Selected correlates of divorce and postmarital attachment

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Selected correlates of divorce and postmarital attachment
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Thesis--University of Florida.
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Includes bibliographical references (leaves 102-106).
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by Sheila K. Vernick.
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SELECTED CORRELATES OF DIVORCE
AND POSTMARITAL ATTACHMENT








By

SHEILA K. VERNICK


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF THE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE
REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


1979



























Copyright

by

Sheila K. Vernick

1979
























To David and Robyn, my precious chi dren,

whose lives were affected by the ebb

and flow of the graduate school tide .












ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


Many people have contributed positively toward my graduate school

experience. Without the reassurance of my family and friends, it would

have been extraordinarily difficult to complete my Ph.D. A special

message of thanks is extended to the following:

Dr. Paul Fitzgerald, chairman of my doctoral committee and my first

supervisor at the University of Florida, who stood by me with warmth and

patience through the good times and the bad times; Paul embodies the

concept of "unconditional positive regard."

Dr. Robert Ziller, unofficial co-chairman of my committee, without

whom this dissertation could not have been written; he provided the

impetus for the topic, nurturance for the process, and inspiration for

good research.

Dr. Janet Larsen, committee member, who shared with me not only the

creation of this dissertation, but also numerous supervisory experiences

which were stimulating, enhancing, and enriching to my life.

Dr. E. L. Tolbert, committee member, from whom I learned that ignorance

and folly are not synonymous; he provided encouragement when it was most

needed.

Other professors in the department have had an inspiring effect on

my experience: Dr. Joe Wittmer, with his justice; Dr. Robert Stripling,

with his wisdom; Dr. David Lane and Dr. Ted Landsman, with their friend-

ships and kindness.







Special thanks go to those who assisted in the preparation of this

dissertation: Sue Rimmer, for her research skills; Janse Hogan, a typist

who is artistic; Barbara Rucker, for some consultation; and Marilyn Burt,

who often came through with some needed "materials."

There are others I wish to acknowledge who in some way contributed

toward my experience. Dr. Barry Guinagh has demonstrated support and

counseling expertise both as supervisor and out of the school setting.

Dr. Robert E. Jester is a decent and encouraging person, to whom I con-

stantly refer as "a real human being."

Appreciation goes to certain people for their friendship: Judy

Phelps-Reid and Pam Palmer, both special close friends; Trish Biggers,

Ed Reilly, Jim Hiett, and Dick Johnson, all enthusiastic and supportive

people. And to the Counselor Education Department headquarters in

Room 100, a special thanks is expressed to the corps of secretaries

(especially Cindy) and faculty who made it all possible.












TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . . iv

ABSTRACT . . . viii

CHAPTER

I INTRODUCTION . . 1

Rationale . . 3
Purpose of the Study . . 6
Definition of Terms . . 7

II A REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE . 9

Attachment . . 9
Marital Disruption . . 14
Self-Spouse Relationships . 15
Cognitive Factors . . 16
Demographic Factors . . 19
Economic . . 20
Education . . 22
Age at Marriage and Homogamy . 25
Additional Demographic Factors . 27

III METHODOLOGY . . 29

Hypotheses . . 29
Subjects . . 31
Instrumentation . . 31
Marital Research Questionnaire .. 32
Man-Woman Images . 33
Depression Adjective Check List (DACL), Form A 35
Index of Attachment . .. 37
The Postmarital Relationship Inventory (PRI) 37
Procedures . . 38
Collection of Data . 38
Analysis of Data . . 39
Limitations of the Study . 40

IV THE FINDINGS . . 42

Description of the Method . 43
Findings Related to Instruments . 44
Index of Attachment and PRI . 44
Man-Woman Images . .. 46
The Depression Adjective Check List (DACL) 46









Description of the Sample . .
Statistical Findings Related to Hypotheses
Additional Findings . .

V DISCUSSION, CONCLUSIONS, AND IMPLICATIONS .

Introduction . .
Summary of the Findings . .
Discussion. . .
Statistical Data . .
Interview Data . .
Conclusions and Implications .
Theory Implications .
Implications for Practice. .
Suggestions for Further Research


APPENDICES

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

REFERENCES .

BIOGRAPHICAL


LETTERS SEEKING SUBJECTS. . .

INFORMED CONSENT FORM . .

ITEM VARIANCES FOR CLUB MEMBERS/NON-MEMBERS

FACTOR ANALYSIS FOR CRITERION INSTRUMENT .

DEMOGRAPHIC DESCRIPTION OF THE SAMPLE .

FINDINGS RELATED TO CAUSATION FOR DIVORCE .

ADDITIONAL INTERVIEW DATA . .



SKETCH . . .


vii


Page

46
47
60

62

62
63
66
66
68
71
72
74
75


. 78

. 82

. 84

S. 87

. 90

. 95

. 98

. 102

. 105











Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council of the
University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy


SELECTED CORRELATES OF DIVORCE
AND POSTMARITAL ATTACHMENT

by

Sheila K. Vernick

March, 1979

Chairman: Paul W. Fitzgerald
Major Department: Counselor Education


The stability of the institution of marriage has become increasingly

compromised through the years, particularly within the past decade. A

spiraling divorce rate has resulted in marital disruption becoming a

reality for an increasingly wide range of married people. Whereas at one

time certain elements impelled a marriage to cohere-particularly cogni-

zance of social status and economic considerations, divorce has now become

a viable option for all of these seeking to extricate themselves from

turbulent or otherwise ineffectual marriages.

When a couple elects to dissolve their marriage, what is the nature

of the ensuing (divorced) relationship? Weiss postulates that after

divorce, there persists a sense of bonding to the former spouse, which he

designates as "postmarital attachment." This issue has been only

minimally researched, based upon a generally held presumption that termina-

tion of the marriage implies a severance of former ties or mutual commit-

ments.


viii








Research has shown that there are a number of variables causatively

associated with divorce proneness. The purpose of this study was to

ascertain whether there is a relationship between some of these variables

in the marriage and divorce, as perceived by divorced people, and the

degree of attachment to the former spouse. The study sought, additionally,

to determine whether there are factors inherent in the process of divorcing

which affect the degree of postmarital attachment.

The sample consisted of 135 divorced individuals between the ages

of 21 and 69, from the eastern half of the United States. Of these,

66.7% were females, and 33.3% were males; 44.4% were from Florida. Sub-

jects volunteered to respond to paper and pencil instruments by mail.

The Marital Research Questionnaire, designed by the researcher, was
used to assess demographic data as well as ex post facto perceived factors;

Man-Woman Images, a projective device, was also utilized as a perceptual

referent. The Depression Adjective Check List (DACL) assessed depression

as a component of attachment, and the Index of Attachment and Postmarital

Relationship Inventory (PRI) constituted the criterion instrument.

Analyses of variance were conducted to test the hypotheses, and

yielded the following results:

1. There is a relationship between sharing leisure activities in

the marriage and attachment to the former mate.

2. There is a relationship between perceived positive sexual satis-

faction in the marriage and attachment to the former mate.

3. There is a relationship between a complement of religion factors

in the marriage and attachment to the former mate.

4. Remarried people demonstrate less attachment to their former

spouses.









Findings of the study suggest that interactional factors (i.e.

relationship) perceived as positive in a marriage contribute toward

a higher level of attachment to the former spouse than do demographic

factors. Certain cognitive variables, such as perceived cause of the

divorce,were found to contribute significantly to a high degree of

postmarital attachment.

Implications for divorce counseling, theory, practice, and research

follow from the results of this study.












CHAPTER I


INTRODUCTION

Life is a cycle of complex and often interwoven entanglements. Man

proceeds from birth to death universally, but not unilaterally. Within

the respective life stages may lie unforeseen complex phenomena .

often hypothetical outcomes of elective events. The spiraling rate of

divorce is one such outcome; individuals who decide to marry are finding

it increasingly possible to experience sufficient disruption of their

marriages and, ultimately, to dissolve the marriage. The phenomenon of

divorce holds considerable interest for social science and human rela-

tions, for it provides perspectives and information into a process which

begins with an erosion of an intimate relationship, proceeds through a

purported de-intimatizing agenda, and results in a reorganization of

relationships. Divorce is a process which is not only multifaceted in

terms of its physical (i.e., distancing) logistics, but also so in the

light of accompanying emotions and attitudes experienced by the parties

involved and their families. Societal values have been generated toward

it from without. These include those which are culturally imposed by

society at large as well as those emanating from closer sources, as

family, friends, and associates.

With such manifold interior and exterior impingements, what becomes

of the original-probably productive and mutually enhancing-relationship

after a marital disruption? Weiss (1976) postulates that whether a marriage

1









has been happy or unhappy, after the end of it there persists a sense

of bonding to the former spouse (p. 138). It is this relationship-

unique to a formerly married couple-that Weiss specifies as "postmarital

attachment" (1976)..

A number of models have been set forth for use in counseling

divorced people experiencing difficulty in adjusting to their new life

style (Froiland & Hozman, 1977; Kessler, 1975). However, the nature of

the postmarital relationship itself between formerly married individuals

has not been studied in detail by many people. It has been explored at

length by Weiss (1975, 1976) who has set forth depression alternating

with euphoria as emotions peculiar to marital separation (1976). As

a result of Weiss's study, it follows that there is, in fact, a relation-

ship existing between couples who have divorced.

Brown (1976) states that the purpose of divorce counseling is to

decrease the function of the marriage. A frequent assumption is that

a marriage which has terminated is no longer functioning. Brown indi-

cates, however, that this is in fact not so in the perceptions of

divorcing people and that counseling must involve further processing

regarding causation for the divorce. Working through an individual's

attributions for the divorce is one of the steps involved in reducing

the individual's perceptions of the functional quality of the marriage.

It therefore follows, in considering Brown's theory, that attributed

causes for the divorce may have an effect on the extent to which a

person perceived a continued partnering or affiliative need in terms

of the former spouse.








Rationale

Weiss (1975) postulates that although the element of love has eroded

from a marriage, the formerly married couple nevertheless perceives a

need to keep in touch with each other. He further explains that although

this need may be more blatant (and consequently more obvious) earlier in

the separation process-whether in overt hostility or acceptance-the bond,

or attachment, continues indefinitely to some degree. At the same time,

divorce serves a utilitarian purpose. Bernard (1964) mentions that

changes may occur in a marriage, such as disparity in male and female

sexuality or role tasks. She calls these functional, the result of

growth and maturation (p. 683). Some changes must come about from the

adjustment process of two people living together and the mutual accomo-

dations required, such as changes in habits (neatness, bedtime). Patterns

of living may change sufficiently to cause mates to function in different

orbits.

Divorce may be an outcome-the result of little in common between

spouses (lack of homogamy). It may be a strategy--one of available

alternatives for escaping. It may be the result of a process of

escalated emotions (Bernard, 1964).

Because, however, some bond remains, the former spouses are forced

to confront it in some way. The nature of the ensuing relationship may

be one means of dealing with this tie; the nature of the relationship

could also depend upon the extent to which this adhering tendency has

been lessened by causative factors in disruption of the marriage itself.

Certain observable designs have been evolved by society to keep

divorce occurring at a lower rate. These are noted by Goode (1964) as








(1) the tendency of families to encourage marriage to a person of

similar social background in an effort to eliminate conflict resulting

from dissimilar tastes and habits; (2) the tendency of society to label

certain kinds of disagreements and difficulties as unimportant (i.e.,

a woman's lack of puntuality, ability to handle finances); and (3) the

tendency to lower expectations of marital satisfactions (p. 93). These

mechanisms have not found success-the divorce rate has spiraled. Multi-

ple marriages occur in a lifetime. It is not longer a question of what

should be; divorce has emerged as one means by which individuals seek

growth, enhancement, and satisfaction goals toward which counselors

are facilitators.

Gaining understanding of attributed causes of divorce and of post-

marital relating has been virtually mandated to the counseling profession.

Weiss (1975, 1976) postulates that former mates maintain emotional ties

to each other, regardless of the presence or absence of overt signs

of this. It is when attachment indicators become inordinate, or cause

post-separation behavior to be maladaptive, that counseling intervention

is indicated. Because divorce counseling models have dealt mainly with

general tendencies, such as stages of divorce (Froiland & Hozman, 1977;

Kessler, 1975) and facilitating overall adjustment (Brown, 1976), it is

necessary to begin to reduce some of these elements into specific forms.

Weiss (1975) ascertained, through his Seminars for the Separated, that a

pervasive element problematic to separation adjustment is the difficulty of

former mates in relinquishing the emotional ties to each other, in spite of

the nonfunctioning quality of the marriage. This study was undertaken to









assess the extent to which postmarital attachment is, in fact, a problem.

It is a step toward concretizing divorce counseling theory and toward

expanding understanding of the factors related to this phenomenon.

Because counseling approaches arise from well founded theory, an under-

standing of factors causative in divorce and contributing to attachment

serves to assist a counselor and client by providing an awareness of

what to explore in the therapeutic situation.

The second implication of this study for the counseling profession

lies in legal innovations in the past decade. The law is an expression

of public opinion. It results from basic life factors, such as changing

attitudes toward marriage and divorces. These revised mores affect

legislation and, in turn, determine prevailing social attitudes (Burgess &

Locke, 1960). To assist with personal clarification of marital retention

or dissolution issues, the Conciliation Court of the Superior Court of

Los Angeles County was developed in the past decade and is serving as a

model for similar programs throughout the United States. This is a pro-

gram in which the legal profession and the behavioral sciences cooperate

in serving families on the verge of divorce.

