The nature and sources of job satisfaction among school counselors in the American School Counselor Association

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The nature and sources of job satisfaction among school counselors in the American School Counselor Association
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Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1987.
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by Georiene B.E. Morgan.
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THE NATURE AND SOURCES OF JOB SATISFACTION
AMONG SCHOOL COUNSELORS IN THE
AMERICAN SCHOOL COUNSELOR ASSOCIATION








By.

GEORGIENE B.E. MORGAN


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN
PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


1987












ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


It is impossible to acknowledge all the friends and

family members who provided support and encouragement during

the process of completing this study. However, several

people went beyond the call of duty/friendship and deserve

special mention.

Profoundest gratitude is extended to Dr. Margaret Fong-

Beyette, chairperson of my doctoral committee, who was most

inspiriting, compassionate, and challenging. One of the

most beneficial experiences of my educational career was to

observe the professional and personable manner in which she

guided this study. Additionally, appreciation is extended

to Drs. Robert Jester, Max Parker, and Al Smith whose timely

feedback and expert contributions helped to shape the

development and completion of this project. Special mention

must also be made of Dr. E. L. Tolbert who contributed many

practical suggestions at the inception of the study.

Very special commendation is due my husband, Cecil and

daughter, Jolande. They were constant sources of

inspiration and made many sacrifices to bring this project

to fruition. Other persons who contributed

significant moral support included my aunt, Verna Norman;

my mentor, Dr. Chuck Park; and friends, Drs. Rod McDavis and

Patricia Campbell.







Finally, heartfelt thanks are expressed to the hundreds

of school counselors who made this study possible by

responding to the surveys. Although they were very busy,

they took the time to help. Many school counselors also

offered words of encouragement and those were greatly

appreciated.

Again, I thank all the people who helped to make

this dream a reality!











































iii












TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS................................ ii

LIST OF TABLES.................................... vi

ABSTRACT.......................................... vii

CHAPTERS

I INTRODUCTION ............................... 1

Statement of the Problem................... 3
Purpose of the Study...... ................ 3
General Research Questions ................. 4
Need for the Study............................ 4
Rationale for Study........... .............. 10
Definition of Terms......................... 12

II LITERATURE REVIEW............ .............. 15

The Role of School Counselors.............. 15
Job Satisfaction Theories .................. 22
Job Satisfaction Research.................. 36
Job Satisfaction and Its Correlates........ 51
Summary.................................... 57

III METHODOLOGY ................................ 60

Population and Sample...................... 60
Instrumentation ............................ 62
Data Collection............................. 65
Pilot Study ................................. 65
Research Questions.......................... 67

IV RESULTS .................................... 69

Research Question 1.......................... 69
Research Question 2........ .............. 70
Research Question 3............ ............ 72
Research Question 4..................... ....... 77
Research Question 5......................... 78
Research Question 6......................... 78
Research Question 7...... .................. 80
Summary .................................... 81








V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS.................... 84

Discussion of Results....................... 86
Limitations ................................ 92
Implications ............................... 94
Conclusions ................................ 99

REFERENCES....................................... 102

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ............................... 109












LIST OF TABLES


Table Page

1 Description of sample................... 62

2 Sample Characteristics.................. 63

3 Sources of Job Satisfaction Reported
on the MSQ............................ 71

4 The 10 Most Satisfying Aspects of School
Counseling Listed by the Counselors.. 72

5 Source Tables for Analyses of School
Level Differences on Seven MSQ Scales 74

6 Means of the Seven Significant MSQ
Scales with Respect to School Levels. 75

7 A Comparison of the 10 Most
Dissatisfying Aspects of School
Counseling As Reported by Counselors
at Each School Level................. 77

8 Multiple Regression Summary of
Job Satisfaction Variables........... 79

9 Multiple Regression Summary of
Role Related Variables ............... 82













Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy



THE NATURE AND SOURCES OF JOB SATISFACTION AMONG
SCHOOL COUNSELORS IN THE
AMERICAN SCHOOL COUNSELOR ASSOCIATION

By

GEORGIENE B.E. MORGAN

August 1987

Chairperson: Dr. Margaret Fong-Beyette
Major Department: Counselor Education

This study was designed to determine the level and

sources of job satisfaction of school counselors and

the relationship between their job satisfaction and

variables such as school level. It was also designed to

learn if job satisfaction could be predicted from factors

such as tenure and sex.

Job satisfaction surveys were mailed to a random sample

of 1500 counselors in the American School Counselor

Association. After screening the 779 responses, 686 were

deemed usable and constituted the final sample. The survey

consisted of a personal and employment data section and the

Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ). The MSQ

measured 20 sources of job satisfaction as well as general

job satisfaction.

Several statistical procedures were used to analyze the

data, including frequency distributions, Pearson's


vii








correlation technique, analyses of variance, and multiple

regression analyses. It was determined that (a) the school

counselors were moderately satisfied with their jobs;

(b) the school counselors were satisfied by intrinsic

factors such as achievement; (c) high school level

counselors experienced less satisfaction than those at the

elementary or middle/junior high school levels; (d) there

was a weak but statistically significant (p < .05) positive

relationship between age and job satisfaction but not

between salary and job satisfaction; and (e) job

expectations, job challenge, and counselors' perception of

the adequacy of their training were predictors of job

satisfaction.

It was observed that the school counselors had concerns

of role overload, ambiguity, and conflict. It was suggested

that the ASCA could help to promote satisfaction among school

counselors by intensifying its efforts of clarifying the

school counselors' role to the public. It was also

suggested that counselor educators, by developing realistic

training and continuing education programs, could help to

foster job satisfaction among school counselors.


viii


I












CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

Although Geist (1963) noted that very few professionals

were dissatisfied with or wanted to change their jobs,

today, after perusing many educational journals, one is apt

to conclude that this is not the case with school

counselors. For example, Wells and Ritter (1979) noted that

school counselors were suffering a loss of personal and

professional satisfaction due to their inability to meet the

needs of their students and school systems. Birashk and

Kazckowski (1984) observed that school counseling was, for

many, a mere stepping stone to bigger and better employment

prospects. When one considers these observations, the

result is a feeling of foreboding for the school counseling

profession.

School counseling is an "American phenomenon" (Wrenn,

1962) that began in the early part of the twentieth

century. As the profession grew, the American School

Counselor Association (ASCA) was formed (Herr, 1979) and

this organization is now regarded as the official "voice" of

the profession. In its role statement ("The Practice of

Guidance," 1981), the ASCA explained that the role of the

school counselor is to create a learning environment where

the psychological well-being of each student is developed

and promoted. To accomplish this, counselors perform the

functions of individual and group guidance, individual









and group counseling, and consultation with parents and

teachers. However, since the psychological needs of

students are related to their developmental stages,

school counselors at each educational level (i.e.,

elementary, middle/junior high, and senior high school)

perform interventions that are appropriate for each

student's developmental stage.

Although the ASCA has made an attempt to define the

school counselors' role, many argue that they are not

performing the duties for which they were trained. This

seems to be endemic to the counseling profession for, as Boy

and Pine (1980) noted, "the professional role envisioned and

internalized during counselor preparation seems inoperable

in the real world, and many counselors have become

personally and professionally discouraged" (p. 161).

Addressing the problems of school counselors,

Day and Sparacio (1980) hypothesized that several factors

were preventing them from performing duties consistent with

their training. These impediments include (a) the absence

of legal definitions of school counseling or a regulatory

body for the practice of school counseling; (b) the lack of

understanding on the part of parents, students, and other

school personnel of the competencies of the school

counselors; (c) inadequate and/or unrealistic school

counselor training; and (d) the failure of school counselors

to define their roles clearly. As a result of these

barriers to effective school counselor performance, Day and









Sparacio believed that school counselors were experiencing

dissatisfaction with their jobs.



Statement of the Problem

There is a common belief that there is a high level of

job dissatisfaction among school counselors and that this is

affecting their effectiveness in the schools (Wells &

Ritter, 1979). However, this view seems to be perpetuated

by many persons who are not currently involved in the

practice of school counseling and little has been done to

determine school counselors' views. Therefore, there exists

a need to determine school counselors' level of satisfaction

with their jobs.



Purpose of the Study

There is a paucity of empirical literature that takes a

comprehensive approach to describing the proportion of

school counselors who are satisfied with their careers as

well as the factors that contribute to their job

satisfaction. Therefore, data were gathered to describe

both the levels and sources of job satisfaction among school

counselors. Additionally, the relationships between job

satisfaction and variables such as grade level of school,

monthly salaries, and ages were examined.

Another purpose of the study was to determine if job

satisfaction could be predicted from factors such as

counselor-student ratios, tenure, and level of education.








General Research Questions

Seven general questions were addressed in this study:

1. What is the level of job satisfaction among school

counselors who are members of the American School Counselor

Association?

2. What are the sources of job satisfaction among

school counselors who are members of the American School

Counselor Association?

3. Are there differences in the sources of job

satisfaction among school counselors in elementary,

middle/junior high, and senior high schools?

4. Is school counselor satisfaction related to

personal variables such as age and monthly salaries?

5. Can school counselor job satisfaction be predicted

from variables such as level of employing school, sex,

level of education, school setting, control of

school, and involvement in professional organizations?

6. Can job satisfaction be predicted from factors

such as occupational and job tenure, counselor-student

ratios, percentage of time spent on specific duties

(e.g., counseling, consulting, and guidance) each week, and

school counselors' perceptions of the degree of job challenge,

adequacy of educational training, and job expectations?



Need for the Study

What are school counselors' perceptions of their jobs?

Are school counselors satisfied or dissatisfied with their

profession? A limited amount of empirical data is available










to answer these questions. The studies of school

counselors' reactions to their jobs can be separated

into three categories: studies of occupational burnout,

occupational stress, and job satisfaction.

Addressing the phenomenon of occupational burnout,

several authors have presented an alarming picture of

burnout among counselors (Boy & Pine, 1980; Savicki &

Cooley, 1982; Warnath & Shelton, 1976; Watkins, 1983; Welch,

Medeiros, & Tate, 1982). Although none of these writers

present data to support their observations, they have

contributed to the prevailing notion that a high level of

burnout is rampant among this professional group.

Additionally, although writers do not specifically address

school counselors, it has often been concluded that high

levels of burnout exist among school counselors since they

are in a "helping" profession. However, after reviewing

current research it was concluded that this view may be

overstated (Cummings & Nall, 1982, 1983; Lynch, 1981;

Pierson & Archambault, 1984).

In a national survey of the ASCA's members conducted by

Lynch (1981), 60% of the respondents indicated that they

were not very anxious. This study was conducted to

determine (a) sources of job stress, (b) activities used by

school counselors to reduce stress, and (c) physical and

mental health problems related to stress. In the study

stress was used synonymously with burnout and was

ascertained by a questionnaire developed by Lynch. Lynch









attributed the finding of low levels of school counselor

burnout to the facts that school counselors are not always

in as stressful situations as teachers and the school

counselors' training which prepared them for dealing with

stress. Although the results of the study suggested that

school counselors do not experience high levels of burnout,

it was not well documented and so its results must

be considered tentatively.

The findings of Pierson and Archambault (1984) were

consistent with those of Lynch (1981). Pierson and

Archambault observed that school counselors, like teachers

and other student personnel workers in Connecticut's public

schools, experienced only moderate levels of burnout and

role stress. To measure burnout, the Maslach Burnout

Inventory was used while the Role Questionnaire was used to

determine role stress. Of all the groups, school counselors

indicated the highest levels of role ambiguity on the Role

Questionnaire. This finding is also similar to that of Day

and Sparacio (1980) who indicated that the roles of

school counselors were not clear-cut. It should be noted,

however, that the Pierson and Archambault study was

regional, and so it may be limited in generalizability.

In another study of burnout, Cummings and Nall (1982)

sought to determine if school counselor burnout was

influenced by school administrators' leadership styles.

After surveying 300 randomly selected school counselors in

eastern Iowa, they found that those with administrators who

used authoritarian leadership styles tended to report higher










le-.-ls of burnout than did school counselors whose

administrators used a participative style of leadership.

Although this study may be helpful to administrators who

wanr to help school counselors avoid burnout, the validity

of these results is limited as burnout was determined by a

single question on the survey.

It has been noted that some investigations of

scchol counselors' reactions to their jobs are studies of

occupational stress. One such study was conducted by

Bucke, Moracco, and McEwen (1984), who surveyed 550 members

of the ASCA using the Counselor Occupational Stress Inventory.

The aim of this well-designed study was to determine the

factors that contributed to school counselors' job stress.

Six sources of stress were identified from reports of 410

respondents. These were (a) lack of decision-making

authority, (b) financial security, (c) nonprofessional

duties, (d) professional job overload, (e) school counselor-

teacher relationships, and (f) school counselor-principal

relationships. While this study did provide information

about sources of school counselor stress, it also gave

credence to the popular view that counseling is a very

stressful occupation because the authors did not report what

percentage of their sample was experiencing stress.

Therefore, it could be construed that all school counselors

in this study were suffering from stress. In extrapolating

from this, it could be perceived that all school counselors

are stressed.








