An investigation of the effects of predisposition and communication style on counseling outcomes in interracial counseli...

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An investigation of the effects of predisposition and communication style on counseling outcomes in interracial counseling interactions
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Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1994.
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by Randy Keith Dillon.
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AN INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECTS OF PREDISPOSITION
AND COMMUNICATION STYLE ON
COUNSELING OUTCOMES
IN INTERRACIAL COUNSELING INTERACTIONS













By

RANDY KEITH DILLON


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


1994


L-



























For Everett H. Dillon, "Hoss"

April 22, 1940 February 25, 1994














ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

First of all, I would like to express my love and

gratitude to my parents Everett (Hoss) and Judy Dillon.

Their never-ending support and confidence in me has always

helped me through both good and rough times. It is by your

example that I have been taught many valuable lessons

including to "Don't Ever Give Up!" even though I wanted to

so many times this past year.

Here at the University of Florida, I would like to

especially thank Dr. Anthony Clark, my supervisory chair,

for all his encouragement, enthusiasm, and confidence in me.

His ability to quickly catch on to what I was trying to test

in this dissertation was essential in helping me to link

concepts and to synthesize my ideas.

I wish to extend a very special and meaningful thank

you to Dr. Rebecca Cline. Her patience, understanding, as

well as her ability to listen were instrumental in assisting

me in determining a theoretical framework to test the

hypotheses presented in this dissertation.

A special acknowledgement is given to Dr. Donald

Williams. I thank him for not only being an exceptional

teacher of intercultural communication, but for also taking

iii








the time outside the classroom, to discuss with me issues of

interest about intercultural communication

I also would like to express my thanks to my other

committee members for their participation and many

contributions to my graduate program; Dr. Max Parker for his

insights on multicultural counseling and consciousness

raising, and Dr. Richard Scheaffer for equiping me with the

statistical knowledge and procedures to conduct research not

only for this dissertation, but for future investigations

as well.

Finally, I wish to thank the students, faculty, and

staff in the Department of Communication Processes and

Disorders, as well as my colleagues and friends at the

English Language Institute, and in Gainesville. There are

so many who have made both my academic and personal life

more enjoyable over the past three years, but those

individuals who I owe enormous gratitude and thanks are

Nelya McKenzie, Rick Flug, Gary Koch, Kellie Roberts, Vivian

Sheer, Diana Nagy, and Michael Weeks. Without their

friendship, love, and support, this dissertation could not

have been completed.














TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS....................................... iii

TABLE OF CONTENTS...................................... v

LIST OF TABLES......................................... viii

LIST OF FIGURES........................................ xi

ABSTRACT ............................................... xii

CHAPTERS

1 INTRODUCTION..................................... 1

The Nature of Counseling.......................... 3
Predispositions and Counseling................. 4
Counseling as an Interpersonal Phenomenon...... 6
Counseling as a Communication Phenomenon....... 8
The "Gift" in Counseling........................ 11
The Nature of Intercultural Counseling........... 14
Communication in Intercultural Counseling...... 16
Premature Termination of Counseling
and the Minority Client...................... 17
Social Exchange in Counseling: A Rationale...... 19
The Problem and Plan of the Study................ 21

2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ......................... 26

An Overview........................ ............... 23
Theoretical Perspectives.......................... 24
Social Exchange Theory......................... 24
An Uncertainty Reduction Perspective
of Social Exchange............................ 26
A Power Perspective of Social Exchange......... 29
Interracial Counseling............................ 31
Predisposition Toward Counseling............... 32
Cultural Composition of the
Counselor-Client Dyad........................ 34
Counselor Communication Style.................. 37
General Hypotheses............................... 42
Hypotheses Based on Social Exchange Theory........ 44








3 METHODOLOGY ................................ ..... 53

Research Design................................... 53
Operational Definitions........................... 55
Independent Variables .......................... 55
Predisposition toward counseling............. 55
Cultural composition of the
counselor-client dyad...................... 56
Counselor communication style................. 56
Dependent Variables ............................ 58
Counsel-in effectiveness...................... 59
Client satisfaction .......................... 59
Communication satisfaction................... 60
Likelihood of return to counseling........... 61
A Pilot Study..................................... 61
Subjects...................................... ....65
Procedures.. ............................... ...... 66
Analyses of Results............................... 67
Hypotheses Testing............................. 68
Post Hoc Interpretations..... .................. 68

4 RESULTS .......................................... 70

Sample Characteristics........................... 70
Manipulation Check............................... 71
Reliability Analyses.............................. 71
Descriptive Statistics............................ 72
Hypotheses....................................... 74
General Hypotheses About Relationships
Among the Independent Variables As They
Influence Counseling Investment Outcomes...... 74
General Hypotheses About Relationships
Among the Dependent Variables................ 76
Hypotheses Based on the Social Exchange
Using an Uncertainty Reduction
Theoretical Framework for Assessing
Counselor Communication Style............... 76
Hypotheses Based on the Social Exchange
Using a Power Theoretical Framework for
Assessing Counselor Communication Style...... 79
Post Hoc Interpretations.......................... 82
Summary of Results................................ 84

5 DISCUSSION ....................................... 87

Overview ......................................... 87
Using Social Exchange Theory to
Predict Counseling Outcomes..................... 88
Factors Influencing Counseling Outcomes......... 88
Counseling Outcomes ............................ 89
Counseling as Social Exchange................... 89







M e th od s ...... .... ... ...... .... .. ..... .. .. .. ... 91
Results ................................. ........ 92
Culture's Role in Initial Counseling
Interactions................. ................ 94
The Role of Communication Style in
Counseling Outcomes ............................ 96
Uncertainty Reduction and Power
in Counseling Interactions ..................... 105
A Revised Social Exchange Model Explaining
the Role of Communication in Influencing
Counseling Outcomes ............................ 107
Limitations of the Present Study ................. 111
Future Research in Communication
and Intercultural Counseling.................... 113
Conclusion ....................................... 115

APPENDICES

A SCENARIO/SCRIPTS DEPICTING
COUNSELOR-CLIENT INTERACTION. ................. 116

B PREDISPOSITION TOWARD COUNSELING SCALE........... 121

C COUNSELOR EVALUATION INVENTORY................... 123

D INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
SATISFACTION INVENTORY ......................... 126

E DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION FOR RESPONDENTS.......... 128

F STATISTICAL TABLES ............................... 129

REFERENCES ............................................. 161

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................... 175


vii














LIST OF TABLES


Table page

1 A Model to Predict Counseling
Investment Outcomes for Counselor-Client
Social Exchange Using an Uncertainty
Reduction Theoretical Framework for
Assessing Rewards and Costs ................ 47

2 A Model to the Predict Counseling
Investment Outcomes for Counselor-Client
Social Exchange Using a Power Theoretical
Framework for Assessing Rewards and Costs.. 50

3 Descriptive Statistics for
Counseling Effectiveness.................... 129

4 Descriptive Statistics for
Client Satisfaction......................... 130

5 Descriptive Statistics for
Counselor Evaluation Inventory............. 131

6 Descriptive Statistics for
Communication Satisfaction.................. 132

7 Descriptive Statistics for
Likelihood of Return to Counseling.......... 133

8 Summary of Analysis of Variance for
Counseling Effectiveness.................... 134

9 Summary of Analysis of Variance for
Client Satisfaction......................... 135

10 Summary of Analysis of Variance for
Communication Satisfaction.................. 136

11 Summary of Analysis of Variance for
Likelihood of Return to Counseling.......... 137

12 Pearson-Product Moment Correlations
Among Dependent Variables ................... 138


viii








13 Descriptive Statistics for
Four Counseling Investment Outcome Levels
in the Uncertainty Reduction Model.......... 139

14 Analyses of Variance for Groups in Level II
in the Uncertainty Reduction Model.......... 140

15 Followup Tests for Groups in Level II
in the Uncertainty Reduction Model.......... 141

16 Analyses of Variance for Groups in Level III
in the Uncertainty Reduction Model......... 142

17 Followup Tests for Groups in Level III
in the Uncertainty Reduction Model.......... 143

18 Analyses of Variance Among the
Four Counseling Investment Outcome Levels
in the Uncertainty Reduction Model.......... 144

19 A priori Contrasts (LSD) Among
Counseling Investment Outcome Levels
for Counseling Effectiveness in the
Uncertainty Reduction Model................ 145

20 A priori Contrasts (LSD) Among
Counseling Investment Outcome Levels
for Client Satisfaction in the
Uncertainty Reduction Model................ 146

21 A priori Contrasts (LSD) Among
Counseling Investment Outcome Levels
for Communication Satisfaction in the
Uncertainty Reduction Model................ 147

22 A priori Contrasts (LSD) Among
Counseling Investment Outcome Levels
for Likelihood of Return to Counseling in
the Uncertainty Reduction Model............. 148

23 Correlations Between the Dependent Variables
and Counseling Investment Levels in the
Uncertainty Reduction Model................. 149

24 Descriptive Statistics for
Four Counseling Investment Outcome Levels
in the Power Model.......................... 150

25 Analyses of Variance for Groups in Level II
in the Power Model.......................... 151







26 Followup Tests for Groups in Level II
in the Power Model.......................... 152

27 Analyses of Variance for Groups in Level III
in the Power Model.......................... 153

28 Followup Tests for Groups in Level III
in the Power Model.......................... 154

29 Analyses of Variance Among the
Four Counseling Investment Outcome Levels
in the Power Model ......................... 155

30 A priori Contrasts (LSD) Among
Counseling Investment Outcome Levels
for Counseling Effectiveness
in the Power Model.......................... 156

31 A priori Contrasts (LSD) Among
Counseling Investment Outcome Levels
for Client Satisfaction
in the Power Model ......................... 157

32 A priori Contrasts (LSD) Among
Counseling Investment Outcome Levels
for Communication Satisfaction
in the Power Model ......................... 158

33 A priori Contrasts (LSD) Among
Counseling Investment Outcome Levels
for Likelihood of Return to Counseling
in the Power Model.......................... 159

34 Correlations Between the Dependent Variables
and Counseling Investment Levels
in the Power Model ......................... 160

35 The Dillon Social Exchange Model
for Explaining for Communication
and Counseling Outcomes..................... 110














LIST OF FIGURES


Figure page


1 Distribution of Respondents' Scores for
Predisposition Toward Counseling........... 73

2 Geometric Representation of Means for the
Eight Conditions for
Counseling Effectiveness.................... 98

3 Geometric Representation of Means for the
Eight Conditions for
Client Satisfaction........................ 99

4 Geometric Representation of Means for the
Eight Conditions for
Counselor Evaluation Inventory............. 100

5 Geometric Representation of Means for the
Eight Conditions for
Communication Satisfaction................ 101

6 Geometric Representation of Means for the
Eight Conditions for
Likelihood of Return to Counseling......... 102













Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

AN INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECTS OF PREDISPOSITION
AND COMMUNICATION STYLE ON COUNSELING OUTCOMES
IN INTERRACIAL COUNSELING INTERACTIONS

By

RANDY KEITH DILLON

December 1994
Chair: Anthony J. Clark
Major Department: Communication Processes and Disorders

This study investigated how clients' predispositions

toward counseling interact with counselors' communication

styles in initial interracial interactions on evaluations of

counseling effectiveness, client satisfaction, communication

satisfaction, and likelihood of return to counseling.

Specifically, this study tests social exchange theory by

proposing two models (1) uncertainty reduction; and (2)

power; that explain how clients may assess rewards and costs

from communication with counselors.

Subjects first completed the Predisposition Toward

Counseling Scale. Scenario/scripts consisting of one of

four possible conditions: (1) same culture for counselor

client/direct counselor communication style, or (2) same

culture/indirect communication style, or (3) different

culture/direct communication style, or (4) different


xii







culture/indirect communication style were used as treatment

stimuli. Each subject, assuming the role of the client, was

randomly assigned to read one scenario/script. Subjects

then evaluated the counseling interaction by responding to

the Counselor Evaluation Inventory and the Interpersonal

Communication Satisfaction Inventory. Each subject also

indicated the likelihood he/she would return to a second

counseling interaction with the counselor.

Results revealed no significant interactions between

clients' predispositions toward counseling, cultural

composition of the counselor-client dyad, and counselor

communication style. Predicted correlations among

counseling effectiveness, client satisfaction, communication

satisfaction, and likelihood of return to counseling were

statistically supported and in a positive direction. Two

hypotheses for the uncertainty reduction model were

supported. No hypotheses for the power model were

supported.

The most significant conclusions drawn from this study

were that culture did not play a salient role, and that

clients' rewards/costs assessments of counselors'

communication styles in initial interactions were partially

explained by the uncertainty reduction model. As a result,

a new social exchange model is proposed for future research

to test clients' appraisals of rewards and costs of

communication with counselors.


xiii













CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION


The demographics of the population of the United States

are forecast to undergo dramatic changes over the next

twenty years. As a result of increased immigration and

birth rates, the membership of traditional minority groups

in the United States such as (i.e., Hispanics, Asian-

Americans and African-Americans) is expected to grow more

rapidly than the White/Caucasian population (U.S. Bureau of

the Census, 1990). In 2015 A.D., these minority groups will

constitute over 35 percent of the United States' population

(Woods & Poole Economics, Inc., 1992). This change in

demographics, known as "the Browning of America" (Henry,

1990), will make the nation a more multicultural,

multiracial and multilingual society (Johnston & Packer,

1987; Offerman & Gowing, 1990; Sue, 1994). One result of a

multicultural society is increased diversity in the ways

individuals seek help from one another.