Elkin (1973) calls attention to the purpose of the Conciliation

Court. This is

to protect the rights of children and to promote the
public welfare by preserving, promoting, and protecting
family life and the institution of matrimony, and to
provide means for the reconciliation of spouses and the
amicable settlement of domestic and family controversies.
(p. 64)

Counseling by trained marriage counselors is provided by the program for

both reconciliation and postdivorce adjustment. It is short term (1 6








sessions), directive, and confrontive. The focus is on the relationship

in question; there is a crisis orientation. The goal is a contribution

to strengthening family life; the legal aspects of divorce become secondary

to psychological factors in family disruption.

Levinger (1976) refers to divorce as an event that "seems to be the

end product of a process of estrangement" (p. 21). One main purpose of

this study is to show that while a divorce decree may in theory place

the stamp of finality on a marriage, it does not, in fact, signify the

end of the marital relationship.


Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study was to ascertain if there is a relationship

between factors in the marriage and divorce process as perceived by

divorced individuals, and the degree of attachment to the former spouse.

The study also sought to determine whether there are factors in the process

of divorcing which have an effect on the degree of postmarital attachment.

The following questions were examined:

1. Do self-spouse relationships perceived by divorced individuals

affect the degree of their postmarital attachment?

2. Do certain cognitive factors perceived by the individuals as

causes of the divorce bear a relationship to the degree of his/her post-

marital attachment?

3. Does the length of premarital acquaintance bear any relationship

to the degree of postmarital attachment?

4. Does length of marriage have an effect on the degree of post-

marital attachment?









5. Does education or income level have an effect on the degree of

postmarital attachment?

6. Do religion factors pertaining to the marriage have any effect

on the degree of postmarital attachment?

7. Does the degree of sexual satisfaction attained in the marriage

bear a relationship to the degree of postmarital attachment?

8. Does the length of the period between the divorce and the present

have a relationship on the degree of postmarital attachment?

9. Does the presence of children in a marriage bear a relationship

to the degree of postmarital attachment?

10. Are there factors in the legal process of separation and divorce

which affect the degree of postmarital attachment?


Definition of Terms

In order to afford clarification to the study, the following terms

were utilized:

Attachment-a positive emotion of one person toward another (as a
child toward a parent, one spouse toward the other) as long as the other
is "adequately accessible and attentive" (Weiss, 1975, p. 44).

Postmarital attachment-a persistent tendency to keep in touch with
the former spouse (Weiss, 1976, p. 143); a sense of continued "bonding
to the spouse" (1976, p. 138), regardless of whether or not he wants
a continued relationship.

Marital disruption-". living together when affection is diminished
makes any further wound increasingly hard to bear. If the
individual cannot obtain comfort from his spouse, there is no other place
to go, unless eventually he leaves the marriage. (Goode, 1961, p. 507).

Cognitive factors-an individual's own "account" (Weiss, 1975, p. 14)
of causes for the divorce.

Demographic factors-social and individual trends-past, present, and
projected, which are established as facilitating divorce in the United
States (Bernard in Bohannan, 1971; Norton & Glick, 1976). In this study,





8


these factors will be considered: courtship, length of marriage, education,
income level, religion, sexual satisfaction, length of the period between
the divorce and the present, and the presence of children in a marriage.

Self-spouse relationships-(1) the degree or type of differences
between the two people involved; (2) the degree or nature of communication
between the parties; and (3) the quality of the relationship between them
(Bernard, 1964).












CHAPTER II


A REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE

The review of the literature relating to this study is divided

into the following broad areas: (a) attachment, (b) marital disruption,

(c) personality factors, (d) cognitive factors, and (e) demographic

factors. It should be mentioned that the literature related to the

aforementioned variables has been selectively reviewed for this study,

and deals basically with the background of those variables which are

examined in this investigation.


Attachment

The phenomenon of attachment-marital and postmarital--has its

basis in studies of attachment in infancy and childhood. Bowlby (1969)

describes attachment behavior as having two basic features: maintaining

proximity to another, and specificity of the other. These behaviors are

instinctive to animals and evident in the ties of children to their

mothers. Man departs from animal behavior in his ability to establish

subordinate attachment figures with increasing age (1969, p. 205). Human

maturation has shown that bonds toward parents weaken at adolescence with

the advent of sexual attraction to peers of the opposite sex. In old

age, parental attachment figures no longer remain; thus attachment behavior

may be directed toward members of a younger generation. This behavior,

then,is a direct continuation of childhood attachment behavior. Inevitably,

marriage must be included within this continuum.
9









Cohen (1974) has derived from research on infants certain factors

which are generalizable to intimate adult relationships. He claims that

attachment includes happiness when the attachment object is near; sadness

upon separation; a component of security; and a perception of the attach-

ment object as a facilitator for exploration. Pineo (1961) postulates

that there are certain processes evident in marital deterioration. These

are (1) the process of disenchantment-a drop in marital satisfaction, and

(2) a loss of intimacy-less frequent physical and psychological sharing,

resulting in loneliness. As a result, the nature of marital interactions

gradually changes.

Sheresky and Mannes (1972) assert their views on the nature of post-

marital relationships, saying that


Children and money, in fact, are the only two binding
agents that force the newly divorced husband and wife
to see each other, for varying periods of time after
the divorce. These confrontations are the most
delicate, difficult, and painful of all human con-
tacts the connective tissues of intimacy
die hard. (p. 191)

Goode (1956) refers to the sense of loss experienced by former spouses

as trauma. He sets forth an analysis of the degree of trauma, concluding

that positive involvement after divorce constitutes high trauma; relative

indifference signifies medium trauma; and the absence of real stress shows

that there is little trauma (p. 292). He concludes that a return to
"normalcy" is possible only when the ex-spouse can be regarded with

indifference.

Goode (1956)discusses the rationale for marital separation which

ends in divorce. During separation, contact with the spouse means








discussion of issues impinging upon the marriage. If cumbersome con-

flicts exceed rediscovery possibilities, the decision is likely to be

termination of the marriage. Divorce is thus an alternative to ambiguity

(p. 174). Burgess and Locke (1960) assert that whether or not divorce

is a crisis depends on the degree of emotional involvement present (p. 581).

Weak emotional involvement may be present when the partners are separated

either spatially or psychologically. It may also exist in a forced

marriage, or in a casual second marriage of people who had a high degree

of emotional involvement with a deceased spouse. A crisis can exist when

there is strong community opposition to divorce, combined with some emo-

tional involvement and interdependence of activities between the couple

and the community. Burgess and Locke (1970) state the parameters of

unsatisfactory divorce adjustment as: (1) talking about one's divorce,

(2) a continuing association of the husband and wife, (3) a second

marriage, (4) an attempt to control the life of the former mate,

(5) idealization of the early relationship with the ex-mate, and

(6) moving to a new location. There is no doubt that these parameters

are disputable.

Goode (1956) claims that there are different patterns of separation.

Separation may be a substitute divorce. Different degrees of happiness

between spouses may bring about disagreement as to the facts of the rela-

tionship; this can result in a"one-sided divorce" (p. 178), where one

spouse makes this final decision without the other having thought of it.

Other separation conditions include the "drifting separation" (p. 178),

where divorce is not necessarily in the offing, and the delayed separa-

tion, where the marriage has been an empty shell for a lengthy period of

time.








Robert Weiss (1973) has crystallized a great deal of the emotional

aspects of marital separation in his concept of attachment. Marital

attachment, according to Weiss, has three significant components. First,

there is emotional security which is unique in the sense that it is not

provided by children (although the parent is the attachment figure for

the child). Without the attachment figure, there is a sense of emotional

isolation. Second, there exists a "searching" when no attachment figure

is present. This need to search is relieved when an attachment is

formed (p. 139-140). The final component of (marital) attachment is

the mutual sexual accessibility associated with it, if this is not

prevented by another attachment coincidentally existing. In a later

work (1975), Weiss again refers to attachment which may appear in the

form of a reluctance to separate (p. 34). In an exploration of post-

marital attachment, he isolates the following factors: desolation,

self-questioning, disappointment in the belief that marriage ensures

the accessibility of the attachment figure, separation distress, and

anger toward attachment object for causing the separation (p. 41-43).

Weiss (1975) sums up his view of attachment by saying,


Attachment seems to have an imprinted quality;
once a certain other has been accepted as an attach-
ment figure, that person can again elicit attachment
feelings, at least until he or she is understood as
having become intrinsically different. At that point
the individual may be able to say "I loved him
once, but he was a different person then." (p. 46)

Bohannon (1971) extends the concept of postmarital attachment by

stating that although the relationship between ex-husbands and ex-wives

is poorly charted in American culture (p. 133), "pseudokinship groups"









are often formed: remarriage creates new affinal relationships.

Bohannon seems to arrive at an accurate summation of the concept of

postmarital attachment by saying,


Although it may not involve seeing her or doing
anything to maintain a relationship, nevertheless
the basis for a relationship and the history of a
relationship are still there in some atten-
uated sense or other, no matter how completely
you have accomplished the psychic divorce, you
choose autonomously to take a new kind of respon-
sibility. (p. 284)


It would seem, pragmatically, that the notion of a postmarital

attachment would be applicable in proportion to the length of marriage.

That is, that the longer the marriage, the greater the bonding of spouses.

Weiss (1975) reports that on the basis of data obtained from his Seminars

for the Separated (p. 62), this appears to be true only when comparing

people who separated after a marriage of less than two years with those

married longer than two years. However, it appears that when partners

separate any time after the first two years, those who have been married

much longer than others do not evidence greater distress than people

coming from shorter term marriages.

As for examination of the effect of the length of time a person has

been divorced on the nature of the postmarital relationship, a paucity

of information exists. Weiss (1975) suggests that generally, as each

of the former mates proceeds with the formation of his/her new life-

style and the formulation of a new identity, the other spouse's sig-

nificance becomes less blatant. However, there are cases where feelings

of hostility may persist, and an individual does not want to see the

former spouse. On the other hand, some people experience satisfaction









in being with a former spouse after a long separation (p. 123-124). Weiss

points out that


The relationship of long-separated couples, if it
becomes friendly, is nevertheless different from
other friendships: the bonds underlying it are
stronger; its roots are deeper. Yet at the same
time, each can remember being hurt by the other,
and so mutual wariness may be greater. (p. 125)

Marital Disruption

In order to begin to examine marital disruption, some brief mention

of conflict theory is necessary, as the phenomenon of divorce is rooted

in it. Brown (1957) sets forth a concept of intrapersonal conflict (or

ambivalence) by defining it as "the simultaneous arousal of incompatible

tendencies to action" (p. 136). Relating conflict to a small unit,

Deutch (1969) states that conflict occurs when incompatible activity

is present between two or more persons. It may result from differences

in information or belief, interests, desires, values, scarcity of some

resource, or rivalry.

It must be mentioned, additionally, that people may perceive a

conflict of goals or interests where none actually exists, or may not

perceive one that does exist. If a conflict is destructive, it may

involve a strategy of power, threat, coercion, and deception, thereby

increasing suspicion and lack of communication (Deutch, 1969). Des-

tructive conflict causes dysfunction.

Sprey (1969) perceives the family as a system in conflict. Ongoing

confrontations inevitably and perennially exist between its members-

individuals with conflicting interests in a common situation. Indeed,









an inquiry into the external networks affecting a married couple showed

that their lack of integration with a common "universe" (community,

society, or family) of values and norms had a direct relationship to

the degree of polarization between the couple (Scanzoni, 1965, p. 490).

Self-Spouse Relationships

Although specific personality factors have not been empirically

documented in causation studies of marital separation and divorce,

mention is made of attributes which appear to contribute to marital

adjustment. Burgess and Cottrell (1939) and Locke (1951) postulate

that conventional (conforming) people are more likely to have good

marital relationships. They also cite (1939, 1951) emotional balance

and optimism as preferred personality traits. Individual stability

has been acknowledged to be a determinant of marital instability

(Ellis & Harper, 1961; Furstenburg, 1976).

Differences between male and female, or husband-wife adjustment

have been explored in the literature. Accordingly, Barry (1970) con-

cludes that a "healthy marriage" involves the husband being secure

in his own identity, so that he can be supportive of his wife in her

new role (p. 52). In addition, he must be conciliatory and trusting

in order to elicit a positive response from his wife by satisfying her

need for sympathy and support.

Chilman (1959) depicts a marital dropout as analogous to a school

dropout.

He is anxious about the "state of the world," feels
that there is a great deal of social injustice, is
confused about his own ethical values and what is
right and wrong. He may have a sense of hopeless-
ness about the "world he never made." Sex questions,
needs, ethics, and dating relationships bother him.
(p. 260-262)









This general "dropout" personality type is not concerned with structure,

order, accuracy, authority, or self-control; such lack of concern leads

him to revolt and to lack trust in human relationships.

Waller (1951) concludes that "marriage in our culture is becoming

a person-centered relationship, stressing, as needs to be met, sex

satisfactions, companionship, and personality growth" (p. 512). Fluctua-

tions in the nature and components of this relationship have brought

about instability. Bernard (1971) adds that sexual adjustment is the

one which takes the longest to achieve in marriage; it follows that this

need may take longest to be met.

An interesting personality factor contributing to marital disruption

may be the gregariousness of one or both spouses. Having separate friend-

ships outside the marriage is not necessarily enhancing. Hill and Katz

(1968) and Kanter, Jaffe, and Weisberg (1975) note the importance of

third parties. The closer one or both partners are to a third or fourth

person, the more likely the outsider's presence will interfere with the

marital relationship. Levinger (1965) postulates the importance in

marriage of esteem for the spouse; desire for the spouse's companionship;

and sexual enjoyment with the spouse as opposed to preferring another sex

partner.