In addition to examining occupational burnout and

stress among school counselors, some researchers have

conducted job satisfaction studies to investigate school

counselors reactions to their jobs. For example, Wiggins

(1984) found a significant relationship between job

satisfaction and congruence between school counselors'

personality codes on Holland's Vocational Preference

Inventory and the school counselors' occupational code (SIA)

in the Occupations Finder. Job satisfaction was measured by

the Task-Hygiene Job Satisfaction Blank (designed by

Wiggins) which was mailed to 200 school counselors in the

eastern states. Results from 123 respondents indicated a

moderate level of job satisfaction among school counselors

and that those with congruent Holland codes were more

satisfied than their counterparts with incongruent codes.

Although limited to a regional sample, this study lends

support to the belief that job satisfaction is an

interaction between the worker and the work environment.

Although the studies of school counselor burnout and

occupational stress are more abundant than job satisfaction

studies, they do not provide much information about school

counselors' reactions to their jobs. Additionally, the few

existing studies of school counselor satisfaction have used

varying measures of job satisfaction and regional samples in

addressing the topic. Hence, the results from these studies

are often contradictory and of questionable generalizability.

It should also be noted that existing studies tend to treat

school counselors as a homogenous group, disregarding










differences that may occur as a result of serving student

populations of differing age groups. Thus, there is a need

for comprehensive studies of job satisfaction among school

counselors.

One approach to a comprehensive study of job

satisfaction is to use a conceptual base upon which to build

the research questions. Therefore, the theory of work

adjustment (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984) was used to provide a

framework for this study of school counselor job

satisfaction. Dawis and Lofquist (1984) present the idea

that job satisfaction is the result of the interaction

between the requirements of both individuals and their work

environments. Individuals have certain needs or reinforcer

requirements that must be met by the work environment. When

this occurs, job satisfaction results, and is indicated by

an individual's tenure (i.e., choice to remain in the work

environment). In summary, "the probability that an

individual will voluntarily leave the work environment is

inversely related to the individual's satisfaction" (Dawis &

Lofquist, 1984, p. 60). An outgrowth of the theory of work

adjustment was the development of the Minnesota Satisfaction

Questionnaire (MSQ), developed by Weiss, Dawis, England, and

Lofquist in 1967 and revised in 1977. This instrument

measures individuals' satisfaction with aspects/facets of

their jobs as well as overall job satisfaction.








Rationale for Study

After reviewing the literature on school counselors'

reactions to their jobs it was concluded that many were

experiencing negative reactions to their jobs (e.g., Savicki

& Cooley, 1982; Warnath & Shelton, 1976). If so, school

counselors could be negative influences in the lives of

students and thus could impact negatively on students'

psychological development. Additionally, because job

dissatisfaction can be physically and psychologically

debilitating, it could result in high rates of job turnover

for school counselors, a result that also would be costly to

schools.

If the problem of high levels of job dissatisfaction,

exists among school counselors, principals and school

superintendents may want to take steps to ensure satisfying

environments for them. However, with little or no

empirical data, it is impossible to determine the extent of

the problem and the appropriate corrective steps necessary

to ameliorate it. This study therefore provides an

indication of not only the level of satisfaction among

school counselors, but also specific factors that contribute

to their satisfaction. This then might provide school

administrators with a base from which they can build

corrective and preventative strategies for promoting job

satisfaction among school counselors.

This study also has implications for career counseling,

school counselor education, and professional organizations.

In career counseling, clients are aided in the process of










matching their personal characteristics with those of

various jobs in order to determine a complementary

combination. By identifying the satisfying elements of the

school counselor's job, this study provides information

that will help potential school counselors to make more

realistic decisions about whether or not to become school

counselors.

For admission to their programs, school counselor

educators select and recruit students whom they believe will

be able to be satisfied and successful in school counseling.

Therefore, the more school counselor educators know about

the contributors to school counselors' satisfaction, the

better will be their selections. This study provides

school counselor educators and students with information to

facilitate their selection processes. Additionally, this

information can be incorporated into professional

development curricula to ensure that students are presented

with a realistic picture of school counseling and therefore

be forearmed with strategies to meet the demands of the

profession.

Since a function of professional organizations (e.g.,

the ASCA) is the promotion of the welfare of its members,

information from this study can be used by such

organizations to develop programs that promote job

satisfaction among their members.










Definition of Terms

Control of school refers to the source from which the

operating funds for the school are derived. Source of

control can be public (i.e., supported by local, county,

state, or federal government) or private (i.e., supported by

a nongovernmental agency, including religious organizations).

Counselor-student ratio is based on the number of

school counselors employed in a school and the total number

of students enrolled in that school. The ratio is computed

by dividing the number of school counselors by the number of

students.

Elementary school is an institution so designated by

the school counselor respondents. In this study, the

majority of respondents indicated a beginning grade of

kindergarten and ending grade of six for the elementary

schools in which they worked. However, in a few cases, an

upper grade limit of nine was reported.

Job challenge refers to the degree to which the job

presents opportunities for using problem-solving strategies

as opposed to merely performing routine tasks.

Job satisfaction is a sense of gratification which "is

the result of the worker's appraisal of the extent to which

the work environment fulfills the individual's needs" (Dawis

& Lofquist, 1984, p. 72). In this study, job satisfaction

was measured by the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire.








Job tenure is the "time spent in a particular position"

(Dawis & Lofquist, 1984, p. 74). In this study, it was

measured in years.

Middle/junior high school is an institution so

designated by the school counselor respondents. In this

study, the majority of respondents indicated a beginning

grade of six and an ending grade of nine for the

middle/junior schools in which they worked. However, in a

few cases, a beginning grade level of kindergarten and an

ending grade level of 12 was reported.

Occupational tenure is the "time spent in a specific

occupation irrespective of organizational membership or

positions held" (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984, p.74). In this

study, it was measured in years.

Professional organization is any organization

comprised of individuals with similar professional

interests which serves to control and maintain standards of

performance within the profession, socialize newer members,

and promote the welfare of its members.

School counselor is an employee of a public or

private school whose main responsibilities are counseling,

consultation, guidance, and other related activities.

Senior high school is an institution so designated by

the school counselor respondent. In this study, the

majority of school counselors indicated a beginning grade of

nine and an ending grade of 12 for the senior high schools

in which they worked. However, in a few cases, there was a

lower limit of grade six.







14

Setting of school describes the size of the populace of

the city in which the school is located. In this study,

setting is referred to as urban (i.e., a city with

population of 2,500 or more) or rural (i.e., a city with

population of 2,499 or less) (U.S. Department of Commerce,

1982).

Sources of job satisfaction refer to school counselors'

needs requirements as indicated on the Minnesota

Satisfaction Questionnaire.













CHAPTER II
LITERATURE REVIEW

The review of literature related to this study is

presented in four sections in this chapter. The first

section is an examination of the role of school counselors.

The second section is a discussion of the theories of job

satisfaction. A review of job satisfaction research is

presented in the third section and the fourth contains a

description of conditions related to job satisfaction.



The Role of School Counselors

In 1950, James Conant, then president of Harvard

University, stated that "it would not be too much to say

that on the success or failure of our guidance program

hangs the success or failure of our system of public

education" (p. xi). More recently, this sentiment was

echoed by Herr (1984) who argued that in order for American

students to achieve excellence in school and the workplace,

attention must be focused on the "emotional, values, and

decision-making components that school counselors and

guidance processes contribute to the overall educational

mission" (p. 219). The fact that school counselors are

considered important school personnel was reflected in

the 1970 Gallup Poll (Elam, 1978) where 73% of all persons in

the national survey indicated that they believed that school

counselors were worth the added costs.







Why are school counselors considered to be such an integral

part of the educational system? This can be attributed to

the role they play in the nation's elementary, middle/junior,

and senior high schools. Here, the aim of each school

counselor is to serve the needs of the students and thereby

enhance each student's educational, vocational, and psycho-

social development ("Practice of Guidance," 1981). To

achieve this aim, school counselors perform several roles

and functions.

In the elementary school, the school counselor works with

parents and teachers to ensure that the students develop

positive attitudes toward school, self-esteem, good social

skills, and the like. Counselors also work with other

student personnel staff to identify and remediate students

with developmental deficiencies and handicaps ("Practice of'

Guidance," 1981).

In the upper elementary grades, students are introduced

to the relationship between educational choices and career

planning and this concept is further developed in middle or

junior high school. Counselors also help students to make

the transition from elementary to middle school, through

guidance activities. In consultations with teachers,

school counselors help to design curricula that will help the

students gain greater self-knowledge and understanding

("Practice of Guidance," 1981).

In high school, career guidance and counseling are of

paramount importance as students must make career decisions

in preparation for life beyond high school. As such, school








counselors assist students in assessing their interests,

abilities, and so forth and in using this information to make

educational and vocational plans. Counselors also work with

teachers and parents in the process of helping students over

the "adolescent hurdles" and to provide remediation for

students with emotional and vocational problems, along with

school psychologists and other members of the student

personnel team ("Practice of Guidance," 1981).

Although Herr (1984) and the American School Counselor

Association (ASCA) in its role statement ("Practice of

Guidance," 1981) asserted that school counselors by virtue

of the role they perform are assets to the educational

system, some critics challenge this view. For example,

Aubrey (1982) contended that "the work of school counselors

entails inordinate amounts of time in clerical and

administrative tasks that could just as easily be

accomplished by computers or paraprofessionals at a lower

cost" (p. 198). However, Whitham (1982) has suggested that

one reason for the school counselors' required load of

nonprofessional duties is the fact that the school counselor

role was never well defined and neither was the school

counselor's position in relationship to other positions in

the school system.

Responding to the the need for clarifying the school

counselor's role, the ASCA developed and refined position

statements concerning the role and function of school

counselors in elementary through postsecondary institutions,

during the 1970s. In 1981, the ASCA published a role statement









that incorporated all previous statements ("Practice of

Guidance," 1981). Presently, the ASCA works with principals at

the local and national levels to promote understanding of

and appreciation for the role of school counselors. It is

also the ASCA's goal to establish relationships with the

National Parent Teachers Association Council, the American

Federation of Teachers, and the National Educational

Association to help these groups to understand the unique

position of school counselors (Minkoff & Terres, 1985).

Another reason for school counselors' preponderance

with noncounseling activities was suggested by Thomas and

Myrick (1984), who noted that school counselors often report

that they "feel powerless in making decisions about their

roles and functions" (p. 3). On the other hand, Wells and

Ritter (1979) countered that school counselors need to

determine their own job roles and functions. Perhaps this

is more easily said than done for as Moore (1970) and Scott

(1966) explained, whenever professionals become employed

(rather than being self-employed), their professional

autonomy is often eroded.

Another problem that employee-professionals face is

role conflict (Moore, 1970). This occurs when there are

differences in the demands of the employer and the

employee's professional norms. In school counseling, the

conflict stems from the administrators' requirements of

nonprofessional activities (e.g., scheduling and maintaining

attendance records) (Day & Sparacio, 1980) and the school








counselors' loyalties to the practice of counseling,

consulting, and guidance. In cases where employees

experience conflicts between their employers and

professional beliefs, employees often rebel against the

employers since they believe that professional allegiance is

more important than loyalty to the employers (Scott, 1966).

As a whole, school counselors have not rebelled against

doing nonprofessional duties and this is probably due to the

fact that school counseling is still in the process of

professionalization and so school counselors are not fully

united.

According to Caplow (1966), the process of

professionalization involves four steps. These are

(a) establishment of a professional organization, (b) name

change, (c) development of a professional code of ethics,

and (d) political agitation. During the first step, the

group establishes a professional organization which has

membership criteria that exclude unqualified personnel. An

example of this is the American Medical Association which is

restricted to physicians ("American Medical Association,"

1954/1966). This is in contrast to the ASCA which includes,

in its membership, any person "engaged in activities having

an impact on a student's success and well being at school,

work, and home" (Minkoff & Terres, 1985, p. 426). This

open-ended membership policy could undermine the

professional status of the school counselor group.

The second step in the professionalization process is a

change of name. This step serves to reduce the








identification with the previous occupational status. The

change process is exemplified by the medical technologists,

who, prior to 1928, were called laboratory technicians.

However, as they organized into a professional group, they

realized that their former name vaguely described their

profession and so they developed a new and descriptive name

for their profession ("Medical Technology," 1966). School

counselors are often referred to as school guidance

counselors (e.g., Miller, 1983), but Aubrey (1982) argued

that guidance and counseling convey a plethora of meanings

and so are not descriptive of the school counseling

profession. In fact, Aubrey claimed that the use of the

terms guidance and counseling is a demonstration that the

profession lacks direction. Therefore, it seems that as

school counselors forge their professional identity, they

will need a name that more aptly describes their profession.

The next step in the process of professionalization is

the development of a code of ethics to guide the actions of

the members in the professional group. This step has been

accomplished by the ASCA and in its role statement ("Practice of

Guidance," 1981) school counselors were exhorted to be

guided by the "sound ethical practices for professional

counselors as embodied in the Ethical Standards of the

American Personnel and Guidance Association--American School

Counselor Association" (p. 12).

The final stage of professionalization is involvement

in political agitation. During this stage, the group's








objective is to gain public acceptance and to convince the

public of the need for recognizing this exclusive group of

professionals. To accomplish this, the professional group

usually sets admission and graduation standards for those

entering and graduating from their professional training

schools and establishes inviolable confidentiality

privileges. This step has not been fully mastered by school

counselors for although Minkoff and Terres (1985) indicated

that the ASCA has been and continues to be politically active,

Thomas and Myrick (1984) noted that school counselors were

generally perceived as being politically naive and

recommended that they take a more proactive stance in

determining their professional role and image. Thomas and

Myrick also indicated that school counselors felt a need for

more favorable recognition and support from the public, thus

indicating that school counseling as a profession has not

yet received full approval from the public.