Personal counseling is one way that people help people.

As the population in the United States increasingly

diversifies, individuals trained as counselors will need to

incorporate culturally-relevant communication strategies

into their counseling skills in order to be effective









(Westwood & Ishiyama, 1990). As a result, tnere is a need

to more fully and clearly comprehend the dynamics of the

communication processes involved in intercultural

counseling. The present study was conducted to address that

need. The study specifically examined clients'

predispositions toward counseling, the cultural composition

of the counselor-client dyads, and the counselor's

communication style as factors that may influence a client's

perception of counseling effectiveness and communication

satisfaction of an initial counselor-client interaction, and

the client's likelihood of returning to a second counseling

interaction.

In order to build a case for looking at communication

in intercultural counseling, salient arguments are presented

in this chapter; they will address particular variables in

communication that may affect the counseling process. A

rationale is established to empirically assess interactions

of these variables and to determine the influence these

effects may have on intercultural counseling. According to

Sue and Zane (1987), clients look for a "gift" from

counseling. That is, clients seek to identify beneficial

outcomes from their counseling. What are considered "gifts"

in counseling and communication may differ; one source of

that difference is cultural diversity. In order to

understand how counseling may be influenced by perceptions

of this "gift," a basic understanding of counseling and its







3

relationship to communication is needed. That understanding

furnishes the specific context for the communication issues

in counselor-client interactions investigated in the present

scudy.

The Nature of Counseling

Counseling involves a series of contacts between a

professionally trained counselor and a client seeking help,

wherein the focus is solely on the client and his or her

problems (Dillard, 1983; Sullivan, 1953; ). From a

Eurocentric perspective, a counselor's goal is to help an

individual experiencing personal problems with work or

social relationships to bring about a change in his or her

outlook (Barnlund, 1968).

The term "counseling" encompasses a variety of contexts

in which humans help one another. Some counseling contexts

include educational counseling, psychological counseling,

career counseling, sex counseling, religious counseling, and

legal counseling. The study reported here focuses on

counseling that involves a client who is having difficulties

in his/her communication and social interactions with others

in an educational setting. Although various counseling

contexts focus attention on different human needs, what is

common to all of them is that an individual seeks help from

someone else for something that he or she cannot, or has not

been able to, work out alone (Young, 1992).







4
Despite the help that counseling can provide for those

with personal adjustment and mental health problems, many

individuals believe that counseling also can be

stigmatizing. An individual may believe that being labeled

as someone in counseling will cause him or her to be

socially alienated from others (Goffman, 1963). He or she

may believe that going to counseling is a tacit admission of

weakness, and that problems should, but cannot, be handled

independently. In addition, based on cultural and social

training, some individuals may believe that discussion of

personal problems ought to be carried out only in private,

in the home, or within the privacy of a family. By

contrast, others may recognize that counseling is beneficial

and considered "normal" in today's society, and that

discussing personal problems with a professionally trained

counselor is both common and appropriate (Pedersen, 1985).

Whether an individual has a positive, neutral, or negative

predisposition toward counseling, those views may affect the

communication processes involved counseling.

Predispositions and Counseling

An individual's predisposition in any context is an

anticipatory position toward an event (Mortensen & Sereno,

1970). Higginbotham (1977) claims that predispositions

toward counseling are influenced by an individual's positive

and negative attitudes about the help counseling can

provide. Such predispositions can affect the overall







5

success of counseling. In particular, clients believe that

a stranger (counselor) cannot understand them. That belief

may be enhanced when the counselor is an individual who is

culturally different from the client.

Because a client seeks help from a counselor who

provides help, the relationship between a counselor and

client may be defined as "complementary." A complementary

relationship can foster differences between two individuals

in a relationship (Watzlawick, Beavin, & Jackson, 1967). In

counseling, a client may self-disclose, but without the

benefit of reciprocal self-disclosure from the counselor.

In fact the client's self-disclosure is analyzed and

evaluated by the counselor. Clients may differ in their

initial willingness or predisposition to engage in a

one-down relationship with a stranger, even a stranger who

is professionally qualified. That hesitation may be

enhanced further when the topic concerns a client's personal

problems. Thus, differences in clients' predispositions

toward counseling may affect the success of counseling and

subsequent return to counseling.

Despite the logical connection between an individual's

predispositions toward counseling and counseling outcomes,

little research has investigated such a link. According to

Johnson (1977), and Higginbotham (1977), clients'

predispositions toward counseling are seldom considered by

researchers. "There is a need to examine how clients









approach therapy with well-defined and individually diverse

role expectations, therapist preferences, forms of support

anticipated, types of advice sought, or type of medical care

desired" (Higginbctham, 1977, p. 111) Predispositions

toward counseling -:- only influence an individual's

motivation to see- :Dunseling, they may affect the

communication between counselor and client, and therefore

influence counseling outcomes. Because predisposition

toward counseling may affect counseling outcomes, and little

is know about this subject, the present study included

clients' predispositions toward counseling as an important

factor.

Counseling as an Interpersonal Phenomenon

Typically, an interpersonal relationship between two

people involves interactions over a period of time. It is

characterized by mutual influence; the behavior of each

takes into consideration the behavior of the other (Hinde,

1979). Strong (1968) argues that successful counseling

promotes and influences an interpersonal relationship

between counselor and client. The type of influence

counselors exercise with their clients is operationalized

through different "schools" of counseling. Well-known

schools include psychodynamic counseling, cognitive-

behavioral counseling, gestalt therapy, behavioral

counseling, existential-humanistic counseling (Ivey, Ivey, &

Simek-Downing, 1987). Although each school of counseling









has its advocates, behavioral counseling and existential-

humanistic counseling are the focus for this study because

of the particular way each defines the interpersonal

relationship between counselor and client.

In behavioral counseling, the counselor takes an active

role in providing direction for the client (London, 1969;

Franks, 1982). "Behavioral counseling rests on ... examining

the client and the client's environment and, jointly with

the client, developing specific interventions to alter life

conditions" (Ivey, Ivey, & Simek-Downing, 1987, p. 234).

The definition of the problem, an understanding of the full

context of the problem, and the establishment of clear goals

for the client are central to the process of behavioral

counseling. Terms used to describe behavioral counseling

include action therapy, directive counseling, counselor-

centered therapy, and the active approach in counseling

(Ivey, Ivey, & Simek-Downing, 1987).

In contrast to behavioral counseling, existential-

humanistic counseling assumes that individuals are unique

and potentially empowered to determine their own destinies;

the locus of control is believed to lie within the

individual. The task of the counselor in this process is to

empathize with the client and to facilitate the client's

decision making (Rogers, 1961). Terms used to describe

existential-humanistic counseling include: indirect

counseling, nondirective counseling, person-centered







8
counseling, client-centered counseling, and Rogerian therapy

(Ivey, Ivey, & Simek-Downing, 1987).

In summary, both behavioral counseling and existential-

humanistic counseling are effective with some clients (Ivey,

Ivey, & Simek-Dcwning, 1987). In both approaches, the

creation of a therapeutic relationship between counselor and

client is contingent upon effective interpersonal

communication.

Counseling as a Communication Phenomenon

According to Dance (1970), communication is "the

process by which we understand others and in turn endeavor

to be understood by them. It is dynamic, constantly

changing, and shifting in response to the total situation"

(p. 204). While communication is important in all

relationships in life--family, society, work--nowhere is the

necessity of clear and relevant communication more acute

than in counseling (Loeffler, 1970). Labov and Fanshel

(1977) contend that because counseling is, more than

anything else, a verbal conversational activity, the lack of

attention devoted to counseling from a communication

perspective is surprising. However, one area that has

attracted attention centers on the influence of counselor

communication style on counseling.

Communication style consists of "the signals that are

provided to help process, interpret, filter, or understand

literal meaning" (Norton, 1983, p. 47). Taxonomies of









communication styles used by counselors typically

discriminate between so-called direct and indirect counselor

communication styles (e.g., Hill's Counselor Verbal Response

Category System, 1978; Zimmer & Pepyne's Taxcnomy of

Counselor Responses, 1971).

The counselor who employs a direct communication style,

collects information, analyzes the situation, gives

opinions, and suggests solutions, Overall, a counselor's

direct communication style attempts to reduce the client's

uncertainty about counseling, and lays out a specific route

for the client to follow to address the problem (Downs,

Smeyak, & Martin, 1980). By contrast, the counselor who

uses an indirect communication style, plays the role of a

facilitator. That counselor focuses on becoming involved in

the process of helping the client reach a solution to a

problem instead of formulating the actual content of the

solution itself. An indirect communication style requires

the counselor to listen and empathize with the client, and

to help the client probe his or her own thinking. Overall,

a counselor's indirect communication style attempts to

empower the client to acquire an internal locus of control,

to make decisions, and to solve his or her own problems

(Downs, Smeyak, & Martin, 1980).

Although direct and indirect communication styles are

conceptually distinct, they may be thought of on a

continuum, rather than as opposites. Downs, Smeyak, and









Martin (1980) contend that "Rarely will you have an

interview that is completely directive or completely

nondirective. Yet, these different orientations affect the

structure of the interview, the amount of participation, and

the role that the counselor plays" (p. 193). The

communication style of a counselor often corresponds with a

particular school of counseling. Ivey (1988) reports that

the direct communication style often has been associated

with behavioral counseling. Likewise, the indirect

communication style often has been associated with

existential-humanistic counseling. In fact, behavioral

counseling and existential-humanistic counseling often are

respectively referred to as "directive counseling" and

nondirectivee counseling," due to the counselor's

communication style associated with each school.

Research suggests that counselors become accustomed to

using a particular style of communication and tend to employ

this communication style regularly in their counseling

(Wyatt & Parham, 1985). Counselors may have been trained

implicitly to favor one communication style over another

(Pedersen, 1985). Although using one communication style

regularly may be comfortable for the counselor, that

particular communication style may not always match the

needs of the client. Because clients look for a "gift" in

their communication with counselors (Sue, 1990; Westwood &

Ishiyama, 1990), the communication style of the counselor









may influence such perceived benefits, and thereby and

ultimately may influence counseling outcomes. Therefore,

counselor communication style was included as a factor in

the present study.

The "Gift" in Ccileu ing

Sue and Zane 1987) posit that clients look for

benefits or a "gift" from their initial counseling

interactions:

If therapists succeed in conceptualizing their client's
problem in a manner consistent with the client's world
view, client's may be more likely to "accept"
reassurance from the therapist. On the other hand,
clients who feel that their therapists do not
understand them and their problems may perceive
attempts at reassurance as condescending or pro forma
gestures. (Sue & Zane, 1987, p. 45)


More specifically, Sue and Zane (1987) contend that

clients look for certain characteristics, or gifts, in their

counselor's communication. Gifts that a counselor can offer

through communication include: (1) reducing uncertainty,

wherein the client is made aware of what is expected of him

or her and what direction counseling will take, and (2)

helping the client learn how to make decisions

independently in order to gain personal control to cope with

particular problems (Sue & Zane, 1987).

When clients obtain certain benefits or gifts from

counseling both counseling effectiveness and client

satisfaction are enhanced and achieved. Counseling

effectiveness pertains to the overall usefulness of









counseling to address problems, and includes the ways in

which a counselor's personal qualities such as credibility

and trustworthiness influence counseling (Haase & Miller,

1968). Client satisfaction is an individual's personal

contentment about how counseling addresses his or her needs

(Linden, Stone, & Shertzer, 1965). Although counseling

effectiveness and client satisfaction are separate factors

conceptually, they are positively related to each other: If

counseling effectiveness is high, client satisfaction is

high; if counseling effectiveness is low, client

satisfaction is low (Haase & Miller, 1968).

A major factor influencing the outcomes of counseling

effectiveness and client satisfaction is the extent to which

counselor and client establish a clear mutual definition of

the client's problem. If definition of the problem and the

expectations between the counselor and the client are

discrepant, then the probability of successful treatment and

opportunities for future communication decrease. Sue (1981)

reported an example of nonmutuality in defining the client's

problem. A student saw a counselor for vocational help.

The counselor set a goal of uncovering the dynamics of deep-

seated motives and decisions. However, the client felt

extremely uncomfortable with the counselor's probing issues

that seemed unrelated to the client's goal. Due to the way

the counselor communicated with this client, both counseling

effectiveness and client satisfaction were reduced.









Both counseling effectiveness and client satisfaction

are influenced by communication between counselors and

clients. Communication satisfaction is a vehicle for

assessing the results of communication encounters and, in

counseling, plays an integral role in the achievement of

counseling effectiveness as well as client satisfaction

outcomes (Hecht, 1978). "Communication satisfaction is...an

effect crucial to concepts of psychological health and,

therefore, is a useful construct which should prove useful

in the study of communication behavior" (Hecht, 1978, p.