Cognitive Factors

Cognitive variables which come into focus in marital separation and

divorce are those which are subjective but non-emotional to the individuals

involved. These factors are speculative in terms of the spouse's attri-

bution rationale and are based upon personal perceptions as well as








expectations. Of the cognitive variables, that most often cited is

roles. Roles are the conceptions of a husband and wife of their

respective responsibilities toward the home (Burgess & Locke, 1960).

As such, it is important for them to be able to define them.

Investigations by Cutright (1971) and Ort (1960) have shown that

status and roles (patterns of expected behavior) are significant indi-

cators of marital happiness. A cause of marital conflict is a disparity

in the attitudes of husband and wife toward the respective roles of

husband and wife. In such a situation, the spouses entertain different

(and probably conflicting) definitions of their mutual roles. Divorce

proneness is related to this (Goode, 1961). In view of this, Ort (1960)

reports the following consequences: (1) lack of mutual satisfaction

with roles; (2) less agreement between the role expectations of spouses;

(3) a greater disparity between the expectations of marital partners

about one's role in decision-making; and (4) a greater use of argument,

aggression, withdrawal, or avoidance as problem solving methods.

Goode (1966) reports marital instability as the failure of one

or both individuals to execute the obligations of respective role(s).

This causes domestic disorganization and an unstable environment.

Instability is a disruptive force. If this is the case, it would seem

that role definition and delineation for spouses would be optimal in

terms of providing complementary means of providing and maintaining

homeostastis in the home. However, according to Spiegel (1968), precise

complementarity of roles brings about high levels of equilibrium which

do not last very long. Disharmony eventually arises, complementarity

fails, and the role system resulting causes disequilibrium. If there









is a lack of interruption in this process, there is an eventual dis-

ruption of the system.

Additional attributed causation exists in the cognitive realm.

Harmsworth and Minnis (1955) conducted research which showed the con-

fusion of lawyers who consult with divorcing couples as to the "cause"

of their divorces. They reported that ". by the time they get to

us (attorneys) they usually have more than enough legal grounds for

it has driven them to outside activities that break up a marriage"

(p. 321). The nature of these activities is not specified. A significant

outcome of the study is that many of the lawyers consulted recommended

that non-legal counselors be available for consultation. This would result

in less personal embroilment and less need for individual (psychological)

considerations by lawyers who are not necessarily trained to deal with

such personal aspects of the situation. It must be acknowledged that

another recommendation arising from the study is that there be a modi-

fication of statutory grounds for divorce, so that they may be made

more realistic.

Specific attribution factors in divorce are delineated. Burgess

and Locke (1960) separate the reports of divorced men and divorced

women as to causation. Men reported as reasons the following (p. 519):

unsatisfying sex relations; an unsatisfied desire to have children;

the interference of in-laws; constant bickering; and a lack of mutual

friends. The women interviewed seemed to have given causes that were

narrower and more factual, such as: general disease; nonsupport;

drunkeness; gambling; and the husband going to jail.

Blood and Wolfe (1960) offer a more global perspective. They refer to

decaying marriages as those in which spouses are drifting apart and









are no longer attracted to each other or dependent upon each other for

essential services. As a result, there is a gradual cessation of inter-

action. This particular phenomenon is seen in a marriage from which

the wife derives little satisfaction (p. 240). Divorce is especially

tempting if some other man can offer a new chance at meeting her needs.

Blood and Wolfe (1960) also attribute marital disruption as resulting

from three additional factors. The first is an incompatible philosophy

of life which is discovered belatedly. The second is new problems which

result from changing circumstances, such as the advent and developmental

stages of children, and financial deficits. And the third factor

contributing to disharmony is boredom. This is reported as a lack of

satisfaction (i.e. mutual rediscovery) in the use of leisure time

together. Lack of shared activity enjoyment is also cited by Locke

(1951) as contributing to dissatisfaction in marriage.

An interesting notation about marital dissatisfaction is made by

Renne (1970). She observes that such unhappiness may be manifested

nonverbally, as in physical or psychological symptoms such as ailments

and disabilities. The condition of a marriage is influenced by a

general feeling of well-being; the nature and quality of this feeling

is equivalent to the health and morale of a marriage, with healthy

people less likely to be dissatisfied.


Demographic Factors
Divorce has been hailed as one of the major solutions for an

intense degree of marital disharmony; however, in reality, it is not

actually valued in any society. Two primary demographic causes have








emerged as contributing to the increase in the divorce rate. These

are the legal and economic feasibility factors of divorce. Divorce

laws have made divorces easy to obtain (Bernard, 1971; Burgess & Locke,

1960; Goode, 1962; Norton & Glick, 1976). Liberalized grounds for

divorce have facilitated it, so that divorce has become an option pro-

vided by the law, but not mandated. As a result, there has been

evidenced less commitment to maintain family boundaries, and more support

(and less stigma) for the increasing incidence of divorce.

Beyond the evidence of self reports which have been publicized at

times by the media, little actual research has been conducted regarding

the impact of the legal process of obtaining a divorce upon the equanimity

level of the former mates. Bernard (1971) states that the law has con-

tributed to the rising number of divorces, by mollifying the adversary

theory (where one party was legally guilty, and the other was proved

blameless). Framo (1977) cites what he considers an important role of

the therapist, saying

I try to keep lawyers out of the situation as
long as possible, because as soon as they come in
the hostilities escalate-even for those couples who
are determined to have a "friendly divorce." (p. 79)

He claims that when legal negotiations are worked out in therapy, the

divorce process goes more smoothly.

Economic

There is a broad spectrum of economic issues underlying divorce.

Goode (1963, 1964), Jacobson (1959), and Norton and Glick (1976) call

attention to the fact that divorces are economically available to people










of all socioeconomic strata, where formerly high legal costs prohibited

marital dissolution to all but the very wealthy. Jacobson (1959) notes

that incidence of divorce follows the trend of the economy-it is low

in periods of depression and high during prosperity.

Inadequate income has been cited unequivocally as a cause of

divorce, if not an actual determinant (Carter & Glick, 1970; Cutright,

1971; Levinger, 1976; Norton & Glick, 1976). Interestingly, much

of the reason for this economic focus stems from the rising interest

in women's rights and changesin women's roles that developed before

the last decade. Where women were formerly needed for specific survival-

related services in the home (as food and clothing), a change has taken

place in that such services can now be purchased (Goode, 1961). The

more recent nationwide emphasis upon opportunities for women to develop

skills, and therefore "equality," has put some strain into the lives

of many women and men.

Women want more economic opportunities in many cases (Goode, 1964).

Conflict can result in a marriage from different ideas about spending,

and actually from different notions of what constitutes economic success.

In many instances, such disparity brings about sufficient dissention

to cause a wife to believe that if she can support herself, she does not

need a marriage (Bernard, 1971; Goode, 1963; Norton & Glick, 1976).

Goode acknowledges that economic conflicts may indeed represent under-

lying emotional issues. This conflict, based upon love as a presumable

initial motivating factor, has led Levinger (1965) to conclude that








"attractions that act to secure a marriage derive from love and money"

(p. 21). Conversely, it may be assumed that one of these factors out

of balance might result in marital turmoil. Levinger goes on to say

(1976) that the better the economic alternative is outside of marriage,

compared to that inside, the greater the financial incentive to dissolve

it.

Education

The second demographic factor which has been established as

causally related to divorce is education level of spouses. Goode (1961),

Monahan (1967), and Norton and Glick (1976) have established that low

education level is, in fact, significantly related to divorce proneness.

According to Goode (1961, p. 494), low education has bearing on a

husband's earning potential, and thus is a contributor to degree of

economic satisfaction.

Contrary evidence, however, is offered by Landis (1963) who

states that people with college and graduate school education are

more likely to terminate unhappy marriages. Bumpass and Sweet (1972)

provide a different slant to the question of educational level.

Results of their study indicate that amount of education at the age

when a person marries is a possible indicator of marital success.

This means that educational level per se is not as much a consuming

factor in disruption as educational potential and mobility. Glick

(1957), in an earlier investigation, ascertained that the highest

divorce rates are for those marriages involving a female high school

or college dropout. This is possibly due to certain predisposing









factors in their social and psychological backgrounds which affect

their degree of persistence in education and in marriage.
An important offshoot of the educational level consideration is

that of values or philosophy of life (Blood and Wolfe, 1960). Goode

(1965) delineates conflicting values as different views of

what was right, good, beautiful, etc. style of life, education,

manners, entertainment, the arts, religion, etc. lack of harmony"

(p. 121). Significant differences in individual values of spouses have

been shown to have an impact on the degree of marital happiness. Blood

(1960) and Locke (1951) highlight the importance of this by stressing

the need for shared activities of the spouses, thereby affecting a mutual

rediscovery. Levinger (1965) adds the importance of joint commitments,

and sets forth home ownership by both spouses as a reflection of the

marital value system and mutual dedication to an undertaking.
Educational level also makes a contribution to the way in which

one or both spouses view the need for a marriage. Bernard (1971) and

Goode (1963) cite the erosive effect upon marriage of public attitude

changes which have lessened the emphasis upon the necessity for marital

stability. In many respects, not only formal education, but also exper-

ience has an impact upon an individual's perception of marriage in

serving as a basis for acquiring a viewpoint.

Experiences in the family of origin and in the procreative family

have focused attention upon these arenas and in their relationship to

divorce. Christensen and Meissner (1953), Monahan (1952), and Pope and

Mueller (1976, 1977) claim that the probability of divorce is greater

when either spouse has experienced divorce in a previous marriage; such








a person is more prone to considering divorce as a solution to conflict

or a resolution for frustration. Origin family serves as a locus for

potential divorce in proportion to the degree of happiness of the parents.

The experience of marital conflict, separation, or divorce while growing

up has an impact upon the tendency of an individual toward divorce

(Bumpass & Sweet, 1972; Goode, 1961; Locke, 1951; Terman et al., 1938).

Whether this is due to parental role in modeling or to an individual's

ability to tolerate further conflict is unclear (Levinger, 1976). Indeed,

childhood unhappiness itself is postulated as causing divorce proneness

(Locke, 1951; Terman, 1938; Waller, 1951).

Another source of stress upon a marriage lies outside of the marital

unit. It consists of the degree of support for the marriage from the

family and community. The greater the amount of disapproval of the

marriage by friends and kin of one or both spouses, the greater likelihood

there is of divorce (Bernard, 1964; Goode, 1961; Locke, 1951). Zimmerman

(1956) enlarges upon this by postulating a concept of heterogeneity, or

affiliation in different membership groups. This signifies less agreement

on basic norms and values, and affects the stability of the marriage. Hill

and Katz (1968) and Locke (1951) are explicit, however, that a certain

degree of popularity-both marital and premarital is vital to a marriage.

The effect of satisfactory sexual adjustment upon marital disruption

is moot in the literature, although there is general agreement that such
adjustment is learned. Locke (1951) and Stokes (1968) cite unsatisfying
sexual relationship as an existing factor in marriages which terminate.

Goode (1964) and Terman et al (1938) cite sexual difficulty as a result of

underlying conflicts and tensions of the marriage, and not a cause of

them. Sprey (1966) regards marital disorganization as "a state of








disorder within the institutionalized pattern of human reproduction"
(p. 401) and claims that the role of sex within marriage is for the

purpose of producing offspring, and providing them with a set of legiti-

mate parents.

Age at Marriage and Homogamy

The third variable of the three primary demographic determinants of

divorce is age at marriage. Young age at marriage has been ascertained

beyond question to be a contributing factor, ultimately, to divorce

(Christensen & Meissner, 1953; Goode,1956, 1951; Lee, 1977; Locke, 1951;

Monahan, 1967; Norton & Glick, 1976). The younger one or both spouses

are at the time of first marriage, the more likelihood of the marriage

terminating, indisputably. Bumpass and Sweet (1972) claim that there

is a low rate of marital disruption when women marry at age 30 and

above. They thus concur that ascending age differential decreases the

likelihood of unstable marriage.

Curtailment of the courtship period has been found to interfere
with successful marriage. A primary cause of short engagement period

is its interruption due to premarital pregnancy, and is a significant

factor which increases the probability of eventual marital dissolution

(Bumpass & Sweet, 1972; Christensen & Meissner, 1953; Lowrie, 1965).
Furstenburg (1976) cites reasons for this: (1) an unexpected pregnancy

causes personal instability; (2) there is accelerated family building;

(3) it cuts short the process of preparing for married life; and (4)
marrying under this circumstance can interfere with wage-earning capa-

cities of one or both spouses.








One factor which has been found to relate to successful courtship,

and which eventually extends into success in marriage, is homogamy, or

similarity of the spouses in certain respects. A lack of homogamy between

spouses has been documented as a contributing factor to divorce in the

following areas-cultural background and religion. Similarity of cultural

background is cited by Burgess and Cottrell (1939) as a predictor of

successful marriage. Zimmerman (1956) further explicates the concept

of homogamy: the more alike spouses are in antecedent factors such as

socioeconomic status, ethnicity, area of origin, education, and religion,

the less likelihood there is of divorce because of the contribution of

these elements to homogeneity of the couple, and to their close friends

(p. 111). Increasing heterogeneity, or affiliation in different member-

ship groups, means less agreement on basic norms and values. In the

face of such impingement, marital stability is affected. Further attention

to lack of cultural homogamy between spouses is evinced by Burgess and

Locke (1960) and Goode (1961, 1964).