The culmination or the final stage of the process of

professionalization is legislation prohibiting the people on

the outside of the professional group from practicing the

activities reserved for that profession. Presently, there

are no laws restricting the practice of school counseling to

school counselors. However, although school counseling has

not attained the apex of professionalization, this should

not be construed as a weakness of this group since the

process of professionalization can be a prolonged one.

For example, the American Medical Association, which has now

"attained a position of undeniable authority and influence








over medical affairs" ("American Medical Association,"

1954/1966, p. 169), has been in existence for over a century

while the ASCA is only 33-years-old.

It has been suggested here that school counselors have

not rebelled against their required nonprofessional duties

because they are not united by the bonds of a full

professional status. However, it could also be hypothesized

that the school counselors' inertia is due to their

satisfaction with their jobs as satisfied people have no

need to change the conditions of their jobs.



Job Satisfaction Theories

Locke (1969) advised researchers that "to explain job

satisfaction the first question a scientific

investigator must ask is not, 'How can I measure it?' but

rather, 'What is it?'" (p. 334). Following Locke's

admonition, this section is designed to provide an overview

of the study of job satisfaction and a review of the theory

of work adjustment (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984).



Traditional Theory

The earliest systematic study of job satisfaction has

been attributed to Robert Hoppock (Burr, 1980; Gruneberg,

1979), who believed that people's attitudes to their jobs

fell along a satisfaction-dissatisfaction continuum.

Hoppock (1935) believed that satisfaction occurred when

there was the presence of "any combination of psychological,








physiological, and environmental circumstances that cause a

person truthfully to say, 'I am satisfied with my job'" (p.

47). The absence of this combination resulted in

dissatisfaction and people who were neither satisfied nor

dissatisfied were thought to be indifferent to or uncertain

about their feelings toward their jobs. This view is

considered the traditional approach to the study of job

satisfaction and is concerned only with environmental or

work variables that affect job satisfaction.

Hoppock is also considered the forerunner in the use of

attitude surveys to measure job satisfaction. To measure

job satisfaction, Hoppock developed the Job Satisfaction

Blank which he first administered to teachers during the

1932-33 school year (Hoppock, 1935). The purpose of his

investigation was to determine if there were any

differences between satisfied and dissatisfied workers and

since he believed that there was no acceptable means of

measuring job satisfaction, he developed his own instrument.

The Job Satisfaction Blank No. 1 had 258 items. Items 2-12

asked for respondents' reactions to their jobs in general,

while items 13-258 sought to determine respondents' reactions

to various aspects of their jobs (e.g., supervisors, salary,

and working conditions). Responses to items 2-12 were used

to compute a job satisfaction index and Hoppock (1935)

reported a .87 split-half reliability coefficient (Spearman-

Brown formula) for the index. A split-half reliability

coefficient was also calculated for items 13-258 and this

was determined to be .83. However, when the satisfaction








index and the item score (score derived from items 13-258)

were compared, only a moderate correlation of .67 was found.

This is not surprising as the instrument is long and tedious

and respondents may have grown tired and probably responded

less carefully to the items.

In his research, Hoppock (1935) found that the

instrument discriminated between satisfied and dissatisfied

workers. For example, he found that the satisfied teachers

were more emotionally adjusted, older, and felt more

successful than the dissatisfied teachers. After the

initial work with teachers, Hoppock revised the Job

Satisfaction Blank and conducted studies among other working

populations. In 1933, the Job Satisfaction Blank No. 5 was

used to survey the adult population in New Hope,

Pennsylvania, and this version consisted of only 41 of the

original 258 items. Although Hoppock (1935) continued to

use attitude surveys in his research, he bemoaned the fact

that there was no "valid, objective measure" of job

satisfaction "which will be independent of subject's

willingness to tell the truth" (p. 272). This is definitely

a disadvantage in using attitude surveys. However, this

disadvantage is outweighed by the advantage for as Hoppock

(1935) noted, each employee "lives with himself all day and

every day, he experiences his own emotions; if they are

pleasant, he knows it; if they are unpleasant, no one needs

to tell him so" (p. 151). Although Hoppock made inroads

into the study of job satisfaction, his work has not been

unchallenged.










Herzberg's Theory

The most significant challenge to the traditional

theory came from Herzberg, who along with his colleagues,

developed the Herzberg's two-factor or motivation-hygiene

(M-H) theory of job attitudes (Carroll, 1973). This theory

was first published in 1959 by Herzberg, Mausner, and

Snyderman (Herzberg, 1966) who claimed that people had dual

natures. On one hand, they seek to avoid pain and on the

other, they seek to grow psychologically and these natures

affect their attitudes toward their jobs. Based on research

to test this claim, they concluded that people had two

distinct reactions to their jobs--job satisfaction and job

dissatisfaction. Job satisfaction promoted psychological

growth and was determined by achievement, recognition, work

itself, responsibility, and advancement. These satisfiers

were called motivators as they stimulate people to perform

better on the job. There are also five dissatisfiers or

pain producers and these were collectively referred to as

hygienes. The hygienes are company policy, administration,

supervision, salary, interpersonal relations, and working

conditions.

The biggest contention between the traditional and M-H

theories is that the M-H theory asserts that job

satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not on a continuum, but

rather two separate continue. Herzberg (1966) argued that

the "opposite of job satisfaction would not be job

dissatisfaction, but rather no job satisfaction; similarly,








the opposite of job dissatisfaction is no job

dissatisfaction, not satisfaction with one's job" (p. 76).

Herzberg (1966) claimed validity for his theory on the

basis of the research using the critical incident report

technique. This method involved asking employees to recount

an experience when they felt exceptionally good and another

when they felt exceptionally bad about their jobs. The

initial studies among 200 engineers and accountants in

Pittsburgh revealed that there were commonalities among the

satisfaction experiences and that these were quite different

from the commonalities of the dissatisfaction experiences.

The commonalities were then classified and these gave rise

to the notion that motivators were satisfiers and hygienes

were dissatisfiers. This theory has generated much

research, but often with results that provide conflicting

support for the theory (Carroll, 1973). This may be due to

the fact that studies which employ methods other than the

critical incident report technique have failed to support

Herzberg's theory (Locke, 1969).

Although Herzberg and Hoppock disagreed about the

relationship between job satisfaction and dissatisfaction,

both theorists have demonstrated that people's

reactions to their jobs are influenced by job and/or job

related factors. However, this view is considered

inadequate by some theorists, who believe that job

satisfaction is also influenced by personal characteristics

of the workers.








Person-Environment Congruency Model

According to Klein and Wiener (1977), there is a third

approach to the study of job satisfaction. This approach

considers not only the impact of job and job related factors

on employees' job satisfaction, but also considers

personality variables and so is called the person-

environment congruency model. Theorists using this model

believe that one or more of three elements influence job

satisfaction. These three elements are (a) people's needs

and the capacity of the work environment to meet those

needs, (b) people's vocational interests and job activities,

and (c) people's abilities and the skills demanded by the

job.

Two leading proponents of the first element are Locke

and Vroom, who, like Herzberg, believed that people have a

pleasure seeking-pain avoidance nature. Vroom (1964)

explained this behavior in terms of valences, in that if

individuals believe that a situation will result in a

pleasurable outcome, they will enter the situation and so

that situation is said to have a positive valence. On the

other hand, if a situation does not have an anticipated

appealing outcome, the situation will be avoided and so is

said to have a negative valence. Applying this to the work

situation, Vroom argued that if a job is satisfying, it has

a positive valence and if dissatisfying, it has a negative

valence.

In a similar vein, Locke (1969) stated that "job

satisfaction and dissatisfaction are a function of the










perceived relationship between what one wants from one's job

and what one perceives it as offering or entailing" (p. 316).

As such, job satisfaction is a pleasurable emotional state

which occurs when individuals' needs/wants are met and job

dissatisfaction occurs when the opposite occurs. Although

Vroom, Locke, and Herzberg ascribed to the notion of the

dualistic nature of people, Vroom and Locke did not believe

that two distinct conditions contribute to job satisfaction

and dissatisfaction, as did Herzberg. Instead, like the

traditional theorists, Vroom and Locke believed that any

work situation has the potential to be satisfying or

dissatisfying and added that satisfaction and

dissatisfaction are influenced by individuals' needs and

expectations, which develop from prior learning experiences.

Addressing the issue of the relationship between

vocational interests and job satisfaction, Hansen (1984),

indicated that the "correlations between interests scores and

rating of job satisfaction are low" (p. 122) and cited

studies with correlations ranging from .38 to .45. Hansen's

observation is not surprising as job satisfaction is

considered to be a function of a multiplicity of factors and

perhaps is better explained by a combination of two or three

elements of the person-environment congruency model, rather

than any one element. One theory which considers a

combination of elements--needs and abilities--is the theory

of work adjustment (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984).







Theoryof Work Adjustment

The theory of work adjustment can be classified as a

person-environment congruency model as it purports that work

adjustment is the result of a good match between the worker

and the job. This theory, as posited by Dawis and Lofquist

(1984), is based on the assumption that individuals seek to

maintain correspondence (a harmonious relationship) with

their environments (and work is a major environment with

which people must relate). Correspondence is achieved when

the individual fulfills the requirements of the work

environment satisfactorinesss) and the work environment

fulfills the requirements of the individual (satisfaction).

"The continuous and dynamic process by which the individual

seeks to achieve and maintain correspondence with the work

environment is called work adjustment" (Dawis & Lofquist,

1984, p. 55).

For satisfactoriness to occur, the work environment

requires that the worker perform certain tasks and follow

certain rules and norms of appropriate behaviors. These are

considered the ability requirements of the job. On the

other hand, for satisfaction to occur, the work environment

must provide reinforcers for (i.e., meet the needs of) the

employee. According to the theory of work adjustment, there

are 20 needs and these are ability utilization, achievement,

advancement, authority, company policies and practices,

compensation, co-workers, creativity, independence, moral

values, recognition, responsibility, security, social

service, social status, supervision-human relations,









supervision-technical, variety, working conditions, and

activity.

Whenever these needs are not met, the worker becomes

dissatisfied and may choose to leave the job or seek to

improve correspondence. The worker regains correspondence

either by changing the work environment (activeness) or

modifying his/her abilities, needs, and/or values

(reactiveness). Activeness and reactiveness are considered

to be adjustment modes, flexibility (the ability to

tolerate discorrespondence before taking steps to alleviate

the condition) determines when the modes are used, and

perseverance (the length of time an individual can tolerate

discorrespondence before leaving the job) determines how

long the worker will use the modes before quitting. Like

the employee, the supervisors in the work environment will

take action when the correspondence balance is threatened.

Here, the unsatisfactory worker may either be fired or

changes made in the work environment and/or the employee.

The developers of the theory of work adjustment

describe a homeostatic condition between individuals and

their work environments and Dawis and Lofquist (1984)

indicated that the theory can be used effectively in

counseling, especially career counseling. Lofquist and

Dawis (1984) also suggested that as a result of the career

counselors' concern for the individual client and the social

responsibility of the counselor to the client, career and

job satisfaction should be a primary goal and desired







outcome of career counseling. For this reason, much

attention has been paid to the satisfaction aspect of the

theory. However, prior to effecting career counseling

interventions, Dawis and Lofquist (1984) emphasized that

there is a need for assessment of the client's situation.

One such assessment tool is the Minnesota Satisfaction

Questionnaire (MSQ) which was developed to measure job

satisfaction. The MSQ was developed by Weiss, Dawis,

England, and Lofquist (1967) and provides an indication of

individuals' overall/general satisfaction with the job as

well as with 20 aspects or facets of the job. These facets

represent the 20 needs isted previously and are also called

scales.

The MSQ is a self-report questionnaire and is printed

in a long form (which has 100 items) and a short form (which

has 20 items). Respondents are asked to respond to each

item using a Likert scale ranging from very dissatisfied (1)

to very satisfied (5). Scores for each of the 20 scales on

the long form are derived by adding the scores from each of

five items pertaining to that scale and total scores can

range from 5 (very dissatisfied) to 25 (very satisfied).

The general satisfaction score (also considered the twenty-

first scale) is computed from 20 items (one from each of the

first 20 scales) and can range from 20 (very

dissatisfied) to 100 (very satisfied). The short form,

although based on sample items from the long form, yields

three scores--general, intrinsic, and extrinsic

satisfaction. However, the authors, Weiss, Dawis, England,








and Lofquist (1967), strongly recommended the use of the

long form over the short form as the long form provides more

information.

The Manual for the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire

(Weiss, Dawis, England, & Lofquist, 1967) provides normative

data for 25 occupational groups including accountants,

elementary school teachers, and laborers as well as 355

employed disabled persons and 380 employed nondisabled

workers. Although the MSQ was not normed on public school

student personnel workers, Anderson, Hohenshil, and Brown

(1984) have used it to measure job satisfaction among

school psychologists.

Anderson, Hohenshil, and Brown (1984) modified the 1967

version of the MSQ to reduce the number of sexist and

industrial relevant terms. The reliability of the modified

items and their responses were determined using Cronbach's

alpha and these yielded reliability coefficients of .738

to .937 for the items and .973 for the responses.