253). For example, if a client tells a counselor his or her

problem, and the counselor responds with messages that let

the client know that the counselor truly understands the

problem, then not only are counseling effectiveness and

client satisfaction enhanced, but communication satisfaction

as well. Thus, counseling effectiveness, client

satisfaction, and communication satisfaction are indices of

clients' evaluations of counseling, and are included as the

outcome variable in the present study.

In summary, counseling is a process that sometimes

occurs when one human attempts to help another human with a

problem or concern; clients vary in their predisposition to

receive such help. Counseling is an interpersonal

phenomenon, wherein counselors are guided in their attempts

to help clients by using different schools of therapy.

Different schools of therapy can rely on different styles of









counselor communication. Clients look for "gifts" from

counseling. Counseling effectiveness, client satisfaction

and communication satisfaction are affected by the

counselor's ability to provide such gifts for a client.

The addition of cultural/racial differences between

counselor and client present further challenges to a

counselor's ability to offer a "gift" to a client (Atkinson,

1983; Sue, 1994).

The Nature of Intercultural Counseling

Intercultural counseling is defined as a helping

relationship in which clients are racially, ethnically, or

culturally different (Vontress, 1988). In this study, the

term "intercultural counseling" is used to describe

counseling relationships in which the counselor and client

differ with regard to culture, race, and/or ethnicity.

However, because the focus of intercultural counseling often

is on racial or subcultural differences between counselors

and clients in the United States, the term interracial

counseling also is used sometimes.

As the cultural diversity of the population in the

United States increases, counselors will experience

interactions with clients from cultural backgrounds

different from their own. At present, most counselors are

White/Caucasian (Parker, 1988; Pedersen, 1985; Pedersen,

1987; Sue, 1990). Despite efforts to increase the number of

minorities entering counseling, the White/Caucasian majority









in the counseling profession likely will continue into the

next century (Parker, 1988; Sue, 1990).

Because demographic trends indicate that intercultural/

interracial counseling will become more prevalent,

counselors need to learn sensitivity to clients' history,

values, beliefs, and cultural characteristics (Pedersen,

1987). In addition, counselors must be sensitive to racial

discrimination and how that discrimination may affect a

client (Herr & Cramer, 1988). Counselors need to consider

the stereotypes and problems that face minority clients

(Atkinson, Morten, & Sue, 1989). Counselors also need to

their own beliefs and attitudes regarding the culturally

different client, and be familiar with their own racial

consciousness (Hulnick, 1977; Pedersen, 1985; Pedersen,

1987).

No empirical data presently exist on the degree to

which the presence of knowledge and skills act as

facilitators of credible and effective interracial

counseling (Leong, 1986; Taffe, & Sodowsky, 1991).

Moreover, what counselors think they may know about a

client's culture often is based on inaccurate information

and stereotypes. As a consequence, ineffective

communication and treatments occur (Smith, 1977). Sue

(1990) suggests that the locus of the problem may lie in the

training of counselors; as a result, counselors often are

either deficient in relating culture/racial-specific skills







16

in counseling, or are comfortable using only one particular

school of counseling. These factors are likely to affect

counselors' communication with clients.

Communication in Intercultural Counseling

Intercultural communicationn occurs when a message

produced in one culture is processed in another culture

(Samovar & Porter, 1994). Sue (1990) contends that one's

culture largely determines communication behavior. The

influence of culture becomes pronounced when communication

is attempted in counseling with members of a minority group.

Often reared in a White/Caucasian middle-class society,

counselors may assume that certain behaviors or rules of

speaking are universal; such assumptions may create problems

for counselors in communicating with minority clients (Sue,

1990). Wrenn (1962) charged that many White/Caucasian

counselors are "culturally encapsulated" when it comes to

communicating with minority clients. Cultural encapsulation

means that counselors treat all clients according to the

practices and rules of the majority culture with little or

no acknowledgement of the client's particular culture

(Draguns, 1976; Wrenn, 1962).

The diversification of the population in the United

States presents a challenge to the nation's system of

education to "clarify communication style differences that

may be misunderstood by teachers and counselors" (Sue, 1994,

p. 384). For an effective counselor-client relationship to









take place, counselors need to be familiar with their

clients' culture and to minimize miscommunication (Todisco &

Salomone, 1991).

Interestingly, there appear to be no significant

differences between races regarding reasons for going to

counseling (Parker & McDavis, 1983). Research on the ways

counselor communication styles affect counseling exchanges

between counselors and members of minority groups has

produced equivocal results at best (Atkinson, Maruyama, &

Matsui, 1978; Hill, 1978). The issue warrants further

investigation, especially because communication in

intercultural counseling directly influences the success or

failure of counseling outcomes including premature

termination of counseling (Sue, 1990).

Premature Termination of Counseling and the Minority Client

Premature termination of counseling occurs when a

client fails not to return to subsequent counseling

sessions, when a counselor believes such sessions are needed

(Sue, 1990). In the present study, the term "initial

interaction" is used to describe the first face-to-face

counseling session between a counselor and a client.

What occurs during the initial interaction between a

counselor and client clearly is important: "The interaction

between two strangers, for instance, creates a relational

history, and this history will affect the next interaction;

they can never return to being total strangers again"









(Stewart & Cash, 1985, p. 13). Impressions from initial

counseling may carry over to subsequent counseling

interactions; however, they also can prompt a client to

terminate counseling.

Over half of the minority clients in the United States

seeking mental health counseling fail to return for a second

counseling session, while under 30% of clients from the

White/Caucasian majority culture fail to return (Sue, 1990).

The higher rate of non-return by minority clients suggests

that counselors are perceive to not meet the needs of the

clients (Sue, 1990). Because premature termination of

counseling is a significant issue in intercultural

counseling, likelihood of return to counseling is considered

in the present study.

Predisposition toward counseling, counselor

communication style and counselors' communication styles

take on particular importance in intercultural counseling.

Extant research has not adequately addressed the

interactions of these variables in influencing assessments

of counseling effectiveness, client satisfaction,

communication satisfaction, and the likelihood of return to

counseling. By looking at the relationships among these

variables, important issues about the nature of counseling

and communication are raised. One issue concerns the gifts

that clients look for in interactions with counselors.

Because these gifts are likely to influence counseling









outcomes of counseling effectiveness, client satisfaction,

communication satisfaction, as well as a client's likelihood

of return to counseling, how clients assess what is and what

is not a gift needs : be understood. The following section

provides a theoretical rationale for assessing such gifts.

Social Excha:.ze in Counseling: A Rationale

Because there is evidence that clients seek counseling

in terms of social rewards and costs (Sue & Zane, 1987),

social exchange theory appeared to be a worthwhile and

practical theory to employ in this study. (The theory of

social exchange will be covered in more depth in Chapter 2.)

Overall, in social exchange theory, relationships are

perceived in terms of rewards and costs. A profit are the

rewards gained from an exchange less the cost incurred. A

cost is that which is lost from the exchange, such as

foregoing the benefits of being engaged in a different

exchange (Homans, 1961). Homans' social exchange theory

views relationships as evolving through the exchange of

commodities such as information, time, and power (1961). In

order for an exchange to continue, the relationship must

produce a profit, and the rewards must outweigh costs. An

exchange that is beneficial continues, whereas, an exchange

that is costly terminates (Homans, 1961).

Many of the terms and constructs used in Homans' social

exchange theory are directly applicable to counseling

exchanges. Clients may look at counseling in terms of costs









and rewards; when counseling is unprofitable (ie., costs

exceed rewards), it terminates; when counseling is

profitable (ie., rewards exceed costs), it continues.

Individuals' particular perceptions of what is

beneficial and what is costly may differ (Blau, 1964).

Discrepancies in weighing rewards and costs may affect

counseling outcomes such as counseling effectiveness, client

satisfaction, communication satisfaction, as well as the

likelihood of return to counseling.

Complications may occur when the counselor believes

that he or she is giving the client what he/she needs.

However, the gift communicated may or may not be the gift

the client was seeking. One reason for this disparity in

intercultural counseling is that the cultural or racial

group the client represents may not recognize or give weight

to the value of the gift in the same way that the

counselor's culture or racial group values that gift.

Research is lacking regarding counselor communication

of what is relatively more beneficial in counseling clients

from minority groups, reducing client uncertainty, or

empowering the client. In order to address this issue, two

separate social exchange models were proposed and tested in

the present study. One model was built on the assumption

that individuals assess the rewards and costs of counseling

in terms of uncertainty reduction in order to increase

predictability both about themselves and others in a









counseling relationship (Berger & Calabrese, 1975). A

second model was built on the assumption that individuals

assess the rewards and costs of counseling in terms of

power, that is, individuals feel empowered if they are given

the opportunity to make their own decisions and control the

direction of counseling.

Overall, the present study draws from the theory of

social exchange; separate models of uncertainty reduction

and power are proposed and tested to attempt to understand

how clients assess both rewards and costs from a counselors

communication style in a counseling exchange. These models

may provide meaningful information on the ways that

counselor communication style influences what is or what is

not seen as a gift for clients, how this perception affects

the outcomes of counseling effectiveness, client

satisfaction, communication satisfaction, as well as the

likelihood of return to counseling. One model is not

assumed to be better than the other, nor is one

communication style presumed to be better than the other.

The Problem and Plan of the Study

The general research question addressed in this study

is: How do a client's predisposition toward counseling, the

cultural composition of the counselor-client dyad, and

counselor communication style, and the interactions among


these factors influence clients' appraise
g


, -







22
effectiveness, client satisfaction, communication

satisfaction, and the likelihood of return to counseling?

Chapter 2 provides a review of literature on

communication and counseling, and the theories that guide

the present study. Chapter 3 describes methods used in the

study. Chapter 4 reports the analyses of the data. Chapter

5 consists of a discussion of the findings and conclusions.














CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

An Overview

The present study investigated how clients'

predisposition toward counseling, counselor communication

style, and cultural composition of the counselor-client dyad

in influencing counseling outcomes. This chapter reviews

relevant literature, beginning with the theoretical

framework for this study. The literature review focuses

predisposition toward counseling, cultural and racial

composition of the counselor-client dyad, and communication

style as they pertain to counseling outcomes. Hypotheses

predicted interactions among the independent variables in

influencing counseling effectiveness, client satisfaction,

communication satisfaction, and likelihood of return to

counseling, as well as relationships among the dependent

variables.

Because the basis of benefit-cost assessment varies

depending upon counselor communication style, two social

exchange models were proposed: (1) a model that employs

uncertainty reduction to explain benefits and costs in

clients' communication with counselors; and (2) a model that

employs power to explain benefits and costs in clients'







24
communication with counselors. Competing sets of hypotheses

are generated from the two models.

Theoretical Perspectives

The theoretical perspective of social exchange was used

to explain the commu.:-ation and counseling phenomena under

investigation in this study. Benefits and costs of

counselors' communication styles resulting from social

exchange can be assessed through different alternatives.

Two such alternatives are through uncertainty reduction and

through power. These two perspectives of uncertainty

reduction and power and each perspective's relationship to

the theory of social exchange are also presented.

Social Exchange Theory

Social exchange theory proposes that relationships are

managed in terms of perceived rewards and costs. From this

perspective, relationships evolve through the exchange of

commodities, such as information, skill, power each

individual contributes to the exchange. A profit are the

rewards gained from an exchange, less the costs incurred. A

cost is that which is given up from the exchange, such as

foregoing the benefits of being engaged in a different

exchange (Homans, 1961). Homans asserted that "the open

secret of human exchange is to give the other man behavior

that is more valuable to you than it is costly to

him"(p. 62).









Investments include commodities, for example, one's

skill, effort, education, training, experience, age, sex,

and ethnic background. Social exchange theory posits that

the more investments one makes, the more rewards that

individual will expect to receive. Likewise, the more

investments, the more costs incurred. For an exchange to

continue, rewards must outnumber costs; an exchange that

produces more rewards than costs is profitable, and tends to

continue. An exchange that produces more costs than

benefits represents a loss, and tends to be terminated

(Homans, 1961).

Individuals in a dyadic exchange seek "distributive

justice." Distributive justice occurs when benefits gained

for each individual are proportional to the investments each

makes toward the exchange (Homans, 1961). In addition, when

an inequality between investment proportions occurs, a

feeling of injustice is experienced, and the individual for

whom the ratio of profits is smaller to investments will

feel deprived (Adams, 1965).

Social exchange theory maintains that individuals

anticipate benefits from mutual association that

individually are unattainable, thereby increasing motivation

to form a relationship (Altman & Taylor, 1973). "The

formation, maintenance, and dissolution of relationships

depends on how the relational partners calculate the







26
benefit/cost ratios of existing and anticipated interaction"

(Applegate & Leichty, 1984, p. 35).

Social exchange theory posits that individuals

determine benefits and costs in different ways (Blau, 1964).