Lack of similarity in religious preference has been heavily sup-

ported as contributing to divorce proneness (Goode, 1961; 1964; Landis,

1963; Udry, Helson, & Nelson, 1963; Zimmerman, 1956). Landis further

postulates that marriages of mixed faith are less durable than those of

the same religious preference; however, there appears to be a lesser effect

on marital stability when the wife adopts her husband's religion. For

one reason, there results an overall agreement in that area, and there

is less conflict over the religious training of the children. A natural

(possible) outcome of shared religion is the tendency to attend church.

Although it is not necessarily a fact that "those who pray together

stay together," lack of interest in religious observance and church








attendance is asserted as causative in divorce (Burgess & Cottrell, 1939;

Goode, 1961, 1964; Locke, 1951). Mutual commitment to a belief enhances

marital stability.

There is no doubt that changing attitudes in the institution of

religion have affected the divorce rate. A more relaxed stance on the

part of the church with respect to divorce has contributed to an increase

in divorce (Burgess & Locke, 1960). Landis (1963) confirms that there is

a rising indifference toward religion, and that people indifferent to

religion tend to end an unhappy marriage. Christensen and Meissner (1953)

add that a nonreligious wedding itself is a disposing factor toward.

divorce. Indeed, Goode (1961) states that those marriages in which

religion has the highest effect in contributing to divorce are those

where there is no religion; in other words, mixed religious preferences

serve to secure a marriage more than none at all. However, partners of

the same religious faith will tend to be less divorce prone.

Homogamy in religious commitment is part of the value systems of

spouses. Goode (1956), in speaking of the impact of individual values

on a marriage, specifies religion as being significant (p. 121). It

follows that disparities in this area may cause a lack of harmony which,

if it becomes severe, can give rise to conflict.


Additional Demographic Factors

There is additional causation, offered in the literature, to those

factors mentioned. One of the primary causative factors is the core of

incentives for divorce. Not the least of these is the availability of

high welfare payments, particularly to mothers and children (Moles, 1976;








Norton & Glick, (1976). Another is the alternatives to marriage which are

available (Goode, 1961, 1964). Change in what was formerly societal pres-

sure for commitment in marriage has resulted in termination of the philos-

ophy of bearing the burden one has undertaken. Goode (1963) and Locke

(1960) mention the greater availability of remarriage partners because

of a higher divorce rate.

Farber (1964) states that divorce is functional in a society where

a person is free to choose a mate. If the personal reasons for origin-

ally selecting a mate are not fulfilled, divorce is a vehicle enabling

one to escape the incompatible situation. It is thus a useful mechanism

for attaining personal staisfaction. Bernard (1971) likewise calls

attention to the fact that "social and behavioral scientists tend to

find important functional values in divorce and in this sense their

thinking constitutes an 'apologia' for it" (p. 12).

War seems to influence somewhat the trend for divorce (Carter &

Plateris, 1963). Jacobson (1959) posits reasons for this, saying that

wartime marriages may be contracted after short engagements. In the

cases of people already married, prolonged separation tends to weaken

marital ties. Jacobson (1959) and Norton and Glick (1976) cite postwar

economic and social adjustment of veterans as divorce inducing.

Other factors which have been less globally researched include

location of residence. Burgess and Locke (1960) and Christensen and

Meissner (1953) have shown that people residing in rural areas are less

likely to divorce; divorce rates are higher in instances of urban

residence. The legal accusations factor type of attribution has also

been minimally researched. Locke (1951) specifies adultery as a leading

cause. Goode (1956) concurs, adding as causative drinking, desertion,

conflict with relatives, gambling, and nonsupport.














CHAPTER III


METHODOLOGY


The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a relation-

ship between factors in the marriage and divorce process perceived by

divorced individuals and the degree of postmarital attachment to the

former spouse. The study also sought to determine whether there are

factors in the divorce process which affect the degree of postmarital

attachment. Subjects for the study were divorced, or divorced and

remarried individuals.

The design of the research is a correlational study. The history

of the research on attachment is such that while attachment is posited

as a fact, the variables comprising it have not been fully established.

In order to ascertain these variables, a correlational study was indi-

cated, relating certain variables suggested in the literature to the

criterion variable, postmarital attachment. All subjects were adminis-

tered a Marital Research Questionnaire; Man-Woman Images; Depression

Adjective Check List; and the Index of Attachment and Postmarital Rela-

tionship Inventory (combined).

This chapter specifies the hypotheses to be tested; subjects who

participated; instrumentation for the study; procedures for collection

and analysis of the data; and the limitations of the study.

Hypotheses

The following hypotheses arose from the research questions:








Hypothesis 1. There will be a relationship between self-spouse

relationships perceived by divorced individuals, and the degree of attach-

ment to the former spouse.

Hypothesis 2. There will be a relationship between certain cognitive

factors (attributed causes) for divorce and the degree of attachment to

the former spouse.

Hypothesis 3. There will be a relationship between the length of

premarital acquaintance and the degree of attachment to the former spouse.

Hypothesis 4. There will be a relationship between the length of

marriage and the degree of postmarital attachment.

Hypothesis 5. There will be a relationship between education/income

level of the couple and the degree of postmarital attachment.

Hypothesis 6. There will be a relationship between the religious

nature of the marital partners and the degree of postmarital attachment.

Hypothesis 7. There will be a relationship between the degree of

sexual satisfaction attained in the marriage and the degree of postmarital

attachment.

Hypothesis 8. There will be a relationship between the length of

the period between the divorce and the present, and the degree of post-

marital attachment.

Hypothesis 9. There will be a relationship between the presence of

children in a marriage and the degree of postmarital attachment.

Hypothesis 10. There will be variables inherent in the legal process

of separation and divorce which affect the degree of postmarital attach-

ment.








Subjects

All subjects participating in this study were men and women either

currently divorced, or remarried after a divorce. A total of 135 sub-

jects participated.

Subjects were selected in the following ways: (1) individuals on

membership rosters of local singles' organizations were asked to volun-

teer to participate; (2) participants in an American Personnel and

Guidance divorce counseling workshop (Washington, D. C., 1978), who had

already indicated their willingness to participate were approached

either to volunteer or to obtain subjects from their clientele; (3)

personal acquaintances of the researcher were approached; and (4) thera-

pists in the eastern half of the United States were contacted and requested

to obtain subjects from their clientele. This group of therapists was

selected from the yellow pages of telephone directories of major eastern

United States cities, according to the following criteria: (1) listing

under "Marriage and Family Counselors," (2) specific mention of divorce

or postmarital counseling in their description of services, or (3) member-

ship at some level in the American Association of Marriage and Family

Counselors. Persons contacted indicated by return postcard their ability

to participate and/or obtain subjects. They were then mailed the number

of packets that they specified. It was anticipated that 100 subjects

would participate in this study,

Instrumentation

The instruments used in this research were the Marital Research

Questionnaire; Man-Woman Images; the Depression Adjective Check List;








and the Index of Attachment and the Postmarital Relationship Inventory,

combined.

Marital Research Questionnaire

A "Marital Research Survey" was originally developed by William

Goode in order to execute a study of postdivorce adjustment in 1948.

Goode's original schedule (Goode, 1956, p. 357-366) consists of 121

items and directions for personally administering the instrument to

the respondent. It is divided into eight sections, with each section

treating specific categories of data as, for example, demographic (age

at marriage; current age; duration of residence; occupation, etc.);

social (activities before and after separation); emotional adjustment;

attitudes toward former spouse; children; religion; and remarriage (if

applicable). Designed for a study involving divorced women, the phrase-

ology is applicable, and utilizes such terms as "former husband." The

questions contain multiple choice items, items requiring a negative or

affirmative response, and some items which permit a subjective response.

No validation data have been established for this original instru-

ment. The data for Goode's study obtained from the Marital Research

Survey were based on information obtained from 425 female respondents

over three years. They were reported descriptively, in terms of cate-

gories, frequencies, and relative frequencies of response items.

Goode's Marital Research Survey has served as the basis for one

of the instruments-used in this study-the Marital Research Questionnaire

designed by the researcher. The Marital Research Questionnaire consists

of three sections. Section I contains nine short answer questions.








Sections II and III consist of Likert summated responses. Section II

contains 17 items; the respondent is asked to rate these individually

on a five point scale based upon agreement, with responses ranging in

categories from "strongly disagree" to "strongly agree." Section III

consists of 12 items; the subject is asked to rate each of these on a

five point scale based upon frequency of occurrence, with responses

ranging from "very seldom" to "very often."

The categories of data treated in the Marital Research Question-

naire are, as in Goode's instrument, demographic, social, and emotional

(attitudinal). The purpose of this instrument is to obtain input

information by tapping those factors most often causative of divorce,

as evidenced in the literature.

Scoring for this instrument is accomplished as follows: open-ended

questions in Section I are categorized into five groups for each item,

with each assigned a score of 1 to 5. Remaining responses for Sections

II and III of the instrument have been scored individually by the subject.

Responses are utilized as predictor variables in this study. Both the

open-ended and Likert summated sections are categorized from low to high

divorce proneness based upon divorce research; thus a high score obtained

by an individual would indicate his/her perception of the marriage as one

likely to end in divorce.


Man-Woman Images

Man-Woman Images is an instrument developed by Robert Ziller of the

University of Florida. Originally entitled "Self-Other Orientation Tasks,"

(Ziller, 1970) this is a projective device which provides a phenomenological









and nonverbal index of the self-spouse orientation of the subject, and

therefore identifies the nature of the former marriage structure from

the point of view of the subject. For use in this study, this instrument

assessed the perceived marriage orientation of the subject and former

spouse. The test is based upon the assumption that the operational

social structure of a social unit may be ascertained by analysis of a

member's self-perceptions with regard to other members (Ziller, Yockey,

Leach). An example of the items is that designed to tap the person's

self-spouse orientation (Ziller, Yockey, Leach). It consists of 10

circles arranged horizontally and a list of ten significant people,

including the self and former spouse. The subject is asked to assign

each person to a circle. According to Ziller (1965, 1970) individuals

generally use a left to right hierarchical orientation in ordering the

persons on the list. This occurs, for example, in issues regarding

socioeconomic status or success. Thus the placement of the spouse with

respect to the self is significant in ascertaining how one spouse per-

ceives the other.

The original instrument consists of five figures, each utilizing

circles in which the respondent places him/herself. For the purpose of

this study, three of these are used, and represent the following cir-

cumstances: Self-Spouse Orientation, Social Unity, and Identification.

In all figures, additional circles are included which stand for other

people. The subject is asked to respond according to the particular

directions on each figure.

Scoring for this instrument is accomplished according to a separate

assessment procedure for each item. For example, two scores are derived








from the Self-Spouse Orientation Item: an index of self-esteem is

obtained by counting the number of circles to the left of Y (yourself);

an index of attachment is the second score for this figure, and consists

of the number or circles between Y and S (former spouse). For the

Social Unity Item, two scores are also obtained. One score for the

number of lines from Y to other circles is an indicator of depression,

with more lines indicating less depression. The other score consists

of the number of overlapping lines and is a measure of attachment. The

Identification Item also yields a measure of attachment by counting the

number of millimeters between Y and S: the less distance, the greater

attachment exists.

Validity for this instrument, while not specifically ascertained

for self and former spouse, was derived from a series of earlier studies

(Ziller, 1970) on the Self-Other Orientation Tasks. Normed on Asian

Indian children, the following correlation coefficients of validity

were obtained (Ziller, Smith, and Long, 1965, p. 111): identification

with mother: =.44; p .05, identification with friend: r=.37,

p<.05, identification with father: r=.31, p<.05, identification with

teacher: r=.20, p<.05. Split-half reliability was obtained at .64

(Ziller, 1973, p. 115). In utilizing this instrument, an assumption of

generalizability to self and former spouse is made.

Depression Adjective Check List (DACL), Form A

This scale was developed by Bernard Lubin of the University of

Missouri (1967) and published by the Educational and Industrial Testing

Service. The DACL is an instrument designed to assess symptoms of

depression; its relevance to this study lies in Weiss's (1976) postulate








of depression, alternating with euphoria, as the most common symptom of

the post-separation period. It would follow that because depression is

most evident in the initial period of the divorce process, and because

attachment appears to be highest at this time, measurement of depression

is important as an indicator of postmarital attachment.

The DACL consists of 32 adjectives which are moods and feelings

associated with or not associated with depression. They consist of

such words as wilted, safe, miserable, gloomy, and dull. The subject

is asked to check all of the words which describe his/her feelings.

A list typically takes 3-5 minutes to complete, and is scored with a

stencil marked "+" or "0" for each word. The Score for each list

consists of total number of plus (+) adjectives checked and minus (0)

adjectives not checked. The higher the score, the more likely an

individual is to be experiencing depression.

Lubin (1967) reports normative data collected on 125 normals and

302 patients. Internal consistency was computed from a two-way analy-

sis of variance, resulting in a coefficient of .92 for normals and .91

for patients.

Validity data were obtained through cross validation of all forms

(A through G) of the test. Two by three analyses of variance were com-

puted for sex by group, and resulted in significant F tests. T-tests

were also shown to be significant at p<.05. Significant correlations

with the Clinical Scales of the MMPI (except for Ma and Pa), the Beck

Inventory of Depression, and the Zung Depression Scale have also been

shown.









Index of Attachment

This scale was developed by Gay C. Kitson of Case Western Reserve

University, Cleveland, Ohio, and Marvin B. Sussman of the Bowman Gray

School of Medicine. This instrument is designed to assess attachment,

which is defined as "preoccupation with or pining for the spouse ."