Additionally, chi square analysis was used to determine the

concurrent validity of the modified MSQ by comparing

respondents' general satisfaction scores on the MSQ with

their responses on a data form. This analysis yielded a chi

square of 7.85 which was significant at the .001 level.

Weiss et al. (1967) also calculated Hoyt reliability

coefficients for each of the 20 scales and found values

ranging from .97 for ability utilization to .59 for the

variety scale. Variations were observed between







occupational groups and so the authors suggested that

internal reliability coefficients be computed for each group

that is surveyed with the MSQ.

Test-retest correlation coefficients were also

calculated for the MSQ using 75 night school students over a

1-week period and 115 employed persons over a 1-year

period. For the 1-week interval, stability correlations

ranged from .66 for the coworkers scale to .91 for the

working conditions scale. Stability correlations for the

1-year interval ranged from .35 for the independence scale

to .71 for the ability utilization scale. Canonical

correlation analyses of the data from the two test-retest

periods yielded coefficients of .97 for the 1-week test

interval and .89 for the 1-year test interval.

As Albright (1972) noted, Weiss et al. (1967) do not

spell out the validity data of the MSQ as they do the

reliability data. Instead, the reader of the

Manual for the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire is

advised to consult other publications which contain

information about the construct and concurrent validity of

the instrument. Additionally, the construct validity of the

MSQ is indirectly derived from the studies of another

instrument, the Minnesota Importance Questionnaire (MIQ),

which is also based on the theory of work adjustment.

However, Dawis and Lofquist (1984) claimed that the research

on the MSQ has yielded ". validity data indicating that

the instrument is appropriate for use in both research and

practice (p. 73).









Other evidence to support the validity of the MSQ is

presented by Dunham, Smith, and Blackburn (1977) who found

tha- the MSQ had the highest average convergent validities

when compared to three other job satisfaction measures and

the second highest discriminant validity scores of the

instruments compared. The study by Dunham et al. (1977) was

designed to compare the convergent and discriminant

validities of four widely used job satisfaction measures:

the MSQ, the Job Descriptive Index (JDI), the Faces Scale

(Faces), and the Index of Organizational Reactions (IOR).

Convergent validity was indicated by the extent to which the

scales on each measure yielded similar scores among

respondents. Discriminant validity was based on the extent

to which each respondent's scale pattern on each instrument

was similar but different from those of other individuals.

Although all of the instruments yielded significant

convergent and discriminant validity scores that were

significant at the .01 level, the MSQ had the highest

convergent validity scores which ranged from .71 to .61.

The JDI had the lowest scores which ranged from .51 to .39.

Kendall's coefficient of concordance was computed as a means

of determining discriminant validity and the MSQ yielded the

highest value of .71 while the JDI yielded the lowest score

of .41. However, when a more stringent test of discriminant

validity was applied to each instrument, the MSQ yielded a

value of .70 compared to .77 for the IOR and .55 for the

Faces and JDI.








Further analyses by Dunham et al. (1977) also

demonstrated that the MSQ was least affected by differences

in the respondents' sex and type of job. This is important

to note as validity differences due to sex and job could

produce misleading results. It was also noted that in

comparing the reliability of the JDI, IOR, and MSQ, the JDI

had the highest reliability coefficients of .79-.63.

Based on the findings of Weiss et al. (1967) and Dunham

et al. (1977), it was concluded that the MSQ has moderately

high validity and reliability measures that compare very

favorably with other job satisfaction measures of good

repute. This was also the conclusion of Guion (1978), who

in reviewing the MSQ noted that "the MSQ is well developed,

it holds up well in comparison with a major alternate

instrument and it can give detailed diagnostics or

parsimonious summary statements (p. 1680).

To date, most of the support for the theory of work

adjustment has come from the validation of instruments like

the MSQ. For example, to test the concept of satisfaction,

the MSQ was developed and from research on the MSQ, it was

inferred that the concept of satisfaction was a valid one.

Another instrument that has its roots in the theory of work

adjustment is the Minnesota Satisfactoriness Scales (MSS),

which was developed to measure the concept of

satisfactoriness (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984). Since

satisfaction and satisfactoriness are two independent

factors of work adjustment, it was important to demonstrate

this and so the MSS and MSQ were administered to persons in









several occupational groups. Canonical correlation analysis

was applied to the scores and coefficients of .11 to .24

were obtained, thus indicating that the MSS and MSQ did

measure two independent concepts of satisfactoriness and

satisfaction.

Some support for this theory has also been inferred

from related research. For example, in discussing the

research support for the relationship between satisfaction

and tenure, Dawis and Lofquist (1984) referred the reader to

studies, conducted by other researchers, which demonstrate

that there is a negative relationship between turnover and

job satisfaction.



Job Satisfaction Research

The literature on the sources of job satisfaction can

be classified into three areas. These are studies of

(a) the relationship between job satisfaction and the job

itself, (b) the relationship between job satisfaction and

job context factors, and (c) the relationship between job

satisfaction and individual differences. These categories

will be used to organize the information presented in this

section.



Job Satisfaction and the Job Itself

In reviewing the literature on job satisfaction,

Gruneberg (1979) identified several factors that contributed

to job satisfaction. These factors include achievement of








success and recognition as well as the application of

skills.

Success. This factor refers to the satisfaction the

employee feels after completing a job and is similar to the

need for achievement as described in the theory of work

adjustment (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984). In Hoppock's (1935)

landmark study (that was discussed earlier) he reported that

"what did discriminate clearly and repeatedly" among the

satisfied and dissatisfied teachers "were questions

regarding the individual's feeling of success and progress,

his sense of accomplishment, as measured by his own

standards ." (p. 33). For example, when teachers were

asked if they could see the results of their work, 93% of

the satisfied group replied in the affirmative while 68% of

the dissatisfied group said no. 'Similarly, when asked if

they felt that they were making success in their jobs, 93%

of the satisfied group said yes, while 41% of the

dissatisfied group said no. Again, when asked if they were

doing well in their jobs as expected, only 49% of the

dissatisfied group said yes compared to 82% of the satisfied

group of teachers. Herzberg (1966) also reported that in

his original studies, achievement emerged as a strong

determiner of job satisfaction.

The need for success or achievement was also called

task identity by Hackman and Lawler (1971), who demonstrated

that there was a significant positive relationship of .20

(p < .05) between task identity and job satisfaction. Task


i








identity was listed, by Hackman and Lawler, as one of the

four core conditions that are necessary for job satisfaction.

Recognition. Recognition concerns the external

validation that a worker receives for his/her

accomplishments. This can be formally accomplished through

promotion, award, higher pay, and the like or informally

through praise and feedback from supervisors and coworkers.

The need for recognition was one of the need factors listed

in the theory of work adjustment (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984).

Herzberg (1966) reported that recognition is also a

strong motivator and Hoppock (1935) noted that among the

teachers in this study, 82% of the satisfied teachers felt

that people showed appreciation for their work while only

37% of the dissatisfied group felt this way. Recognition of

employees was considered as one of Hackman and Lawler's

(1971) four core conditions that were necessary for building

or maintaining job satisfaction. Hackman and Lawler

referred to this factor as feedback and indicated that for

feedback to be effective, it must be given in a believable

manner or the employee will be frustrated. Additionally,

Srivasta, Salipante, Cummings, Notz, Bigelow, and Waters

(1977), after reviewing several field experiments on job

satisfaction, concluded that timely feedback was necessary

in order to promote job satisfaction.

Application of skills. Vroom (1964) noted that

individuals derive satisfaction from their jobs when they

are allowed to use their skills and abilities. This, too,

was recognized as a need in the theory of work adjustment









(Dawis & Lofquist, 1984). Vroom (1964) verified that use of

skills and abilities was related to job satisfaction. In a

study of hourly-paid, blue-collar workers in a Canadian oil

refinery, Vroom found a correlation of .59 between ability

utilization and job satisfaction. The fact that

underutilization of skills can be a problem was noted by

Staines and Quinn (1979) who found that 35.6% of the

respondents in their 1977 quality of employment survey

reported that they were dissatisfied with the lack of

opportunities to use their skills on their jobs. Rumberger

(1981) referred to this problem as overeducation and

suggested that this could lead to job dissatisfaction.

It has also been found that employees not only want to

use their skills and abilities, but also to do so in a

variety of ways (Gruneberg, 1979). Variety of tasks is also

listed as a need in the theory of work adjustment (Dawis &

Lofquist, 1984). In a study conducted by Hackman and Lawler

(1971), it was observed that variety and job satisfaction

were significantly related. This study had a sample of

various categories of workers from an eastern telephone

company. Participants completed a 23-item questionnaire,

which was designed to measure the employees' reactions to

their jobs. Correlations were calculated based on the items

dealing with general satisfaction and variety in the job and

a relationship of .38 (P < .05) was found. Srivasta et al.

(1977) noted similar results in a review of several field

studies designed to investigate job satisfaction.







Another of Hackman and Lawler's (1971) core

contributors to job satisfaction was autonomy. Autonomy

can be described as the extent to which employees have input

into how or when they apply their skills and abilities to

complete a task. In their study, Hackman and Lawler

obtained a .39 (p < .05) correlation coefficient for the

relationship between autonomy and job satisfaction.

Srivasta et al. (1977) and Katzell and Yankelovich (1975)

noted similar observations in their review of correlational

and field studies on job satisfaction. Other researchers,

like Herzberg (1966), used the term responsibility to

describe this concept of autonomy. Responsibility is one of

the needs in the theory of work adjustment (Dawis &

Lofquist, 1984).



Job Satisfaction and Job Context Factors

This category of factors includes such factors as pay,

security, supervision, organizational climate, and

coworkers. According to Herzberg (1966), these factors do

not contribute to job satisfaction, but rather to job

dissatisfaction. However, researchers have found positive

(although often weak) relationships between job context

factors and job satisfaction.

Pay. After reviewing nine studies on the relationship

between job satisfaction and salary, Srivasta et al. (1977)

concluded that there was a positive relationship between pay

and job satisfaction. This was found to be true by Hackman

and Lawler (1971) who found a significant correlation of .44









(p < .05) between job satisfaction and pay. Hoppock (1935)

also found similar results as 47% of the satisfied teachers

expressed discontent with their pay while 71% of the

dissatisfied teachers expressed the same. It is studies

like these that led the developers of the theory of work

adjustment (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984) to include compensation

as a need requirement.

There is also some indication that the importance of

pay varies with job levels. This was reported by Voydanoff

(1978) who conducted a national study of approximately 1,200

persons at five occupational levels: professional,

managerial, clerical, crafts, and laborer. Respondents were

asked to express their satisfaction with seven aspects of

the job. These were financial rewards-promotions,

requirement of hard work on the job, role strain (not

knowing what is expected on the job), supervision, working

conditions, enriching job demands, and self-expression. A

multiple regression analysis of the results revealed that

self-expression, role strain, and financial rewards-

promotions were related to job satisfaction for all

occupational levels. While financial rewards were not

considered to be the most important factor in determining

job satisfaction by any of the occupational levels,

managers gave the highest rating to the importance of this

factor.

However, Katzell and Yankelovich (1979) maintained that

high pay does not necessarily contribute to job satisfaction;








rather, it is whether or not the employee believes that the

pay is commensurate with performance and responsibility that

will make the difference. Vroom (1964) also suggested that

satisfaction with pay is moderated by another variable--

social equity. He believed that people whose wages are

commensurate with those at their occupational level tend to

be more satisfied than those who believe that their

counterparts receive higher wages.

Security. In the theory of work adjustment (Dawis &

Lofquist, 1984) security is listed as a need requirement of

workers. This view was corroborated by Hackman and Lawler

(1971) who found a correlation of .47 (p < .05) between job

satisfaction and security. Not much attention is given to

this factor in the literature on job satisfaction and

perhaps this is so as the importance of job security is

relevant to socioeconomic conditions. Hoppock (1935) and

Gruneberg (1979) have suggested that job security becomes a

factor in job satisfaction only when there is a threat of

unemployment due to political and/or financial crises. For

example, in 1977, when economic conditions were better,

Staines and Quinn (1979) reported that only 9.4% of their

national sample of workers were troubled by the possibility

of unemployment. However, today, with rising inflation and

reductions in government-funded projects, it may be

reasonable to expect that security would be a grave concern

among many employed people.

Supervision. In the Voydanoff (1978) study (described

earlier) the effect of supervision on job satisfaction was









considered. It was found that supervision did not affect

:he job satisfaction of employees at any of the occupational

levels. This seems to support Herzberg's (1966) view that

supervision is a hygiene factor and not a motivator.

However, Srivasta et al. (1977) and Katzell and Yankelovich

(1975) maintain that there is a positive relationship

between job satisfaction and participative supervision.

That is, people feel better about their jobs when they are

allowed to have input into the decision-making process of

-he organization. This was the conclusion of Jackson

(1983) who conducted an experiment among the nursing and

clerical staff at a hospital's outpatient facility. Jackson

utilized a Solomon four-group design and randomly assigned

the staff to one of the four groups. For the intervention

groups, unit supervisors were instructed to hold meetings at

least twice each month while the supervisors of the control

group conducted meetings no more than twice a month.

Additionally, the intervention group members were

allowed to have input on matters affecting the unit while

the control group had none. After three and six months, all

four groups completed the short form of the MSQ. The data

were subjected to an analysis of variance which indicated

that the intervention did have a significant increase on

employees' job satisfaction.