The commodity of a client's predisposition toward counseling

treats a client's high predisposition toward counseling as a

benefit and a low predisposition toward counseling as a

cost. The commodity of the cultural composition of the

counselor-client dyad treat as a benefit when counselor and

client are from the same culture. By contrast, when the

counselor and client are from different cultures it is

considered a cost. As for the communication style of the

counselor of direct and indirect, this commodity can be

treated as either benefit or cost depending upon how the

client's assessment. One way that individuals determine the

ratio of rewards and costs is through the reduction of

uncertainty. In order to gain a further understanding of

how individuals use uncertainty reduction in assessments of

rewards and costs, a literature review of uncertainty

reduction theory is warranted.

An Uncertainty Reduction Perspective of Social Exchange

In 1975, Berger and Calabrese advanced a developmental

theory to explain initial interpersonal communication

interactions that was based on uncertainty reduction:

"Central to the theory is the assumption that when strangers

meet their primary concern is one of uncertainty reduction









or increasing predictability about the behavior of both

themselves and others in the interaction" (p. 100).

Basically, uncertainty reduction theory assumes that

when individuals meet for the first time they are motivated

to reduce uncertainty (Berger & Calabrese, 1975).

Information is defined as a quantity of possible choices or

alternatives, and when there is no longer any more

alternatives, the situation becomes completely predictable

(Shannon & Weaver, 1949). Information in the communication

process is also conceptualized as "what you do not know what

is going to happen next" (Darnell, 1972, p. 158).

Individuals seek information not just to reduce present

uncertainty, but also to assess possible future interactions

(Berger & Calabrese, 1975). Within the larger framework of

social exchange, individuals are motivated to reduce

uncertainty to determine if an outcome will be either

positive or negative (Sunnafrank, 1986).

The different ways individuals communicate culturally

in initial interactions influence how uncertainty may be

reduced. African-Americans and White/Caucasians, for

instance, show several differences in their interpersonal

communication during initial interactions (Kochman, 1974;

Rich, 1976; Shuter, 1982). For example, White/Caucasian

Americans gain information by asking questions while

African-Americans gain information by the use of leading or

challenging statements. Reliance on different ways of









communicating has led Shuter (1982) to propose that

different racial groups living within the United States

reduce uncertainty differently in initial interactions.

Uncertainty reduction theory has been suggested as an

explanation of interpersonal interactions in a variety of

contexts (Berger, 1979). Tolerance for uncertainty varies

substantially among individuals in different countries

(Hofstede, 1980). Such tolerance for uncertainty is

sometimes influenced by the expected ease of communication.

Simard (1981) reported that individuals expect communication

with someone who is racially and culturally different to be

more difficult than with someone from the same culture.

Thus, when an individual anticipates that communication will

result in difficulty, uncertainty increases, and later

interactions are likely to be avoided.

Most of the extant research on uncertainty reduction

and communication within intercultural and interracial

contexts has been done by Gudykunst and his associates.

Gudykunst (1983a; 1983b; 1984; 1986) tested uncertainty

reduction theory as a way to explain initial interactions

between strangers, and concluded that an individual makes

more assumptions about the behavior of a stranger from

another culture then he or she does about the behavior of a

stranger from his or her own culture. Research on

interracial interactions also suggests that more benefits

are expected when an interracial comparison is positive or








29
similar than when the interracial comparison is negative or

dissimilar (Gudykunst, 1985; Gudykunst, 1991; Gudykunst &

Hammer, 1987; 1988; Gudykunst, Sodetani, & Sonoda, 1987).

While uncertainty reduction is one way through which

individuals may a-e-rmine rewards and costs in an exchange,

another way is through the use of interpersonal power. In

order to gain a better understanding of how individuals use

interpersonal power in assessments of rewards and costs a

literature review of power in social exchange follows.

A Power Perspective of Social Exchange

All human interaction involves power. Power has been

defined in a number of ways, including one's ability to

control one's own and/or another's behavior. Power can

explain how goals get accomplished, and whether rewards or

costs result (Johnson and Johnson, 1987).

The underlying assumption is that individual's

basically act to gain something from somebody else in

exchange for something else. An individual has as much

power as he or she lets others perceive that they have.

Power is conceptualized as one's perception of access to

influential resources (Marwell & Schmitt, 1967). Power

involves one's ability to influence the outcomes of another

individual's experience (Siebold, Cantrill, & Meyers, 1985;

Thibault & Kelley, 1959). Consequently, an individual's

expectation of rewards and costs can be manipulated by what

he or she believes is the other's influence in delivering on









these rewards and costs (Wheeless, Barraclough, & Stewart,

1983).

Interpersonal power, as used in this investigation, is

viewed as an individual's willingness or unwillingness to

acquiesce to another's efforts to influence him/her. As

such, interpersonal power can be evaluated in terms of an

individual's "locus of evaluation" (Cline, 1989).

Individuals who have an external locus of evaluation are

inclined to abide by the expectations and standards of

others. By contrast, individuals who have an internal locus

of evaluation are guided by their own expectations and are

likely to be more regulated by their own standards of

behavior (Raskin, 1952; Rogers, 1961).

The theoretical rationale of power in counseling may

present a paradox: the most powerful stance one can take in

any relationship is to leave responsible power in the hands

of each person or group (Rogers, 1977). However, the forces

that determine locus of evaluation, decision making, and

control may differ according to racial and cultural beliefs.

The power perspective of determining a rewards and

costs ratio emphasizes that benefits are achieved if an

individual is encouraged to develop directions for him or

herself. If, in the exchange, the individual is provided

with the power to have control and make decisions, then

future exchanges are continued and deemed worthwhile by that

person.









Even with a desire to help, one can sometimes do more

harm than good in helping another individual. For example,

a counselor may get caught up in what Guggenbuhl-Craig

(1971) terms a "lust for power" over a client This lust

for power becomes apparent when the counselor recognizes

self-defeating behavior on the part of the client. In

trying to attempt to change such behavior, the counselor may

want to enforce what he/she believes is good for the client.

Instead, giving an individual constant advice most likely

increases his or her dependence on others, and also

discourages decision making characteristic of an internal

locus of evaluation (Hanna, 1975; Rogers, 1977; Rogers,

1980).

Uncertainty reduction and power are both methods

individuals use to identify benefits and costs from

counselors' communication styles. Later in this chapter,

hypotheses pertaining to both theoretical methods that

explain counselor-client social exchange will be presented.

The following section includes a literature review of

(predisposition toward counseling, cultural and racial

composition of the counselor-client dyad, and counselor

communication style,) as they pertain interracial

counseling.

Interracial Counseling

Some challenging situations in communication can

develop when an individual seeks help from a counselor who








reflects a different cultural perspective (Usher, 1989;

Westwood & Ishiyama, 1990). In the next part of this

chapter, literature is reviewed for three areas,

predisposition toward counseling, cultural composition of

the counselor-client dyad, and counselor communication

style.

Predisposition Toward Counseling

Predispositions include a widespread set of emotional

associations that one holds about his or her interactions

with others (Lustig & Koester, 1993). A client's

predisposition toward counseling is comprised in part by

attitudes about the help counseling may provide.

Individuals with prior successful counseling experiences may

be more predisposed to seek help than those who have had no

prior experience with counseling, or who have had

experienced a negative outcome as a result of counseling

(Higginbotham, 1977).

Perceived similarity, compatibility and liking can

affect one's response to counseling (Strong, 1968). If a

client believes that a counselor is similar to him or

herself, then a predisposition to seek and continue

counseling is more likely to occur.

A client's predisposition toward counseling may be

affected in cases where the counselor and client are

familiar with one another's culture. Familiarity through

prior experience with a particular culture has the potential










to lead to confidence in one's communication (Imahori &

Lanigan, 1989; Lustig & Koester, 1993). "(Communicators)

know how to interact with others whom they might meet, what

the probable response of the others might be, and even the

type of events which might change the situation" (Brislin,

1981, p. 151).

Due to the complementary nature of the counseling

relationship, the potential for successful counseling

outcomes is affected more by the counselor's knowledge of

the client's culture than by the client's knowledge of the

counselor's culture (Sue, 1981). "Counselors who are

perceived by their clients as credible (expert and

trustworthy) and attractive are able to exert greater

influence than those perceived as lacking in credibility and

attractiveness" (Sue, 1981, p. 54). A client's

predisposition toward counseling might be influenced by what

the client believes is the counselor's knowledge and

understanding about the client's culture. According to

Helms (1984), issues surrounding this question of knowledge

of a client's culture impact counselors' communication with

their clients, and compel counselors to be cognizant of

their own racial consciousness, to know their own beliefs

and attitudes regarding other cultures, and to be sensitized

to different cultural and racial differences.

The problems for which minority clients seek counseling

are no different from the problems of White/Caucasian










clients (Sundberg, 1981; Westbrook, 1978). Because no

differences exist in reasons for seeking counseling other

factors distinguish White/Caucasian and minority

predispositions toward counseling. One is that non-

White/Caucasian minorities do not benefit as much from "talk

therapy" as do White/Caucasian clients. However, Lorion

(1973) found this assumption to be a myth; there were no

significant differences in the benefits of talk therapy

between minorities and White/Caucasian clients.

Contemporary literature remains inconclusive concerning

clients' predispositions toward counseling, and moreso when

racial and cultural differences between counselor and client

are included. Unlike the dearth of literature on a client's

predisposition toward counseling, cultural composition of

the counselor-client dyad has received a significant amount

of attention. A review of literature on cultural

composition of the counselor-client dyad follows.

Cultural Composition of the Counselor-Client Dyad

Controversy exists regarding the role race plays in

intercultural counseling. Extant literature focuses

primarily focuses on racial similarities and dissimilarities

in counseling dyads in the United States; most of the

literature reviewed in this section concentrates on racial

similarity and dissimilarity between counselors and their

clients than cultural similarity and dissimilarity.









Some researchers maintain that counselors who are

racially similar to their clients are better equipped to

understand and to serve as role models (Atkinson, Maruyama,

& Matsui, 1978). Atkinson (1983), asserts that when

counselors are culiurally-sensitive, racial and cultural

differences between counselor and client are transcended,

resulting in more effective counseling and higher client

satisfaction. Others maintain that effective intercultural

counseling actually is improbable because of strong racial

and cultural barriers (Banks 1980; Kincaid, 1969).

Recently, researchers have tried to determine whether

racial similarity between counselors and clients makes a

significant difference in counseling outcomes (i.e.,

effectiveness and client satisfaction) (Atkinson, 1983).

Most research focuses on dyads in which the client is

African-American and the counselor is White/Caucasian.

Researchers have found that African-American clients prefer

African-American counselors (Wolkon, Moriwaki, & Williams,

1973; Harrison, 1975) and report a higher rate of return to

counseling when counselors are African-American (Heffernon &

Bruehl, 1971). Harrison (1975) and Sattler (1977) concluded

that clients from a variety of racial groups including

African-Americans, Asian, Americans, Hispanics, Native

Americans, and White/Caucasians prefer counselors of similar

races. A client who prefers a same-race counselor over a

different-race often believes that the counselor is in a









better position to empathize with the client and to

understand the client's situation (Atkinson, 1983).

Despite evidence that clients prefer same-race

counselors, other research concludes that racial

dissimilarity is not a formidable barrier (Atkinson, 1983;

Griffith; 1977). Research with African-American subjects

found no effects due to same-race with regard to counseling

outcomes (Cimbolic, 1972, 1973; Porche & Banikiotes, 1982).

Likewise, research with Hispanic subjects in the United

States found no racial similarity effects on counseling

outcomes (Acosta & Sheehan, 1976; Furlong, Atkinson, &

Casas, 1979; Williams & Kirkland, 1971).

Schmedinghoff (1977), Niemeyer and Fukuyama (1984), and

Loesch (1988) argue that what is more important than

matching counselor and client by race is matching counselor

and client by beliefs and attitudes. Although no clear

conclusions concerning race and/or belief similarities, Sue

(1990) contended that previous studies on racial similarity

"may be less important in forming counseling rapport than

genuine acceptance of another's beliefs" (p. 64).

Therefore, counselors who are well-trained and sensitive to

others' beliefs and values likely can establish effective

relationships with racially and culturally different clients

(Griffith, 1977; Atkinson, Morten, & Sue, 1989).

Coleman (1993) investigated the impact of race and

ethnicity on counselor competence and found that minorities









in the United States do not expect different attitudes or

behaviors from counselors than do their White/Caucasian

counterparts. Coleman contends that race is not a potential

source of inadequate treatment and dissatisfaction, but

rather the manner in which race is acknowledged through

communication between the counselor and the client.

Although some observations support the notion that

clients prefer same-race counselors (e.g. Jackson &

Kirchner, 1973; Banks, Berenson, & Carkhuff, 1976), other

observations do not (e.g. Ewing, 1974; Schmedinghoff, 1977).

Therefore, results regarding same-race/different-race

counselor-client relationships are equivocal, and questions

remain unanswered (Atkinson, 1983).

Because research has produced equivocal findings,

additional investigation is needed on the effects of

cultural and racial composition of the counselor-client dyad

on counseling outcomes. Along with racial and cultural

composition of the counseling dyad, another area that has

received attention in the literature focuses on

communication between counselor and client, in terms of

counselor communication style.