(Kitson & Sussman, 1976; see also Weiss, 1975). There are four items

on this original scale of eight items, which yielded factor score

coefficients sufficiently high (.10) as to indicate significance for

the items. These items are used in this study.
Each item is a statement which indicates the respondent's feeling

about the divorce, such as "I find myself wondering what my husband/wife

is doing." The subject is asked to rate the statement by selecting a

response ranging from 1 "not at all my feelings," to 5 "very much my

feelings." Scoring for this instrument is Likert summated, with a high

score indicating a high degree of attachment to the former spouse.

Validity for this instrument was obtained by correlation with the

Psychiatric Status Schedule and the Bradburn Affect Balance. Cronbach

Alphas of reliability were reported to be .65. The coefficient of

internal consistency for the Index of Attachment itself is .91. Indices

of internal consistency based upon the Psychiatric Status Schedule yielded

the following coefficients: .89 for the Subjective Distress Scale; .80

for the Behavior Disturbance Scale; and .86 for the Impulse Control Scale.

The Postmarital Relationship Inventory (PRI)

The Postmarital Relationship Inventory was developed by the author

for use in conjunction with the Index of Attachment. It consists of








eleven items which have been added to the Index of Attachment by per-

mission of Gay C. Kitson. As a part of this index, the PRI is scored

in the same manner: the subject rates each statement by selecting a

response ranging from 1 "not at all my feelings," to 5 "very much my

feelings." Scores for a subject on the Index of Attachment and PRI

are added together.

Whereas the Index of Attachment assesses present feelings toward

the former spouse, and the Depression Adjective Check List assesses

present negative attitudes, the Postmarital Relationship Inventory is

designed to evaluate the ongoing positive and workable component of

postmarital attachment. This is identified as specificity and proximity

of the attachment object (Bowlby, 1969), and a feeling of friendship.

Due to copyrighting procedures, the instruments used in this study

are not appendicized. These instruments may be obtained from their

respective authors or publishers.


Procedures
Collection of Data

All subjects participating in this study received a packet of

materials to which was attached an instruction sheet and Informed Consent

Form (see Appendix B), which the subject was asked to fill out before

beginning the instruments. A separate envelope was included for return

of this form. The four aforementioned instruments were completed and

returned in a manila envelope provided.

The subjects required approximately 25 minutes to complete all of

the instruments in the packet. Initial completion of the Informed Consent









Form clarified the fact that participation was entirely voluntary, and

that a packet could be returned without being completed.

After the data were collected and analyzed, subjects were ranked

on a continuum indicating low to high on the DACL, and on the Index of

Attachment and PRI. In order to arrive at a broader explication of the

significance of this study, ten subjects were selected from the Gaines-

ville, Florida area. These consisted of five ranking high and five

ranking low on both criterion instruments. These people were personally

interviewed by the researcher. The interview took approximately 45

minutes and was initiated by the researcher's open-ended question:

" _, could you tell me about the relationship now existing between

you and your former (husband/wife)?" Such interviews were undertaken to

enhance the meaning of the data already collected by either elucidating

variables common to each group, or by failing to do so (thus suggesting

a purely individual basis for postmarital attachment). The information

obtained is presented in Chapter V.

Analysis of Data

In order to ascertain whether there were any significant differences

in the response patterns between the samples drawn from the two parent

populations (i.e. members of singles' organizations and non-members), a

series of factorial analyses of variance was conducted. This procedure

was undertaken for each hypothesis, and was used to assess differences

in the responses to the predictor variables and to the two criterion

variables (depression and postmarital attachment). A series of one-way

analyses of variance was then undertaken to test the significance of








the respective hypotheses. F scores were obtained to determine the

degree of significance for each analysis; eta-square coefficients were

ascertained for each correlation set forth in the hypotheses.

Pearson correlation coefficients were obtained to derive a measure

of relationship between: (1) the two items in Man-Woman Images which

measure depression and the DACL; and (2) the two items in Man-Woman

Images which measure attachment and the Index of Attachment and PRI.

An additional Pearson correlation was executed relating DACL scores to

attachment scores, in order to ascertain a coefficient which would con-

firm that depression is (or is not) a component of attachment.

Limitations of the Study

Because the subjects in this study comprise one sample of the divorced

population of the eastern half of the United States, the following limita-

tions are applicable to the research:

(1) Data obtainedare limited to only this sample (i.e. divorced).

There are no control groups, and the data are hence not generalizable

outside of the divorced population.

(2) It is a fact that divorce laws vary among states in terms of

the amount of time needed to obtain a divorce and the time needed for

the decree to become final; there is also variation among states in the

area of agreement between parties as to divorce itself, as well as the

terms of settlement. Participants being examined, therefore, were not

subject to uniformity of legalities, and for this reason do not really

represent one population.

(3) It was possible for subjects to respond according to a sub-

jective notion of propriety, rather than in a truly representative manner.








Within this context, it must be noted that this study did not establish

any distinction between subjects who at any time participated in "divorce

counseling" and those who did not.

(4) The issue of randomization might well arise from this study.

While as many participants as possible from the Eastern half of the

United States were sought, it was not feasible to examine the dockets

of all divorced individuals which are available in each county of the

country. As a result, the procedure of utilizing contact persons in

major cities to obtain divorced (or remarried) research subjects pre-

cluded a random sample. While a random selection of subjects is

acknowledged to be a preferable means of obtaining thesedata, the sub-

stitute contact person method was employed instead. This was done in

order to arrive at a wider range of generalizability for results of

the study than would be possible in examining a sample obtained from

one (or more) counties in Florida, or in any one state.












CHAPTER IV


THE FINDINGS

This study was an examination of the relationship between certain
factors in the marriage/divorce process (as perceived by divorced

individuals), and the degree of attachment to the former spouse. The

variable of postmarital attachment-the degree of bonding of one former
spouse to another-has not been studied extensively in literature con-

cerning marriage and divorce. Ten factors causatively associated with

divorce in the literature were isolated for examination in this study.
No evidence could be found that there exists a relationship between
these factors associated with divorce and the nature of the relation-
ship existing between a couple after they have divorced.
The ten factors investigated as independent variables were:

(1) perceived self-spouse relationships
(2) attributed causes for the divorce
(3) length of premarital acquaintance

(4) length of the marriage

(5) education/income level
(6) religious preferences and patterns
(7) level of sexual satisfaction in the marriage
(8) length of time divorced
(9) presence of children in the marriage
(10) the legal process of separation and divorce.








The study consisted of distributing packets of instruments designed

to assess the aforementioned variables and the criterion variable, post-

marital attachment to the former spouse. Participants were divorced men

and women; most were residents of Florida, and there were additional

volunteers from other areas of the Eastern half of the United States.

The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) was used

to conduct analyses of variance, Pearson correlations, and chi-square

tests. Analysis of the data was accomplished through the use of the

Northeast Regional Data Center computer located at the University of

Florida. This chapter encompasses a description of the method; a report

of instrumentation; a description of the sample; and the statistical

findings related to each hypothesis.


Description of the Method

Data were obtained to correlate the ten factors mentioned and the

degree of postmarital attachment of the subjects by having subjects

respond anonymously to paper and pencil instruments, which were then

mailed to the researcher. A total of 287 instrument packets was sent

to subjects who had agreed to participate in the study as well as to

contact persons in major Eastern cities who had agreed to distribute

these packets. Responses were received from 135 subjects at the time

of the data analysis. Each packet contained the Marital Research

Questionnaire, a survey instrument; Man-Woman Images, a projective

device assessing the perceived existing spouse relationship; the

Depression Adjective Check List (DACL); and the Index of Attachment

combined with the Postmarital Relationship Inventory.








Since most local participants were respondents from membership

lists of singles' clubs, and because it was projected that subjects

obtained by contacts out of state may or may not be members of such

organizations, a means of comparison between the two populations was

needed. Of participating subjects, 62 were members, 70 were not, and

3 failed to respond to that item. A series of two-way factorial analyses

of variance was conducted to ascertain if there was any significant dif-

ference between the response patterns between the two populations on

each item. No significant differences were revealed by this procedure.

A table showing the amounts of shared variances is presented in Appen-

dix C.

Findings Related to Instruments

Index of Attachment and PRI

Although the central focus of this study involved the gathering

of data relative to the dependent variable (postmarital attachment to

the former spouse), initiation of validation procedures for the cri-

terion instrument was undertaken at the time of the data analysis. The

four items constituting the Index of Attachment were used for this study

(by special permission from the authors) because it was the only instru-

ment measuring attachment at this time, for which some (incipient)

validation data were available.

The four items selected from the original Index of Attachment (and

which constitute the first four items on the criterion instrument for

this study) were chosen from the original nine items designed by Kitson

and Sussman because they were found to yield significant factor score

coefficents (greater then .10, in this case). Permission given to the








researcher for use of any items was provisional, based upon a commitment

to temporarily defer publication specifically related to these items.

An option available to the researcher was to supplement the four items.

The researcher developed eleven additional items, entitled the Postmarital

Relationship Inventory (PRI). The fifteen items consituting the resulting

instrument were factor analyzed, based upon 135 responses. The factor

analysis was performed using a varimax rotation in an orthogonal

solution.

Results of factor analysis for the Index of Attachment and PRI are

presented in Appendix D. Factor score coefficients are also presented.

Computation for these scores is obtained by multiplying an individual's

response to each item (raw score) by the z score for the response. Within

the rotated matrix, three factors (or underlying constructs) are represented

for this instrument.

Ten items load highly on factor I, which is best represented by

the construct of preoccupation, or pining for the former spouse. This

is the original construct for the entire instrument set forth by Kitson

and Sussman, 1976. To this, the present researcher adds a component

of depression. Ten items load highly on factor II; the researcher

has identified as this factor the construct of specificity and/or proximity

of the object (of attachment). A difference can be observed between

factors I and II: people who load highly on one will not necessarily

do so on the other. The researcher has identified factor III as an

indication of positive perceptions of the marital relationship which

would be evidenced in a desire to perpetuate it as a friendship. Three

items represent this factor significantly.








Man-Woman Images

Man-Woman Images is a projective device which assesses degree of

interpersonal attachment in terms of proximics: the distance between

two people (one of whom is the self) represented on paper by the subject

is an indicator of perceived extent of separation, and thus represents

the level of attachment the subject is experiencing toward the other.

Results of a Pearson correlation between the items in this instru-

ment and total attachment scores on the criterion instrument indicated

significant relationships for two of the items: the Self-Spouse Orienta-

tion Item and Identification Correlations obtained for these were r=-.40,

and r=-.27 (p=.001). Results of these zero order correlations lend sup-

port to the use of the criterion instrument in this study.

The Depression Adjective Check List (DACL)

Depression has been postulated (Weiss, 1975) as a component of

attachment. Accordingly, an assessment of this variable was conducted

in this study using the Depression Adjective Check List (DACL). To

determine the relationship of depression to (postmarital) attachment,

a Pearson correlation was conducted between depression scores and

attachment scores. Results of this test yield a correlation coefficient

of r=.173, p<.10.


Description of the Sample
Persons participating in the study were men and women who were

divorced, or remarried after a divorce. Demographic data describing

the sample are presented in Appendix E. This information was acquired

through responses to Section I of the Marital Research Questionnaire









which were analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square pro-

cedures.

The total sample (N=135) comprised 90 females and 45 males from

13 Eastern states and the District of Columbia. The mean age of all

respondents was 39.8 years, with an age range of 21 to 69 years. Of

these, 24 were remarried, 110 were still divorced, and one respondent

failed to provide this information. The mean age at marriage for the

entire sample was 23.62; the mean age at divorce was 35.60. The average

length of marriage for the sample was 11.96 years.

The mean number of years divorced for the sample was 3.93. The

mean education level of the sample was 15.34 years of schooling. The

mean number of children born of these marriages was 1.96. The average

length of premarital acquaintance, including the engagement period, was

29.06 months or 2.42 years.

Occupations for the sample were broken down into the following

categories: professional, business, clerical, unskilled, and trade.

Of the respondents, 71 were professionals; 19 were involved in business;

30 in clerical work; 3 in trades; and 12 were unskilled. Results of

a chi-square test showed no significant differences in occupation

level among the states represented in the sample.

Statistical Findings Related to Hypotheses

Results of statistical tests of the hypotheses in this study follow.

They are reported in individual tables following a statement of a hypothe-

sis. Each table contains data related to (1) depression scores obtained

for subjects (on the DACL), and (2) the total attachment scored obtained








for subjects (on the Index of Attachment and PRI). Items contributing

to the analysis of each hypothesis are therefore presented twice in

each table, and are preceded by a (1) indicating relationship of an

item to depression scores, and a (2) indicating relationship of an

item to total attachment scores.

The items used to test each hypothesis were taken from the Marital

Research Questionnaire, which is the survey instrument contained in

each packet, and completed by each respondent. This instrument was

designed by the researcher as a means of assessing the predictor

variables used in the study. Each item is represented in its original

form after the tables presented for each hypothesis.

The central focus of this study is postmarital attachment. Because

depression has been postulated as a component of attachment, analyses

of hypotheses by depression scores have been provided.








H1 There will be a relationship between self-spouse relationships
perceived by divorced individuals and the degree of attachment
to the former spouse.