Results similar to Jackson's (1983) were also obtained

by Schneider (1984) who surveyed 276 middle/junior high

school teachers in Wisconsin. Responses from the 260








teachers indicated that job satisfaction increased as

participation in the schools' decision making process

increased. However, Schneider also found that participation

in the decision making process was not equally important to

all persons. This finding was clarified by Vroom (1964),

who concluded from prior research that the effects of

participative decision making were related to personality

variables like authoritarianism and the need for

independence.

Employees not only like to participate in the decision

making process, but expect warmth and support from their

supervisors. Hackman and Lawler (1971) found this to be so

in their research, in that a significant correlation of .33

(p < .05) was found for the relationship between job

satisfaction and fair treatment from the boss. This factor

has also been recognized as a need in the theory of work

adjustment (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984).

Another supervisory behavior that employees value is

supervisory competence or resourcefulness (Katzell &

Yankelovich, 1975). Employees expect their supervisors to

have the knowledge to make competent work-related decisions.

This is also listed as a need factor in the theory of work

adjustment (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984).

Organizational climate. Closely related to supervisory

behavior is the organizational climate of the work

environment. Gruneberg (1979), Katzell and Yankelovich

(1975), and Srivasta et al. (1977) all noted that employees

tend to be more satisfied when there are open lines of









communication between the employees and top level officials

as well as when there is less of a hierarchical structure in

the organization. Consistent with these results, the theory

of work adjustment (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984) included

organizational climate as an employee need.

In addition to providing a supportive climate for their

employees, organizations are expected to provide safe

working conditions. This was found to be a growing concern

by Staines and Quinn (1979) in their quality of employment

surveys. In 1969, 38% of all workers polled expressed

concern about being exposed to one or more safety and health

hazards. Four years later the number expressing concern

with this problem grew to 42% and by 1977, 78% of the

respondents expressed concern about the safety conditions at

work. Staines and Quinn attributed part of the dramatic

increase in expressed concern to improvement in measuring

techniques. However, increase in the knowledge of the

employees could also account for some of the increased

concern as the Environmental Protection Agency and several

interest groups were making the population more aware of

potential hazards in the workplace.

In the study conducted by Voydanoff (1978), working

conditions contributed to the satisfaction of managers

and laborers, but not to professionals, clerks, or

craftsmen. However, in Hoppock's (1935) study the

teachers did give consideration to their work environment

and 86% of the satisfied teachers indicated that they liked








their work environment while only 52% of the dissatisfied

teachers expressed a liking for the same.

According to the theory of work adjustment (Dawis &

Lofquist, 1984), people expect advancement or promotional

opportunities to be provided by the employing organization.

This is considered as a motivator in Herzberg's (1966)

theory and Hackman and Lawler (1971) also found a small but

significant relationship of .33 (p < .05) between promotion

and job satisfaction. Staines and Quinn (1979) also noted

that, nationally, there had been a significant decline in

satisfaction with promotional opportunities between 1973 and

1977 and, coincidentally, there was also a significant

decline in general job satisfaction during those years.

While no causal relationship can be inferred from the

results, it is plausible that there is a correlation between

the decline in job satisfaction and promotional

opportunities.

The theory of work adjustment (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984)

stated that just as individuals have requirements of their

employing organizations, the organization has requirements

of the employee. However, the organization does not always

clarify its expectations to the employee and this produces

role conflict which leads to lowered job satisfaction.

Gruneberg (1979) and Kahn (1974) also supported this view.

In Voydanoff's (1978) study, this condition was described as

role strain and was determined to be the major source to

affect the job satisfaction of professional, managers, and

laborers and the second major source for clerks and crafts






47

workers. The conditions of role overload (too much work)

and role ambiguity (insufficient information to enable the

employee to perform an adequate job) are often manifested

with role conflict (Kahn, 1974).

Co-workers. Recognizing that people are social

animals, researchers have examined the contribution

of co-worker relationships to employees' job satisfaction.

Hackman and Lawler (1971) reported a very weak (.19) but

significant (p < .05) correlation between job satisfaction

and employees' ability to develop close relationships on the

job. Gruneberg (1979) also reported that on the whole,

people preferred co-workers who were supportive. In fact,

Dawis and Lofquist (1984) included co-worker relationships

as an employee need in the theory of work adjustment.



Job Satisfaction and Individual Differences

It has been shown that several individual differences

influence job satisfaction and included in this category are

age, education, sex, race, occupational status, and job

level.

Age. Weaver (1980) examined seven national surveys

that were conducted between 1972 and 1978 and discovered

that job satisfaction increased with age. This is

consistent with Hoppock's (1935) findings that the mean age

of the satisfied group of teachers was higher than that of

the dissatisfied group.







Education. The relationship between job satisfaction

and educational level was also examined by Weaver (1980),

who reported that satisfaction is positively related to

educational level. Quinn and Mandilovitch (1980) also

examined 11 national surveys that were conducted between

1962 and 1977 and found a significant positive relationship

between level of education and job satisfaction.

Sex. Hoppock (1935) observed that there were no sexual

differences between satisfied and dissatisfied teachers and

this is similar to Weaver's (1980) report that there were no

consistent differences between male and female satisfaction

recorded in national surveys conducted between 1972 and 1978.

However, Martin and Hanson (1985) and Varca, Shaffer, and

McCauley (1983) contended that sex differences do exist.

Using the 1972-73 quality of employment survey data, Martin

and Hanson compared the satisfaction levels of male

breadwinners with female breadwinners and nonbreadwinners.

The females in the study reported slightly higher levels of

job satisfaction, but the female nonbreadwinners reported

the highest level of job satisfaction. It was suggested

that the female nonbreadwinners do not feel as compelled to

take jobs as do the breadwinners and so can be more

selective about their choice of jobs. It should be noted

that the results of the Martin and Hanson (1985) study may

be spurious since they reviewed only one of seven studies

conducted between 1972 and 1978 and so the findings may not

be part of a consistent pattern.








In a five-year follow-up study of 392 college

graduates, Varca, Shaffer, and McCauley (1983) compared the

satisfaction of the sexes with nine job factors. These

factors were salary, advancement and discretion

opportunities, company reputation, supervisory and co-worker

relationships, nature of the work itself, and working

conditions. The response rate was 66% and respondents were

classified into high and low level occupational groups,

based on the type of jobs they had. Data collected from the

questionnaires were analyzed using a 2 (occupational

level) X 2 (sex) MANOVA. Significant main effects were

reported for satisfaction with pay, discretion

opportunities, working conditions, and the nature of the

work.

For pay satisfaction, the group in the high

occupational level reported higher job satisfaction than did

the low occupational level group. There was also an

interaction between sex and occupational level in that males

at the high occupational levels tended to be more satisfied

than males at the low levels and the reverse was true for

females. Similar results were obtained for promotion

satisfaction. For the other factors, males reported more

satisfaction with discretion opportunities and working

conditions while the high occupational group tended to be

more satisfied with the nature of the work. No significant

interactions were found for the last three factors.

Occupational level. As a result of their research,

Varca, Shaffer, and McCauley (1983) concluded that people at









different occupational levels react differently to their

jobs. In his research, Voydanoff (1978) also demonstrated

this point as people in five occupational groups (professional,

managerial, clerical, craftsworkers, and laborers) reported

differences in the factors that affect their job

satisfaction. For example, clerical and craftsworkers were

more concerned about self-expression in their jobs than were

professionals, managers, or laborers.

Vroom (1984) noted that researchers consistently found a

positive relationship between occupational level/status and

job satisfaction. Specifically, professionals tend to be

the most satisfied group and unskilled workers the least

satisfied. Weaver (1980) agreed with the observation that

employees in high status level jobs tend to be more satisfied

than those in low status jobs; however, unlike Vroom, Weaver

found that managers and not professionals were the most

satisfied personnel. The fact that people feel better about

their jobs, if it provides social status for them, was

recognized as a need in the theory of work adjustment

(Dawis & Lofquist, 1984).

Race. In a comparison of national job

satisfaction surveys, Weaver (1980) presented evidence to

show that blacks were generally less satisfied than whites.

Data for other minorities were not presented. Vecchio

(1980), who compared the results of the National Opinion

Research Center's General Social Surveys that were conducted

between 1972 and 1977, reached a similar conclusion. It








has been speculated that, as is the case with women, the

lowered job satisfaction scores among blacks probably

reflect differential treatment in the workplace.



Job Satisfaction and Its Correlates

Several researchers have suggested that there are

relationships between job satisfaction and factors like

productivity, absenteeism, turnover, occupational stress,

burnout, mental health, and life satisfaction. This section

is a survey of some of the literature concerning these

relationships.



Job Productivity

After evaluating research on the relationship between

productivity (job performance) and job satisfaction, Vroom

(1964) concluded that the correlations were small and

inconsistent; thus, no firm conclusions could be made about

this relationship. However, Srivasta et al. (1977)

maintained that the factors that contribute to job

satisfaction (e.g., variety of tasks) also lead to increased

productivity. This implies that there is a positive

relationship between job performance and satisfaction.

Contrary to Srivasta et al. (1977), Katzell and

Yankelovich (1975) were more cautious in describing the

relationship between the two since there are times when job

satisfaction seems to be enhanced by productivity and vice-

versa. As an explanation for this complex situation, Lawler

and Porter (1975) proposed that the missing link between the







two was the rewards the employee receives. They believed

that on completion of a job an individual receives

intrinsic rewards (e.g., sense of accomplishment) and

extrinsic rewards (e.g., pay). If the employee perceives

that the rewards are consistent with the job performance,

this will lead to increased performance. Lawler and Porter

then tested their idea using 148 middle and lower level

managers.

Each manager was given a survey consisting of 13 items

which had two parts with one part that was used to determine

actual satisfaction with rewards and a second part used to

determine the level of reward expected by the employee.

Each item had a response category of 1 (minimum) to 7

(maximum) and the response to the first part was subtracted

from the response to the second part. These difference

scores were added to obtain a job satisfaction score.

Supervisors and peers were asked to rate the performance of

the managers and small but significant positive

relationships were obtained for job satisfaction and the

performance ratings of supervisors (r = .30, p < .01) and

those of the peers (r = .30, p < .01). These findings do

give credence to the notions of Lawler and Porter, but

should be considered tentative until more research is

conducted in this area.



Absenteeism

As with the studies on job satisfaction and

productivity, which produce conflicting results, so do









studies on the relationship between job satisfaction and

absenteeism. It is often believed that there is a negative

relationship between job satisfaction and absenteeism. For

example, Hackman and Lawler (1971) reported a small negative

relationship (-.10) between absenteeism and job

satisfaction. However, this correlation was not

significant. Gruneberg (1979) suggested that the

relationship between job satisfaction and absenteeism is

quite complex as some people may be dissatisfied with their

jobs, but feel moral constraints to attend every day. It

would also seem likely that employees, out of fear of being

fired, would not demonstrate too much absenteeism behavior.



Turnover

In the theory of work adjustment, Dawis & Lofquist

(1984) proposed that satisfied employees are less prone to

leave their jobs. Thus, there is a high rate of tenure

(i.e., low turnover rate) among this group. Vroom (1964)

and Gruneberg (1979) indicated that studies consistently

demonstrated a negative relationship between job

satisfaction and the turnover rate.

One such study was conducted by Hulin (1968) who

reported increases in satisfaction and decreases in turnover

behavior after the implementation of a program to promote

job satisfaction in a manufacturing company. During 1961-

1963, it was determined that this company had a 30% turnover

rate among its clerical staff. In 1964, the employees were








asked to complete a measure of job satisfaction, the Job

Descriptive Index (JDI), and analyses of their responses

indicated that the employees were dissatisfied with the

administration of salary across wage levels and the lack of

promotional opportunities. The company then instituted

programs to make salaries more equitable and to allow for

frequent wage reviews. Other changes included the

facilitation of promotional opportunities and the provision

of opportunities for the clerks to expand their

responsibilities in their jobs. In 1966, the JDI was

readministered and 298 of the 350 staff members, who were

present at administration returned their surveys.

While there was not significant appreciation of overall

job satisfaction scores, Hulin (1968), using t-tests, showed

that there were significant increases in the employees'

satisfaction with pay, promotions, co-workers, and

supervisors. Hulin also checked the turnover rate at the

end of the intervention period and discovered that there was

a decrease from 30% to 12%. A Pearson correlation

coefficient was calculated for the relationship between the

satisfaction and turnover variables and this was found to be

-.27 (p < .01). Although these results do support the

belief that turnover and job satisfaction are negatively

correlated, it should be noted that Hulin did not conduct a

true experimental study and a number of uncontrolled

variables (e.g., maturity and history) could account for

some of the change.








Occupational Stress

Occupational or job stress is defined as the "condition

in which some factor, or combination of factors, at work

interacts with the worker to disrupt his psychological or

physiological homeostasis" (Margolis & Kroes, 1974, p. 15).

Margolis and Kroes also suggested that job stress was the

result of a person-environment mismatch and is manifested as

anxiety, tension, anger, fear, chronic depression and

fatigue, or impaired physical health and work performance.

McLean (1974) suggested that occupational stress is related

to job satisfaction and this was demonstrated in a study by

Kyriacou and Sutcliffe (1979).