Counselor Communication Style

In broad terms, communication style is defined as "the

signals that are provided to help process, interpret,

filter, or understand literal meaning" (Norton, 1983, p.

47). Four characteristics mark communication style: it is








38
observable, it is multifaceted, it is multicollinear, and it

is variable, but sufficiently patterned (Norton, 1983).

Communication style can be demonstrated through verbal and

nonverbal actions. For example, a person who has a lively

communication style often displays it through a rapid rate

of speech and with animated gestures and body movements.

Communication style is multifaceted; every individual has

the potential to communicate in a variety of ways with a

number of communication styles. Communication style is

multicollinear; communication styles are not independent

from one another. For example, a dominant communication

style is not only expressed through the of use of dramatics.

Individuals can sometimes express a dominant communication

style by being relaxed, steady and confident. Communication

style also is variable, but sufficiently patterned.

Individuals form communication styles that become habitual

and known to others. However, deviations from a particular

communication style can and do occur. Sometimes these

deviations are spurred by the individual's need to adapt to

changing circumstances (Norton, 1983).

The communication style of a counselor plays an

important role in counseling. How counselors communicate is

crucial in encouraging the client to express his or her

feelings. Effective interpersonal communication provides

evidence that the counselor has understood the client, and









acts as a validator of a client's experience (Ishiyama,

1989; Westwood & Ishiyama, 1990).

Because communicators uses symbols that are culturally

defined, communication styles are affected by culture (Hall,

1976). A word or a gesture can possess different meanings

depending upon the social-cultural shaping that has occurred

(Westwood & Ishiyama, 1990). Ivey (1981, 1986) points out

that communication styles manifested in counseling can

either enhance or hinder the effectiveness of intercultural

counseling. When the communication style of the counselor

does not meet the expectations of the culturally different

client, difficulties can occur, including premature

termination of counseling after a failed effort at

establishing rapport.

Several taxonomies comparing (direct and indirect

counselor communication) have been developed (e.g. Hill,

1978; Zimmer & Pepyne, 1971). A "direct" communication

style calls for the counselor to collect information, define

and analyze a problem, present opinions and information, and

provide specific directions to the client. "The direct

approach is based on an assumption that the counselor is

more capable than the client in analyzing and solving a

particular problem" (Downs, Smeyak, & Martin, 1980, p. 194).

However, when a counselor uses an "indirect" communication

style however, the counselor performs more of a facilitating

role. Through the use of an indirect communication style,









the counselor helps the client probe his or her own

problems, and allows the client to take the lead in seeking

solutions to problems (Downs, Smeyak, & Martin, 1980).

A study conducted by Peoples and Dell (1975) indicated

that both African-American and White/Caucasian American

subjects preferred a direct over an indirect communication

style from a counselor. Use of a direct communication style

increased clients' perceptions of counselor competence and

increased clients' willingness to continue to consult the

observed counselor moreso than an indirect communication

style (Peoples & Dell, 1975).

Several studies indicate that Hispanic-American

populations may respond better to a direct than to an

indirect communication style in counseling (Ruiz, Padilla, &

Alvarez, 1978; Rivera-Ramos, 1984; Ruiz & Ruiz, 1983;

Velez-Diaz & Martinez-Monfort, 1975). Nonetheless, Borrego,

Chavez, and Titley's (1982), study comparing Mexican

Americans and White/Caucasian Americans, found no

differences in preferred communication style for a

counselor. Although research lends limited support to the

use of direct communication style in counseling of minority

clients in the United States, a number of studies caution

that the use of only one communication style may be

counterproductive, and their is a need to be flexible

(Banks, 1980; Calia, 1966, Sue, 1973; Sue & Sue, 1972;

Williams & Kirkland, 1971).







41
Counselors' communication styles often coincide with a

particular school of counseling. The direct communication

style often is associated with behavioral counseling,

whereas indirect communication style often is associated

with existential-humanistic counseling (Corey, 1991). Most

interracial studies comparing existential-humanistic

counseling and behavioral counseling have contrasted the

responses of White/Caucasian and African-American clients.

Kincaid (1969) reported that African-Americans are more

responsive to the direct techniques associated with

behavioral counseling than to the indirect techniques

associated with existential-humanistic counseling. Gibbs

(1973) suggested the use of behavioral therapies in response

to African-American hostility and mistrust. Harper and

Stone (1974) recommended that counseling techniques that are

supportive, directive, and information-giving be used with

African-American clients. Others who advocate direct

therapies for African-American clients include Gibbs (1973),

Tucker (1973), and Turner and Jones (1982). As well,

Atkinson, Maruyama, and Matsui (1978) found preferences for

the direct approach from Asian-American clients. Likewise,

Dauphinais, Dauphinais, and Rowe (1981) found that

counselors committed to using existential-humanistic

counseling, thus likely using an indirect style, were

ineffective with Native American children. In many cases a

direct was preferred over an indirect communication style.









Because different problems may require different

counseling approaches, the championing of one approach over

another for a certain minority group has met criticism

(Egan, 1986; Ibrahim, 1985; Ivey, Ivey, & Simek-Downing,

1987; Pedersen, 1985). Henkin (1985) asserts that

counseling that values individuality and self-determination,

as do many of the traditional Western counseling schools,

may not be effective for those from collectivistic cultures,

such as Japan and China, that place value on social groups.

Factors such as socio-economic status and educational level

among members within a minority group influence an

individual's preference of counseling technique (Pedersen,

Draguns, Lonner, & Trimble, 1989). Smith (1977) warned that

use of only one counseling technique for a specific minority

group can lead to stereotyping. The stereotypic treatment

of ethnic minority clients violates a major premise in

counseling--to see clients as individuals first, and members

of a group second (Smith, 1977; 1984).

General Hypotheses

Research concerning clients' predisposition toward

counseling is scarce. Predisposition toward counseling

also may be affected by the perceived counselor's cultural

expertise and perceived similarity between client and

counselor. Client predisposition toward counseling also may

affect counseling outcomes: counseling effectiveness, client

satisfaction, communication satisfaction, and the likelihood







43
of returning for additional sessions. Predisposition toward

counseling, cultural composition of the counselor-client

dyad and counselor communication style may interact to

influence counseling outcomes. Thus, four general

hypotheses about relationships among the independent

variables as they influence counseling investment outcomes

were posed for this investigation:

HI: Predisposition toward counseling, cultural
composition of the counselor-client dyad, and
counselor communication style interact in
influencing counseling effectiveness.

H2: Predisposition toward counseling, cultural
composition of the counselor-client dyad, and
counselor communication style interact in
influencing client satisfaction.

H3: Predisposition toward counseling, cultural
composition of the counselor-client dyad, and
counselor communication style interact in
influencing communication satisfaction.

H4: Predisposition toward counseling, cultural
composition of the counselor-client dyad, and
counselor communication style interact in
influencing likelihood of return to counseling.

Each of the four outcomes are considered potential

gifts resulting from counselor-client interactions.

Previous literature does give some indication that an

increase or decrease in one of these outcomes is likely to

result in an increase or decrease in the same direction for

other outcomes (Haase & Miller, 1968; Linden, Stone, &

Shertzer, 1965). Therefore, the following six hypotheses









predict specific relationships among the counseling

outcomes:

H5: Counseling effectiveness is positively correlated

with client satisfaction.

H6: Counseling effectiveness is positively correlated

with communication satisfaction.

H7: Counseling effectiveness is positively correlated

with likelihood of return to counseling.

H8: Client satisfaction is positively correlated with

communication satisfaction.

H9: Client satisfaction is positively correlated with

likelihood of return to counseling.

H10: Communication satisfaction is positively

correlated with likelihood of return to

counseling.



The next section of this chapter focuses on hypotheses

that have been generated based on the assumptions that

clients can use either uncertainty reduction or power

to assess rewards and costs in initial intercultural

counseling interactions.

Hypotheses Based on Social Exchange Theory

Clients enter into initial counseling interactions

looking for gifts from counseling, and such gifts are

determined by clients' reward-cost assessments. Uncertainty

reduction has been presented as a means through which









clients assess benefits and costs in their social exchanges

with counselors. Another way that clients assess rewards

and costs is through power. Both methods of reward-cost

assessment are compared in this study, in an effort to

explain a client's reward-cost assessment in exchanges of

intercultural counseling.

Both models begin with the premise that communication

is a transactional symbolic activity (Gudykunst & Kim,

1984). Both models operate under the theoretical

perspective of social exchange. In each model a high

predisposition toward counseling is considered a benefit,

and is indicated with a plus sign, while a low

predisposition toward counseling is considered a cost, and

is indicated with a minus sign. Also, for both models when

the same cultural composition of the counselor-client dyad

is treated as a benefit, and is indicated with a plus sign,

while different cultural composition of the counselor-client

dyad is treated as a cost, and is indicated with a minus

sign.

For both exchange models of uncertainty reduction and

power a total of eight different combinations of the three

factors are possible. Each combination of factors produces

a predicted counseling investment outcome level. Benefits

and costs are totaled across for each of the eight

combination of factors with the possible number of benefits

ranging from 0 to 3. The number of benefits that each









combination of factors possesses is reflected in the

particular counseling investment outcome level. Therefore,

according to the uncertainty reduction exchange model, the

ascending order of benefits corresponds with the descending

order of counseling investment outcome levels.

The models differ only in the way costs and benefits of

direct/indirect counselor communication styles are

operationalized. The primary reason for this difference

comes from the equivocal nature of previous research

regarding which communication style is more beneficial for

clients in initial interactions.

In the uncertainty reduction model when a counselor

uses a direct communication style, the client may see it as

beneficial when uncertainty is reduced, or costly when the

client gives up control of the direction of the counseling

interaction. Likewise, when a counselor uses an indirect

communication style, the client may see it as a benefit

because the client feels empowered and is given control of

the direction of the counseling. However, an indirect

communication style may produce costs when the client's main

objective is to reduce uncertainty. Table 1 summarizes the

uncertainty reduction model.









Table 1

A Model to Predict Counseling Investment Outcomes


for Counselor-Client Social Exchange Usinc an


Uncertainty Reduction


for Assessinc Rewards


_
Theoretical Framework


and Costs


Factor 1 Factor 2 Factor 3
Value of Value of Value of Predicted
Client's Counselor Cultural Counseling
Predisposition Communication Composition Investment
Toward Counseling Style of Dyad Outcome
Level


Counseling
Exchange

1 HP-DS-SC + + + I

2 HP-DS-DC + + II

3 HP-IS-SC + + II

4 HP-IS-DC + III

5 LP-DS-SC + + II

6 LP-DS-DC + III

7 LP-IS-SC + III

8 LP-IS-DC IV


KEY:

HP = (Client's) High Predisposition toward counseling
LP = (Client's) Low Predisposition toward counseling
D = (Counselor's) Direct communication Style
IS = (Counselor's) Indirect communication Style
SC = (Dyadic Composition) Same Culture
DC = (Dyadic Composition) Different Culture


+ = Reward
- = Cost


~


Theoretical Framework


. . E .


and Costs









Uncertainty reduction emphasizes that uncertainty is

reduced when counselors use a direct communication style.

Conversely, when an indirect communication style is used,

uncertainty is likely to increase. The following four

hypotheses that predict counseling investment outcomes are

based on the uncertainty reduction theoretical framework for

assessing counselor communication style:

H11: No differences exist in counseling effectiveness,
client satisfaction, communication satisfaction,
and likelihood of return to counseling among the
subgroups within counseling investment outcome
Level II.

H12: No differences exist in counseling effectiveness,
client satisfaction, communication satisfaction,
and likelihood of return to counseling among the
subgroups within counseling investment outcome
Level III.

H13: Differences exist among the four counseling
investment outcome levels for counseling
effectiveness, client satisfaction, communication
satisfaction, and likelihood of return to
counseling.

H14: Counseling investment outcomes are linearly
related and decrease according to the ascending
order of counseling investment outcome levels for
counseling effectiveness, client satisfaction,
communication satisfaction, and likelihood of
return to counseling.


While clients may use uncertainty reduction to assess

rewards and costs from counselors communication styles, they

may determine reward-cost ratios differently; one way is

through the use of interpersonal power. The theoretical

perspective of power implies that when a client assumes

control of the direction of counseling, the result is a







49
benefit. The gift of power that gives the client control to

make his or her own decisions is what clients value in

counseling interactions.

Where the power model differs from the uncertainty

reduction model is on the third factor of counselor

communication style. Corresponding with the theoretical

rationale of power, a client who uses power to weigh rewards

and costs from exchanges with counselor, may see it as

beneficial when a counselor uses an indirect communication

style. The indirect communication style would allow the

client to make his or her own decisions, and to feel in

control. Therefore the counselor's indirect communication

style would be assumed by the client to more likely to

produce a reward, and is consequently indicated with a plus

sign. Consequently, a direct counselor communication

carries less value potential, is considered to be more of a

cost to the client, and because of this it is signified with

a minus sign. Table 2 summarizes the power model.









