8. T joins or participates in p's activities.

9. T discourages or prevents p from express-
__ing self freely.

10. T encourages p to express self freely.





11. T organizes learning around Q posed by T.

12. T organizes learning around p's own
problem or Q.

13. T prevents situation which causes p doubt
or perplexity.

14. T involves p in uncertain or incomplete
situation.

15. T steers p away from "hard" Q or problem.

16. T leads p to Q or problem which "stumps"
him.








TOT I II III TEACHER PRACTICES


17. T emphasizes gentle or pretty aspects of
topic.

18. T emphasizes distressing or ugly aspects of
topic.

19. T asks Q what p can answer only if he
studied the lesson.

20. T asks Q that is not readily answerable by
study of lesson.




21. T accepts only one answer as being correct.

22. T asks p to suggest additional or alter-
native answers.

23. T expects p to come up with answers T has
in mind.

24. T asks p to judge comparative value of
answers or suggestions.

25. T expects p to "know" rather than to
guess answer to Q.

26. T encourages p to guess or hypothesize
about the unknown or untested.

27. T accepts only answers or suggestions
closely related to topic.

28. T entertains even "wild" or far-fetched
suggestion of p.

29. T lets p "get by" with opinionated or
stereotyped answer.

30. T asks p to support answer or opinion with
evidence.




31. T collects and analyzes subject matter
for p.

32. T has p make his own collection and
analysis of subject matter.








TOT I II II TEACHER PRACTICES


33. T provides p with detailed facts and
information.

34. T has p find detailed facts and informa-
tion on his own.

35. T relies heavily on textbook as source
of information.

36. T makes a wide range of informative
material available.

37. T accepts and uses inaccurate information.

38. T helps p discover and correct factual
errors and inaccuracies.

39. T permits formation of misconceptions
and overgeneralizations.

40. T questions misconceptions, faulty logic,
unwarranted conclusions.




41. T passes judgment on p's behavior or
work.

42. T withholds judgment on p's behavior or
work.

43. T stops p from going ahead with plan which
T knows will fail.

44. T encourages p to put his ideas to a test.

45. T immediately reinforces p's answer as
"right" or "wrong."

46. T has p decide when Q has been answered
satisfactorily.

47. T asks another p to give answer if one
p fails to answer quickly.

48. T asks p to evaluate his own work.

49. T provides answer to p who seems confused
or puzzled.

50. T gives p time to set and think, mull
things over.








TOT I II III TEACHER PRACTICES


51. T has all p working at same task at same
time.

52. T has different p working at different
tasks.

53. T holds all p responsible for certain
material to be learned.

54. T has p work independently on what con-
cerns p.

55. T evaluates work of all p by a set stan-
dard.

56. T evaluates work of different p by
different standards.




57. T motivates p with privileges, prizes,
grades.

58. T motivates p with intrinsic value of
ideas or activity.

59. T approaches subject matter in direct,
business like way.

60. T approaches subject matter in indirect,
informal way.

61. T imposes external disciplinary control
on p.

_62. T encourages self-discipline on part of p.













BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH


Bernadine Johnson Bolden was born on August 21, 1938,

in Newark, New Jersey. She attended public schools in Newark,

and graduated from West Side High School. Her undergraduate

degree was completed at Howard University in Washington, D. C.,

and led to a Bachelor of Science degree in Psychology.

After teaching school for a year, she married Thomas

Bolden, Jr. A daughter, Terri Anne, was born in June, 1963.

Another daughter, Tanya Anita, was born in December, 1966.

She lived in Indiana for a period of nine years. During

this time she taught elementary school first in South Bend

and later in Washington Township (Indianapolis). Upon moving

to Jacksonville, Florida, in 1972 she entered the master's pro-

gram at the newly opened University of North Florida and

received master's degree in Educational Administration and

Supervision. In September of 1973 she was employed as an

Instructor in the Department of Elementary and Secondary Edu-

cation at the University of North Florida. She began advanced

graduate studies in the College of Education, Curriculum and

Instruction, in June, 1974.