Participants in the Kyriacou and Sutcliffe (1979) study

were 218 teachers from 16 British schools. The teachers

were asked to respond to a survey, developed by Kyriacou and

Sutcliffe, and when the responses from these surveys were

analyzed, it was found that a significant negative

correlation (r = -.27, p < .01) existed between job

satisfaction and job stress.



Burnout

The development of the concept of burnout was

attributed to Freudenberger (Edelwich & Brodsky, 1980), who

revealed, in 1974, that he had recovered from burnout and that

his condition had resulted from his efforts to maintain too

many professional, social, and personal commitments. Maslach

(1982) has done extensive research on burnout and reported

that it is the employee's response to chronic job stress.









Many authors (e.g., Perlman and Hartman, 1980) have

suggested that there is a negative link between job

satisfaction and burnout. This link seems plausible

based on the premise that burnout is a chronic form of

occupational stress--a negative correlate of job satisfaction.



Mental Health

Gruneberg (1979) submitted that although small, there

was a relationship between job satisfaction and mental

health. Furnham and Schaeffer (1984) investigated this

relationship and concluded that there is a positive

correlation between job satisfaction and mental health.

Hoppock's Job Satisfaction Blank (Hoppock, 1935) was used to

measure job satisfaction while the Langner--22 Index of

Mental Health (Langner, 1962)--an instrument which screens

for 22 psychological problems as well as depression and

withdrawal--was used to determine the employees' level of

mental health. These instruments, in addition to the Self-

Directed Search, were administered to 82 British adults, who

were fulltime employees. A comparison of the mean scores on

the instruments was conducted, using Pearson's correlation,

and this revealed that there was a significant negative

relationship (r = -.47, p < .001) between job satisfaction

and poor mental health. Congruence or person-environment

fit was calculated from the similarities between

individuals' codes on the Self-Directed Search and the

Holland codes for their occupations. The relationship








between congruence and job satisfaction was found to be .37

(p < .001) while the calculated relationship between

congruence and poor mental health was -.24 (p < .01).

Therefore, it can be assumed that people whose interests

match their occupations will most likely enjoy job

satisfaction and good mental health.



Life Satisfaction

Staines and Quinn (1979) noted that accompanying a

decrease in national job satisfaction, between 1973 and

1977, was a decrease in life satisfaction. Life

satisfaction was determined from two questions in which

respondents were asked about their perceptions of their

current level of satisfaction with life and the way their

lives were being spent. Chacko (1983) did a cross lagged

analysis of the results from the 1977 survey and concluded

that job satisfaction tended to influence life satisfaction

rather than vice versa. Chacko's observation should only be

treated tentatively as causality is best inferred from

experimental studies. However, there does seem to be some

link between job and life satisfaction for as Hoppock (1935)

noted, a higher percentage of the satisfied teachers (77%)

expressed contentment with life than did the dissatisfied

teachers (51%).



Summary

School counselors play an important part in the

educational and emotional development of students in the









nation's elementary, middle/junior, and senior high schools.

In this position, they serve as role models for students.

However, their reactions to their jobs could influence the

manner in which the school counselors discharge their duties

and much has been written about school counselors' negative

reactions to their jobs. It is the belief of many authors

that factors like role ambiguity, conflict, and overload are

contributors to the school counselors' reactions. These

reactions have often been described as burnout, job/

occupational stress, and, less frequently, job

dissatisfaction. However, after reviewing the limited

literature on job stress and burnout among school

counselors, it was concluded that the descriptions of school

counselors as stressed may not be accurate as there is no

data to indicate that extraordinarily high stress levels

exist among school counselors.

On the other hand, there is some support for the view

that persons whose needs are met by their employing

organizations will be satisfied and that this satisfaction

has positive correlates like good mental health, lack of

occupational stress, and satisfaction with life. It therefore

seemed appropriate that in order to help career counselors

match clients with a school counseling career and to help

them get a realistic picture of the positive and negative

aspects of school counseling, a comprehensive study of

the causes of job satisfaction among school counselors

should be conducted.








The measurement of job satisfaction has varied with

investigations as some researchers have used instruments

with one question while others have used 238 questions.

Additionally, some instruments were designed to measure

general/overall job satisfaction while others were designed

to measure facets or components of job satisfaction. This

situation has often led to conflicting results and

inconclusive data. It was this situation that prompted

Staines and Quinn (1979) to assert that instruments with a

singular question can only generate limited data and so they

recommended the use of instruments with several questions,

aimed both at identifying the sources of job satisfaction

and the overall level of job satisfaction.

One instrument which meets this requirement is the

Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ), which is based

on the theory of work adjustment (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984).

Dawis and Lofquist proposed that job satisfaction is the

result of a complementary fit between employees' needs and

the rewards of the employing organization and this this

leads to tenure. Twenty needs have been identified and

these needs or sources of satisfaction have been

corroborated by several studies. It has also been

demonstrated that the MSQ is a reliable and valid measure of

job satisfaction and so it was selected for use in this

study.













CHAPTER III
METHODOLOGY

This descriptive study was designed to provide an index

of the current level of job satisfaction among school

counselors in the American School Counselor Association,

describe the sources of job satisfaction among this

occupational group, and determine if job satisfaction could

be predicted from selected personal and employment

variables. To achieve this, school counselors were

surveyed using a job satisfaction survey that consisted of

two sections--a personal and employment data section (PEDS)

and the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ)

(Weiss, Dawis, England, & Lofquist, 1967). Counselors at the

elementary, junior/middle, and senior high schools were then

compared with respect to levels and sources of satisfaction;

in addition, the contribution of selected variables to job

satisfaction was determined.



Population and Sample

The sample in this study was solicited from the current

membership of the American School Counselor Association

(ASCA). This association is a division of the American

Association for Counseling and Development and was formed in

1952 in recognition of the fact that school counselors were

performing a unique role (Minkoff & Terres, 1985). The









1985 membership was 9,000 and included school counselors,

school counseling and guidance directors, counselor

educators, administrators, and so forth from the United

States and several foreign countries. Of the 9,000 members,

60% were female and 50% worked in elementary, secondary, and

postsecondary institutions (Minkoff & Terres, 1985).

Coded surveys were sent to a random sample of 1450

school counselors, on the ASCA's 1985 membership roll. A

total of 779 school counselors returned the surveys for a

response rate of 54%. Upon return, responses were screened

and only those respondents who met the following criteria

were included in the final sample: (a) They were employed

in elementary, middle/junior, or senior high schools; (b)

had the main duties of counseling, consultation, and

guidance; (c) were practicing on the mainland of the United

States of America; and (d) had completed both the MSQ and

the PEDS of the job satisfaction survey. Of the 779

responses, 93 were not deemed usable as 8 persons did not

complete a section of the survey; 1 person had moved and

left no forwarding address; 7 school counselors were

stationed overseas with various branches of the armed

forces; and 77 people were no longer school counselors. On

completion of data collection, to ensure anonymity, the list

of names associated with each code was destroyed.

The final sample consisted of 686 school counselors and

they represented the 48 mainland states and the District of

Columbia. There were 661 full-time school counselors and 25








part-time, whose mean age was 44 years. As shown in Table

1, the school counselors had an average monthly salary of

$2,265, had worked for 11 years as school counselors, and

spent 8 years in their present positions.

Other pertinent demographic data, including sex and

degree level, are presented in Table 2. It was noted that

the majority of school counselor respondents were female

(66%), had a masters degree (79%), were employed in senior

high schools (43%), and worked in public schools (92%).



Table 1
Description of Sample


Characteristic Mean SD Range


Age (n = 681) 44 9.1 21-70

Salary (n = 661) 2265 808.6 0-5600

Job Tenure (n = 683) 8 6.6 1-36

Occupational Tenure (n = 683) 11 7.3 1-39




Instrumentation

Each member in the sample received the job satisfaction

survey which consisted of a personal and employment data

section and the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire

(Weiss, Dawis, England, & Lofquist, 1967). The personal and

employment data section (PEDS), developed by the

investigator, was comprised of 23 items that included

multiple-choice and open-ended questions.









Table 2
Sample Characteristics


Characteristic Frequency Percentage
(N = 686) of Sample


Sex
Female 452 66.00
Male 233 34.00
Missing cases 1 0.00

Employment
Full-time 661 96.00
Part-time 25 4.00
Missing cases 0 0.00

Degree Level
Bachelors 6 1.00
Masters 540 79.00
Specialist 109 16.00
Doctorate 30 4.00
Missing cases 1 0.00

School Level
Elementary 188 27.00
Middle/junior high 128 19.00
Senior high 296 43.00
Elementary-middle/junior high 23 3.40
Middle-senior high 18 2.60
All 3 levels 28 4.00
Missing cases 5 1.00

School Setting
Urban 538 78.00
Rural 141 21.00
Missing cases 7 1.00

Control of School
Public 628 92.00
Private 55 8.00
Missing cases 3 0.40




The second section of the job satisfaction survey was

the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ). The MSQ,

developed by Weiss, Dawis, England, and Lofquist, was









published in 1967. In 1977, it was revised to remove sexist

language. The long form, used in this study, consists of

100 items that were designed to measure overall/general

satisfaction as well as satisfaction with 20 aspects or

reinforcers of the job (e.g., ability utilization and

compensation). Permission was obtained from the publisher

to reword several items to render them more applicable to

school counselors. These revisions were necessary as the

MSQ was developed for use in industrial settings and terms

such as "boss" and "company" were replaced with "principal"

and "school."

In reviewing the MSQ, Guion (1978) recommended it as a

reliable and valid instrument that compared well with

other measures that have been used extensively for many

years. According to the Manual for the

Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (Weiss, Dawis, England,

& Lofquist, 1967), the internal reliability of the 20 scales

and the general satisfaction scale is moderate to high,

ranging from .50 to .97. This is also true for test-retest

reliability. Weiss et al. (1967) also maintained that the MSQ

demonstrates concurrent, content, and construct validities.

Dunham, Smith, and Blackburn (1977) also demonstrated that

the MSQ has high discriminant and convergent validities (see

further discussion in Chapter II). In this study,

Cronbach's coefficient alpha was used to determine the

reliability of the General Satisfaction Scale and it was

found to be .87.











Data Collection

In March 1986, school counselors were mailed a packet

consisting of (a) a job satisfaction survey, (b) a business

reply envelope, and (c) a cover letter which included a

brief description of the purpose of the study. In the

letter, the school counselors were instructed to indicate

their responses on the job satisfaction survey and to return

the entire job satisfaction survey in the business reply

(postage paid) envelope. Data collection lasted 15 weeks.



Pilot Study

Satisfaction surveys were mailed to 50 school

counselors in a Florida school district in May 1985.

Twenty-seven (54%) surveys were returned and after screening

for incomplete surveys, 22 (44%) surveys were deemed usable.

Respondents indicated that they completed the entire survey

in an average of 25 minutes.

The final sample consisted of 7 males and 15 females

with 8 school counselors working in elementary schools, 6 in

middle/junior high schools, and 8 in senior high schools.

Overall, the group had a mean satisfaction score of 73 on a

scale ranging from 20, very dissatisfied, to 100, very

satisfied. This indicated a moderate level of job

satisfaction. The females reported a higher level of job

satisfaction (M = 75) than did the males (M = 69). When

school counselors at the three school levels were compared,









middle/junior high school counselors reported the highest

level of satisfaction (M = 78) and high school counselors

reported the lowest level of satisfaction (M = 69).

Elementary school counselors had the second highest level of

satisfaction (M = 74).

Based on the school counselors' responses to the

personal and employment data section, several changes were

made on the instrument. For example, on item 20 many of the

school counselors indicated that they were involved in

individual and group guidance as well as special education

referrals and so sub-items (c), (f), and (1) were added to

item 20. Additionally, item 21 was originally an open-ended

question and after the pilot study, responses to this item

were used to develop the list of reasons (for which school

counselors chose school counseling) for the final version of

the instrument.

Other changes made after the pilot study were based on

Best's (1977) suggestions for designing good questionnaires.

Some detail was added to several questions (to render them

unambiguous) and then the entire personal and employment

data section was reorganized. Examples of items that were

clarified were items 1 and 5, where numerical definitions

were added to each alternative and items 12 and 13 which

specified which salary and age information were desired.

These changes were made to ensure that comparable data were

received from all respondents.









The reorganization involved arranging the items so that

similar items were grouped together and items requiring

factual information (1-15) were placed at the beginning of

the instrument. Those items requiring more thought (16-23)

were placed afterwards. Best (1977) also suggested that

respondents prefer that the last item of a survey elicit

good feelings and so the item asking respondents to list the

five most satisfying aspects of their jobs (item 23) became

the final item of the personal and employment data section.

It should also be noted that items 14 and 15 were

constructed after the pilot study.



Research Questions

This study addressed seven specific research questions.

These questions were based on the general questions listed

in Chapter I and are presented below.

1. What is the overall level of job satisfaction

among school counselors who are members of the American

School Counselor Association, as indicated on the MSQ?

2. What are the sources of job satisfaction among

school counselors who are members of the American School

Counselor Association?

3. Are there differences in the sources of job

satisfaction, reported on the MSQ, among school counselors

in the elementary, middle/junior, and senior high schools?









4. Is there a relationship between school counselors'

ages and Their overall level of job satisfaction as reported

on the MSQ?

5. Is there a relationship between the school

counselors' overall level of job satisfaction and their

monthly salaries?