Table 2

A Model to Predict Counseling Investment Outcomes


for Counselor-Client Social Exchange Using a


Power Theoretical Framework for Assessing Rewards and Costs

Factor 1 Factor 2 Factor 3
Value of Value of Value of Predicted
Client's Counselor Cultural Counseling
Predisposition Communication Composition Investment
Toward Counseling Style of Dyad Outcome
Level
Counseling
Exchange

1 HP-DS-SC + + II

2 HP-DS-DC + -III

3 HP-IS-SC + + + I

4 HP-IS-DC + + II

5 LP-DS-SC + III

6 LP-DS-DC IV

7 LP-IS-SC + + II

8 LP-IS-DC + III


KEY:

HP = (Client's) High Predisposition toward counseling
LP = (Client's) Low Predisposition toward counseling
D = (Counselor's) Direct communication Style
IS = (Counselor's) Indirect communication Style
SC = (Dyadic composition) Same Culture
DC = (Dyadic composition) Different Culture


+ = Reward
- = Cost







51
The theoretical perspective of power stresses that when

counselors use an indirect communication style, the client

feels in control; when a direct communication style is used,

the client does not feel in control. Using the power

exchange model, four specific hypotheses predicted

counseling investment outcomes:

H15: No differences exist in counseling effectiveness,
client satisfaction, communication satisfaction,
and likelihood of return to counseling among the
subgroups within counseling investment outcome
Level II.

H16: No differences exist in counseling effectiveness,
client satisfaction, communication satisfaction,
and likelihood of return to counseling among the
subgroups within counseling investment outcome
Level III.

H17: Differences exist among the four counseling
investment outcome levels for counseling
effectiveness, client satisfaction, communication
satisfaction, and likelihood of return to
counseling.

H18: Counseling investment outcomes are linearly
related and decrease according to the ascending
order of counseling investment outcome levels for
counseling effectiveness client satisfaction,
communication satisfaction, and likelihood of
return to counseling.


In summary, this chapter has provided a review of the

relevant literature pertaining to the study. Hypotheses

have been presented for interactions of variables related to

counseling outcomes of counseling effectiveness, client

satisfaction, communication satisfaction, and likelihood of

return to counseling. Hypotheses were proposed to explain

the relationships among the counseling outcomes of







52
counseling effectiveness, client satisfaction, communication

satisfaction, and likelihood of return to counseling.

The general research protocol and the statistical

procedures used to analyze each of the 18 hypotheses are

provided in Chapter 3.














CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY


The present study was designed to investigate the

possible interaction of predisposition toward counseling,

cultural composition of the counselor-client dyad, and

counselor communication style in influencing outcomes of

initial counseling. Specifically, the study examined

predicted effects of counselor communication style in

assessing which of two proposed social exchange models

(uncertainty reduction or power) might explain inter-

relationships among counseling effectiveness, client

satisfaction, communication satisfaction, and likelihood of

return to counseling.

Research Design

A 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design consisted of (1) two

levels of predisposition toward counseling (high and low),

(2) two types of cultural composition of the counselor-

client dyad (same culture or different culture), and (3) two

separate communication styles (direct and indirect).

Four scenario-scripts were developed to manipulate four

experimental conditions: (1) same culture counselor-client

dyad/direct counselor communication style, or (2) same

culture counselor-client dyad/indirect communication style,










or (3) different culture counselor-client dyad/direct

communication style, or (4) different culture counselor-

client dyad culture/indirect communication style. (See

Appendix A for scenario-scripts for the four possible

conditions.) Random assignment of these scenario-scripts

helped insure equivalence of numbers of subjects among

treatment conditions.

Internal validity criteria were met by using the

research design established by Campbell and Stanley (1963).

The experimental research design in this study attempted to

control against extraneous variables. Since subjects were

not pretested, history, testing, maturation, and mortality

could not confound the experimental treatment effects.

This study was a one-shot design; participants were

studied in detail only once (Campbell, 1957). Selection of

participants was not based on extreme scores on a pretest

measurement, therefore, statistical regression to the sample

mean should not influence the results. History and

maturation were further controlled by presenting

instructions, stimuli, and measuring instruments in written

form to all respondents. All participants were from an

intact class and treatments were randomized. Therefore,

outcomes from this experiment may be ascribed to the

experimental treatments alone.









Operational Definitions

Independent Variables

Predisposition toward counseling. A respondent's

predisposition toward counseling was operationalized by

scores on the Predisposition Toward Counseling (PTC)

instrument developed by Snyder, Hill, and Derksen (1972).

The PTC is unique because it assesses responses from

prospective clients directly and is a means of

quantitatively measuring predisposition toward counseling

(Snyder, Hill, & Derksen; Johnson, 1977). The PTC has

previously exhibited satisfactory internal consistency with

reported reliabilities over .80, and a homogeneity ratio of

approximately .33 (Snyder, Hill, & Derksen, 1972).

The Predisposition Toward Counseling instrument used in

this study consisted of eleven statements rated on a 9 point

scale. (See Appendix B.) Thus, the possible range of

scores for the PTC was from 11 to 99. Low scores on the PTC

indicate a respondent's low predisposition toward

counseling, while high scores indicate a respondent's high

predisposition.

Individuals with a high predisposition toward

counseling tend to report generally positive feelings about

the counseling process, whereas individuals with a low

predisposition look upon the counseling process hesitantly,

or with a negative view (Snyder, Hill, & Derksen, 1972). A








56
median split was used to define high and low predisposition

toward counseling.

Cultural composition of the counselor-client dvad.

Respondents were instructed to assume that the counselor was

either from the s.-e culture as the respondent, or to assume

that the counselor was from a culture chosen as "most

different" from the respondent's. Same cultural composition

of the counselor-client dyad was operationalized through a

statement in the scenario-script which read: "The counselor

is from the SAME cultural group as yours." In the case of

interactions with a counselor from a different culture, each

respondent selected a specific culture from a list of

choices (African-American, White/Caucasian, Hispanic, Asian-

American, Other) that he or she considered to be most

different from his/her own. Different cultural composition

of the counselor-client dyad was operationalized by having

the respondent "put a check in front of the cultural group

you consider MOST DIFFERENT from you." The respondent then

was instructed to assume that the counselor was from the

cultural group that he/she had selected most different from

him/her.

Counselor communication style. Two scenario-scripts,

one employing direct counselor communication responses and

the other using indirect counselor communication responses,

were developed and pretested for use in the present study.

(See Appendix A.) The content of these scenario-scripts is







57

similar to the content used in an earlier study by Atkinson,

Maruyama, and Matsui (1978).

Counselor communication style was operationalized as

either direct or indirect through the use of the counselor

verbal response category system developed by Hill (1978) was

used in formulating the scenarios. This category response

system differentiates between a counselor's use of direct

communication and indirect communication verbal response

patterns. Direct patterns emphasize open questioning,

direct guidance, approval/reassurance, moderate use of

reflection, but shun restatement and paraphrasing. Indirect

patterns accentuate restatements, paraphrasing; reflection

consists of a moderate use of open questioning, and a

moderate use of approval/reassurance, and shuns direct

guidance (Hill, 1978). The counselor verbal response

category system has mutually exclusive categories with both

face and content validity that differentiate counselors'

direct or indirect verbal communication responses to a

client (Hill, 1978).

The scenario-scripts in this study consisted of a few

lines of dialogue exchanged between the counselor and a

client(respondent).

Schlenker and Leary (1982) defend the use of such brief

scenarios:

The brief scenarios provided a means of
focusing subjects on the information ....
The advantage is the increased experimental
control and salience of the key information,










providing internally valid tests. The
disadvantage is that such control is
usually purchased with a sacrifice in
vividness of the situation and possible
loss of validity....Nonetheless,... results
can be generalized beyond the present
situation, (p. 103)

Counselor communication style was experimentally

manipulated between direct and indirect communication in the

brief scenario-scripts.

Dependent Variables

There are four dependent variables in this study. The

Counselor Evaluation Inventory (CEI) was used to

operationalize two of the dependent variables in this study,

counseling effectiveness and client satisfaction. (See

Appendix C.) The original CEI consisted of three Likert-

type scales that measured (1) counseling climate, (2)

counselor comfort, and (3) client satisfaction (Linden,

Stone, & Shertzer, 1965). Later, counseling climate and

counselor comfort were collapsed into one scale by Haase and

Miller (1968) and labeled as counseling climate. Because

statements indicating counseling climate were found to be

isomorphic with counseling effectiveness (Haase & Miller,

1968), the subscale counselor climate was relabeled

counseling effectiveness for the present study.

Previous test-retest reliabilities for each of the

items on the CEI demonstrated that all items were

statistically reliable at or beyond a preset .05 alpha

level. Prior reliabilities of the CEI in populations with









high school subjects were .78 for counseling climate, .74

for client satisfaction, and .83 for the total score. In

addition, using counselor candidates' practicum grades as a

provisional criterion, congruent or discriminative validity

was significant at or beyond the .05 level for each of the

scales of the CEI (Linden, Stone, & Shertzer, 1965).

Counseling effectiveness. Counseling effectiveness was

operationalized as a respondent's score on the Counselor

Evaluation Inventory (CEI) (Linden, Stone, & Shertzer,

1965). The fourteen items designated to measure counseling

effectiveness correspond with item numbers 3, 4, 5, 7, 8,

10, 11, 13, 15, 16, 17, 18, and 19 on the CEI in Appendix C

(Haase & Miller, 1968). Statements were rated on a 9-point

scale. Responses ranged from "1" ("Strongly Agree") to "9"

("Strongly Disagree"). The possible range of scores for

Counseling Effectiveness was from 14 to 126. The lower the

score the more effective the respondent assessed that

counseling.

Client satisfaction. Client satisfaction was

operationalized by a respondent's scores on the Counselor

Evaluation Inventory (CEI) (Linden, Stone, & Shertzer,

1965). The five items used to test client satisfaction

correspond with item numbers were items 2, 6, 9, 12, and 14

on the CEI in Appendix C (Haase & Miller, 1968). Verb

tenses were changed from past to present tense for this

study. For example, "I felt at ease with the counselor,"









was changed to "I would feel at ease with the counselor."

In addition, identification of the counselor as a male on

the original scale was changed to reflect a gender-free

identification on all items.

Statements regarding client satisfaction rated on a

9-point scale. Responses ranged from "1" ("Strongly Agree")

to "9" ("Strongly Disagree"). The possible range of scores

for client satisfaction was from 5 to 45. The lower the

score the higher the client satisfaction.

Communication satisfaction. The Interpersonal

Communication Satisfaction Inventory (COMSAT) (Hecht, 1978)

operationalized communication satisfaction. (See Appendix

D.) According to Hecht (1978), "The [communication

satisfaction] inventory should prove valuable in assessing

the causes of communication satisfaction by providing an

outcome measure of process effects" (p. 262). The

Interpersonal Communication Satisfaction Inventory has

exhibited both high reliability and validity when used to

measure communication satisfaction with friends,

acquaintances, or strangers in actual, recalled, or role

play conversations. Previous reliabilities for the

Interpersonal Communication Satisfaction Inventory were .97

in the actual treatment, .90 in the recalled treatment, .93

among friends, .97 among acquaintances, and .96 among

strangers (Hecht, 1978).







61
Responses to the COMSAT in this study were on a 9-point

scale. The possible range of scores for respondents

completing all auesticns on the COMSAT was from 15 to 135.

The lower the score :te more the respondent reports

communication satisfaz:ion.

Likelihood of re-urn to counseling. A single item was

included at the end of the CEI asking for responses to the

statement "I would return to this counselor for a second

counseling session." This statement operationalized

likelihood of return to counseling; responses were made on a

9-point scale from "1" ("very strongly agree") and "9" as

("very strongly disagree.") Thus, the possible range of

scores was from "1" to "9".

A Pilot Study

A pilot study was conducted prior to the present study

in order to evaluate the testing procedure, to produce

information on the reliability for the measures, and to

obtain participants' feedback on both the counselor-client

scenarios and the test instruments.

A 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design used in the pilot study

included (1) two levels of predisposition toward counseling

(high/low), (2) two levels of client cultural identification

(majority culture/minority culture), and (3) two levels of

counselor communication style (direct/indirect). Scenarios-

scripts indicating that the counselor was either from the

same culture or from a different culture as the client were







62
presented randomly to respondents. All instruments used in

the pilot study were administered in one setting during a

regularly scheduled class.

Respondents who indicated they were White/Caucasian

were classified as being from the majority culture.

Respondents who specified they were African-American, Asian-

American, or Hispanic were classified as members of a

minority culture. Client interactions with either same

culture or different culture counselors were randomized

across respondents. Counselors in the scenarios-scripts

used either direct or indirect communication styles

(Atkinson, Maruyama, & Matsui, 1978).

A total of 23 undergraduate students enrolled in a

public speaking course at a large southeastern university

participated voluntarily in the pilot study. Of the

participants, 52.2% (12) were females and 47.8% (11) were

males; 13% (3) were African-Americans, 13% (3) were

Hispanics, and 69.6% (16) were White/Caucasians. Ages

ranged from 19 to 31 years, with the mean age being 21.