TABLE 1 A
ANALYSIS OF SELF-SPOUSE RELATIONSHIPS BY
(1) DEPRESSION SCORE AND (2) ATTACHMENT SCORE

Analysis of Variance of Items N=135, df=4, 125 (5 cases missing)

Source SS M2 Eta2 F Significance of F

+(1) Item #4, II 6113.285 48.906 .049 1.575 .105

(2) Item #4, II 21422.820 171.383 .076 2.472 .048*

+(1) Item #5, II 6113.004 49.298 .046 1.453 .221

(2) Item #5, II 21416.207 172.711 .019 .576 .681

+(1) Item #3, III 5459.047 51.991 .051 1.348 .257

(2) Item #3, III 16999.871 161.904 .126 3.655 .008*

+(1) Item #4, I 5937.422 49.479 .111 2.376 .034*

(2) Item #4, I 21084.582 175.705 .119 2.572 .023*

*p< .05

Items listed as (1) show analysis by depression scores
Items listed as (2) show analysis by attachment scores

+Item #4, Section II = "My spouse and I were able to communicate about
the divorce details."


+Item #5,

+Item #3,

+Item #4,


Section II = "My spouse and I could agree upon the divorce
settlement."
Section III = "When I and my former mate went out, we were in
agreement as to where to go."

Section I = "What activities, if any, did you and your spouse
sharing during marriage?"








TABLE 18

PEARSON CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS FOR MAN-WOMAN IMAGES


Item comparison

Self-spouse by attachment

Self-spouse by depression

Social unity by attachment

Social unity by depression

Identification by attachment


Item A

Item B

Item C

Item D

Item E
*p< .01


r

-.4036

-.0988

.0592

-.0911

-.2653


Significance level

.001*

.183

.305

.164

.002*


x

4.78

3.21

2.83

4.17

4.58


s.d.

2.79

2.06

1.77

1.63

2.20


Self-Spouse Orientation Item (Separation)

Self-Spouse Orientation Item (Dependence)

Social Unity

Social Unity

Identification


Tables 1 and 1A show a relationship between three of the factors

assessing perceived self-spouse relationships and degree of postmarital

attachment. They also indicate a relationship between one of the

assessed factors and present level of depression. Since these items

offer evidence of some support for this hypothesis, Hl is partially

accepted.








H There will be a relationship between certain cognitive factors
2 (attributed causes) for divorce and the degree of attachment to
the former spouse.

TABLE 2
ANALYSIS OF COGNITIVE FACTORS BY (1) DEPRESSION SCORE AND (2) ATTACHMENT SCORE


Analysis of V

Source

+(1) Item #9, I

(2) Item #9, I

+(1) Item #10,

(2) Item #10,
+(1) Item #6, I
(2) Item #6, I


ariance of Items

SS

I 6133.285

I 21422.820

II 5459.047

II 16999.871

6106.824

21330.629


N=135,
M 2

48.906

171.383

51.991

161.904

49.249

172.021


df=4, 120
Eta2

.046

.102

.038

.029

.041

.086


(10 cases missing)

F Significance of F

1.460 .219

3.454 .010*

1.076 .408

.702 .592

1.297 .275

2.821 .028*


Items listed as (1) show analysis by depression scores
Items listed as (2) show analysis by attachment scores

+Item #9, Section II = "My ex-spouse fulfilled the functions I expected
in marriage."
+Item #10, Section II = "I think I functioned according to my ex-spouses's
expectations."
+Item #6, Section I = "What do you think caused your divorce?"

*p<.03

Table 2 indicates the relationship between cognitive factors attributed
to divorce and the degree of postmarital attachment to the former spouse.

A significant relationship exists between perception of the former mate
as fulfilling his/her role functions and degree of postmarital attachment.

A significant relationship is also evident between perceived causation for

the divorce and the degree of postmarital attachment. H2 is partially
accepted.


I








H3 There will be a relationship between the length of premarital
acquaintance and the degree of attachment to the former spouse.



TABLE 3
ANALYSIS OF LENGTH OF PREMARITAL ACQUAINTANCE BY
(1) DEPRESSION SCORE AND (2) ATTACHMENT SCORE

Analysis of Variance of Items N=135, df=3,119 (12 cases missing)


SS

6094.641

20546.898

4715.352

16682.910

5922.828

19316.133


M2

49.956

168.417

43.661

154.471

51.059

166.518


Eta2

.009

.033

.082

.139

.121

.064


F

.355

1.364

.596

1.082

3.849

3.849


Significance of F

.786

.257

.862

.384

.006*

.112


Items listed as (1) show analysis by depression scores
Items listed as (2) show analysis by attachment scores

+Item 1, Section I = "How long did you know your former spouse before
engagement?"
+Item 2, Section I = "How long were you engaged?"
+Item 1, Section II = "Our engagement period was smooth and satisfying."

*p<.01


Table 3 shows a relationship between a positive perception of the

engagement period and the degree of depression currently experienced.

It must be noted that in approximately 88% of cases, an association is

noted between perception of a satisfying courtship and attachment to

the former spouse. H3 is therefore partially accepted.


Source

Item #1,

Item #1,

Item #2,

Item #2,

Item #1,

Item #1,


+(1)

(2)

+(1)
(2)

+(1)

(2)


--


--


---









H4 There will be a relationship between the length of marriage and
the degree of postmarital attachment.




TABLE 4
ANALYSIS OF LENGTH OF MARRIAGE BY
(1) DEPRESSION SCORE AND (2) ATTACHMENT SCORE

Analysis of Variance N=135, df=25,95 (14 cases missing)

Source SS M2 Eta2 F Significance of F

+(1) demographic 5656.609 49.188 .223 1.036 .432

(2) demographic 18822.004 163.670 .113 .458 .986

Item listed as (1) shows analysis by depression score

Item listed as (2) shows analysis by attachment score

+This item = the difference between "Age at Marriage" and "Age at Divorce."


Table 4 shows the relationship between the length of
the degree of postmarital attachment to be significant at

fore, H4 is not accepted.


marriage and

p .05. There-








H5 There will be a relationship between education/income level
of the couple and the degree of postmarital attachment.


TABLE 5
ANALYSIS OF EDUCATION/INCOME LEVEL BY
(1) DEPRESSION SCORE AND (2) ATTACHMENT SCORE

Analysis of Variance of Items N=135, df=12, 113 (9 cases missing)

Source SS M2 Eta2 F Significance of F

+(1) demographic #5 6113.285 48.906 .090 .929 .521
(2) demographic #5 21422.820 171.383 .082 .844 .605
+(1) demographic #6 6070.285 48.954 .057 .616 .812
(2) demographic #6 21313.020 171.879 .079 .885 .557
+(1) demographic #8 6113.285 48.906 .047 1.503 .205
(2) demographic #8 21422.820 171.383 .020 .619 .650
+(1) demographic #9 6016.402 49.722 .032 .778 .568
(2) demographic #9 20154.266 166.564 .020 .474 .795
+(1) Item #2, II 6113.285 48.906 .008 .254 .907
(2) Item #2, II 21422.820 171.383 .027 .844 .500

Items listed as (1) show analysis by depression scores.
Items listed as (2) show analysis by attachment scores.

+demographic #5 = "Last grade completed in school."
+demographic #6 = "Former spouse's last grade in school."
+demographic #8 = "Your occupation."
+demographic #9 = "Former spouse's usual occupation."
+Item 2, section II = "The wife's most available income was during the
marriage."


Table 5 shows that the relationship between the items used to
assess education and incomelevel and the degree of postmarital attach-


ment was p 7.10. Therefore, H5 is not accepted.








H6 There will be a relationship between the religious nature of the
marital partners and the degree of postmarital attachment.

TABLE 6
ANALYSIS OF RELIGION FACTORS IN MARRIAGE BY
(1) DEPRESSION SCORE AND (2) ATTACHMENT SCORE

Analysis of Variance of Items N=135, df=2, 122 (10 cases missing)

Source SS M2 Eta2 F Significance of F
+(1) Item #3, I 6070.285 48.954 .001 .059 .943
(2) Item #3, I 21080.188 170.002 .032 1.999 .140
+(1) Item #12, II 6113.285 48.906 .112 3.821 .006*
(2) Item #12, II 21422.820 171.383 .056 1.795 .134
+(1) Item #11, II 6113.285 48.906 .032 1.012 .404
(2) Item #11, II 21422,820 171.383 .026 .800 .528
+(1) Item #13, II 6113.285 48.906 .051 1.625 .172
(2) Item #13, II 21422.820 171.383 .033 1.021 .399
+(1) Item #4, III 6113.285 48.906 .049 1.561 .189
(2) Item #4, III 21422.820 171.383 .096 3.208 .015*
+(1) Item #5, III 6113.004 49.298 .046 1.453 .221
(2) Item #5, III 21416.207 172.711 .019 .576 .681
+(1) Item #6, III 6113.004 49.298 .016 .486 .746
(2) Item #6, III 21416.207 172.711 .049 2.354 .059*

Items listed as (1) show analysis by depression scores
Items listed as (2) show analysis by attachment scores

+Item 3, Section I = "What type (i.e. civil, religious, etc.) wedding
ceremony did you have?"
+Item 12, Section II = "I am a religious person."
+Item 11, Section II = "My former spouse was a religious person."
+Item 13, Section II = "The religious perspectives of me and my former
spouse are similar."
+Item 4, Section III = "During our marriage, my spouse attended church."
+Item 5, Section III = "During the marriage, I attended church."
+Item 6, Section III = "During the marriage, we attended church together."
*pA.05

Table 6 shows the relationship between the items used to assess the
couple's religious quality and the degree of postmarital attachment. Three
of these items emerge as significant at p:5.05, offering evidence of some

support for this hypothesis. Therefore, H6 is partially accepted.








H7 There will be a relationship between the degree of sexual satisfaction
attained in the marriage and the degree of postmarital attachment.


TABLE 7

ANALYSIS OF SEXUAL ASPECTS PERCEIVED IN THE MARRIAGE
BY (1) DEPRESSION SCORE AND (2) ATTACHMENT SCORE

Analysis of Variance of Items N=135, df=4, 120 (9 cases missing)


Source

+(1) Item #14, II
(2) Item #14, II
+(1) Item #15, II
(2) Item #15, II
+(1) Item #16, II
(2) Item #16, II
+ 1) Item #7, III
(2) Item #7, III

Items listed as (1)
Items listed as (2)

+Item 14, Section II
+Item 15, Section II
+Item 16, Section II


+Item 7, Section III

*p< .05


SS

6113.285
21422.820
6107.152
20600.406
6113.285
21422.820
6113.285
21422,820


M2

48.806
171.383
49.251
166.132
48.906
171.383
48.906
171.383


Eta2

.021
.108
.056
.032
.019
.016
.049
.076


F

.648
3.677
1.769
.987
.583
.504
1.575
2.472


Significance of F

.629
.007*
.140
.418
.675
.733
.185
.048*


show analysis by depression scores.
show analysis by attachment scores.

= "My sexual experience in marriage was satisfying."
= "A sexual relationship is paramount in a marriage."
= "It is the obligation of a spouse to sexually
accommodate the other in terms of frequency and
quality of experience."
= "I avoided sexual experiences outside of marriage."


Table 7 indicates items showing no significant relationship between

the degree of sexual satisfaction attained in the marriage and the degree

of attachment to the former spouse. However, results of one item indicate

that there is a relationship between finding the marital sexual relation-

ship satisfying and postmarital attachment. Since this item offers evi-

dence of some support for this hypothesis, H7 is partially accepted.


----


--









H8 There will be a relationship between the length of the period
between the divorce and the present, and the degree of post-
marital attachment.




TABLE 8

ANALYSIS OF LENGTH OF TIME DIVORCED BY
(1) DEPRESSION SCORE AND (2) ATTACHMENT SCORE

Analysis of Variance of Item N=135, df=15,96 (24 cases missing)

Source SS M2 Eta2 F Significance of F

+(1) demographic 4066.690 36.970 .109 .772 .705

(2) demographic 19162.406 174.204 .226 1.852 .038*

Item listed as (1) shows analysis by depression score
Item listed as (2) shows analysis by attachment score

+this item = "The difference between "Age at divorce" and "Age (now)."

*p<.05


Table 8 indicates a relationship between the length of time divorced

and the degree of postmarital attachment: the longer an individual is

divorced, the less attached he/she is. H8 is therefore accepted.








H9 There will be a relationship between the presence of children in
a marriage and the degree of postmarital attachment.




TABLE 9
ANALYSIS OF PRESENCE OF CHILDREN BY
(1) DEPRESSION SCORE AND (2) ATTACHMENT SCORE

Analysis of Variance of Items N=135, df=4, 130

Source SS M2 Eta2 F Significance of F
+(1) demographic 5909.532 52.237 .006 .162 .957

(2) demographic 19720.324 177.661 .048 1.357 .254

Item listed as (1) shows analysis by depression score
Item listed as (2) shows analysis by attachment score
+this item = Number of children


Table 9 indicates the relationship between the number of children

in the marriage and the degree of postmarital attachment at p;'.05.

Thus H9 is not accepted.








H10 There will be variables inherent in the legal process of separa-
tion and divorce which affect the degree of postmarital attachment.

TABLE 10
ANALYSIS OF LEGAL PROCESS BY
(1) DEPRESSION SCORE AND (2) ATTACHMENT SCORE


Analysis
Source
Item #6, II
Item #6, II
Item #7, II
Item #7, II
Item #8, II
Item #8, II


of Variance of
SS
6106.824
21330.629
6106.914
20548.035
6113.004
21041.996


Items N=135, df=4,120 (10 cases missing)
M2 Eta2 F Significance of F
49.249 .041 1.297 .275
172.021 .086 2.821 .028*
49.650 .017 .919 .722
167.057 .020 .617 .652
49.298 .139 4.843 .001*
169.694 .018 .535 .711


Items listed as (1) show analysis by depression scores
Items listed as (2) show analysis by attachment scores
+Item 6, Section II = "My former spouse and I used the same (or no) lawyer."
+Item 7, Section II = "I do not think that there are emotional benefits in
the use of a divorce lawyer."
+Item 8. Section II = "The process of getting a divorce was easy."
*p <.03

Table 10 indicates items showing some significant differences between
the individual's perceptions of the legal process and the degree of attach-
ment to the former spouse. Results of one analysis indicate a relationship
between using the same (or no) lawyer and attachment to the former spouse.
Another analysis indicates a relationship between the ease of obtaining
a divorce and the degree of depression. These items offer evidence of
some support for this hypothesis; thus H10 is partially accepted.