6. Can the overall job satisfaction of school

counselors be predicted from the level of school in which

they are employed, sex, degree level, setting of counselors'

school, control of counselors' school, level of involvement

in the ASCA at the national level, level of involvement in

the ASCA at the state/regional level, and the number of

professional memberships held by each school counselor?

7. Can the overall job satisfaction of school

counselors be predicted from occupational tenure, job

tenure, the counselor-student ratio in the school,

the weekly percentage of time spent on each of their regular

duties, degree of job challenge reported by the school

counselors, their perception of the adequacy of their

training, and the degree to which the profession meets their

expectations?













CHAPTER IV
RESULTS

In exploring job satisfaction among school counselors

in the American School Counselor Association, seven research

questions were raised. The results, based on a job

satisfaction survey conducted among the members of the

American School Counselor Association, are presented in this

chapter with each question discussed in a separate section.



Research Question 1

The first research question was as follows: What is the

overall level of job satisfaction among school counselors

who are members of the American School Counselor Association,

as indicated on the MSQ?

The answer to this question was generated from the

composite mean score attained by the respondents on the

general satisfaction scale of the MSQ. The possible range

of scores was 20 (very dissatisfied) to 100 (very satisfied)

and the mean score for the school counselors in this study

was 76 (SD = 9.6, N = 659), indicating that the school

counselors, as a whole, were moderately satisfied. This

finding is consistent with that of the pilot study conducted

by the writer.








Research Question 2

The second research question was as follows: What are

the sources of job satisfaction among school counselors who

are members of the American School Counselor Association?

The answer to this question was based on two sources:

the MSQ scales and item 23 of the personal and employment

data section (PEDS) of the job satisfaction survey. The 20

scales of the MSQ were examined first and those with

composite mean scores above 15 (the midpoint of the scales)

were used as sources of job satisfaction. The mean scores

on these scales had a possible range of 5 (very

dissatisfied) to 25 (very satisfied) and on only one scale,

advancement, was the score below 15 (M = 14.63, SD = 4.45)

and so could not be considered as a source of job

satisfaction for the school counselors. The list of MSQ

scales with means above 15 are located in Table 3. Social

service, activity, creativity, moral values, and variety

were the five greatest sources of satisfaction reported by

the school counselors on the MSQ. On the other hand

recognition, social status, supervision--technical, school

policies and practices, and compensation were the five

areas in which counselors derived the least amount of job

satisfaction.

Secondly, a list of the most satisfying aspects of

school counseling, as reported by the school counselors, was

compiled from item 23 of the PEDS. The 10 satisfying job

aspects, that were reported most frequently by the

school counselors, are listed in Table 4. According to









Table 4, the majority of school counselors (75%) included

relationship with students among the five most satisfying

aspects of their jobs. Achievement, ability utilization,

and relationships with parents and teachers were also among

the five most frequently listed satisfying aspects of school

counseling. A comparison of Tables 3 and 4 revealed that

achievement, ability utilization, variety, social service,

and autonomy were among the 10 areas of greatest

satisfaction reported by the school counselors on the PEDS

and the MSQ.



Table 3
Sources of Job Satisfaction Reported on the MSQ


Source Mean SD
n = 686

Social service (chance to help others) 22.24 2.52
Activity (chance to keep busy) 21.16 2.80
Creativity 21.15 3.49
Moral values (not violating them) 20.91 2.79
Variety (of duties) 20.89 2.70
Ability utilization 20.88 3.64
Achievement 20.80 2.83
Responsibility 20.35 2.78
Independence 19.44 3.33
Co-workers 19.24 3.62
Supervision--human relations 19.08 4.93
Security (job) 18.73 4.03
Authority 17.88 2.86
Working conditions 17.78 2.86
Recognition 17.66 4.47
Social status 17.33 3.33
Supervision--technical 17.31 4.73
School policies and practices 16.96 4.26
Compensation 15.32 4.96








Table 4
The 10 Most Satisfying Aspects of School Counseling Listed
by the Counselors


Satisfying n % of
aspect Sample


Relationship with students 506 75.00
Achievement 480 71.10
Ability utilization 331 49.00
Relationship with parents 215 31.90
Relationship with teachers 207 30.70
Variety 187 27.70
Service to others 185 27.40
Autonomy 133 19.70
Relationship with prin./administrs. 107 15.90
Working hours 106 15.70




Research Question 3

The third research question was as follows: Are there

differences in the sources of job satisfaction, reported on

the MSQ, among school counselors in the elementary, middle/

junior, and senior high schools?

For each scale on the MSQ, a one-way ANOVA was computed

to determine if there were any differences in the scale

means for the school counselors at the three levels. The

following F values were obtained for each scale:

1. Ability utilization (F = 1.98, p < .140)
2. Achievement (F = 2.00, p < .136)
3. Activity (F = 1.62, p < .200)
4. Advancement (F = 1.60, p < .210)
5. Authority (F = 2.92, p < .055)
6. School policies and practices (F = 9.51, p < .001)
7. Compensation (F = 1.51, p < .221)
8. Co-workers (F = 6.73, p < .001)
9. Creativity (F = 12.91, p < .001)
10. Independence (F = 2.05, p < .130)
11. Moral values (F = 1.30, p < .276)
12. Recognition (F = 4.46, p < .05)
13. Responsibility (F = 7.42, p < .001)
14. Security (F = 1.71, p < .181)







15. Social service (F = 0.33, p < .722)
16. Social staus (F = 2.71, p < .067)
17. Supervision--human relations (F = 17.03, p < .001)
18. Supervision--technical (F = 6.6, p < .01)
19. Variety (F = 3.00, p <.052)
20. Working conditions (F = 0.41, p < .662)

The means of seven of these scales were significantly

different at the .05 level or above and source data for

the analyses of these means are presented as Table 5. The

seven scales that had significant means were school policies

and practices, co-workers, creativity, recognition,

responsibility, supervision--human relations and technical.

It was concluded that there were differences in the sources

of job satisfaction for the school counselors at the

elementary, middle/junior and senior high school. Post hoc

analyses were then conducted to learn more about the

differences.

Duncan's Multiple Range test was used to determine how

the group means of the seven significant scales differed.

A review of the data in Table 6 indicated that on all but

one scale, co-worker, the means for the high school

counselors were significantly lower (p < .05) than those of

the school counselors at the other two levels. On the co-

worker scale, the mean for the high school counselors was

significantly lower (p < .05) than that of the elementary

school counselors but not significantly different from that

of the middle/junior high school counselors.








Table 5
Source Tables for Analyses of School Level Differences on
Seven MSQ Scales


Source DF SS MS F


School policies and practices

Between groups 2 342.76 171.38 9.51***
Within groups 603 10866.65 18.02


Co-workers

Between groups 2 172.49 86.24 6.73***
Within groups 604 7743.34 12.82


Creativity

Between groups 2 316.34 158.17 12.91***
Within groups 602 7376.84 12.25


Recognition

Between groups 2 177.61 88.81 4.46*
Within groups 603 12002.08 19.90


Responsibility

Between groups 2 116.11 58.05 7.42***
Within groups 595 4654.11 7.82


Supervision--human relations

Between groups 2 790.46 395.23 17.03***
Within groups 606 14068.28 23.22


Supervision--technical

Between groups 2 290.09 145.05 6.60**
Within groups 599 13164.78 21.98

*p < .05 **p < .01 ***p < .001







Table 6
Means of the Seven Significant MSQ Scales with Respect to
School Levels


Level of School

Scale Elem. Jr. high Snr. high


School policies 17.74 17.57 16.17

Co-workers 19.94 19.39 18.72


Creativity 22.03 21.32 20.39

Recognition 18.19 17.96 17.02

Responsibility 20.86 20.50 19.87

Supervsn--hum. rel. 20.43 19.70 17.91

Supervsn--technical 18.07 17.90 16.61


Note. Means not underlined are
at p < .05.


significantly different


It was therefore concluded that when compared with high

school counselors, elementary and middle/junior high school

counselors experienced higher levels of job satisfaction in

the areas of school policies, creativity, recognition,

responsibility, and supervision--human relations and

technical. Additionally, both the middle/junior and senior

high school counselors were less satisfied with their

teacher co-workers than the elementary school counselors.

As a counterpoint to the third research question, a

frequency distribution of the school counselors' responses

to the most dissatisfying aspects of their job, was

constructed. The data in Table 7 are a comparison of the 10








dissatisfying factors that were most frequently reported by

the school counselors at the three levels. It was surmised

that counselors, especially in the higher levels, were

dissatisfied with the volume of paperwork and

nonprofessional duties (e.g., hall duty, discipline, and bus

duty) that they were expected to perform as 73.2% of the

middle/junior high school counselors and 69.9% of the high

school counselors reported dissatisfaction in this area

while 45.4% of the elementary school counselors did the

same. Other concerns among the school counselors included

(a) role overload due to the heavy workload and high

counselor-student ratios, especially in the elementary

schools; (b) role ambiguity due to unclear expectations,

especially at the high school level; and (c) uncooperative/

insensitive principals/administrators, especially at the

high school level.

Although the school counselors reported moderate levels

of job satisfaction, it was determined that school

counselors at the elementary, middle/junior and senior high

schools experienced different levels of satisfaction. In

the areas of school policies, creativity, recognition,

responsibility, and supervision--human relations and

technical senior high school counselors were less satisfied

than school counselors at the elementary and middle/junior

high schools. Additionally, middle/junior and senior high

school counselors were less satisfied with their teachers as

co-workers than were the elementary school counselors.








Table 7


A Comparison of the 10 Most Dissatisfying Aspects of School
Counseling As Reported by Counselors at Each School Level


Percentage of Sample


Dissatisfying Elem. Middle High Total
aspect n = 183 n = 123 n = 286 n = 592


Paperwork 45.4 73.2 69.9 63.0
Nonprof. work 30.1 57.7 49.0 44.9
Heavy wrkload. 49.7 30.9 36.0 39.2
Uncooperative
principal 25.7 26.8 29.4 27.7
Unclear expect. 17.5 21.1 24.5 21.6
Personal failure 18.0 18.7 14.3 16.4
Uncooperative
parents 15.3 13.0 16.8 15.5
Testing 13.1 17.1 16.1 15.4
Wking. Cond. 30.1 8.9 5.9 14.0
Couns-stud ratio 18.0 11.4 11.5 13.5




Research Question 4

The fourth research question was as follows: Is there

a relationship between school counselors' ages and their

overall level of job satisfaction as reported on the MSQ?

Hoppock (1935) found that there was a positive

relationship between age and job satisfaction. To determine

if this held true for the respondents in this study, a

Pearson correlation was calculated. The relationship was

significant (p < .05) but very small with r = .09. This

finding is consistent with Hoppock's; however, it should be

regarded tentatively since the relationship is so small.


Table 7








Research Question 5

The fifth research question was as follows: Is there a

relationship between the school counselors' overall level of

job satisfaction and their monthly salaries?

A Pearson correlation was calculated and no significant

relationship (p = .47) between job satisfaction and salary

was found. This observation contradicts that of Hackman and

Lawler (1971) who found a significant correlation between

job satisfaction and pay. However, it was mentioned earlier

that the school counselors in this study tended to be

satisfied by more intrinsic factors than extrinsic factors.

Salary is an extrinsic factor and so it is plausible that

salary is not a big factor in school counselors' job

satisfaction.



Research Question 6

The sixth research question was as follows: Can the

overall job satisfaction of school counselors be predicted

from the level of school in which the counselor is employed,

sex, degree level, setting of counselor's school, control of

counselor's school, level of involvement in the ASCA at the

national level, level of involvement in the ASCA at the

state/regional level, and the number of professional

memberships held by each school counselor?

To answer to this question, the data were analyzed with

a stepwise multiple regression technique. Of the eight

possible steps, only the first seven were significant. The

summary of the regression analysis is presented in









Table 8. These seven factors were sex, involvement in the

ASCA at the national level, number of professional member-

ships, control of school, involvement in the ASCA at the

state/regional level, school level, and degree level;

however, these factors were not good predictors of job

satisfaction as together, they only accounted for 2%
2
(r = .022) of the variance in job satisfaction. Overall,

only two of the seven factors were significant (p < .05)

predictors of job satisfaction. These were sex (which

accounted for 1% of the variance) and the number of

professional memberships held by the school counselor (which

accounted for 0.8% of the variance).



Table 8
Multiple Regression Summary of Job Satisfaction Variables


Source DF SS MS F

Regression 7 1296.48 185.21 2.01*
Residual 618 56976.36 92.19



Predictor R Beta Wt. 2 Std. F
r Error
Sex .102 .091 .010 .84 4.91**
Involvement in ASCA
at nat. level .120 .055 .014 2.45 1.66
No. of prof.
memberships .130 .071 .018 .194 2.95**
Control of sch. .144 .052 .021 1.45 1.62
Involvement in ASCA
at state/reg. level .147 .030 .022 1.11 .46
School level .148 -.025 .022 .33 .33
Degree level .149 -.014 .022 .74 .13

*p < .05 **p < .01






80
Although sex and the number of professional memberships

held by each school counselors were significant predictors

of job satisfaction, they were not strong predictors and so

do not contribute much the the understanding of job

satisfaction among school counselors.



Research Question 7

The seventh research question was as follows: Can the

overall job satisfaction of school counselors be predicted

from occupational tenure, job tenure, the counselor-student

ratio in the school, the weekly percentage of time spent on

each of their regular duties, degree of job challenge

reported by the school counselors, their perception of the

adequacy of their training, and the degree to which the

profession meets their expectations?