First year students accounted for 4.3% (1), 26.1% (6) were

sophomores, 39.1% (9) were juniors, and 30.4% (7) were

seniors.

The following procedures were used in the pilot study:

Respondents (1) initially completed the Predisposition

Toward Counseling Scale (PTC); (2) read randomly assigned

scenarios-scripts in which they were asked to assume the










role of the client; and (3) completed the Counselor

Evaluation Inventory CEI), and basic demographic

information.

The scenarios-scripts dealt with the client's

adjustment problems to his/her university. One

communication style condition consisted of direct counselor

responses, the other consisted of indirect counselor

responses. Along with scenarios-scripts respondents were

asked to indicate his/her cultural identification.

Scenarios-scripts also informed respondents that the

counselor was either from the same culture or a different

culture as the respondent. After reading the scenarios-

script, respondents completed the Counselor Evaluation

Inventory (CEI) as well as basic demographic information.

General analyses included frequency distributions and

reliability tests for the PTC, CEI, and Counseling

Effectiveness and Client Satisfaction subscales of the CEI.

Alpha was preset at .05 for all tests. All statistics were

conducted using the Statistical Package for the Social

Sciences X (Nie, 1988).

Results from the pilot study revealed that the

questionnaires and test stimuli (Counselor-Client scenarios-

scripts) were understood by all respondents. The pilot

study also provided information about the reliabilities of

the scales used in this study. The PTC instrument had a

reliability of .86. The reliability of the overall CEI was







64
.92. Reliabilities for the subscales of the CEI, counseling

effectiveness and client satisfaction, were .91 and .88,

respectively.

A manipulation check was conducted as part of the pilot

study to determine if direct and indirect counselor

communication styles were perceived significantly different

in the scenario-scripts. A single statement, "The counselor

was direct in his/her communication" measured this

perception. A 7-point Likert scale where responses ranged

from "1" ("Strongly Agree") to "7" ("Strongly Disagree") was

used.

Results of the manipulation check showed that the two

styles were perceived significantly different with regard to

directiveness (t = 2.18; df = 21, p< .04). The direct style

(M = 3.55) was perceived as significantly more directive

than the indirect style (M = 5.17).

Several adjustments were made on the basis of pilot

study results. First, the 7-point Likert scaling for all

instruments used in the pilot study was replaced with a

9-point scale anchored only at the extreme ends (i.e., "Very

Strongly Agree" and "Very Strongly Disagree"). This change

in minimizing the anchoring enhances the ability to detect

differences in the measurement of different aspects of

attitudes (Nunnally, 1978). Thus, the 9-point scale

enhanced reliability in the primary investigation.










The pilot study indicated that the original

scenarios-scripts presented weaknesses, and in some cases

confusion, in the operationalization of the client's

cultural representation. Identifying all White/Caucasian

respondents as representing the majority culture as well as

grouping all other respondents as representing the minority

culture was therefore dropped due to confusion among

respondents in distinguishing majority and minority culture.

Thus, a second set of adjustments was made. In cases of an

interaction with a counselor from the respondent's same

culture, culture of the counselor was similar to the culture

each respondent marked to identify him/herself; In cases of

an interaction with a counselor from a different culture,

each respondent selected from a list of choices (African-

American, White/Caucasian, Hispanic) the culture of the

counselor which he or she considered most different from

him/herself.

In summary, the pilot study tested the feasibility of

the general design of the study, assessed reliability of the

instruments, and provided a manipulation check for the

communication style conditions varied within the

scenarios-scripts used in the present study.
Subjects

Respondents were 239 undergraduate students enrolled in

a basic communication studies course at a large southeastern

university in the United States. The experiment was









conducted during a regularly scheduled class time;

respondents received extra credit for their participation.

Procedures

Each respondent r-ceived a packet that contained (1)

The Predisposition 7 Tard Counseling Scale, (2) A scenario-

script depicting a cc-=nselor-client interaction, (3) The

Counselor Evaluation Inventory, (4) A statement on the

likelihood of return to counseling, (5) The Interpersonal

Communication Satisfaction Inventory, and (6) Basic

demographic questions.

Respondents were instructed to first complete the

Predisposition Toward Counseling Scale before reading the

scenario-script. Respondents were assigned randomly to read

one of the two scenario-scripts, and were instructed to

assume the role of the client while reading. The topic of

all of the scenario-scripts concerned a client's difficulty

to adjust to a new university. The scenarios-scripts

presented discussion between the client and counselor about

those adjustment problems. Counselor responses in the

direct communication style condition were included as

offering interpretations and giving prescriptive

suggestions. Counselor responses in the indirect

communication style condition were characterized by

restatement and reflection of the client's thoughts.

Immediately after reading the scenarios-scripts,

respondents were asked to complete the Counselor Evaluation









Inventory and the Interpersonal Communication Satisfaction

Inventory. Subjects were then asked to respond to the

single statement concerning the likelihood of returning to a

subsequent counseling interaction with the counselor

specifically depicted in the scenario-script.

A manipulation check to determine the difference

between direct and indirect counselor communication style

was included as part of the Counselor Evaluation Inventory.

The manipulation check consisted of the statement: "The

counselor was direct in his/her communication." Respondents

answered on a 9-point scale from "1" ("Strongly Agree") to

"9" ("Strongly Disagree").

Respondents then completed basic demographic

information (sex, age, racial identification, and year in

school), and were asked to reply to the question: "Have you

ever been to a counselor/psychotherapist for a personal

problem?" (See Appendix E for demographic information.)

Finally, respondents were debriefed on the study and were

thanked for their participation.

Analyses of Results

All data were analyzed using the Statistical Package

for the Social Sciences X (Nie, 1988). Alpha was preset at

.05 for all statistical tests. General analyses included

frequency distributions, descriptive statistics, the

manipulation check, and reliability analyses for the

Predisposition Toward Counseling Scale, the Counselor









Evaluation Inventory and the CEI's subscales of Counseling

Effectiveness and Client Satisfaction, and the Interpersonal

Communication Satisfaction Inventory.

Hypotheses Testing

Hypotheses one through four were tested via a series of

three-factor ANOVAs for three-way interaction effects

(predisposition toward counseling, by cultural composition

of the counselor-client dyad, by counselor communication

style) in affecting evaluations of counseling effectiveness,

client satisfaction, communication satisfaction, and

likelihood of return to counseling. The Bartlett-Box F test

was used to test the assumption of homogeneity of variance

prior to completing each ANOVA (Box, 1953).

Pearson Product-Moment correlations were used to test

hypotheses five though ten hypotheses that predicted

positive addressed correlations among the four dependent

variables (counseling effectiveness, client satisfaction,

communication satisfaction, and likelihood of return to

counseling).

Hypotheses 11 through 13, and hypotheses 15 through 17,

were tested via a series of one-way ANOVAs. Hypothesis 14

and hypothesis 18 were tested via Pearson Product-Moment

correlations.

Post Hoc Interpretations

Where F tests were statistically significant, main

effects were interpreted on a post hoc basis. If









interaction effects were found a LSD (least-significant

difference test) was conducted. The results of all

statistical analyses are reported in Chapter 4.













CHAPTER 4
RESULTS

To investigate how clients' predisposition toward

counseling may interact with counselors' communication

styles and cultural composition of the dyad in influencing

the counseling outcomes of initial intercultural

interactions, data were analyzed for 233 cases. A 2 x 2 x 2

factorial design was used to collect data in order to test

18 hypotheses. Results include sample characteristics,

results of a manipulation check, reliability analyses,

descriptive statistics, statistical analyses to test

hypotheses, and post hoc analyses.

Sample Characteristics

Six of the 239 respondents, were eliminated due to

flagrant incompletions of instruments. Of the remaining 233

participants, 54.5% (127) were female and 45.5% (106) were

male. According to self-reports, there were 11.2% (26)

African-Americans, 3.9% (9) Asians, 70.8% (165)

White/Caucasians, and 13.3% (31) Hispanics; and additional

.09% (2) who reported their ethnicity as "Other." Ages

ranged from 18 to 25 years with the mean age being 19 years.

There were 51.9% (121) first year students, 26.2% (61)

sophomores, 12.4% (29) juniors, and 9.4% (22) seniors. In

response to the question "Have you ever been to a









counselor/psychotherapist for a personal problem?" 29.6%

(69) said "Yes"; 70% (163) said "No". One respondent did

not answer this question.

Manipulation Check

In order to -ecermine if the two counselor

communication styles in the study were perceived

differently, respondents were asked to respond to the

following statement: "The counselor was direct in his/her

communication with the client" on a nine-point scale from 1

"Strongly Agree" to 9 "Strongly Disagree". Results of a

t-test determined that the direct and indirect counselor

communication styles were perceived differently (t = -6.43,

df = 230, E< .001). Specifically, direct communication

style (M = 3.72) was perceived as more direct than the

indirect counselor communication style (M = 5.61).

Reliability Analyses

The final Cronbach's coefficient alphas were .81 for

the Predisposition Toward Counseling Scale (PTC), .93 for

the Counselor Evaluation Inventory (CEI), and .93 for the

Interpersonal Communication Satisfaction Inventory (COMSAT).

Coefficient alpha for the CEI subscale labeled Counseling

Effectiveness was .91; coefficient alpha for the CEI

subscale labeled Client Satisfaction was .88. Therefore,

all scales in their original forms were sufficiently

reliable for hypothesis testing purposes (Nunally, 1978).









Descriptive Statistics

Dependent variables included counseling effectiveness,

client satisfaction, communication satisfaction, and

likelihood of return to counseling. In this study, for

dependent measures low means indicate a more favorable

response than high means. (See Appendix F for all

statistical tables presented in this study, Tables 3 through

34.) Tables 3 through 7 in Appendix F summarize a breakdown

of the descriptive statistics for each dependent variable as

well as the Counselor Evaluation Inventory (which consists

of the counseling effectiveness and client satisfaction

subscales).

The mean score on the Predisposition Toward Counseling

Scale was 45.80 with a standard deviation of 13.13 for 230

respondents. A low score indicated that the respondent had

a high predisposition toward counseling; a high score

indicated the respondent had a low predisposition toward

counseling. The median was 47; a median split was performed

to operationally define high and low predisposition toward

counseling. Respondents who scored less than 47 on the PTC

were categorized as having a high predisposition toward

counseling; respondents who scored greater than 47 on the

PTC were categorized as having a low predisposition toward

counseling. Eight respondents received a median score of

47; these respondents were categorized as having a high or









low predisposition toward counseling. Figure 1 summarizes

the distribution of scores on the PTC.


Figure 1

Histoaram of Respondents' Scores on the PTC



(One asterisk equals approximately .60 occurrences.)

Count Midpoint

2 12.67 ***
2 16.00 ***
2 19.33 ***
6 22.67 **********
10 26.00 *****************
12 29.33 ********************
21 32.67 ********************************
3 36.00 *****
15 39.33 ************************
22 42.67 ************************************
24 46.00 ************************************
19 49.33 ****************************
28 52.67 *********************************************
19 56.00 *******************************
24 59.33 ****************************************
10 62.67 *****************
2 66.00 ***
2 69.33 ***
4 72.67 *******
2 76.00 ***
1 79.33 **



Frequency 0 6 12 18 24 30









Hypotheses

General Hypotheses About Relationships Among the Independent

Variables As They Influence Counseling Investment Outcomes

Hypotheses One through Four were analyzed via a series

of three-factor ANOVAs. The three factors were

predisposition toward counseling, cultural composition of

the counselor-client dyad, and counselor communication

style. Because only interaction effects were predicted

significant main effects are discussed later as part of the

post hoc analyses.

Hypothesis One predicted: "Predisposition toward

counseling, cultural composition of the counselor-client

dyad, and counselor communication style interact in

influencing counseling effectiveness." The three-way

interaction effect was not statistically significant; thus,

Hypothesis One was not supported. However, the ANOVA

revealed: (1) a main effect for predisposition toward

counseling; (2) a main effect for cultural composition of

the counselor-client dyad; and (3) a main effect for

counselor communication style. Table 8 in Appendix F

reports the results of the analysis of variance for

counseling effectiveness.

Hypothesis Two predicted: "Predisposition toward

counseling, cultural composition of the counselor-client

dyad, and counselor communication style interact in

influencing client satisfaction." The predicted three-way









interaction effect was not statistically significant; thus,

Hypothesis Two was not supported. However, results revealed

a main effect for predisposition toward counseling and a

main effect for counselor communication style. Table 9 in

Appendix F reports bhe analysis of variance for client

satisfaction.

Hypothesis Three predicted: "Predisposition toward

counseling, cultural composition of the counselor-client

dyad, and counselor communication style interact in

influencing communication satisfaction." The predicted

three-way interaction effect was not statistically

significant, thus, Hypothesis Three was not supported.

However, the ANOVA revealed a main effect for predisposition

toward counseling and a main effect for counselor

communication style. Table 10 in Appendix F details the

results of the analysis of variance for communication

satisfaction.