+(1)
(2)
+(1)
(2)
+(1)
(2)


I








Additional Findings

Several additional one-way analyses of variance were performed on
the data gathered. Although these did not specifically pertain to the

hypotheses being tested in this study, they are relevant and noteworthy.
As with the items comprising the hypotheses, one-way interactional

correlations were conducted with the DACL and the Index of Attachment

and PRI.



TABLE 11
ANALYSIS OF SEX OF RESPONDENTS BY
(1) DEPRESSION SCORE AND (2) ATTACHMENT SCORE

Analysis of Variance N=135, df=1,123 (9 cases missing)
Source SS M2 Eta2 F Significance of F
(1) Respondent gender 6113.285 48.906 .000 .000 .984
(2) Respondent gender 21422.820 171.383 .010 1.255 .265

(1) indicates analysis by depression score
(2) indicates analysis by attachment score


Table 11 illustrates that, based upon DACL scores (none of the

variance in common), there is relationship between six of the respondents
and his/her level of depression. This table also indicates that based

upon total attachment scores (1% of variance in common), there is no
significant relationship between sex of the respondent and degree of

attachment to the former spouse.










TABLE 12
ANALYSIS OF REMARRIAGE OF RESPONDENTS
BY (1) DEPRESSION SCORES AND (2) ATTACHMENT SCORE


Analysis of Variance N=135, df=1,123 (19 cases missing)

2 2 Significance
Source SS M2 Eta F of F

(1) Remarried/not remarried 6022.936 48.572 .030 3.808 .053*

(1) Remarried/not remarried 21310.336 171.858 .023 2.850 .094*

(1) indicates analysis by depression score
(2) indicates analysis by attachment score

*p<.10


Table 12 illustrates that based upon DACL scores and total attach-

ment scores (with 6.4% and 4.1% of the variance in common, respectively),

there is unquestionably a relationship between whether or not a divorced

person has remarried and his/her level of depression as well as attach-

ment to the former spouse. Conclusive evidence supports the fact that

remarried people are less depressed and less attached to their former

spouse.












CHAPTER V


DISCUSSION, CONCLUSIONS, AND IMPLICATIONS


Introduction
Postmarital attachment has been in existence as a phenomenon, dating

historically to the origin of divorce as an institution legally accommo-

dating the dissolution of marriage. While it was not within the scope

of this study to examine other types of postmarital attachment (such as

that encountered in widowhood), criteria may indeed be postulated as

precursory expectations for the presence of and the assessment of this

variable in any case. Such criteria are essentially categorical assump-

tions: (1) a relationship between two persons which was incipiently

positive; and (2) a relationship having a quantifiable history.

Discussion of this study ensues with not only the aforementioned

consideration, but also with certain limitations which are relevant to

the project. First, the study necessarily involved the independent

variable of divorce, thereby precluding consideration of other terminative

elements relative to relationships. Secondly, the only means of assessing

factorial components of the independent variable was partly an ex post

facto approach, so that many of the predictor data obtained were either

of a demographic nature or emanated from the perceptions of the respondent.

Implications of this are discussed in this chapter.

The purpose of this study was to ascertain if there is a relationship

between factors in the marriage and in separation and divorce as perceived
62









by divorced individuals, and the degree of attachment to the former

spouse. The study also sought to ascertain whether there are factors

in the process of divorcing which have an effect on the degree of post-

marital attachment. The scarcity of research in this topic area accords

a pioneering quality to this study; therefore, data gathered by the

research instruments were discrete and demonstrated characteristic

incipience in terms of contributing to knowledge in this area. This

chapter will include: a) summary of the findings; b) discussion;

c) conclusions; and d) implications.


Summary of the Findings

A total of 135 divorced people participated in the study. Eligibility

for participation was based upon being divorced at some time; however,

subjects could be remarried, of any age group, and male or female.

Although 44% of the subjects came from Florida, there were participants

from 12 other states, and from the District of Columbia. Each subject

completed a packet containing 9 pages of instrumentation, 8 of which were

considered for the data analysis. These instruments were the Marital

Research Questionnaire, the survey instrument; Man-Woman Images, a pro-

jective device; the Depression Adjective Check List (DACL); and the Index

of Attachment and Postmarital Relationship Inventroy (PRI) designed to

assess degree of attachment to the former spouse.

Analyses of variance were computed to test the hypotheses set forth

in this correlational study. All of these examined the relationships

of designated predictor variables to the criterion variable: attachment

to the former spouse. Findings derived from hypothesis test follow.








The first hypothesis concerned the subject's perception of his/her

relationship to the former spouse and the degree to which he/she was

attached to the spouse. A significant positive relationship was found

between sharing activities during the marriage and degree of depression

currently experienced by the respondent. A significant positive rela-

tionship was also found between being in agreement as to where to go

out socially during the marriage and the degree of postmarital attach-

ment.

The second hypothesis concerned the relationship between causative

factors attributed to the divorce and the degree of postmarital attach-

ment. A significant relationship was found between perception of the

former spouse as fulfilling his/her role functions and degree of post-

marital attachment. A significant relationship was also found between

perceived cause of the divorce and degree of attachment to the former

spouse. Explication of causation assessment may be found in Appendix F.

The third hypothesis concerned the relationship between the length

of premarital acquaintance and the degree of postmarital attachment.

A significant positive relationship was found between the degree of

satisfaction perceived during the engagement period and the degree of

depression currently experienced.

The fourth hypothesis concerned the relationship between the length

of marriage and the degree of postmarital attachment. No significant

relationship was found between the two variables. Hypothesis 4 was

therefore not accepted.

The fifth hypothesis concerned the relationship between education

and/or income level of the couple and the degree of postmarital attachment.








No significant relationship was found between the items comprising the

predictor variables and the criterion. Hypothesis 5 was therefore not

accepted.

The sixth hypothesis concerned the relationship between the religious

nature of the marital partners and the degree of postmarital attachment.

A significant positive relationship was found between the degree of

personal religiosity of the subject, and the level of depression currently

experienced. Significant positive relationship were also found between:

1) the degree to which the spouse attended church; and 2) the degree to

which the couple attended church together, and the degree of attachment

to the former spouse.

The seventh hypothesis concerned the relationship between the degree

of sexual satisfaction in the marriage and the degree of postmarital

attachment. A significant positive relationship was found between:

1) the subject's perceived degree of marital sexual satisfaction; and

2) avoidance of extramarital sexual relationships, and his/her degree

of attachment to the former spouse.

The eighth hypothesis concerned the relationship between the length

of the period between the divorce and the present, and the degree of

postmarital attachment. A significant relationship was found between the

two variables; hypothesis 8 was therefore accepted.

The ninth hypothesis concerned the relationship between the presence

of children in a marriage and the degree of postmarital attachment. No

significant relationship was found between the two variables; hypothesis

9 was therefore not accepted.

The tenth hypothesis concerned certain variables inherent in the

legal process of separation and divorce which may affect the degree of








postmarital attachment. A significant positive relationship was found

between (perceived) ease of obtaining a divorce and the degree of

attachment to the former spouse.

Additional results of the study which were not hypothesized, but

which appeared in the findings were: 1) no significant relationship

between sex of the respondent and his/her level of postmarital attach-

ment; and 2) a significant positive relationship (p <.05) between whether

or not a person has remarried and his/her attachment to the former spouse.


Discussion
Statistical Data

Discussion of the results of this study is related to consideration

of those findings derived from responses of 135 persons to the four

instruments. The main focus of the study is postmarital attachment to

the former spouse. It is acknowledged that data analyses were also

conducted to ascertain a relationship between the predictor variables

tested in the hypotheses and the component of depression. Depression

was ascertained to play a role in postmarital attachment in 90% of cases

where high attachment was present as a significant variable.

A relationship was found between sharing activities in the marriage

(for example, agreeing on where to go socially) and attachment to the

former mate. Evidence is provided in the literature showing that shared

activities in a marriage renders the couple less divorce prone. The

reason postulated for this is that such sharing offers opportunities

for mutual rediscovery and renewal. It is possible, then, that this

relationship between sharing activities in marriage and being attached

to the former mate may be predicated upon a sense of "unfinished business"-








a combination of nostalgic remembrance, and a fantasy of perpetuation of

that which was positive and enhancing in the marriage.

A similar rationale may be used to account for the relationship

between perceived positive sexual satisfaction in the marriage and

attachment to the former spouse. Added to the aforementioned interpre-

tations in this case are not only a complement of need satisfaction, but

also that which is often traditionally regarded as effecting a total

union of two people, or truly a sense of "belonging" to another person.

For individuals perceiving this to be the case in their marriages,

divorce has caused an interruption in the process of achieving and main-

taining a desired (or sought) affiliation. Thus, while a particular

mode of relating (i.e. sexual) may be terminated-often with difficulty

where the level of satisfaction was great, the particular object toward

whom attention is directed, and from whom satisfaction is derived, has

not lost his/her attraction. The result is the ensuing feeling of

attachment.

Religion factors in the marriage seem to play a role in determining

the degree of postmartial attachment to a former mate. Attachment level

was high when 1) the spouse attended church, and/or 2) the couple attended

church together during the marriage. One possible interpretation for

this appears in the literature: mutual commitment to a particular belief

enhances the stability of a relationship. This seems to combine to a

great extent with the proposed interpretation for postmarital attachment

postulated above for cases where activities were shared during the marriage.

Religious experiences may be included in the domain of that which was

shared by the couple and which is, post hoc, perceived as positive and

enriching.








A second interpretation is offered by the researcher for the rela-

tionship between spouse and/or couple church attendance and attachment

to the former mate. Church attendance, whether regular or limited to

particular occasions, can represent an element of stability and pre-

dictability in an environment which may possess other unstable and unpre-

dictable components. The entire sequential event of church attendance,

including preparation, factors inherent in the religious ritual, and

possibly post-church sequence(s), are ascertainable in advance. When

a person is able to count on a sequence and to assign to it a positive

connotation, an aspect of security is thereby represented. Divorce

constitutes an interruption in a stable and predictable event, and poses

a threat to that degree of security represented by and vested in the

event; postmarital attachment, then, may indeed be a longing for that

previous expectation which contributed to security.

The final factor to be discussed seems to offer some measure of

resolution and interpretation to the variable of postmarital attachment.

Whether or not a person has remarried significantly affects his/her

degree of attachment to the former spouse, with those remarried being

less attached. Marriage, like religion, signifies an institution repre-

senting stability and affiliation. Remarriage seems to evidence that

a replacement object is present in whom a person may reinvest aspirations

for mutual enhancement, rediscovery, predictability, and communion.

Interview Data

The ten follow-up interviews conducted by the researcher were designed

to 1) afford supplementation to the statistical information, and 2) to obtain

subjective reactions to open-ended cue questions in a free and relaxed








atmosphere. Interviewees were five subjects who had ranked high on

attachment scores, and five who had ranked low. Selection for inter-

view was based upon the willingness of subjects to be interviewed, and

upon their availability.

Interviews began with an inquiry as to how the subject perceives

his/her present relationship with the former spouse. It is interesting

to note that in each case-whether high- or low-attached, and regardless

of the length of time divorced, the subject was keenly aware of the

location of the former spouse, and whether or not he/she had remarried.

Indeed, one woman scoring low on attachment, who had been divorced for

15 years after a 19 year marriage, responded when asked if her former

husband plays any role at all in her life,

Not really. He's in Tennessee and I'm here. But I
want to tell you, though, we have not lost complete
touch with each other. One thing we still share are
grandchildren I have sent him pictures, I have
sent him tapes. I took the oldest one up to visit .
and left her for a week. So I have actually visited
in their home; he's married to a very nice person.
(Woman, mid-50's)

Antithetic affect is expressed by a woman scoring low on attachment

and divorced for three years after a 13 year marriage:

I would not cause his funeral, but I would drop all
social engagements to attend it. I would be happier
if he died. He never has gotten over the divorce:
I have, but he hasn't, and he uses the children as
pawns. The lack of maturity on his part is
incredible. I just-I'd be happier if he died. My
child support is guaranteed if he dies. (Woman,
late-30's)








A more intermediate response is given by a man scoring low on

attachment and divorced eight years after a two year marriage:


There is none (relationship). Total and complete
severence. As far as I know, last I heard she was
in Miami. About 3 years ago, I guess. Since
the very early months of 1970, I haven't seen or
heard from her at all. (Man, early 30's, remarried)

The beginning portions reproduced here from three of the interviews of

(supposedly) low attached divorced individuals are selected because

they 1) represent three distinct attitudes, and 2) all three interviewees

had requested to be interviewed, thereby establishing a commonality among

them.