In answering this question, a stepwise multiple

regression analysis was also used and all factors except

percentage of time spent on group counseling, consultation

with teachers and administrators, and test administration

and interpretation contributed significantly (p < .05) to

the analysis. Located in Table 9 is the summary for the

analysis of factors that contributed significantly to the

multiple regression analysis.

Examination of the data presented in Table 9 revealed

that the combined factors were fairly good predictors of job
2
satisfaction as they accounted for 23% (r = .227) of the

variance in job satisfaction. Of the 16 factors that loaded

into the regression analysis, the following proved to be









significant (p < .05) predictors of job satisfaction: (a) job

expectations, which accounted for 14.6% of the variance; (b)

job challenge, which accounted for 4.2% of the variance;

(c) percentage of time helping students with schedules,

which accounted for 0.7% of the variance; (d) adequacy of

training, which accounted for 0.5% of the variance;

(e) percentage of time maintaining cumulative records,

which accounted for 0.4% of the variance; (f) percentage of

time spent on special education referrals and placement,

which accounted for 0.4% of the variance; (g) percentage of

time spent in individual guidance, which accounted for 0.4%

of the variance; (h) percentage of time spent on individual

personal counseling, which accounted for 0.4% of the

variance; (i) counselor-student ratios, which

accounted for 0.2% of the variance; (j) percentage of time

consulting with parents, which accounted for 0.4% of the

variance; and (k) percentage of time spent in individual

career counseling, which accounted for 0.1% of the variance.

The strongest predictors of job satisfaction among the

school counselors were the degree to which the job met their

expectations and the amount of challenge their jobs offered

as together, these factors accounted for 18% of the 23% of

variance in the school counselors' job satisfaction.



Summary

After reviewing the data in this study, it was

concluded that the school counselors in the nation were








Table 9
Multiple Regression Summary of Role Related Variables


Source DF SS MS F

Regression 16 11080.55 692.53 9.77*
Residual 532 37714.00 70.90



Predictor R B WT. 2 STD. F
r ERROR
Job expectation .381 -.298 .146 .429 52.98*
Job challenge .434 -.180 .188 .656 10.21*
% of time helping
studs. with sched. .442 -.076 .195 .039 2.99*
Adequacy of trng. .447 -.070 .200 .392 3.01*
% of time maint.
cum records .451 -.093 .204 .062 4.85*
% of time on spec.
ed. ref. & plcmt. .456 .061 .208 .045 2.18*
% of time on
indiv. guid. .461 .074 .212 .034 3.40*
% of time on indiv.
pers. counslg. .464 .057 .216 .024 1.96**
Counslr.-stud. ratio .467 -.058 .218 .001 2.04*
% of time consult.
with parents .471 .056 .222 .067 1.97**
% of time in career
grp. counslg. .472 .057 .223 .064 1.86**
% of time in ind.
career counslg. .474 -.044 .224 .043 1.00
% of time in
grp. guid. .475 .020 .225 .022 0.49
Job tenure .475 .062 .225 .087 1.04
Occupational tenure .476 -.062 .227 .078 1.02
% of time on other
duties .477 .016 .227 .031 0.1

*p < .05 **p < .01



moderately satisfied and that the sources of this

satisfaction were mostly intrinsic factors like serving/

working with others and achievement. It was also found that

school counselors at the elementary, middle/junior, and

senior high schools were, for the most part satisfied by the

same sources but in areas like school policies and









practices, recognition, and supervision--human relations,

high school counselors were less satisfied than school

counselors at the other two levels.

Data analyses also revealed that there was a small

positive relationship (r = .09) between the school

counselors' ages and their job satisfaction but

none existed between their monthly salaries and job

satisfaction. Additionally, it was observed that role

related factors like school counselors' job expectations and

job challenge can be significant predictors of job

satisfaction. Some of these findings support previous

research but some contradict others and these similarities

and contrasts are discussed in Chapter V.













CHAPTER V
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

In a recent report of the College Board, school

counselors were deemed as essential to the educational

system and very influential in young peoples' lives

(Keegan, 1986). However, authors, like Wells and

Ritter (1979), have indicated that school counselors are

dissatisfied with their jobs and are resultantly

ineffective. Since there has not been much empirical

evidence to support the claim, this study was undertaken to

not only learn about the level of satisfaction among school

counselors but also explore the contributing factors to this

satisfaction.

To learn more about job satisfaction among school

counselors, a job satisfaction survey consisting of a

personal and employment data section (PEDS) and the

Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ), was mailed to

1500 members of the American School Counselor Association.

The findings discussed here are based on a final sample of

686 school counselors. Seven research questions were raised

pertaining to (a) the overall level of job satisfaction;

(b) the sources of job satisfaction and variations across

school levels; (c) relationships between age and salary and

job satisfaction; and (d) predictions of job satisfaction

based on personal, demographic, and job related factors.







It was found that

1. Overall, the school counselors were moderately

satisfied with their jobs.

2. Factors that contributed to this satisfaction

included good relationships with students, a sense of

achievement, helping others, being able to keep busy,

ability utilization, and creativity.

3. For the most part, counselors in the elementary,

middle/junior, and senior high schools were satisfied by the

same sources. However, elementary and middle/junior high

school counselors were more satisfied than high school

counselors with their school policies, opportunities for

creativity, recognition, responsibility, and supervision--

human relations and technical. Additionally, the school

counselors did have some concerns that related to role

conflict, ambiguity, and overload.

4. There was a very weak but significant positive

relationship between school counselors' ages and job

satisfaction.

5. There was no significant relationship between

monthly salary and job satisfaction.

6. The number of professional memberships, job

expectations, school counselors' perception of the adequacy

of their training, and time spent on various duties were

predictors of job satisfaction.

The findings of this study both supported some earlier

studies and differed from some others. These similarities

and differences are discussed in the next section in regard








to the school counselors, theory of work adjustment, and job

satisfaction research. Following this is a discussion of

the limitations and implications of the study as well as

some conclusions drawn from the study.


Discussion of Results

School Counselors

Although the school counselors reported a moderate

level of job satisfaction on the general scale of the MSQ,

it was determined that several factors were threatening

their satisfaction. The factors discussed here concern

(a) the lack of full professional status, (b) inadequacy of

school counselor training, and (c) the effect of unmet

expectations.

Professional status. Proponents of the view that

school counselors are dissatisfied often argue that one

reason for this is the fact that school counselors are

occupied with a preponderance of nonprofessional duties,

which Aubrey (1982) argued could be accomplished by

computers and lesser paid personnel. The school counselors

in this survey did indicate that noncounseling duties were a

source of irritation, as they listed paperwork and

nonprofessional duties among the most dissatisfying aspects

of the job. Additionally, it was determined that the

percentage of time helping students with schedules and

maintaining cumulative records was negatively related to job

satisfaction.








However, after further examination of the data it was

hypothesized that not only is overload of paperwork and

nonprofessional duties a problem but role conflicts and

ambiguity are also the main contributors to lower levels of

job satisfaction among the school counselors. These

problems, according to Caplow (1966), are typical of

occupational groups that have not fully attained the final

stage of professionalization for it is at this stage that

the group forges and delineates its role through political

and public activism thus eliminating opportunities for role

conflicts and ambiguity. The medium for such activism is

the professional organization, which for school counselors

is the American School Counselor Association. Therefore, it

seems that as school counselors try to solve their

preprofessionalization problems, they will need to work more

closely with the American School Counselor Association. With

more school counselors supporting the association, this will

ensure that the association has the vitality it needs to

clarify the role and mission of school counselors to the

public.

Inadequacy of school counselor training. Another reason

for school counselors' attitudes to their jobs was

suggested by Day and Sparacio (1980), who believed that

inadequate and unrealistic training of school counselors

resulted in high levels of job dissatisfaction. In this

study, it was found that there was a positive relationship

between school counselors' perception of the adequacy of

their training and their job satisfaction and this seems to








give credence to Day and Sparacio's belief. To clarify

their position, many school counselors volunteered the

information that they felt versed in theory but not in the

applications of the theory. Therefore, they felt the need

for in-service training to develop skills to correct this

deficiency and/or to learn ways of handling emerging

problems like physical and drug abuse.

Effect of unmet expectations. In addition to

inadequate training, Boy and Pine (1980) implied that

unrealistic expectations could be affecting the school

counselors' attitudes to their jobs. This suggestion seems

to be supported by this survey as job expectations, when met

or surpassed, were very strong predictors of job

satisfaction. It appears that the more closely the job

approximated the school counselors' expectations, the greater

was their satisfaction. Therefore, prior to selecting this

vocation, prospective school counselors need to develop a

realistic picture of the roles entailed in the profession

and set their expectations accordingly.



Theory of Work Adjustment

Job satisfaction, according to the theory of work

adjustment (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984), is the result of the

work environment meeting the needs of its workers. A

manifestation of this satisfaction is tenure--both job and

occupational. In this study, it was determined that there

was no direct relationship between job satisfaction and








occupational tenure in that, although the school counselors

indicated a moderate satisfaction with their jobs, 58% of a

total of 686 school counselors stated that they intended to

remain in school counseling until retirement. This suggests

a potentially high turnover rate or lack of occupational

tenure among the school counselors. In addition, job and

occupational tenure were not found to be significant

predictors of job satisfaction in this study. Perhaps the

incongruency between the school counselors' job satisfaction

and tenure is rooted in the fact that the source of the most

dissatisfaction for school counselors--nonprofessional

duties--was listed on the school counselors' self

report but not measured by the MSQ. It seems plausible to

conclude that if the MSQ had been designed to measure

specific occupational concerns, the satisfaction scores may

have been lower and hence there might have been more

consistency between low satisfaction and low tenure.

Perhaps another reason for the determination of a lack

of congruence between job satisfaction and tenure is the

limited focus of the theory of work adjustment. The theory

is limited in scope in that Dawis and Lofquist (1984) only

address the issue of employees' needs. It would seem that a

more comprehensive theory would better explain job

satisfaction and tenure than the narrowly focused theory of

work adjustment.








Job Satisfaction Research

Researchers have identified several factors that affect

job satisfaction and most of these factors have been

incorporated into the needs list of the theory of work

adjustment (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984). Since support for

the theory of job satisfaction was previously addressed,

these factors are not discussed in this section. The

factors that are discussed here are educational level

and sex. Additionally, the applicability of the M-H

theory and person-environment congruency model is considered.

Educational level. The impact of educational level was

investigated by Weaver (1980) as well as Quinn and

Mandilovitch (1980), who reported a positive relationship

between job satisfaction and educational level. This

observation is contradicted by the results of this study as

educational level was not a significant predictor of

job satisfaction. Perhaps the difference in observations

can be attributed to the fact that the other studies were

conducted with several different occupational groups while

the present study only dealt with one group with a

limited range of educational differences.

Sex There is some controversy as to whether or not

the sex of the employees is a moderating factor in job

satisfaction. For example, Weaver (1980) reported that

there was no relationship between sex and job satisfaction

but this has been countered by Varca, Shaffer, and McCauley

(1983) who added that this effect was more evident among

people in the higher educational levels. In this study, it








was found that the female school counselors tended to be

more satisfied than the male school counselors thus

supporting the hypothesis of Varca, Shaffer, and McCauley.

There is a myriad of possible explanations for this

observation, one of which is the possibility that the men

felt somewhat uncomfortable in a traditionally female-

dominated occupation. Further research is necessary to

elucidate this relationship.

Job satisfaction theories. Several researchers have

developed theories in attempts to account for the sources of

job satisfaction. Among these was Herzberg, who developed

the M-H theory of job satisfaction. According to Herzberg

(1966), different factors account for job satisfaction and

dissatisfaction. However, this was not found to be the case

in the present study for in several cases, the same factors

were listed as sources of satisfaction and dissatisfaction.

For example, relationships with supervisors/principals and

co-workers/teachers were listed not only as sources of

satisfaction but also as sources of dissatisfaction.

Based on these observations it was surmised that job

satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not on two separate

continue, as suggested by Herzberg, but on one continuum as

suggested by Hoppock (1935).

Although job satisfaction/dissatisfaction may be on

a continuum, both conditions are mediated by many variables

that interact. Any theorist that seeks to predict

and explain job satisfaction, must allow for this







interaction and be encompassing. One such potential model

is the person-environment congruency model described

by Klein and Wiener (1977). In this model, the

interaction between personality variables (e.g., needs,

expectations, abilities, and interests) and job variables

(e.g., supervisors, co-workers, and challenge) is considered

and so seems to be more useful than any one theory in the

study job satisfaction.



Limitations

Although this study was designed to present a

comprehensive national index of job satisfaction among

school counselorsin the American School Counselor

Association, several factors could affect the

generalizability of the results. These factors include the

sample chosen, research method, survey instrument, time

of survey, and determination of school level.

For practical reasons, it was decided to survey

a sample of the ASCA's members. The constitution of the

sample may have biased the results as non-ASCA members may

differ in attitudes from the ASCA members. Additionally, it

is not known what proportion of the school counselor

population is enrolled in the ASCA and so, the results may

not be representative of the entire school counselor

population. Therefore, caution should be exercised in

interpreting the results described here.

As is the case with most survey research conducted

by mail, some questionnaires were not returned, despite