Hypothesis Four predicted: "Predisposition toward

counseling, cultural composition of the counselor-client

dyad, and counselor communication style interact in

influencing likelihood of return to counseling." The three-

way interaction effect approached, but did not achieve,

statistical significance; thus, Hypothesis Four was not

supported. However, results revealed a main effect for

predisposition toward counseling and a main effect for









counselor communication style. Table 11 in Appendix F

details the results of the analysis of variance.

General Hypotheses About Relationships Among the DeDendent

Variables

Hypotheses 5 through 10 which predicted positive

relationships among the four dependent variables (counseling

effectiveness (CE), client satisfaction (CLS), communication

satisfaction (CS), and likelihood of return to counseling

(RET) were all statistically supported and exceed an alpha

level of .05. Table 12 in Appendix F summarizes the results

of the Pearson-Product moment correlations.

Hypotheses Based on the Social Exchange Model Using an

Uncertainty Reduction Theoretical Framework for Assessing

Counselor Communication Style

Hypotheses 11 through 14 made predictions based on an

uncertainty reduction theoretical framework for assessing

the cost-reward value of counselor communication style.

Table 13 in Appendix F summarizes descriptive statistics for

each of four dependent variables, counseling effectiveness,

client satisfaction, communication satisfaction, and

likelihood of return to counseling.

Hypothesis 11 predicted: "No differences exist in

counseling effectiveness, client satisfaction, communication

satisfaction, and likelihood of return to counseling among

the subgroups within counseling investment outcome Level

II." Results of a one-way ANOVA revealed significant









differences among the subgroups with counseling investment

outcomes Level II for counseling effectiveness, client

satisfaction, communication satisfaction, and likelihood of

return to counseling; thus, Hypothesis 11 was not supported.

Table 14 in Appendix F presents results of the analyses of

variance.

Followup tests specifying the LSD (least significant

difference) range were used to compare groups in Level II.

All comparison of groups differed from each other at a

statistically significant level except for Groups 3 and 5 on

counseling effectiveness and likelihood of return to

counseling. Table 15 in Appendix F details the results of

the followup tests.

Hypothesis 12 predicted: "No differences exist in

counseling effectiveness, client satisfaction, communication

satisfaction, and likelihood of return to counseling among

the subgroups within counseling investment outcome Level

III." Results of a one-way ANOVA revealed significant

differences among the subgroups within counseling investment

outcome Level III for all four dependent variables. Thus,

Hypothesis 12 did not receive statistical support. Table 16

in Appendix F summarizes the results of the analyses of

variance.

Followup tests specifying the LSD (least significant

difference) range were used to compare groups in Level III.

Groups not significantly different from another were: (1)










groups 4 and 6 on counseling effectiveness, client

satisfaction, and likelihood of return to counseling;

(2) groups 4 and 7 on communication satisfaction and

likelihood of return to counseling. All other comparison of

groups revealed statistically significant differences.

Table 17 in Appendix F details the results of the followup

tests.

Hypothesis 13 predicted: "Differences exist among the

four counseling investment outcome levels for counseling

effectiveness, client satisfaction, communication

satisfaction, and likelihood of return to counseling."

A series of oneway ANOVAs for the counseling investment

outcome levels revealed statistically significant

differences existed among the groups for all four dependent

variables. Thus, Hypothesis 13 was supported. Table 18 in

Appendix F summarizes the results of the analyses of

variance. The Bartlett-Box F test was computed to test the

assumptions of homogeneity of variance.

A priori tests specifying the LSD (least significant

difference) range were computed to identify the specific

differences among the counseling investment outcome levels.

The results revealed that not all counseling investment

outcome levels differed from each other for the four

dependent variables. For counseling effectiveness, Levels I

and II and III differed from one another, but Levels III

and IV did not. For client satisfaction, all levels except









III and IV, were significantly different from one another.

For both communication satisfaction and likelihood of return

to counseling, all levels except I and II, and III and IV

differed from one another. Thu.s, Hypothesis 13 received

substantial statistical support. Tables 19 through 22 in

Appendix F detail the results of the a prior contrasts

among the four counseling investment levels for the four

dependent variables.

Hypothesis 14 predicted: "Counseling investment

outcomes are linearly related and decrease according to the

ascending order of counseling investment outcome levels for

counseling effectiveness, client satisfaction, communication

satisfaction, and likelihood of return to counseling."

Pearson Product-Moment correlations revealed that the

correlations between investment levels and outcome were

positive and statistically significant (p< .001) for all

four dependent variables. Thus, Hypothesis 14 was

supported. Table 23 in Appendix F summarizes the results.

Hypotheses Based on a Power Theoretical Framework for

Assessing Counselor Communication Style

Hypotheses 15 through 18 made predictions based on a

power theoretical framework for assessing counselor

communication style. On the following page, Table 24 in

Appendix F summarizes the descriptive statistics for each of

the four dependent variables, counseling effectiveness,

client satisfaction, communication satisfaction, and









likelihood of return to counseling, as well as the overall

Counselor Evaluation Inventory regarding the four counseling

investment levels.

Hypothesis 15 predicted: "No differences exist in

counseling effectiveness, client satisfaction, communication

satisfaction, and likelihood of return to counseling among

the subgroups within counseling investment outcome Level

II." Results of a one-way ANOVA revealed that significant

differences existed among the three subgroups with

counseling investment outcomes Level II for all four

dependent variables. Therefore, Hypothesis 15 was not

supported. Table 25 in Appendix F summarizes the analyses

of variance.

Followup tests specifying the LSD (least significant

difference) range were used to compare groups in Level II.

All paired comparisons of groups differed statistically

except Groups 1 and 4 on counseling effectiveness and Groups

4 and 7 on communication satisfaction and the likelihood of

return to counseling. Table 26 in Appendix F summarizes the

results of the followup tests.

Hypothesis 16 predicted: "No differences exist in

Level III for counseling effectiveness, client satisfaction,

communication satisfaction, and likelihood of return to

counseling among the subgroups within counseling investment

outcome Level III." Results of a series of one-way ANOVAs

revealed that significant differences existed among the







81
subgroups for counseling effectiveness, client satisfaction,

communication satisfaction, and likelihood of return to

counseling. Thus, Hypothesis 16 failed to receive

statistical support. Table 27 in Appendix F summarizes the

analyses of variance.

Followup tests specifying the LSD (least significant

difference) range were used to identify specific differences

among groups in Level III. All pairs of groups differed

significantly for all dependent variables except Groups 5

and Group 8 on counseling effectiveness. On the following

page, Table 28 in Appendix F summarizes the results of the

followup tests.

Hypothesis 17 predicted: "Differences exist among the

four counseling investment outcome levels for counseling

effectiveness, client satisfaction, communication

satisfaction, and likelihood of return to counseling." A

series of one-way ANOVAs were statistically significant

differences among the counseling investment levels. Table

29 in Appendix F presents summarizes the analyses of

variance.

A priori contrasts specifying the LSD (least

significant difference) range were computed to identify

specific differences among the four counseling investment

outcomes levels. The results revealed that only Levels I

and III differed on both client satisfaction and

communication satisfaction. Only Levels I and III, and









Levels II and III, differed on likelihood of return to

counseling. No other differences occurred; thus, Hypothesis

17 was not supported. Tables 30 through 33 in Appendix F

summarize the results of tl- a priori contrasts for the

dependent variables.

Hypothesis 18 predicted: "Counseling investment

outcomes are linearly related and decrease according to the

ascending order of counseling investment outcome levels for

counseling effectiveness client satisfaction, communication

satisfaction, and likelihood of return to counseling."

Pearson product-moment correlations revealed negative

correlations between counseling investment level and client

satisfaction, communication satisfaction, and likelihood of

return to counseling. The correlation between counseling

level and counseling effectiveness was positive, but not

statistically significant. Thus, Hypothesis 18 was not

supported. Table 34 in Appendix F summarizes these results.

Post Hoc Interpretations

Post hoc interpretations of main effects were completed

in order to identify the influences of predisposition toward

counseling, cultural composition of the counselor-client

dyad, and counselor communication style on counseling

outcomes.

Results revealed that main effects for predisposition

toward counseling (F = 47.08, df = 1, 0< .05), and counselor

communication style (F = 22.31, df = 1, p< .05) in










influencing counseling effectiveness. High predisposition

toward counseling led to greater counseling effectiveness

than low predisposition toward counseling. A direct

communication style used by cc nselcrs led to greater

counseling effectiveness than cn indirect communication

style. (See Tables 3 and 8.)

Main effects occurred for predisposition toward

counseling (F = 13.33, df = 1, p< .05), and counselor

communication style (F = 46.55, df = 1, p< .05) in

influencing client satisfaction. High predisposition toward

counseling led to greater client satisfaction than low

predisposition toward counseling. A direct communication

style used by counselors led to greater client satisfaction

than an indirect communication style. (See Tables 4 and 9.)

Results revealed main effects for predisposition toward

counseling (F = 7.01, df = 1, p< .05), and counselor

communication style (F = 42.86, df = 1, p< .05) in

influencing communication satisfaction. High predisposition

toward counseling led to greater communication satisfaction

than low predisposition toward counseling. A direct

communication style used by counselors led to greater

communication satisfaction than an indirect communication

style. (See Tables 6 and 10.)

Results revealed main effects for predisposition toward

counseling (F = 5.09, df = 1, 2< .05), and counselor

communication style (F = 38.75, df = 1, p< .05) in









influencing the likelihood of return to counseling. High

predisposition toward counseling led to a statistically

significantly higher likelihood of return to counseling.

than a low predisposition toward counseling. A direct

communication style used by counselors led to statistically

significantly higher likelihood of return to counseling.

than an indirect communication style. (See Tables 7 and 11.)

Summary of Results

Hypotheses one through four that predicted three-way

interaction effects of predisposition toward counseling,

cultural composition of the counselor-client dyad, and

counselor communication style in influencing counseling

investment outcomes were not supported.

However, post hoc interpretations of the revealed main

effects for ANOVAS for predisposition toward counseling,

cultural composition of the counselor-client dyad, and

counselor communication style in influencing counselor

outcomes of counseling effectiveness, client satisfaction,

communication, and likelihood of return to counseling.

Hypotheses Five through Ten predicted positive

correlations between counseling outcomes of counseling

effectiveness, client satisfaction, communication

satisfaction, and likelihood of return to counseling.

Positive correlations among all pairs of the dependent

variables were supported.









Hypotheses 11 through 14 made predictions based on an

uncertainty reduction theoretical framework for assessing

the influence of counselor communication style on counseling

outcomes. Hypothesis 11 predicted no differences among the

subgroups in counseling investment outcomes Level II and was

not supported. Hypothesis 12 predicted no differences among

the subgroups in counseling investment outcome Level III and

was not supported. Hypothesis 13 predicted differences

among the four counseling investment levels in influencing

counseling effectiveness, client satisfaction, communication

satisfaction, and likelihood of return to counseling, and

was supported. Hypothesis 14, predicted counseling

investment outcomes for (counseling effectiveness, client

satisfaction, communication satisfaction, and likelihood of

return to counseling) are linearly related and decrease

according to the ascending order of counseling investment

outcome levels, and was supported.

Hypotheses 15 through 18 made predictions based on a

power theoretical framework for assessing the influence of

counselor communication style on counseling outcomes.

Hypothesis 15, predicted no differences among the subgroups

in counseling investment Level II and was not supported.

Hypothesis 16, predicted no differences among the subgroups

in counseling investment Level III and was not supported.

Hypothesis 17 predicted differences among the four

counseling investment levels in influencing counseling









effectiveness, client satisfaction, communication

satisfaction, and likelihood of return to counseling, and

did not receive statistical support. Hypothesis 18

predicted counseling investment outcomes (counseling

effectiveness, client satisfaction, communication

satisfaction, and likelihood of return to counseling) are

linearly related and decrease according to the ascending

order of counseling investment outcome levels and was not

supported.

In summary, the predicted three-way interactions

(predisposition toward counseling by cultural composition of

the counselor-client dyad by counselor communication style)

in influencing counseling outcomes were not supported. The

dependent variables (counseling effectiveness, client

satisfaction, communication satisfaction, and likelihood of

return to counseling) were all significantly correlated with

one another as predicted. Two of the hypotheses for the

social exchange model based on uncertainty reduction were

supported. None of the hypotheses for the social exchange

model based on a power theoretical framework were supported.













CHAPTER 5
DISCUSSION

Overview

Changing population demographics increasingly are

making the United States a multicultural nation with a wide

variety of customs and values within its borders. Due to

these changes, counselors cannot assume that clients come

from a relatively homogenous background (Larsen & Downie,

1988). As a result of the increase in frequency of

intercultural counseling interactions, the primary question

addressed in this study was "How do a client's

predisposition toward counseling, the cultural composition

of the counselor-client dyad, and the counselor's

communication style influence outcomes of counseling

effectiveness, client satisfaction, communication

satisfaction, and the likelihood of return to counseling?"

Specifically, this study tested social exchange theory by

proposing three cost-reward factors (client predisposition

toward counseling, cultural composition of the counselor-

client dyad, and counselor communication style) that

influence counseling outcomes. Two competing models (1)

uncertainty reduction and (2) power to explain how clients

assess rewards and costs from communication with counselors.

This chapter presents an overview of the problem, methods