Diverse frames of reference were represented among those interviewees

ranking high on postmarital attachment. For example, one woman who had

been divorced for one year, after a 34 year marriage, responded to the

question, using the legal procedure as a referent:

This is the first legal experience I've ever had in
my life, first need for a lawyer. But I am really
turned off by the legal profession, from the experi-
ence I've had. This man was urged on me by some
friends who have known him since his youth .
a marvelously successful person, and he absolutely
must have my case because he is so good. I had his
greatest attention at first, and since then I felt
that he didn't give a hoot about me. (Woman, late
50's)

Another woman who scored high on attachment, and who had been

divorced for six years after an 18 year marriage, commented,

The relationship is nonexistent except for the
support check he sends once a month I have 500
percent disappointment in his humanity, his worth as
a person in terms of what I consider important attributes








for any human being He cannot show, or will
not show, love. He is a very strange person .
I don't have any sentimentality-just a sense of
disgust for him as a human being I have com-
passion for him I felt it was a good marriage,
for the very most part I was basically happy.
I never thought divorce to be a solution to anyone's
problems. (Woman, mid-40's)

These immediate responses from both high and low scoring persons

on the criterion instrument demonstrate the presence of differential

affect as well as some degree of vigilance, with the exception on the

part of the subject who has remarried. Each of them represents not

only a tendency to expend energy in terms of the former relationship,

but also a tendency to either channel this energy directed toward the

object (former mate), or to divert it toward a substitute object (i.e.

lawyer). It must be noted that the lowest level of affect is demonstrated

by the remarried person, thus supporting the data indicating that remarried

persons are less attached to their former spouses.


Conclusions and Implications

The primary conclusion evinced by this study resides in the area of

relationship development. The study showed that a relationship based

upon a shared history does exist between two spouses after the termination

of a marriage. This relationship, designated as "postmarital attachment"

varies in degree of intensity from person to person (i.e. may appear

virtually nonexistent in some and inordinate in others); is measureable,

and is predicated upon certain factors in the process of marriage and

divorce. All of these factors were not tapped in this study. However,

certain variables may be obviated as not relevant to the presence and/or

significance of postmarital attachment. These include subjective cognitive








attribution, such as fulfilling one's own role function; education and/or

income level of the couple; sex of a person; and the length of time

married. Length of the marriage and length of time divorced were confirmed

as not relevant in the other study of postmarital attachment to date

(Kitson & Sussman, 1976). However, length of time divorced did appear to

significantly affect the degree of postmarital attachment, according to

this study.

It is further concluded that certain factors in a marriage do affect

the degree of a divorced person's attachment to the former mate. These

include agreeing upon and sharing activities; sexual satisfaction; extent

of religious commitment; and remarriage. It is interesting to note that

there is a thread of similarity among these variables in that they all

exist outside of the purely demographic domain. While, with the

possible exception of sexual satisfaction, there is not necessarily

inherent in them an interactional element, there is nevertheless a

common quality which is distinctly social in nature.

Theory Implications

The notion of attachment in theoretical form has been explored in

Chapter II. In addition, expressions of "divorce counseling theory"

have been posited, in varying degrees of development. These have

essentially constituted a range of models based upon notions of

bereavement, socialization, and support systems.

In order to contribute further toward the crystallization of a

theory, it is necessary to take into account material which is gained

from the present study and to examine its application to currently

existing theory. Whereas social factors have emerged as contributory

toward the postdivorce relationship, it is well to examine a theoretical








basis for them in the hope of enhancing understanding of the phenomenon

being studied. One such theory is that of "object-relations" (Guntrip,

1971). Essentially, this consists of that aspect of psychoanalytic

theory which is social psychological in nature; it seeks to examine the

interactions of an individual and his environment, and thus affords a

study of the relationship of an individual to his objects. According

to Guntrip, personal objects are relationships sought for interest,

understanding, supporting encouragement, self-expression, and proof of

being valued and wanted for oneself (1961, p. 286).

Since psychodynamic theory perceives human development as con-

stantly in a state of flux, it may be concluded that the course of

emotional development affects the choice of an individual's objects

(of satisfaction) in the environment. It is therefore realistic to

conclude that an object which was gratifying at one moment in time may

not in fact be so perennially. The focus, then, of a postmarital

attachment syndrome is realistically rooted in the past. It is applic-

able to the present only in terms of the particular (social) needs

seeking fulfillment postmaritally.

As evidenced by the significantly lower level of postmarital

attachment in remarried people, it can be concluded that what is

evidently sought by divorced people is object replacement, rather
than the specific object of the former spouse. This is not to say

that remarriage is a panacea, but that interpersonal relationship

development is, and should be, incorporated into a theoretical model

for divorce counseling. Kessler (1975) demonstrates awareness of

this in positing a group counseling model for separation and divorce

adjustment.








There is additional need for divorce counseling theory to attend

to the principles of causation for divorce already established in the

literature, in order not to violate them. The findings of this study

signify that causative factors do exist, as indicated in research

literature; they also signify that in spite of causation, certain

residual positive forces will endure after the termination of a

marital relationship. It appears crucial for divorce counselors

to be aware of this.

Implications for Practice

The major implications of this study for counseling practice are

twofold: first, there is the contribution of the study in delineating

social variables as contributory to postmarital attachment after

divorce; second, there is interest for counseling practice in terms

of assessment. The first implication of social variables is directly

related to an understanding of a client's needs at the post-separation

(or postdivorce) stage. Divorce counseling can be improved in the

sense that there is now a clearer focus: interpersonal relationship

development. Therapy can therefore be undertaken bearing in mind some

directionality (either immediately or as a longer term goal).

The second implication (assessment) is directly related to the

remediation program. Factor analysis of the criterion instrument has

demonstrated the beginnings of construct validity and interitem

reliability so that it may be used to augment more subjective perceptions

on the part of the therapist. Combined use of the projective device and

the criterion instrument affords baseline information of the extent of

postmarital attachment experienced by the client at that time.








Suggestions for Further Research

This study served to carry the observations of Weiss (1973, 1975,

1976) one step further. Some of the data which Weiss reported descrip-

tively have been confirmed (or refuted) statistically. However, this

study does not purport to have considered all of the variables which

may be used as predictors of postmarital attachment in divorced persons.

Thus a primary possibility for further research is a continued investi-

gation of this problem, utilizing different predictors, thereby enlarging

the small (though significant) body of knowledge in this topic area.

A second suggestion lies in the area of instrumentation. Whereas

the beginnings of construct validation for the criterion instrument

(Index of Attachment and PRI) have been undertaken, further work on
norming and validation procedures is indicated. It must be acknowledged,

additionally, that in the construction of this instrument in its present

form, all possible constructs were not utilized. Thus, some relevant

items might be utilized to assess attachment to the former spouse in

terms of some of its other manifestations, such as anger, surveillance,

or exploitation of children, to name a few.

Another area of interest for research is based upon the results

of hypothesis 10: those subjects who found it easy to obtain a divorce

were more attached to the former spouse. It is not feasible to discuss
this finding without attention to the nature and variability of divorce

laws from state to state, as well as an examination of the perceived

roles) and functions of divorce lawyers, by different states of residence.
At the present time, although this information is carefully documented

in archives of different states, its availability and applicability to





76


social sciences may provide a profound impact for facilitating both

the process of divorce and ultimate adjustment.































APPENDICES






























APPENDIX A

LETTERS SEEKING SUBJECTS









LETTER TO PARTICIPANTS


Sheila K. Vernick
3207 NW 46th Place
Gainesville, Florida 32605
May 4, 1978


Dear

I am a doctoral student at the University of Florida, Department
of Counselor Education. I am currently undertaking a research project
on the topic of divorce and the postmarital relationship. I am in the
process of contacting people whose names are on the membership rosters
of singles organizations, with the hope of reaching as many divorced
individuals as possible.

If you are divorced, I would like to request your assistance in
participating in this project. Participation would involve spending
about 40 minutes in completing research questionnaires for the study.
This procedure will be accomplished by mail (postage paid by me) and
completely anonymously on your part. Responses to these instruments
will be utilized for statistical purposes only, thus preserving your
confidentiality.

If you would be willing to volunteer your time to complete the
research instruments, it would be a greatly appreciated and valuable
contribution toward our increased understanding of this area of
knowledge. I also am divorced, and so I share this interest with you.

I am asking that you return the enclosed postcard to me, indicating
your willingness to cooperate in the study. If you volunteer, I shall
forward to you the information packet for completion. All participants
will receive a one page summary of the findings of the project when it
is completed.

My sincere thanks to you.
Gratefully,


Sheila K. Vernick
Graduate Student









LETTER TO APGA WORKSHOP PARTICIPANTS



Sheila K. Vernick
3207 NW 46th Place
Gainesville, Florida 32605
May 4, 1978



Dear

During our attendance at the APGA pre-convention divorce workshop
in Washington, D. C., you indicated your interest in participating in
a research project on divorce and postmarital attachment. I am now
ready to conduct the research for this study.

I am hoping that you will spend approximately 40 minutes in com-
pleting the instruments for this study. I am also requesting that if
you have friends or clients who are eligible (i.e., are presently or
previously divorced), you ask their cooperation in participating in
the research. Please be assured that anonymity and confidentiality
of volunteers is guaranteed. Information obtained will be utilized for
statistical purposes only.

The enclosed postcard is for you to return, indicating the number
of instrument packets you will need. All packets contain directions
and postage paid return envelopes. When I receive your postcard, I
will forward to you the packets that you request. As a contact person,
you will recieve a summary of the results of the study.

My genuine appreciation to you for your assistance in my dissertation.

Sincerely,


Sheila K. Vernick
Graduate Student
Counselor Education
University of Florida









LETTER TO CONTACT PERSONS


Sheila K. Vernick
3207 NW 46th Place
Gainesville, Florida 32605
May 4, 1978


Dear

I am a doctoral candidate at the University of Florida, in the
department of Counselor Education. I am currently engaged in a
research project on the topic of divorce and postmarital attachment.
In order to complete this study, it is necessary for me to obtain a
number of divorced, or divorced and remarried individuals who are
willing to provide me with information anonymously.

I would like to request your assistance in obtaining participants
in your state of residence for this research. If you have clients (or
acquaintances) who are willing to volunteer approximately 40 minutes
to complete the instruments being used for the study, it would provide
a valuable contribution to this crucial area of knowledge in which you
and I are involved. Participants need not be in therapy; any person
who has been divorced is eligible and welcome.

Please be assured that anonymity and confidentiality of partici-
pants is completely guaranteed. Any information which the subjects
provide will be utilized for statistical purposes only.

Please return the enclosed postcard to me with your instructions
as to research packets. I will then forward these materials to you to
distribute. All packets will contain directions for completing the
instruments and postage paid return envelopes.

As a contact person, upon completion of the study you will receive
a summary of the results.

My sincere gratitude to you for your assistance.
Sincerely,


Sheila K. Vernick
Graduate Student
Counselor Education
University of Florida






























APPENDIX B









INFORMED CONSENT FORM


Dear Participant,

I am a student in counselor education, and am collecting information
for a study about divorce. Having been divorced enables you to assist
me by supplying information about your pre- and post-divorce situation.
I would like to request your cooperation in completing the attached
instruments. These will be kept entirely anonymous and confidential.
For this reason, I am asking that you return your completed instruments
in the large manila envelope, and the bottom of this form in the separate
smaller envelope. Both are postpaid.

Participation is completely voluntary. If for any reason you would
rather not participate in this study, please return the entire packet
unopened; if you have begun, you may return the materials (completed
and/or not completed) in the large envelope.

I greatly appreciate your cooperation in this project and thank
you for your time and prompt response.
Sincerely yours,


Sheila K. Vernick


PLEASE RETURN THIS PORTION

Informed Consent

I understand that I am participating in a study in which I am to
supply information about my divorce. My information will be used for
the purpose of research in divorce counseling, and will be treated
statistically.

I am willing to complete the enclosed packet, and understand
that my information is confidential.
Subject:

Signature:

Address:


Researcher: Sheila K. Vernick, M.Ed.
3207 NW 46th Place
Gainesville, Florida 32605






























APPENDIX C
ITEM VARIANCES FOR MEMBERS/NON-MEMBERS









TABLE 13

ETA2 COEFFICIENTS DERIVED FROM 2-WAY FACTORIAL
ANALYSES OF VARIANCE
N = 135


ETA2

Item DACL Score Total Attachment Score


Age .0016 .0121

Age at marriage .0016 .0169

Age at divorce .0016 .0144

Length of marriage .0025 .0100

Length of time divorced .0081 .0025

Length of premarital
acquaintance .0009 .0169

Length of engagement .0025 .0049

Sex .0016 .0144

Last grade completed .0016 .0144

Last grade of spouse .0025 .0169

State of residence .0016 .0144

Occupation .0016 .0144

Spouse's occupation .0016 .0100

Number of children .0036 .0100

Remarried .0009 .0121

Type of ceremony .0009 .0121

Shared activities .0001 .0144

Cause of divorce .0001 .0144

Smooth engagement .0016 .0196

Wife's income .0121 .0081









TABLE 13 continued


ETA2

Item DACL Score Total Attachment Score


Time divorce considered .0100 .0144

Communicate about divorce .0016 .0144

Agreement .0121 .0121

Used same lawyer .0016 .0144

Benefits of lawyer .0016 .0100

Divorce process easy .0016 .0100

Spouse met expectations .0016 .0144

I met spouse's expectations .0016 .0144

Spouse was religious .0016 .0144

I am religious .0016 .0144

Religious perspectives
similar .0016 .0144

Satisfying sexual experience .0016 .0144

Sexual relationship paramount .0016 .0100

Sexual obligation of spouse .0016 .0144

Needed separations .0016 .0144

Both worked .0016 .0144

Went out socially .0016 .0144

Agreement re where to go .0016 .0144

Spouse attended church .0016 .0144

I attended church .0016 .0144

Attended church together .0016 .0144

Extramarital sexual experience .0009 .0100
































APPENDIX D



















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APPENDIX E
DEMOGRAPHIC DESCRIPTION OF THE SAMPLE